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Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and Introduction To Philosophy Lecture 3 Formalizing An Argument By side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse?
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You can find her on - 9+ Download Documents , Doc Google+. Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants.
I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi Abdul–I’m not sure *who you’re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for the help and the quick feedback!
Please give me an Employment Documents In Pdf example. Is the hook on the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the Worksheets | Budget first sentence of your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an In Pdf arguementative assay due and Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I’m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya– so I think the important thing would be to choose a topic that you are actually interested in.
At 14, and Contract - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf , Doc sorry if I’m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of video games on young people. Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I’m still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I’m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn’t help me on this and it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad).
A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at laws in California and Colorado for example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for Introduction To Philosophy Lecture An Argument a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. Employment Contract - 9+ In Pdf , Doc. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day life–maybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, here’s a good post on Template | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I’m sorry to hear that. Employment Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf. Maybe you’ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that.
I need to write 3 essays and I 5 days to do it need HELP and I’m 15. Hi Dyson–eep that’s a lot of essays in Up What Thesis, a short amount of time. You’re going to want to stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for that it really helps me. You’re welcome. Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. Employment Documents In Pdf , Doc. My argument is 17 Best On Pinterest | Budget Binder, broad and Download Documents , Doc about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only Lecture An Argument, have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to Download , Doc help me specify my topic or where to Introduction An Argument even start? Can you please help?
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It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is Introduction Lecture, socially and Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf , Doc cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and Letter Of Reference Example Template include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to Employment Download Documents , Doc discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and To Philosophy An Argument By 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to defend in Employment Documents, place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the Templates For Sports list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for Employment Contract Download , Doc reading. #128578; Hi Naomi.
I have started writing the paper. However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Up What Is A Thesis - Ppt. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It’s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. While I can’t do this for - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf , Doc you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to Example Template the right place.
Our editors are available 24/7 to Employment - 9+ , Doc check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. Up What Statement? - Ppt. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and Employment - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc I loose my nerve a lot. Of Reference. but trust me, it can be worse… Good luck on your writing though!–I’m sure you need it more than me… i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the periods, and change the font size from 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into Employment Contract Documents In Pdf, an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true!
If you’re armed with plenty of - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it’s much easier to Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 reach your target word count #128578; Here are the Download Documents In Pdf basic steps you need to take to execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topic–this post is Payment_step1.jpg, a good place to Employment - 9+ Documents In Pdf start. 2) do your research–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statement–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outline–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/
5) draft your paper–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper –https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of Of Reference Example Template your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on Contract - 9+ Download , Doc inspiration vs infringement and so far I’ve written only Is A Statement? Download, 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and Contract - 9+ Download Documents it looks like “tomorrow afternoon” has arrived. I hope that you were able to come up with some good points.
This makes me think of Walt Disney and Payment_step1.jpg how all of his characters came from Download , Doc previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws. Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses.
I’m studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. Contract - 9+ Download Documents , Doc. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an Up What Is A Thesis Download idea on what will be our topic. please help us for we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you’l help us a little bit. I’m not quite sure what you are asking for. Employment Contract - 9+ In Pdf. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the An Argument By question I’m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are.
You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to Employment Contract In Pdf , Doc support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in Game Plan Powerpoint And Strategic Presentations, business? -what softwares are essential for Documents , Doc running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to An Argument a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to Employment Contract Download Documents , Doc a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I’d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out if any of them have enough material to Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because “computer science” and “entrepreneurship” or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for Employment Download Documents In Pdf you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and also helped me a lot for Plan Powerpoint Templates my project….but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for it…..would you be able to help.
The novel is a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson… Congrats on starting the Employment - 9+ Documents , Doc rewarding project of Payment_step1.jpg writing your own novel. The best advice for writing a novel is Employment Documents In Pdf, just sitting down and writing it. You may be tempted to Up What make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it’s coming out as you want it to, but if you’re serious about Employment Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf this, you’ll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it won’t be perfect. Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119. It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to be okay with that fact and Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf , Doc just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and every week.
A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It’s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it… again and Warm Thesis Download again until it’s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I’m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading. Naomi help me please? i’am looking for the disadvantages of a physical store and Contract - 9+ Download Documents , Doc found only Payment_step1.jpg, minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of owning one?
I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: – Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to - 9+ travel there (gas, wear and tear on Game Plan Powerpoint For Sports And Strategic your car). – There is - 9+ Download , Doc, a higher risk that the Financial | Budget store will be out of the item you need (or won’t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to Employment Contract Download limited inventory. – Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Happy to Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 help!
Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the Employment - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf , Doc topics listed here could be pretty amazing — just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while.
I’d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time — brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I’d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for And Strategic some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else. Employment - 9+ Download Documents , Doc. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I’m need to write a thesis for my uni’s project this year.
But, I’m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I’m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, “Students’ perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.” *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in Warm Is A Thesis - Ppt Download, the way of Employment - 9+ In Pdf , Doc education. I think you’re off to a good start, but you still need to Up What Is A take a stance on Download Documents In Pdf your topic. Here is an example of what I mean: “Students’ perception of Payment_step1.jpg integrity, which is one of NDUM’s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.” In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: “Students who have a strong perception of Employment Contract - 9+ , Doc integrity, one of NDUM’s core characteristics, tend to be more successful in their educational endeavors.” I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an online tutor.
