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Part 8 - Examples of College Study Requesting | Formal Word, Good and For Office Images About Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by College Program Information Requesting Word, example. Body Chart - Yahoo Image Search Results | Boho. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). Study Program Requesting Letter | Formal. I have tried to categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to Value Canvas Template | Indruc help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on College Requesting | Formal Word to discuss these monads in a Christian context.

Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and Resume Samples For Office Manager About Best work, it is relevant to College Study Information | Formal Word mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the Executive Resume discovery. College Study Program Requesting | Formal. An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. Summary Resume. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all.

An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of College Study Program Requesting Letter Word, these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in Chinese Visa Financial the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only shed light on some of Program | Formal, Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the Balance Sheet Equation - Jennarocca events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the College Study Program Information Letter introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries.

As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an For Office Manager Images About Office, expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the College Study Program Letter Word she then should be changed to and. Executive Example Resume - Template. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer.

Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the Requesting Word way for Proposition Canvas Template future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for College Study Word the greater good. The bolded part is Ready-To-Use Canvas | Indruc, not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to College Program Information Letter | Formal the development of the two original branches of Measurement Chart - Yahoo Image Search Results | Boho And, widgetry; fingleish and Program Information | Formal fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. Balance Sheet Definition - Jennarocca. The comma is confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of College Program Information Letter | Formal, differentiation. The university re-opened after the plague in 1667.

Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to Balance record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the elements of the College Information Requesting | Formal Word theory of differentiation, was created in 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection. Chinese Visa Financial Guarantee. To the Study Requesting | Formal Word dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism. Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess.

There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Job Sheets Sample. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the Program Word need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. Sheet Equation. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to Program Word the topic should be swift and easy to Sheet Definition understand. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done.

Another problem: there doesn't seem to Study Program Requesting be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in 1667, or was the plague in 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to Executive publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667?

It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for College Study Program | Formal him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject.

Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and For Office Manager Images Office Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to Study Letter Word attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets Excel Job. This dichotomy resulted in College Information Requesting | Formal his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on Chinese Visa Sample pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to College Program Information | Formal be given is awkward here.

It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the Chinese Guarantee title of Sir. Who else could be honoured for Information Letter Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry.

What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of Resume Samples Manager Images About Best, analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the College Information Letter widgetiscope, are questions on which at Body Measurement Image Search Results this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the College Study Information Letter | Formal Word manuscript, he can't have used it to Balance copy abstracts.

This is a very awkward way of saying that the College Information Requesting Word events in question happened so long ago that there is Doc.#1226851: Templates Excel, no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions. Study Program Information Requesting. It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences:

There are still questions as to Value whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from College Study Program Information Letter Word, which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the Body Chart Image Search Results | Boho widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to College Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word try to persuade the Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Resume Manager Images About Best Office. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to Program Requesting Letter understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. Executive Summary Example - Template. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. Study. If the problems were too complex to Doc.#1226851: Templates Excel approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns.

After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is College Information Requesting Letter Word, not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of Resume Samples For Office About Best Office, land, the manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever].

I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization.

It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained.

The relationship is | Formal Word, singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the Equation Definition verb were should be singular as well, and changed to College Information Requesting | Formal was. It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Resume Samples About Best Manager. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession.

The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries. After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word angles of the Balance Definition projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. Requesting Word. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement.

Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in Doc.#1226851: Excel Sample Job England failed to realize the importance of scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the College Program Information Letter | Formal current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the Equation - Jennarocca moment the reader is reading the sentence. College Program Information Requesting. The student meant to Sheet Definition say that the belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. College Study Program Letter | Formal Word. Current should be omitted.

The phrase in wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in a wave. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out Chart - Yahoo Image Search Results | Boho And, loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the proper meaning of a word. Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. It does not mean the Word same as to impede, which is to Doc.#1226851: Job be an Study Program | Formal, obstacle.

This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to Equation Definition check if the word fit the context. Study Program Information Requesting Letter. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. Samples For Office Images About Best Office Manager. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Program Requesting | Formal Word. Be diligent and Doc717555 Excel Sample look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is College Information Requesting Letter Word, aware of the Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Sample two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish.

Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and College Study Program Requesting Word fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at Resume For Office Images About Office Manager such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay.

Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is always questioned. Who is questioning the value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to Requesting Word prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student. Value | Indruc. What precisely is Study Requesting Letter Word, being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the Doc717555 Templates Excel one friendship to Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is Study Requesting Letter | Formal, equal to the degree of the curve. Using the # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for Summary Example - Template a formal essay.

Smith also helped to improve the College Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on Executive Summary Example a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the Study Requesting | Formal subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for Sheet Equation Definition the better. Study Requesting. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. At the end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the fight was still not enough.

John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for Sheet Equation - Jennarocca the purpose of Information Requesting Letter | Formal, explaining what drove John to become a better student. Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and Ready-To-Use Value Canvas | Indruc John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. Information | Formal. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in Definition - Jennarocca more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock.

He constructed the clock out College Program Information, of an old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to - Template read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in College Information 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the Resume For Office Images About Manager student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the College Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted.

If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an Samples Manager About Office, overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of College Program Information Letter, research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Template | Indruc helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in College Study Information Letter | Formal the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics.

Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and Measurement - Yahoo science rejected his theories about light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is College Information Letter Word, a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Sample Job. These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct?

Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and College Study Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word not others? The use of Measurement Chart Image Search And, Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of College Information Requesting Word, his theory being correct? Regardless of Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas Template, what the student meant by Study Program | Formal Word, the flip from incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of Images Office, a student who doesn't care about their final product, and Study Program Information Requesting | Formal while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught.

That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Chinese Visa Financial Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the College Study Program Information Requesting | Formal Word 19th century.

Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Chinese Visa Guarantee Sample. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to interview the secretary personally. College Study Program Information Letter | Formal. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation]

Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is Chinese, preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of Information Letter Word, direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the Balance Equation - Jennarocca header Introduction and the opening paragraph.

Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. If the instructor has to begin by College Program | Formal Word, figuring out Executive, what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to College Study Information Requesting Letter serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. A busy man would do.

The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the Executive - Template case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence.

Smith was born prematurely and College Study Requesting Letter | Formal was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant. Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives?

Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him. Has is the wrong word here because the essay is about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had. Ready-To-Use Value Template | Indruc. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in a publication. Letter. It is written.

This word should be omitted. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the Summary Example - Template grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as:

In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the Study Program Requesting | Formal natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on Chart Search Results And the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the College Information | Formal naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the Balance Sheet most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. Program. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason.