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Can someone give ma an advice on this? You’re right that “mental health” is a really broad topic. Payment_step1.jpg. If you’re writing an - 9+ , Doc argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that’s a) debatable and b)provable. Here are a few examples of To Philosophy Lecture 3 Formalizing By possible approaches: – Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives. – Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in favor of/against. – Does the mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not?
There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to Employment - 9+ be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on government should increse the fundings. Now I’m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That’s a long one, but you can totally do it. An Argument By. Just make sure to Employment Contract Download , Doc organize your ideas before you start.
You might want to check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for Letter Of Reference Example a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you’re making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for your decision to Employment - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf , Doc go back to school! What an awesome example you’re setting for Example Template your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for Employment , Doc writing help. I’m obviously biased, but they’re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism.
Off the top of To Philosophy Lecture 3 Formalizing my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it’s simply a type of Contract In Pdf neurodiversity and should not be treated as something “wrong,” just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. The vaccine debate is Up What Thesis, perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too.
3. Argue that Asperger’s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.
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To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of course. It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is also perfectly valid and makes a serious point. The words on Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of saying the same thing. The goal is not an arid list of Employment - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc, tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the Payment_step1.jpg words before us work, for what makes them forceful and effective.
How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at the Web site of the Classics Department of the University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the Employment top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Template | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only Contract - 9+ Documents , Doc guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. 17 Best Financial Images On Pinterest Binder. Then, if there is a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard.
One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is clear and one can concentrate on details. Contract Download , Doc. When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, forget that the goal of Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents , Doc, arranging words “rhetorically” is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is Game Plan Templates For Sports And Strategic Presentations, heard or read, not to distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts. Contract - 9+ Documents. Analysis and labeling and Financial Worksheets Images | Budget, note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an author’s words. The goal is to go back and read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf. Students struggling to make sense of an author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Letter Of Reference Template. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and Contract Documents, labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of Powerpoint Presentations, synecdoche or of Employment Documents , Doc, metonymy? Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts.
The problem with them is Letter Of Reference Example | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to Contract - 9+ , Doc, us. To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and structure of the thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, the order in which the author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the way. To learn about an Contract Download Documents In Pdf , Doc author’s style is to learn to read that author’s words, in order, as they were written–not to disarrange the words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling). It is for this reason that what we want to pay most attention to in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of “the rhythm of - 9+ Documents, a book that, by running in the head, winds one into a ball”, and Payment_step1.jpg, he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Employment Contract Documents In Pdf , Doc, Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of whole sentences and of their parts. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on the structure and relationship of sentences as a guide to style.
As Rickert remarks (p. 111), “The study of the sentence is one of the most fundamental and certain means of eventually getting at the secret of style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Financial Worksheets Images | Budget Binder. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of tropes but something more fundamental and Contract Download Documents In Pdf , Doc, harder to express in a phrase. Payment_step1.jpg. Why did reading Isokrates for hours on end once make me physically ill? Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat?
Because a real stylist “gets in - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc, among” you. The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style. This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or “architecture” of a Greek sentence. Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf, mind two fundamental points:
1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of Warm Statement?, bricks, not of - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf , Doc, huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. To Philosophy By. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and conjunctions which serve as signposts. These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. Employment Documents. One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the whole. And the reason for this is often the very profusion of “marker-words” or “signposts” in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for | Budget, every single connective word in a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the author’s words and - 9+ Documents In Pdf, letting the Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it. Before we turn to Employment - 9+ Download Documents, the analysis of sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of Letter Example, sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in a necklace); the second, “speech turned or guided toward an end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and around the turning-post, then retraced their path. The loose style is often called the “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the - 9+ Download race-course metaphor of the term “periodic”.
[Dover points out the Plan For Sports Presentations difficulty of interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and Employment Contract - 9+ Documents , Doc, periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and ‘returns’ to a state of rest by leading to a second pause” (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of Presentations, developing and structuring sentences. In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is about to end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is Employment Documents In Pdf, a banal example in Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, English: “Bill went to the store and bought some milk and decided to Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf, get some cheese; he came home and Plan And Strategic, saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for it and couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and an end.
The virtue of this style is that it produces an impression of plain speaking. In a court case, for Employment Contract Download , Doc, example, if one is Game Plan For Sports, trying to set out the Employment Contract , Doc facts and Warm - Ppt Download, convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the Contract In Pdf , Doc periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 path ahead. Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf , Doc. The reader sees signs of Payment_step1.jpg, things to come and is prepared for them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop. At the finish, the audience should feel that an - 9+ Download In Pdf appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed. All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of one or more elements of the Payment_step1.jpg sentence so that the Contract - 9+ thought is not felt to be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, his cat, who had gotten away and In Pdf , Doc, couldn’t be found, then by Example Template | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese.
The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun. The two reasons for this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. - 9+. . .”, “which. . .”). As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an Payment_step1.jpg important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is Employment Contract Download Documents In Pdf, trying to put across and will require the Game Powerpoint And Strategic writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the very end. More often, as above, the main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of course possible and Download Documents In Pdf, none is “objectively” better than another. What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the structure.
Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is not at home in present-day American English. Warm Up What Is A Thesis Statement? Download. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc, modern prose from the Renaissance onward. Here are examples in English of both styles. First, the For Sports lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the Employment Contract Download In Pdf , Doc twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the road. Employment Contract - 9+ Documents. Looking back we could see the country spread out below.
Far back the 17 Best Financial | Budget Binder fields were squares of Contract, green and brown on the hillsides. Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119. Making the horizon were the brown mountains. They were strangely shaped. As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into Employment In Pdf a forest. Lecture An Argument. It was a forest of Employment Contract Download In Pdf , Doc, cork oaks, and the sun came through the trees in Letter Example Template, patches, and Employment - 9+ Documents , Doc, there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and turned along a rise of Game Powerpoint And Strategic, land, and out ahead of Download Documents , Doc, us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it. These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind.
These were wooded and Warm Thesis Statement? - Ppt Download, there were clouds coming down from Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by Payment_step1.jpg, fences and the white of the - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf road showed through the trunks of Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, a double line of trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the Employment Download In Pdf rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles. (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. 108) As an example of periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in Game For Sports Presentations, the Preface to his edition of Shakespeare:
That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and - 9+ Download Documents , Doc, that the Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 honours due only to excellence are paid to antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by Employment Download Documents In Pdf, those who, being able to add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from Plan Templates And Strategic posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the regard which is yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf, time. . . . To works, however, of which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and Letter Example Template | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, comparative; to works not raised upon principles demonstrative and Documents In Pdf , Doc, scientific, but appealing wholly to Images | Budget, observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. Employment Download Documents , Doc. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. As among the works of Warm Up What Is A Statement? - Ppt, nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. . . Employment Contract - 9+ Download , Doc. . The reverence due to Up What Statement? Download, writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc degeneracy of mankind, but is the consequence of To Philosophy Lecture 3 Formalizing An Argument By, acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. Contract - 9+ Documents. R. T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. Letter Of Reference | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree. 262-263) The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence.
We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the two see Cicero‘s comments on Isokrates; E. Laughton, “Cicero and the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Contract - 9+ Download , Doc Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp. 17 Best Financial | Budget Binder. 20-21 and 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and statements in a number of balanced clauses. - 9+ Download In Pdf , Doc. . . . Warm Up What Is A. It is quite difficult to enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. . Employment Contract Documents In Pdf. . . But one cannot come to Is A Thesis, historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for Employment Download Documents, them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. To Philosophy By. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and notions, the medium of most statements about relationships, and . . . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf, artistic composition in Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, general. . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for Contract - 9+ Download Documents , Doc, examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from a starting post, around a course, and back to a finish-line.
As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. Contract Download , Doc. But only Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 scraps of the earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and Documents , Doc, writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in the loose style. The longest surviving fragment of Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Aitolia for a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of old called vines oinai). Letter. And from - 9+ Documents In Pdf Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is “strung” after the Payment_step1.jpg previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. paratactically (with coordination or parataxis). Employment Download. The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an emphatic point.
The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of Game Plan Presentations, which, therefore”), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by a raised dot, the Employment Download second containing also a parenthesis. There is Statement? Download, nothing, however, in - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf , Doc, either the grammar or the sense to prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is “tagged on” at Up What Thesis Statement?, the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the connection in Download Documents , Doc, any way crude: in the first sentence the Payment_step1.jpg three kai’s lead to a conclusion introduced by dio.
The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents , Doc, ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the Payment_step1.jpg position of Employment Contract - 9+ Download, egeneto changes, as does the position and case of Oineus’ name. This is not to Payment_step1.jpg, claim any great sophistication for Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc, typical of Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for example in a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, vastly more sophisticated. One should remember that he lived in Contract Documents , Doc, Periclean Athens and was a friend of Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself “archaic”.
He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by step to a dramatic climax–and has, in retrospect, the essential quality of a periodos. Such sentences gain much of their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions. Here is Herodotos’ description of the arrival of Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by birth and Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf, of the royal house. This man, coming to Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is similar for On Pinterest, the Lydians and the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the - 9+ Documents In Pdf man was from and who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and To Philosophy 3 Formalizing By, from where in Phrygia have you come to be at my hearth?
Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Contract Download In Pdf , Doc, Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by 17 Best Financial Worksheets Binder, my father and Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents, deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is Up What Statement? Download, as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos’ narrative. A useful exercise in Employment Contract Download Documents In Pdf, coming to understand an Letter Of Reference Template author’s style is to Download Documents In Pdf, note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.] Herodotos’ sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to hold several thoughts suspended at 17 Best Images Binder, once. Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. - 9+ Documents In Pdf. At the end the phrases with men and Warm Up What Thesis - Ppt, de, both dependent on eon, lead up to Employment Contract Download Documents In Pdf , Doc, the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the 17 Best Financial Worksheets Images | Budget final phrase.
Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de. Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf connectives are men. . Introduction Lecture 3 Formalizing By. .de. . .de. Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf. He begins with his father’s and grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them. This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the longest element last.
Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the second of Example Template | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, which is again divided. - 9+ In Pdf , Doc. One could thus call the sentence “periodic” in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the Financial Worksheets | Budget effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc. (Note the chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over 17 Best Worksheets Images On Pinterest | Budget, each question, each answer, each event in Employment Contract Documents, the tale of Croesus, Atys and Introduction 3 Formalizing An Argument By, Adrastos so that at the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the Documents In Pdf , Doc whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf.
Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.] For an analysis of the periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of his style and the vividness and Game Plan And Strategic Presentations, clarity of his narrations. In the Employment Download In Pdf speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on Warm Up What - Ppt Download their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to Peison. The others went to Employment Contract , Doc, the workshop and made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot.
I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of silver coin, and Payment_step1.jpg, he agreed that he would do this. Employment Download In Pdf , Doc. Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to Payment_step1.jpg, me to be imperative to get some pledge from him. After he swore an oath, calling down ruin on himself and his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the contents he called two of his servants and Employment - 9+ Documents, ordered them to take the things in the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and converts most of the participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Letter Of Reference Example Template. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in order, phrase by - 9+ Documents, phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Letter Of Reference Template | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, Lysias’ Greek.
To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to Employment - 9+ Download In Pdf , Doc, show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to follow straightforwardly one after the Payment_step1.jpg other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and Employment Contract Documents In Pdf , Doc, circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the Financial Worksheets On Pinterest | Budget Binder houses they went on their way. And me, on Contract Download , Doc the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out Letter Example they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. (10)
Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be most necessary. to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and Employment - 9+ Documents In Pdf, his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of his servants. and ordered them to take the things in the box. [As a tool for Introduction By, analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the Employment Contract - 9+ In Pdf goal is to understand the For Sports And Strategic Greek, not to replace it. Students should develop the habit of translating Greek this way, in Contract Download In Pdf , Doc, the order of the Warm Up What - Ppt Download original. To aim for a “polished” translation is to ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the Employment Contract Download In Pdf , Doc line-division and indentation of Warm Statement?, this and other passages below. It is intended only to suggest the units of meaning into which the sentence seems to fall.
Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. No “scientific” accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in very short units [kommata].) We should remember, more fundamentally, that the Contract - 9+ In Pdf , Doc very idea of a “sentence” is modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the 17 Best Financial On Pinterest Binder judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of Employment Download , Doc, editors on the placement of Payment_step1.jpg, full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and Economy , pp.
15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to - 9+ Documents, what we call a “clause”; E. Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents , Doc force of a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Introduction 3 Formalizing An Argument, Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is no hard and fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). As for the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to the structure of the sentence. Employment Contract , Doc. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of Payment_step1.jpg, subordination. (I have always found complex systems of Contract - 9+ Download Documents , Doc, notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, (re)organizing the “layout” of these passages in their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for Lysias. In the Employment - 9+ Download In Pdf passage quoted above there is almost nothing of Warm Is A, overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of participles and finite verbs. They tend to Employment Contract Download Documents In Pdf , Doc, be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the Letter narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is worth analyzing each participle in Contract Download In Pdf, this passage as to whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on it before coming to the oath itself, labon. . .sosein.
Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for this very reason it is easy to miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly. Notice also the variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. Financial Worksheets On Pinterest | Budget Binder. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf , Doc. . Is A Download. ., eipon oun hoti . . . ., ho d’ homologese. In Pdf , Doc. . . ., epistamen men oun hoti. . ., homos d’. . .edokei. . . Warm Thesis - Ppt. ., epeide de omosen. . Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents , Doc. . . Note, too, the placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . .sosein (16), labein (20). The repetition is “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16).
In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by Game Plan And Strategic, concealing itself. As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to Contract - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf, appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here. Sophisticated in a different way is the storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for example in the fable about the origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Once there was a time. when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the Lecture 3 Formalizing By things which blend with fire and earth. And when they were ready to lead them to the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf, each as was fitting. (10) And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.”
And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the ones he wrapped in smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the rest, maintaining a balance. On its surface the style of this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of Plan Powerpoint Templates Presentations, archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and Employment, repeated words. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and Payment_step1.jpg, third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and Contract - 9+ Download, ends with the same word (the figure of Of Reference Template, kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an Employment - 9+ Download In Pdf , Doc epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . Warm Up What Thesis. .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of Employment - 9+ In Pdf , Doc, line 7 is 17 Best Financial Images, elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai.
Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of nemo carrying over Download Documents , Doc, from the preceding sentence (10) and into Templates For Sports And Strategic Presentations the next (14). Employment Documents. In particular, the repetition of the last word of a sentence at the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in Of Reference Template, the manner of Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is Employment Contract - 9+ Documents , Doc, shorter than the one before. One can see the Game Plan Powerpoint art of this by glancing at Employment Contract Download , Doc, the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. Payment_step1.jpg. This sentence catalogs the attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the clauses. The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in 19-23. Here each category of animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by Employment Download Documents , Doc, a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected.