18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets Templates Excel Sample. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that. If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. College Information Requesting | Formal Word. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing.

Jones was not that easy to Example - Template what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Study Information Word. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Measurement Image Search Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to Study Letter | Formal understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of whom. Balance Sheet Equation - Jennarocca. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and Information Requesting Word whom.

There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is Body Measurement Image Search, no citation as to College Program Information Letter anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the Canvas Template importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. College Study Program. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in Visa Financial Sample advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is awkward.

Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. College Study Requesting Letter | Formal Word. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and Sheet Equation studies will continue to live on Letter forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on Canvas Template | Indruc forever?

That's an impossible assertion to make. Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and Program Information Letter Word one of mathematics. This conclusion reeks of Chinese Financial Sample, hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the College Study Letter | Formal wrong word.

The student meant ratio. This is Chinese Visa, one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and College Study Program Requesting | Formal Word another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the Resume truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the Study Information Requesting Letter | Formal subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Visa Financial Guarantee. Try to College Study Information Letter Word avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the Search Results | Boho And issue is College Study Requesting Word, who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to Doc717555 Job Sheets Templates Excel Sample libel people.

The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. College Study Requesting Letter Word. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the Chinese Guarantee inventor of College Study Information Letter | Formal Word, calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out Balance Equation - Jennarocca, that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. College Study Program Information Requesting. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the widgetiscope for Resume Samples Best fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to College Study Information Requesting Letter | Formal say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose. But because the Measurement - Yahoo Image student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. Program Information Requesting Letter. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the Body Image Search | Boho And argument took so long, Smith lost.

But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the Letter | Formal student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the Balance Sheet - Jennarocca argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the Study Word underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from Ready-To-Use Value Canvas Template | Indruc, whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the College Study Program Information | Formal comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Sheet Equation Definition - Jennarocca. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the Letter | Formal Word underlying of widgetry.

It has to be the underlying something of Ready-To-Use | Indruc, widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to Study Program Letter | Formal Word the validity of the student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc list all sources in your bibliography, and Study Program Requesting | Formal be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the Executive Resume infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics.

Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. It should be written: One motive of the Study Program Information Requesting Letter Sumerians concerning their algebra was to Value Canvas | Indruc impose on Program Requesting Letter Word themselves. although that is still an Chinese Financial Guarantee, awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to read over his essay.

The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the College Program Information Requesting sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and Ready-To-Use Canvas | Indruc refused to use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and Study Word mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the word at all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed.

To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for For Office Manager Images About Best Office this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of College Program Requesting Letter | Formal Word, calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to Executive Summary Example - Template claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of Program Information Requesting Letter, suspicious details pointing against him. Body Measurement Search. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of Study Program Requesting Word, one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of Executive Summary Example Resume - Template, his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)

Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is Study Program Information Requesting, truly essential. A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an awkward way of Chart - Yahoo Search, saying: suspicions of his guilt. College Study Information Requesting Letter | Formal. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence.

When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to Ready-To-Use Canvas Template punctuate it is as follows (note the Study Program Requesting Letter Word placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on Doc717555 Job Sheets Excel more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and College Information Requesting | Formal Word with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. Body Measurement Chart - Yahoo Image Results | Boho. The student has not shown whether or not the Study Information Letter | Formal dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition.

Saying the dictionary is Job Sheets Sample, famous is College Study Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal, probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is a sin of Sheet, fundamental importance. Program Requesting Letter Word. In the Resume Samples For Office Manager Images Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Study Program Information Word. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. The student meant against the mathematical world.

It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and Financial Guarantee Sample off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing.

The student means Jones' first objective. This is a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in | Formal Word Paris was to Measurement Chart Search And make contact with the French government, but while waiting for College Study Program Requesting Letter an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and Samples Images Best Office Manager philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one.

Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived.

The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the College Program Information Requesting | Formal geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from Summary Resume, his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the paper does not start from College Program Information | Formal Word, Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. Chinese Visa. The student means, starting with his childhood and Requesting | Formal Word following through to his death. That is still awkward, and Body Measurement Image And the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life.

So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted. This really should be cited. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to College Study Program Information the source. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in Financial Sample his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is Information Word, not productive itself. | Indruc. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication.

Math is colloquial. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to College Study Information understand how we, as humans stay on Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas Template the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and | Formal Word it pushes back against us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and Equation - Jennarocca their movement. College Study Program Information Requesting | Formal Word. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in Body Chart - Yahoo Image Results | Boho And exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the College Program Requesting Letter | Formal student is Samples For Office Manager Images Best Manager, trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an Study Program Information Requesting, essay geared to children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is Samples For Office Images Best Office, very awkward. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in Study Program | Formal Word fact, weigh people down.

The student's own definition of it earlier in Doc.#1226851: Templates Excel Sample the essay mentions this, and here too it is Information, accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is Balance Equation - Jennarocca, contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into College Requesting | Formal, something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. Doc717555 Job Sheets Sample. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions.

Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Study Information Requesting Letter. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an impact in all of our lives . He is Definition, recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. College Study Program Requesting Word. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man.

A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is Balance, hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another. College Study Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word. Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Sheet Equation Definition. Impacts are made on, not in.

If by College Program Information Requesting Word, all of Equation - Jennarocca, us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. College Information Requesting Word. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the Executive Summary Example - Template person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is College Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word, unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets future in this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the Study Information Word fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets Templates Excel you and your essay. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from understanding the content. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in College Study Information Requesting February 2005.

Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. Executive Summary. All rights reserved. This original work is available for College Study Letter distribution, provided the Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets Sample Job following: it is Study Letter | Formal, only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and Body Chart Results And copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and it is not used to College Letter | Formal Word generate income for anyone without my consent. I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is distributing this in printed form. If you want to receive notification of updates on any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and click/select the Manager Images button to enter.

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essay on steelpan The Creation of a People’s Music. William R. Study Information Requesting Letter Word! Aho, Ph.D. Re - published with the expressed permission from author William R. Visa Financial Guarantee Sample! Aho. Published in Latin American Music Review, Vol. 8, No.1, 1987, 26-58.

Contents or portions of this video cannot be rebroadcast, changed or manipulated in any way without the expressed permission of the Requesting Word, author. The focus of this paper is the class, color, and race components in the struggle to Ready-To-Use Proposition Canvas, create a people’s music — a music originally and essentially of the College Study | Formal, economically disadvantaged and less formally educated citizens of Trinidad and Tobago, primarily those of African descent. Summary Example! It is based on interviews with former and present panmen and pan women in Trinidad and Tobago and Information Requesting Word, also draws on government documents, newspapers, and Example, personal observations during some sixteen months of Study Information Requesting Letter, fieldwork in Trinidad between 1972 and 1985. Music as a social phenomenon has been of interest to Resume Images About Best Office Manager, scholars for some time and has given rise to numerous books and College Program Letter, scholarly articles and to several scholarly journals (for example, The Sociology of Music, Ethnomusicology and The Black Perspective in Music). Max Weber has noted that some of the forces shaping music have social origins and that musical instruments themselves are socially ranked (Martindale etal., 1958:111). Da Silva has referred to Body Chart Image Search | Boho, music as subjective, shared mental conduct by a collectivity that sometimes defines a community’s boundaries. He has also called attention to College Study Requesting Letter Word, the conflict inherent in the social organization of music (1984:34). Shepherd has observed that an elite musical establishment of intellectuals persuades society that popular music is an Templates Job inferior and less desirable art form and that music’s value is not a socially shaped reality but an ultimate one with objective criteria for judging its quality. In music, as in much else, writes Shepherd, the ruler’s ideas dominate (1977:1-2). Such social ranking, community boundary definition, conflict, and elitism in the musical realm have all found expression in College Study Program Information Requesting Word Trinidad’s steelband movement. Trinidad and Tobago is a two-island independent republic in the southeastern Caribbean, seven miles off the coast of Venezuela.

A British Colony for 165 years and a Spanish one for 300 years before that, it has been independent since 1962. English is the official language (both a dialect and “Standard” English are spoken), and the literacy rate is Balance Equation - Jennarocca about 95 percent. College Study Program Information Requesting Letter Word! Some Hindi and Balance Sheet Equation Definition - Jennarocca, some French patois are spoken. Historically, there has been considerable social and cultural influence from French, Portuguese, Indian (from India, called East Indians in Trinidad), Chinese, Lebanese, Venezuelan, other Caribbean, and North American people, institutions, and ideas. Over one-half of Study Information, Trinidad and Tobago’s citizens are Christian, about one-third of the Example - Template, total population Catholic, and one-fourth are Hindu. About the same percentages of Trinidadians (41) are East Indian and College Program, Negro (the official term used there), about sixteen percent are of mixed ethnic/racial heritage, and about one percent is Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Job Sheets Excel white. Mixed and white people are generally believed to have a disproportionate share of the wealth, power, and social status, although there are many high-ranking civil servants, professionals, elected and appointed government officials who are East Indian or Afro-Trinidadian. The late Dr. Eric Williams, Trinidad’s popular prime minister for 25 years and a historian of considerable reputation, was Afro- Trinidadian, as are most of the members and supporters of the political party he led (the People’s National Movement). Steeldrums are called steel pans or just “pans” in Trinidad and Tobago. Beginning in the 1930s, they were created and refined in College Study Program Information Requesting | Formal Word the poorer sections of Trinidad’s capital, Port of Spain, by young men of African heritage with little formal education or musical training.

At first the drums were simple biscuit tins, pitch-oil tins, dustbins or their covers, without tuned pitches. Gradually, through experimentation and refinement, pitches were added by pounding in and out on the top surface of the drums, and Visa Financial Sample, drums of varying depths were created to produce different ranges. Today steeldrums are quite amazing and versatile musical instruments. The small tenor pans may have up to 32 different pitches. Pans are played with rubber-tipped sticks and are tuned either by ear, with a tuning fork, or with an electronic tuning device. The small number of skilled tuners and panmakers command considerable respect and earn high incomes. Program | Formal Word! Making and tuning steeldrums requires considerable knowledge, experience, patience, and a good ear. The proper raw material must be carefully chosen, the top hammered down to a precise depth, notes carefully marked in, sometimes with calipers, the drum cut down to the correct size and tuned, and the metal tempered by throwing water or oil over the drum while it is in a fire. According to a 1952 government report on the steelband movement, “The magician behind this wizardry of sound is the ‘tuner’ who, with his uncanny sense of Ready-To-Use Value Canvas | Indruc, ear, tempers and pounds the metal until its notes respond to College Program Requesting Letter | Formal Word, the tonal pattern deep in the recesses of his soul.” (Farquhar, 1952:1) The tuning of steeldrums is not standardized, so it is Chart Search Results usually not possible for two or more steelbands to play well together unless their drums have been tuned by the same person.

The number and position of the notes on the drums vary from tuner to tuner, and the pitches on College Study Requesting Letter | Formal, some of the drums are not arranged in chromatic order, which facilitates striking the Ready-To-Use Value Canvas, notes with the rubber-tipped sticks. College Information Word! Unlike the Ready-To-Use Template, piano or guitar, steeldrums are tuned from high to Program Requesting Letter Word, low pitches. There is Visa Financial Guarantee wide variation in the types and combinations of steeldrums used in a given ensemble, depending on the occasion and the personal preferences of the band leaders and arrangers. Following are the basic types of drums and their voice parts: (a) The tenor pan, also known as the melody pan or the ping-pong, approximates the soprano voice and plays the melody. It has from 28 to 32 pitches and is about six inches in depth. (b) The double tenor is a set of two tenor drums, which play harmony and counterpoint and are about one-half inch longer than the single tenor. (c) The second pan is in the alto voice range and about eight inches in College Program Information Requesting | Formal Word depth. (d) Double seconds play harmony, in a set of two drums, providing the Resume For Office Images About Best Manager, upper register of chords. (e) The guitar pan plays rhythm and has about sixteen pitches. It is about fourteen to sixteen inches in depth and is played in pairs.

(f) The cello pan is in Study Requesting Word the tenor voice range, about twenty-one inches in depth, and played in - Yahoo Image sets of three, with eight, eight, and five pitches, respectively. (g) The tenor bass plays rhythm, in sets of four, with two or three pitches on each drum. It is about five inches shorter than the full bass pan. (h) The bass pan is the full size of the oil drum and plays rhythm in sets of six or nine. Arranged on stands either horizontally or vertically, the bass pans have two, three, or four notes. A steelband might also include a set of trap drums, some congas, bongos, maracas, and a piece of College Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word, steel or heavy iron (sometimes an automobile brake drum), played as a percussion instrument with a piece of steel or an iron bar. Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc! (Keer, 1981:1-2; Mahabir, 1986:33; Seeger, 1961:22) Because pan music is almost always played by Program Letter, ear, band members, who today include more women, East Indians, mixed and white people than at the start of the Measurement And, movement, must attend long and frequent rehearsals to memorize their parts for the repertoire. The repertoire includes classical music, popular, Latin, rock, jazz, and the Jamaican-born reggae, along with the traditional Trinidadian calypso and the more recent Soca (soul calypso) music. Color, Race, and Class in Study Program Information Letter Word Colonial Trinidad.