The description of small animals, of course, is Powerpoint Templates, much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of Employment - 9+ In Pdf, Plato, the enumeration is Introduction Lecture 3 Formalizing, concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to Employment Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc, grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the dominant impression is Letter Example | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, of someone speaking in the loose, “strung-together” style. Periodic Style: Demosthenes and - 9+ , Doc, Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in the examples which follow, the periodic effect is gained by suspending until the Letter end of the sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Men of the Contract Download Documents jury, most of all because I think it benefits the city for the law to be annulled, second for the sake of Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, Chabrias’ child,
I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men. Demetrios says that this period, which consists of - 9+ Download In Pdf , Doc, three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 examples of - 9+ Documents, lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . . ./eita kai. . .heineka. . . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides.
Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the position of heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of Game Plan For Sports And Strategic, this into a non-period is instructive. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens. For Chabrias’ son is a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared.
Each kolon is Download Documents, independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to come. Is A. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in sight, but on a straight path of uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Employment Contract - 9+ In Pdf Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Fame and memory and glory. how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel? Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of which requires an accusative subject, the second an Plan Powerpoint For Sports infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and Employment Download In Pdf , Doc, infinitives, but since the accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us. Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Employment - 9+ , Doc, Isokrates is analyzed below. Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides.
As is To Philosophy Lecture 3 Formalizing By, usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and Download In Pdf , Doc, easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end. Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
For the river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into Warm Up What Is A the sea by Oiniadai and creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the - 9+ Download , Doc water, in winter to mount a campaign. The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and turns to its conclusion. Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and Introduction Lecture By, the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is suspended until the end, here is a sentence of Employment - 9+ , Doc, Lysias, who was just as much at Example | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, home in the periodic as in the loose style (25.18):
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to - 9+ Documents , Doc, ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the Example Template more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends.
The sentence concludes both logically and dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai. Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for an audience to follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and multiple subordinations until the Employment Contract Download Documents final kolon. Often the main verb comes at the beginning or in the middle, and Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of Employment Download Documents , Doc, Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in Payment_step1.jpg, part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a):
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance. that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is Contract, not a thing of Thesis - Ppt, human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and Contract - 9+, compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland. and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont.
and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of a long and carefully crafted period where the main verb comes in the first kolon and Payment_step1.jpg, everything else unfolds in later subordinations. Employment - 9+. The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Note how small the elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the second and third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in two short phrases, he yokes the sea and digs the land. And note the careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of Lecture 3 Formalizing By, participles and a pair of infinitives set off by men and de.
Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12). End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Contract - 9+, Isokrates is analyzed above. Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of Lecture By, a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of great importance. (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf, left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21) Strictly speaking, the first of Letter Of Reference Template | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, these sentences presents an Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf , Doc antithesis, the second a series of Payment_step1.jpg, parallels.
In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of Employment - 9+ Documents, infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in Warm Thesis - Ppt Download, length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf. The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the Introduction To Philosophy An Argument By nefarious character of the Thirty Tyrants. Not only are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is Download Documents, strengthened by Letter Example, the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by Employment Documents , Doc, the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here. Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the opening of Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this.
A neat suspension of 17 Best Images On Pinterest | Budget, sense, where longer words lead to a shorter “capstone”, hede. Since this period is Employment Contract Documents In Pdf , Doc, part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the other events and Employment Contract - 9+ Documents , Doc, through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . On Pinterest Binder. Note the careful connections and the alternation of long and short kola. Note the Contract - 9+ Download Documents , Doc double purpose clause (hos mete. . .genetai, mete. . Payment_step1.jpg. .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the Employment Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf meaning of erga is amplified by ta men. Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119. . . ta de. . . in - 9+ Download In Pdf, apposition. Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in Warm Up What Is A - Ppt, a kolon appended at the very end, in Employment - 9+ Download , Doc, apposition to and amplifying what went before.
Isokrates could have done no better. Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an end” or “completeness” in various ways and to Warm Up What Statement? Download, various degrees. In addition to Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and Employment Contract Download In Pdf, “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of contents, click here.
A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Employment - 9+ In Pdf , Doc Greek text, click here. Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Introduction An Argument, Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is Employment - 9+ Documents In Pdf, complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole.
Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in this way, not only by historians but by Payment_step1.jpg, every kind of writer. The construction is looser than that of - 9+ Download In Pdf, a rhetorical period but still produces the 17 Best Financial Worksheets On Pinterest | Budget Binder impression of Employment Contract In Pdf , Doc, a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here. The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at all. Up What Thesis Download. Demetrios cites the opening of Employment Contract - 9+ , Doc, Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Warm Is A - Ppt Download, Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to Employment Contract - 9+ In Pdf , Doc, the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is piled on kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is Employment Download Documents In Pdf , Doc, one of the most studied and artful of Greek sentences. [See, for Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over the order of the opening words.
The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to Documents , Doc, kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the 17 Best On Pinterest | Budget Binder accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of In Pdf, prolepsis). Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic. There is no one formula, then, for a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and 17 Best Images, rhetorical figures as “signposts” for the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in which repeated sounds and plays on Employment - 9+ Download Documents words were part of the very texture of the Greek.
Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions. and the gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by words persuaded.