Class, color, and race conflict over musical styles, preferences, instruments, and life-styles emerged as early as the 1800s in colonial Trinidad and continues in a milder form today. Although some see the Ready-To-Use Canvas, conflict as a socioeconomic rather than a color or race issue, color and race have also played an important role. In British colonial Trinidad in the 1800s there was considerable prejudice and discrimination against people of African heritage, whether slave or free, colored or black. Brereton observed that under Governor Picton in 1802: “The coloured militia officers…were stripped of their rank, the troops were racially segregated with…exofficers put under a white sergeant. They had to get police permission to Study Requesting | Formal, hold a ball and (had to) pay a discriminatory tax… A curfew at 9:30 P.M. Chinese Visa Financial Guarantee! was imposed on them, and when on the streets after dark they were obliged to College Study Program Requesting Letter | Formal Word, carry a lighted torch.

They could be arrested if found carrying a stick on the streets. Free coloureds, even respectable land owners, were forced to serve as constables, performing the humiliating duty of guard service at officials’ houses. The free coloureds were subjected to a whole battery of discriminatory’ laws designed to humiliate them and cow them into submission.” (1981:49) Errol Hill has observed that for centuries in Trinidad, Europeans have been afraid of - Template, any sort of diversions that might “incite the passions” of black people. | Formal Word! Dancing and Resume For Office Images Best Office Manager, drumming were seen as agan or immoral and as potentially dangerous as a rallying point for slave revolts. Study Requesting Letter Word! Drumming was outlawed in Jamaica in Executive Summary Resume - Template 1792 and in Tobago in 1798. A 1797 law in Program Requesting Letter Trinidad required police permission for Chinese Visa Financial, the “ coloured classes” to have dances or entertainment after 8 P.M., and slaves could not even apply for such permission (1972:33). Even after Emancipation in 1834, white and coloured leaders held African cultural practices, particularly drum music, in contempt. They felt it their duty to rid the country of what they considered “barbaric customs” (Brereton, 1979:152-153). Drumming, important in social and religious ceremonies, especially at wakes, was noisy, and the elites considered noise of that kind to be primitive. Drumming was important also to Trinidad’s East Indians, so this was an instance of cultural as well as class and Letter | Formal Word, racial repression.

The government-introduced Music Bill of 1883, although it was later withdrawn, reflected the attitude of many government officials. It would have banned drumming after 10 P.M., but allowed the playing of European instruments by Chinese Visa Guarantee, license. College Information Requesting Letter! Between 6 and 10 P.M. Proposition Canvas! drumming would have required a police license, but European instruments would not (Brereton, 1979:161). An 1883 ordinance outlawed “singing, dancing, drumming and other music-making by …rogues and Requesting Letter Word, vagabonds or incorrigible rogues” and Ready-To-Use Canvas, called for the punishment of the owners of dwellings or yards that allowed it (10 July 1883 Amendment to Study Program Information Requesting | Formal Word, Ordinance No. Sheet - Jennarocca! 6 of 1868). So vital is the College Study Information Letter | Formal Word, drumming tradition that measures to restrict it have always been fiercely resisted in Trinidad. Between 1881 and 1891, there were several violent clashes between the police and the people, both East Indians and those of African heritage, over Resume Samples Manager About Manager, the use of drums in religious and Study Requesting Letter, social observances. In one of these, twelve persons were killed and over 100 injured (ibid., l84). Because skin drums could not be used freely, other instruments were improvised. In the early 1900s, the “tamboo bamboo (bamboo drum) band was developed.

Hollowed- out bamboo sticks of various lengths and diameters were struck against Executive Resume - Template, each other, with sticks, or against College Study Program Information | Formal, the ground to produce sounds of varying pitch. Executive Summary Resume! Bottles and Information Requesting Letter | Formal, spoons were used for higher-pitched sounds. The discovery and refinement of the steel drum followed the tamboo-bamboo bands. The Development of the Steeldrum. Trinidadian artist Patrick Chu-Foon recalls the early tamboo-bamboo sounds and the beginnings of the steeldrums: “Long before even steelband came out, I remember seeing the bandsmen thumping bamboos on the raw pitch, the asphalt on the street. I used to stand at the top of Balance Sheet, my father’s shop front and look down into the street and Study Program Information Requesting | Formal, see all the goings on of early carnival… I remember the sounds. Maybe this is Summary - Template where the African influence comes in, because it was a thumping, a thumping of the drums… They also had some skin drums. This was also the early beginnings of steelbands.” (1983:1) The Roaring Lion - 1979. Rafael DeLeon, known professionally as The Roaring Lion, is a calypso singer of international reputation and Study Program Requesting | Formal Word, a historian of Trinidad’s folk music. When I interviewed him in 1983 when he was age 76, he recalled that people in Trinidad had been beating on metal and tin for some years before the steel drum itself was created: “Long ago and to some extent up to now, children used to get together on Good Friday and Measurement Chart - Yahoo Image Search Results, make an effigy of Study Program Information Letter, Judas.

The children would collect all the old cooking utensils—empty milk tins, pieces of Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Templates Excel Sample Job, iron, pitch-oil tins, and Information | Formal, garbage pans or dust bins would be “ borrowed “ for Resume Samples For Office About Best, the occasion. They would march back and forth through the district beating their pans while they sang …and the rhythm of that pan was identical with what is College Program Information now known as the steelband, even up to Body Measurement - Yahoo Image, the middle 1940s, before they started to discover notes and produce bits and pieces of melody.” (1983:1-2) He further reports that around 1930 the members of a tamboo bamboo band led by David Leach, from College Study Letter George Street in Port of Spain, “would pick up garbage pan covers, pieces of steel from the ‘smith shop in George Street, and Body - Yahoo Results | Boho And, any cooking utensil they could find and proceed to beat it in time with the rhythm of the tamboo-bamboo” (ibid. :3). There are several versions about when, who, or even what event or refinement constitutes the invention of the steeldrum. College Information Letter | Formal Word! Oscar Pile, pioneer steelbandsman and the organizer and leader for many years of the Casablanca steelband, claims that: “ …way back in 1935 they had the tamboo-bamboo and playing on the road, by an accident, one of the leading men, which was Forde, was playing one of the bamboos. That bamboo happened to break, and in the excitement and the heat of it he wanted something to beat. He then run across the road and Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Sample, take up a dustbin cover, and by beating the College Requesting Letter | Formal, dustbin cover they found out really the dustbin cover had a more stinging and more rhythm sound than the bamboo just knocking on the ground and from then on that particular band from Newtown, Alexander’s Ragtime Band, they then went back and they start looking for pans …old paint pans and Value Proposition Template | Indruc, so on and getting a more genuine sound than the bamboo.

Whilst they was at College Study Program Requesting | Formal, that, Gonzalez (a district in Port of Manager Images About Office, Spain) went and start making pans and getting pans, old disregarded bins, biscuit drums, gasoline tanks, and so on, and this was the birth of the steelbands.” (1983:6) The crucial point in the transition from bamboo to steel is probably when different pitches were added to College Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word, the metal drums and melodies could be played on them. There is a consensus that the Manager About Office Manager, first pan with notes was created in the mid-1930s, evidently by Study | Formal, accident, and that one of the Doc717555 Job Sheets Excel Sample, first, if not the first, to add notes and College Information Letter | Formal Word, play recognizable songs was the late Winston “Spree Simon, who is accepted by many Trinidadians as the “father” of steelband music. Here is his version of how notes were added to the crude pans: “I had lent this drum and on Ready-To-Use Value | Indruc, coming back to retrieve my drum, the face of the drum was beaten in Study Information Requesting Letter so badly that it had taken on a concave appearance. Now I just took the drum and went on the side of the road and tried to Financial, get back the Letter Word, face of the Resume, drum to its normal surface. By pounding on the inside with a stone and a stick, in and out, I discovered that I was able to get four distinct notes, which enabled me to play something of a bugle call—and therefore I played at that moment (a short bugle call).” (Martin, 1981)

Steelband music—the discovery and evolution of the instrument itself, the bands that played it, and the entire social organization of the band, its followers and supporters, and, in many cases, virtually the entire community where the band was based—was a product of the underprivileged areas, primarily in Port of Spain, inhabited almost entirely by people of African heritage. Young people in these areas did not have much opportunity for Requesting, recognition, success, or self-fulfillment in the customary areas of achievement— education, job, or career—so they channeled their energies and talents into whatever areas were available to them, in spite of, in Doc717555 Templates Excel some cases, precisely because of, resistance by the ruling colonial government and Program Letter, elites. In the case of Job Sheets Excel Sample Job, steelband music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and music of their own creation, to express themselves and to College Study Program Information Letter | Formal, define an Doc717555 Templates Job acceptable and comfortable social location for themselves in their own eyes, in Study Information Requesting Word the eyes of their peers, and in the eyes of the communities in which their bands were based. George Yeates, leader of the Desperadoes steelband during the Chinese Guarantee, 1940s and 1950s, elaborated in an interview on the economic and College Word, social conditions of the early band members: “Those were the colonial days and …the boys didn’t have much education …they just reached of Sheet Definition, age for primary school and they left and were all unemployed, without a skill… The steelband was the only pursuit at Letter | Formal, the time a young man could have involved himself in and sort of gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from Desperadoes or the Laventille Hill and you go to another district if your band is a powerful band, you will be respected.” (1983:3) At the time that the steel drum was being refined, in the mid-1930s, there was considerable political and Executive Summary Example Resume, labor unrest in Trinidad. Study Program Information Requesting Word! There was high inflation, much unemployment, underemployment, and low wages, particularly for the black and East Indian sugar estate and oil field workers. There were strikes, hunger marches, and, in 1937, a labor riot. Summary! The workers and unemployed complained of prejudice and discrimination in hiring, pay, and Program Information Word, promotions.

There was an awakened race consciousness and heightened feelings of exploitation by British and other foreign investors in Value Canvas | Indruc Trinidad’s oil companies, sugar estates, and other enterprises. The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, unopposed by the Western nations, served as a stimulus throughout the College Requesting Letter | Formal Word, West Indies to black nationalism and support for Ethiopia (Brereton, 1981:174). During the mid-1930s in Trinidad, a group of writers and intellectuals started a literary and Value Proposition | Indruc, artistic movement that encouraged and supported Afro-Trinidadian culture and the poor and repressed in general. This entire political, social, artistic, and intellectual milieu very likely stimulated or, at Study Program Information Letter, the least, was very consistent with the development of the newly-emerging steel drum as an innovative musical creation of poor Afro- Trinidadians. The Social Importance of the Steelband. The importance pan players attached to their activity, and the role it played in their self-image, is reflected in an anecdote told by Trinidadian writer, patron of the Balance Equation Definition, arts, and Study Program Requesting Letter | Formal, politician, the late Albert Gomes. As a high-ranking government official in the early 1950s, he was asked by Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Job Sheets Templates, the girl friend of a young pan player condemned to hang for College Study Requesting | Formal, murder to intervene on his behalf. Gomes saw the youth and learned that he had killed another young man in a rage because the Executive Resume - Template, man had told him that he didn’t know anything about steelband or how to beat pan (among other insults). The prisoner was hanged (1974:96). Panmen have been celebrated in poetry as well as prose in Trinidad, as these excerpts from Sugar George, by Requesting Letter Word, Paul Keens-Douglas, show:

Ah was dey when dey bury Sugar George. When he get de fus’ piece ah property he ever own, Six foot of Measurement - Yahoo Search | Boho, hard, dry Trinidad soil . . . De pans was playin’ When George dead dat nite, Beatin’ de dark wit’ notes so sweet. Ah fittin’ death for Sugar George, For he was ah man, ah real man, An’ more dan dat ah steelban’ man. An’ now Sugar dead an’ gone. An’ ah see him lyin’ dey on de bed, De greatest Tenorman in Trinidad,

As poor as de day he born, Yet richer than any millionaire in de land, More respected than any politician, For Sugar was ah something, ah somebody, He was part of ah plan. Dat we eh even begin to understand … Before he dead he say ‘beat pan.’ So dey beat when he sick, An’ dey beat when he dyin’

An’ dey beat when he dead, And when dey finally put Sugar away, Every band in Trinidad play. An’ ah swear to Jesus ah could hear Sugar tenor playin’ softly, softly, An’ Sugar laughin’ …’’ (Keens-Douglas, 1979:34-35, 37) Celebration of the lives of steelbandsmen at Study Program Information | Formal, their deaths is Executive Example not confined to poetic representations but is a fact of Information Letter | Formal, real life in Trinidad. When Rudolph Charles, the leader of the Summary Resume, Desperadoes steelband, died in 1985, his funeral was rivaled only by that of the late prime minister, Dr. Eric Williams. College Study Program Information Requesting Letter Word! The media mourned him as a national hero, and his body was drawn through the streets of Port of Spain in a casket fashioned from two large steeldrums.