If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the Warm Up What Statement? - Ppt Download one accusing: for god’s zealousness by Contract - 9+ In Pdf, human forethought it is impossible to Worksheets Images | Budget Binder, hinder. (10) For it is natural not for the stronger thing by the weaker to be hindered, but for the weaker by In Pdf , Doc, the stronger to be ruled and guided, and for Letter | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, the stronger to lead. and the weaker to follow. But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in all else. If, then, to Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from Employment - 9+ Documents In Pdf her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the Game Plan Templates For Sports Presentations passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the argument in Employment Contract - 9+ Download , Doc, chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18).
Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from plays on sound (parechesis) and Game Powerpoint Templates, meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. . Download In Pdf. .hesson. . .kreissonos. . Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119. .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus. Note also the end-rhymes in Employment - 9+ Documents In Pdf, -sthai and Payment_step1.jpg, the alliteration of h- in Employment Contract Download Documents In Pdf, 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is Plan Powerpoint For Sports And Strategic Presentations, broken up (or is Contract Download, it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to sense. Game Powerpoint Templates And Strategic Presentations. Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is meticulously logical and Employment - 9+ Documents In Pdf, entirely typical of fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the works of John Finley cited in Payment_step1.jpg, the bibliography.] The layout of this passage in the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and isokola. But if we step back and look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident.
The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on Employment - 9+ , Doc either side of this main clause. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in Financial Images On Pinterest | Budget Binder, number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the Employment Contract - 9+ series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the Warm Download sense nicely near the center of the sentence. The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and In Pdf , Doc, where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. Financial Worksheets On Pinterest | Budget Binder. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. [In line 18 the first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in - 9+ Download In Pdf, periods (15).
Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and Payment_step1.jpg, the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that. If we look to the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in Employment Contract Download , Doc, novel form. Often cited in this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speaker’s words and be seen doing so. Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Is A Thesis Statement? - Ppt Download. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only Employment Contract Documents In Pdf , Doc months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Of Reference Template | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from Aristophanes, evoke well the Employment Contract Download In Pdf , Doc intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook:
For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the gods and the determination of Financial On Pinterest | Budget Binder, necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated. For it is impossible to forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of Employment - 9+ In Pdf, nature that the Payment_step1.jpg stronger is not subordinated to Contract Download , Doc, the weaker, but the weaker is subjugated and dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the leader, while the Is A Thesis Statement? - Ppt weaker is the entreater. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in all else. Employment Contract Documents In Pdf , Doc. Therefore, if on fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to Payment_step1.jpg, Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of Employment Contract Download In Pdf, Isokrates, pp. 55-57.]
Here, lastly, is an example of the finest periodic style in Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Over the course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 opening of the Employment In Pdf speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. First, Athenian men, I pray to all the Game For Sports gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and your piety and Employment Documents, reputation, this for the gods to Of Reference Example, grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor. about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to Contract, a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in his own way. At each stage of the sentence grammatical “signposts” and Letter Of Reference | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, other key words create a suspension of meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and Employment Contract Download , Doc, epeith’ (4). The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee.
As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5). Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for the completion of its meaning: in return for his efforts on behalf of the To Philosophy An Argument By city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an Employment Contract , Doc equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. . .par’ humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to To Philosophy 3 Formalizing By, its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf earlier pronouns humin  and humon ). But the second part of the prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of touto, which is supplied by the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to touto. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an Payment_step1.jpg articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8).
Then he picks up and continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf, complete its meaning. The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in apposition to which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the Thesis - Ppt Download authority of the gods and Employment Contract Documents, the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. The main verb leads off; the climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. The same variety is apparent in the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11). Even proton men and Game For Sports Presentations, epeith’, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the Contract - 9+ In Pdf same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the second prayer dependent on eukhomai.
Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be! A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to On Pinterest | Budget, see Gorgianic periods. Click here to Employment Contract - 9+ Documents , Doc, see Isokratean periods. Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the periodic structures favored by Financial Worksheets Images | Budget Binder, Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is brought out well by Contract - 9+ In Pdf , Doc, Eric Laughton in Game And Strategic Presentations, his comparison of Employment - 9+ Download In Pdf, these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp.
41-49). Cf. H. C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of Of Reference | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style.” But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of Plato’s expression, and Employment Download In Pdf , Doc, especially at the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . . enemen), one has, in Warm Thesis Statement? Download, retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on Employment Contract Download Documents In Pdf , Doc a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end. It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras’ story as an example of a traditional fable, and Introduction To Philosophy Lecture, a discussion of lexis eiromene in general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp.
366-379. Employment Download In Pdf , Doc. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to the Loeb edition of Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]
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This one woman accomplished much for Employment Contract Download humanity within her lifespan. Dorothea Lynde Dix was born on April 4, 1802 in the town of Hampden in Maine. She was the first child of three born to Joseph Dix and Mary Bigelow Dix. Her father was an itinerant Methodist preacher. Payment_step1.jpg. Hampden was taken over by Employment - 9+ Download, the British in Payment_step1.jpg, the War of Employment Download Documents, 1812, however, the Dix's took refuge in Vermont shortly before the war began. Game Powerpoint Templates Presentations. Her family life can be described as abusive and nonexistent. Her mother was not in good mental health and her father was an abusive alcoholic. In Pdf , Doc. Once the Game Powerpoint And Strategic Presentations, family was in Employment Documents In Pdf, Worcester they had two more children, Joseph and Charles.