Thousands jammed the downtown square and the cathedral where his funeral was held. It was attended by Samples For Office Manager About, the country’s leaders and by the people he had loved and College Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal, served as bandleader, friend, community leader, and role model for young people. His ashes were scattered by helicopter over Body Measurement - Yahoo Search Results | Boho And, Laventille Hill, home base of the Desperadoes. Chu-Foon Pan Sculpture. Steelband has also been honored in the other arts. Patrick Chu-Foon’s sculpture Tribute to the Steelband in Port of Spain, Errol Hill’s drama The Ping-Pong, and the well-known oil painting Steelband Boys in White by Boscoe Holder are just three of the better-known examples. College Study Information Letter | Formal! An example of the enduring pride former steelbandsmen often have in their bands was revealed to me at a professional meeting by a Trinidadian university professor employed in Canada. He showed me his band’s symbolic tattoo on his arm and seemed as proud of that as of Body Chart - Yahoo Search | Boho And, his Ph.D. degree. The Interim Report of the Committee to Consider the Role of the Steelband in the National Life reported that the Program Information Word, steelband movement brought not only a knowledge of music to its adherents: “It contributed the discipline of band organization and of steady practice to Sheet Definition, persons who might never have had such opportunities to acquire skills and disciplines fundamental to proper adjustment to a progressive role in society. Many villages have a steelband (some more than one) and in many cases the leader of the steelband is a member of the Village Council.

There appears also to be great willingness on Requesting, the part of the Village Council to cooperate in such things as the putting on of concerts involving the steelband and the loan of the Community Centre for practice sessions by the steelbands… Most rural bands also make it quite clear that they were established for musical enjoyment. Sheet Equation - Jennarocca! The urban bands have become quite commercialized and Program Information | Formal Word, specialized and as a result do not form as integral a part of community life as do the Sheet - Jennarocca, Village bands (with the Study Program Information Letter | Formal, exception of Desperadoes and Balance - Jennarocca, Casablanca).”(1965:9,11) These findings point out an important factor—that at least some of the urban bands, and many, perhaps most, of the Study Program Requesting Letter Word, rural ones, play an important role in Body Measurement - Yahoo Image Search Results | Boho And the community. It is important to realize that the two or three large bands are from poor communities with little else to enhance their images. The community band is a source of pride to the community, which supports it with tremendous enthusiasm and devotes time and energy to making it successful. Followers and supporters identify with the band much as some Americans identify with hometown athletic teams. It is an important social organization in the community, which may have a practice yard (panyard) or an enclosed practice area or hall that furthermore serves as an College Study Information Letter | Formal important focus of social activity. Furthermore, the Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Template | Indruc, leader of a community band may well be an important community leader, as well as act as an intermediary with government officials and the police and civil servants. Bandleaders often provide vital assistance in College Program Requesting | Formal obtaining jobs for community residents, get them out of trouble with the police, or cut through government red tape. One such leader was the Balance, late Rudolph Charles of Desperadoes.

Journalist Peter Blood has observed that: “The panyard of Desperadoes stands precariously nestled atop the College Program Requesting Letter | Formal Word, lofty heights of Laventille Hill, overlooking the city of Body Measurement - Yahoo Image | Boho And, Port of Spain. Like chromed sentinels, its pans, some of traditional design and College Program Requesting Letter | Formal, others of futuristic form, loom defiantly, fringing the contours of the hill’s peak. Pan is a way of life on the Laventille Hill and Desperadoes provide the lifeblood for this vibrant and Financial Sample, creative community… Beside being the band’s captain, [Rudolph] Charles also tunes the band’s low pans, and is regarded, amongst other things, the godfather and the sole lawmaker of the hill.” (Blood, 1983:62) Schoolteacher Rudy Piggott, at Rudolph Charles’s funeral, claimed that, “Rudy was the Moses of the people of Laventille. College Information Requesting Letter Word! We do not even need the police there. Rudolph was a leader and he controlled us all.” (Piggott, 1985:3). Another mourner, Dalton Narine, referred to Charles as “the beacon on Laventille Hill …a lighthouse signal to Executive Example Resume, the forces of innovation that contributed to an uncommon respect from Study Information | Formal his peers.” (Narine, 1985:3) Journalist Meryl James Bryan referred to Samples For Office Manager About Best, Charles as “a fallen leader—appointed African style by Study Program Information Letter | Formal, a council of elders” and as “the General of one of urban Trinidad’s most African populations.

His life symbolized unity and continuity to the people of Laventille, and his death a new life, expanded vision, and renewed commitment to the steelband movement.” (Bryan, 1985:38-39) And a Trinidad Express editorial of April 5, 1985, referred to Rudolph Charles as a welfare officer and community leader. In a 1985 interview with a prominent business executive very closely connected to Rudolph Charles’ Desperadoes band, it was observed that: “Charles was an exceptional leader. Dynamic, with personal magnetism and good managerial talents. It was hard to refuse him what he asked for his band. He was a genius in Balance Sheet - Jennarocca steelband, an Program Requesting Letter | Formal Word innovator. Ready-To-Use Value! He built discipline in the band, although some of this was achieved through brute force. College Program Letter Word! The Laventille area, home base of the band, is a state within a state, and he was its undisputed leader.

He dispensed money and Measurement | Boho And, aid on the Hill like a politician.” (Anonymous 1, 1985:1) Another very close Rudolph Charles confidant, who also asked to remain anonymous, said that he was a very determined person, had an College Study Program Letter inventive brain, and Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets Templates Sample Job, that though he used physical strength at times to enforce discipline, he was accepted and respected. “He would intervene in court and at police stations to help his followers. The doors of government ministries were open to him. He was a skillful manager and a born leader. He even ruled Laventille while he was away, living for most of the last several years in Los Angeles. He worked with the village elders, outside the legitimate county council.” (Anonymous 2, 1985:1).

Not all of the College Program Requesting Letter | Formal, people in the poor sections approved of steelband activity. Some had adopted the Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas Template, attitudes and values of the ruling elite toward noise, drumming, and the entertainments of the poor African masses. Others, often parents of young people, didn’t want their children hanging out with the rough crowd that frequented the panyards in the early years. Many of the men there engaged in gambling, drinking, carousing, and physical fighting and were generally thought to be a bad element—”badjohns” in Trinidad parlance— who were often in College Information | Formal Word trouble with the Doc717555 Templates Excel Sample, law. Study Information Letter Word! Bertie Marshall, pan player, tuner, and steel drum innovator, recalled that, “I didn’t have to ask my mother’s permission to play pan. I knew her well enough to know that I would be able to hang around pan and panmen only over her dead body” (Marshall, 1972, Vol. 2, No. 1:8). He recalled also that teachers would warn students about hanging around the Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas Template, panmen, but the panyard was on the path he took to and from school and he could hear the sounds of the panyard from his schoolroom. College Study Information Requesting | Formal Word! “So, in spite of everything we hung around and I came to know Spree (Simon) …and others.” (ibid., No.

2:3) The opinions and observations cited above seem to represent the dominant middle-class view of Summary Example - Template, steelbands today in Trinidad. At present, they are seen as a unique and creative cultural achievement in which all Trinidadians can take pride. This view evolved due to several factors to be discussed later. Unlike an earlier period, today strong criticism of, or negative attitudes toward, steelband music and musicians is Program Information | Formal minimal. Rather, there is a general feeling of respect and pride for those involved in Resume Samples Manager Images Office Trinidadian or West Indian cultural forms. Violence in the Steelband Movement. During the heyday of the steelband era, from roughly 1945 to 1965, there was considerable violence in the movement. There was violence between bands and between bands and the police. It is Study Program Information Requesting generally accepted that the Resume Samples Images About Best, police-steelbands conflict was related to the noise the Study Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal, bands made, parading on the streets without a permit, stealing dustbins and other items to use as instruments, and the steeldrum’s lack of acceptance by the government, ruling classes, and Visa Financial Sample, police as a legitimate musical instrument. Some also believe the police simply harassed people living in the poorer districts. Inter-band rivalry was related to Program Information Letter Word, territoriality, arguments over girl friends, accusations of Visa Guarantee Sample, theft of each others’ tunes, over-enthusiastic followers and Study | Formal Word, supporters, or even accident, when, for instance, a bottle was thrown by someone unrelated to either band.

The 1952 report of the government steelbands committee, known as the Canon Farquhar Committee, is instructive in this regard: “The steelband is essentially a creation of the masses with their poor housing, overcrowding, unemployment, large families and general lack of opportunity for recreation and Sheet, cultural expression. It was as if in College Study Information Word unconscious protest of these delimiting circumstances that underprivileged youth evolved a medium of self-expression which seems destined to Sheet Equation, make a distinctive contribution to the cultural life of the West Indies. The typical steelband population is predominantly negroid with a fair sprinkling of East Indians. To them the steelband is not merely another local institution: it is a way of life. Its devotees have their peculiar mode of Information | Formal Word, dress, manner of speech, style of Summary Example, walking and dancing and, though yet in rudimentary form, group codes and norms of their own. Unfortunately, however, this unique form of music-making was characterized by Information, feuds between rival bands. These clashes were invariably instigated by Image Results And, and centered around the young women of ill repute who followed the bands. College Study Program Letter Word! There was, too, that element of what might be described as professional jealousy. These clashes became more frequent; public apprehension was aroused, and in the interest of society police intervention became necessary. A state of tension existed, often rendered more acute by sensational headlines in the local press, and Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Job Sheets Templates Excel Sample, the steelband community, despite its internecine conflicts, developed the characteristics of an outlawed minority group. The movement became a menace; clashes developed into pitched battles in College Study Program Information Requesting Letter Word which weapons ranging from sticks, stones and bottles to scribers, knives and Equation, cutlasses were brought to bear with an alarming disregard for human life and property.

There were two fatal woundings. Public apprehension gave way to fear. Police action became more decisive, though at times positively unimaginative, and whole bands and even individual members were restricted to 11 rigidly proscribed areas.” (Farquhar, 1952:2-3) According to Albert Gomes, instruments were seized, players roughed up, slums invaded, and Program Letter, players frog-marched to prison cells (1974:99). Doc717555 Excel Job! Similar repressive treatment had been accorded to other African-based cultural forms in the past—the Shouters religion, the calypso singers, and College Study Information | Formal, the annual Carnival celebration after it was taken over by the poor and the blacks. Earl Lovelace nicely captured the spirit of this era when he wrote that: “…those were the days when every district around Port of Spain was its own island, and Executive Example, the steelband within its boundaries was its army, providing warriors to uphold it sovereignty. Those were the Study Program Information Letter | Formal Word, war days, when every street corner was a garrison; and to Visa Financial Sample, be safe, if you came from Program Information | Formal Belmont, you didn’t let night catch you in Summary Example Resume - Template St.

James; if your home was Gonzalez Place, you didn’t go up Laventille; and if you lived in Morvant, you passed San Juan straight.” (1979:54) The Trinidadian calypso singer The Mighty Sparrow sang a calypso entitled Outcast about how the Study Information | Formal, steelbandsmen were treated: For a long time to Sheet Equation, associate yourself wid dem. Was a big crime. If you’ sister talk to a steelband man.

De family want to Study Letter | Formal, break she hand. Lick every teet’ out she mout’ Pass, you a outcast. Other sections of Paul Keens-Douglas’ previously-quoted Sugar George illustrate the defensive side of steelband clashes and the concern of panmen for their instruments: An’ in Body those years when pan meant fight, Sugar learn to fight. There was no one to pull ah blade. As fast as Sugar George; He cut an’ he get cut too. But people respect Sugar,

For he only fight when he had to. An’ only because he had to. But Sugar never forget he pan, Dey say when fight start an’ band clash, Sugar take care of he pan first. Like ah baby he used to wrap it up an’ hide it, Sometimes in ah canal, sometimes in de bush; An’ woe to de man who touch. De pan of Sugar George. Errol Hill recalls the Study Information Requesting Letter, incessant noisy practicing, often at times when people wanted peace and quiet.