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Madame Dix sent her son and his wife off to live with relatives. At this time Dorothea was twelve and had already been accustomed to caring for her brothers, which is - 9+ In Pdf something that continued as she lived with her seventy-year old grandmother. Life at the Dix Mansion was extremely different than Dorothea was accustomed to. Her grandmother was wealthy and demanded that Dorothea act and have interests of a wealthy girl. Her grandmother hired a dance instructor and a seamstress to cater to Dorothea's personal needs. However, Dorothea did not want any of these things.
At one point her grandmother punished her severely when she was trying to give food and Example Template her new clothes to the beggar children who were standing at their front gate. At the Employment Contract In Pdf , Doc, age of fourteen, Madame Dix requested that her sister, who lived in Worcester, take care of Dorothea for a while and turn her into a lady. Mrs. Duncan, Madame Dix's sister, agreed to this since she was always very fond of Dorothea. Once she arrived at her great aunt's house Dorothea immediately took on the role of young lady so she could return to her brother's. However, she was to stay with her Aunt for nearly four years. During this time at her Aunt's house Dorothea attended several parties for her rich relatives and at this time met her second cousin, Edward Bangs.
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All this time Edward would continually visit her and keep her company. She was forever grateful to Download Documents In Pdf , Doc Edward for getting her dream of a school to become a reality. When Dorothea was eighteen, Edward, who was thirty-one, told her that he had fallen in love with her. Frightened and scared she immediately closed down her school and returned to the Dix's Mansion in Boston. However, this did not deter Edward. He followed Dorothea to Boston and purposed marriage.
Dorothea accepted his proposal but would not agree to a definite date of marriage. The obvious reasoning for resisting marriage with Edward was that Dorothea feared that she would become like her parents. Marriage to Introduction Lecture her meant desertion of children, emotional outbreaks, fights and heavy drinking. Once Dorothea was back in Boston she began reading her grandfather's books that he had received as a student at Harvard University. Employment Download In Pdf. She wanted to ask her grandmother to use the Dix Mansion as a new school but feared her reaction. However, one day she got the courage to write her grandmother a letter, even though they lived under the same roof, of her intentions. She told her that she wanted to open a school for poor girls to get an education.
In addition she would open a separate classroom for wealthy girls, as they deserved an Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, education as well. Madame Dix was thrilled with her granddaughter's plans and heartedly agreed to them, much to Contract Download Documents In Pdf Dorothea's surprise. However in Payment_step1.jpg, the spring of 1821 Dorothea's father died in New Hampshire. At this time in her life she knew that she was not supposed to marry Edward and returned his engagement ring. Her life, from there on, was devoted to teaching children and expanding her own horizons. From 1822-1836 Dorothea managed to teach her two classes and began writing several books for children. Employment Contract - 9+ , Doc. However in 1830, she became very weak and ill.
At this time she was asked by her good friend Dr. Channing, if she would accompany his family to St. Game Plan And Strategic Presentations. Croix and be a tutor for his daughters. During this time she was able to fully recuperate and return to her school in Boston. Upon her return in the fall of 1831, when she was twenty-nine, she received news that her good friend, General Levi Lincoln, was elected the new government of Massachusetts and his secretary of state happened to be her former fiance, Edward Bangs. These two individuals would later become influential in getting Dorothea's laws concerning mental health accepted as government policy. In 1836 Dorothea began taking care of her sick grandmother and - 9+ Download Documents continued teaching at Game Plan Templates For Sports And Strategic Presentations, her school. However she became more and more drained and eventually had a complete breakdown and severe hemorrhages. Download. Her condition was, what is For Sports now called tuberculosis, but then they had no name for it or a treatment.
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In March of 1841 she entered the East Cambridge Jail. She had volunteered to teach a Sunday School class for women inmates. Upon entering the jail she witnessed such horrible images that her life, from that point on, was changed forever. Within the confines of this jail she observed prostitutes, drunks, criminals, retarded individuals, and the mentally ill were all housed together in unheated, unfurnished, and foul-smelling quarters (Viney Zorich, 1982). When asked why the jail was in | Learnhowtoloseweightnetfree, these conditions her answer was, the Contract Documents In Pdf , Doc, insane do not feel heat or cold (1982). After witnessing these conditions she immediately took the matter to Powerpoint For Sports the courts and Employment Contract Download after a serious of battles finally won. Dorothea then proceeded to visit jails and almshouses, where the mentally ill were housed, in other parts of Boston and soon her investigations extended over Plan Powerpoint Presentations, the entire state of Massachusetts. She made careful and extensive notes as she visited with jailers, caretakers and townspeople. Finally she put together all this data and shaped a carefully worded document to Employment - 9+ Documents , Doc be delivered to To Philosophy 3 Formalizing An Argument the Massachusetts legislature.
She had influence within the legislature, since she was good friends with the governor. In addition her timid presentation of Employment Contract - 9+ In Pdf , Doc, her findings completely won over Of Reference Example Template, the legislative board because her conviction was so powerful. After a heated debate over the topic the material won legislative support and funds were set aside for the expansion of Worcester State Hospital. Dorothea's views about the Contract Download Documents In Pdf , Doc, treatment of the mentally ill were radical at the time. The popular belief was that the insane would never be cured and living within their dreadful conditions was enough for Payment_step1.jpg them. However Dorothea, just by bettering the conditions of the inmates, showed people that mental illness wasn't all incurable. She stated that some may say these things cannot be remedied, these furious maniacs are not to be raised from these base conditions. I know they are. I could give many examples.
One such is a young woman who was for years 'a raging maniac' chained in a cage and whipped to control her acts and Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf words. She was helped by a husband and wife who agreed to take care of her in their home and slowly she recovered her senses. Although Dorothea didn't know the 3 Formalizing An Argument By, mental processes that were occurring within these individuals she knew that improving their conditions wouldn't hurt them (1982). Once she had succeeded she traveled to other states and proceeded doing the same process: extensive travel to jails and almshouses in a state, careful descriptions of conditions in jails and almshouses, and preparation of - 9+ Download Documents In Pdf, a document comparable to the one which proved successful in Massachusetts (1982). Although her health was very poor, she managed to cover every state on the east side of the Mississippi River. In all she played a major role in founding 32 mental hospitals, 15 schools for the feeble minded, a school for the blind, and numerous training facilities for Game Plan Templates Presentations nurses.
Her efforts were an indirect inspiration for the building of In Pdf , Doc, many additional institutions for the mentally ill. She was also instrumental in establishing libraries in prisons, mental hospitals and other institutions. After accomplishing much, she decided to go after her dream in Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119, 1848. She sent a document to the United States Congress asking that five million acres be set aside and to be used for the care of the mentally ill. However, with this request she was way ahead of her time by advocating a role for Employment Contract - 9+ Download Documents the national government in the care of the disadvantaged mentally ill. In 1854 the Of Reference Template, bill passed and Contract Download In Pdf was approved by both houses but was vetoed by President Franklin Pierce. After her fighting Dorothea was physically worn out by trying to fulfill her dream. She decided to travel to Europe to Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119 rest from her thirteen years of Contract - 9+ Download Documents, work for the mentally ill. Once she got to Letter Of Reference Template Europe she had no time to rest for she began her process of inspecting jails and almshouses there as well. She traveled to England, Scotland, France, Austria, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Belgium and Germany.
In a period of Employment Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf, 1854 to 1856 she made an effective change in the way Europeans dealt with the Powerpoint For Sports And Strategic Presentations, mentally ill as she had in the United States. This was a matter of only two years mind you. Upon her return to the United States in 1854 she continued to travel and investigate many states she had missed before. However at the outbreak of the Civil War she put her energies into Employment Contract - 9+ Documents In Pdf , Doc, being the Superintendent of Union Army Nurses. Although she wasn't effective in this field, she continued to serve throughout the war. Payment_step1.jpg. In 1881 the state hospital in Employment Contract - 9+ , Doc, Trenton, New Jersey opened. This was the Payment_step1.jpg, first hospital that was initiated and built through her efforts to be opened. Since her health was failing she admitted herself into this hospital.
However, with her decline she remained in the hospital for a period of six years. Her death on July 17, 1887 ended a career that was unique in Contract - 9+ Download In Pdf, its singleness of purpose and magnitude of accomplishment. Dorothea Dix has been described as the most effective advocate of humanitarian reform in American mental institutions during the nineteenth century (Goldenson, 1970). However, her achievements are only mentioned in five of the current fifty-three textbooks covering the history of psychology. The reason given for Lecture An Argument By this is that she did not contribute to our understanding of the nature of mental disorders. However, she is - 9+ Documents In Pdf only in 10% of today's general history books.
Although this may seem something hard to fathom Dorothea Dix herself would have wanted it this way. In her life, she was inconspicuous with her work to say the least. She did not place her name on most of Payment_step1.jpg, her publications. She refused to have hospitals named after her. Expressions of praise and Employment Contract Documents gratitude for her work always produced embarrassment. In later years of Images Binder, her retirement she refused to talk about her achievements and wanted them to Contract Download Documents In Pdf rest in silence. Should that silence continue? (Viney Zorich, 1982). Dix, Dorothea L. (1824). Common things, conversations . New York: Munroe Frances Inc. Dix, Dorothea L. (1975). On behalf of the Template, insane poor: Selected reports 1842-1862 . New York: Ayer Co.
Publishers, Inc. Marshall, H.E. (1937). Dorothea Dix, forgotten Samaritan . Chapel Hill, NC: University of Employment Contract - 9+ In Pdf , Doc, North Carolina Press. Tiffany, F. (1891). Life of Dorothea Lynde Dix . Boston: Houghton Mufflin. Wilson, D.C. (1975). Stranger and traveler . Boston: Little Brown.
Viney, W. Zorich, S. Music-Contract-Band-Members-Agreement-1-638.jpg?cb=1376552119. (1982). Contract Documents In Pdf , Doc. Contributions to the history of psychology XXIX: Dorothea Dix. Psychological Reports, 50 , 211-218.