The noise carried a considerable distance, so people did not want pan beating in Sheet Definition - Jennarocca towns, but up in the hills somewhere. Thus, the Study Program Requesting Word, police restricted the beating to specific hours (1983:3). Further, recalls Hill: “We always jumped up behind these bands on Carnival Day …and I have been in several …where a rival band is coming and they’re actually in a no-man’s land and Executive Resume, you can feel the tension in the band as they came closer and closer and closer but no one would leave. College Study Program Information | Formal Word! On one occasion the bands actually crossed each other on the same street, and you could just feel them going and everybody’s looking and the eyes come out all over your head, looking around to see what’s gonna happen. Occasionally at that time someone would throw a bottle and that was the Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets Excel, last thing you’d want to happen because it would immediately be felt that it’s coming from one of the enemy and all hell would break loose.” (ibid.) The roots of College Study Program Information Requesting Letter, some of the steelband territorial rivalry may well go back to earlier times. According to Ralph Araujo: “In those days, the days of the Equation Definition - Jennarocca, Great Depression, youth in Study Word Belmont was generally touched with poverty but not unhappy, full of rivalry but not of Templates Job, factional bitterness. Belmont was the center of Information Letter | Formal Word, our lives. Woodbrook was a place where we had to change tramcars. it lay in a direction in which our elder brothers sometimes sallied forth on their bicycles in pursuit of new girlfriends—and it is interesting how many marriages resulted in cross-breeding of the Woodbrook and Belmont strains.

It was a standing joke…that Belmont boys never married Belmont girls—as we told the girls, they were too “own way.” This Montague/Capulet arrangement seems to have created a certain amount of friendly rivalry between Woodbrook and Newtown boys on the one hand and Belmont boys on the other, a rivalry which sometimes surfaces now amonsgt those who grew up in that era.”(1984:5) George Goddard, old-time panman and Ready-To-Use, early president of the Program Information Requesting | Formal Word, Trinidad Steelband Association, also claims that “turf clashes preceded the development of Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas | Indruc, steelbands and Study Program Requesting Letter | Formal, underprivileged youths would have fought among themselves or with the police in any event.” (1983:7). In the eulogy delivered for Resume Manager Manager, Wilfred “Speaker” Harrison, early leader of the Desperadoes steelband, he was remembered as having: “insisted that the early Despers all have tatoos on Study Letter, their backs, chests or forearms, which was to indicate Life Membership, and Resume For Office Images Office Manager, be given code names. He was referred to as The Dresden, and on the battlefield as Sergeant Rollock and sometimes Inspector Fugot, becoming General in charge of Central Intelligence, Despers. He organized battle practice sessions…for all the men he would select to operate with him in College Requesting Letter Word launching attacks on the enemy.” At the height of the violent steelband era, it was not only the government, police, and elites in Sample Trinidad who feared or were against the steelband clashes. A calypso of the time advised the government to Requesting Letter, “ …give the hooligans the old time cat-o-nine and they bound to change their mind. Ready-To-Use Value Canvas Template! With licks like fire send them Carrera (a prison island) and they bound to Requesting Letter | Formal, surrender.” (DeLeon,1983:5).ld-time panman Carleton Constantine, popularly known as Zigili, recalls that: “So much different things used to cause them.

A woman from one band, she have a man from one bnd and probably see a next guy from a next band. That is one of the factors. Then…sometimes …like tunes bands playing—this band playing this tune say the next one take their tune. Balance Equation! In a dance where drinks is concerned— anything, anything at all, because that was a era that violence was very high. College Study Program Requesting Letter | Formal! So anything could start a fight.” (1983:4)

Concerning the weapons used in clashes, Tony Slater states that, “bottles (were used), one or two people may have a gun …a lot of people get damaged, a lot of Visa Financial Sample, instruments get damaged; ‘67 was the worst, it was a total wreck. All amplification, everything mash up. It was a form of Letter, jealousy.” (1983:8) Curtis Pierre offers a chilling account of his personal experience in a 1953 steelband clash: “There was a certain amount of turf rivalry, which there is in any type of Doc717555 Templates Sample, group activity. For no other reason than, you know, you just want to be King of the Rock and guys said, ‘You’re from Belmont and you should not be walking in Woodbrook.’ It had nothing to do with the Program Requesting Letter | Formal, quality of your music, it had nothing to do with whether you had their girl, people have advanced all kinds of reasons, that, you know, this girl was seen walking with a guy from Visa Guarantee Sample Invaders so that the boy from Desperadoes got annoyed. My experience in 1953 when steelbands were asked to come on the road for the coronation of Elizabeth when she was crowned; we had a clash with a band called Ebonites. It was not anything that they knew who we were or we knew who they were. Some little incident sparked it off and it got real messy.

You know, guys were swinging baseball bats. I got hit with a baseball bat. Lucky nobody was holding it at the time, somebody just flung it across. One guy next to me got his cheek cut open with a razor. That was the scariest part, you just saw the College Study Requesting Letter Word, flesh part and you saw the Summary Resume - Template, teeth and a couple minutes after, the blood. One guy came charging at me with what looked like a piece of a kitchen fork, a large kitchen fork, and all I could do was raise the tenor pan I had and hit him across the bridge of College Program Requesting Letter | Formal Word, his nose and that I remember also seeing the bone just go white and the guy’s eyes closed and he flaked out and I disappeared. But it was not a pitched, prolonged battle. Within minutes there were sirens and Value Proposition Template | Indruc, everybody scattered.

Nor were there any sort of vindictive feelings in that particular battle.” (1983:5) World War II saw several U.S military bases in Trinidad, and many movies with violent war, gangster, and Western themes. Program Information Letter | Formal! The steelbands took on some of the films’ names, individual steelbandsmen took actors’ names for Balance Sheet, their nicknames and College Study Program Requesting | Formal, emulated actors’ behavior. There are still steelbands bearing some of Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Job Sheets Templates Sample, these movie-inspired names. Pat Chu-Foon recalls that: “ …those were the days when we used to see a lot of these films with Back to Bataan and Robert Taylor and Information Letter, Audie Murphy. It inspire the moviegoer and these poor fellas, some of them just lived in the cinema in those days. Most of Doc717555 Excel Job, them didn’t work, other than playing pan, tuning pan, lazing around playing a game of Information Requesting Letter, wappie (a card game), they just scrunt for some money to go to the next matinee and Sample, after seeing a good war picture they want to do the same thing, and this is what caused a lot of thing, with the steelband clashing those periods.

It was like a game. You would see fellas go up and say, ‘Look, we going up to beat Casablanca tonight. Invaders, we going and beat the Invaders.’ You hear how the names are, all war names. Invaders from Woodbrook coming up to clash with so and so and they meet on Information Requesting Letter, this corner. Men used to walk with razors in their waist.” (1983:4-5) The steelband badjohn role was an important one, a source of identity for many young Trinidadian males that had to be maintained, even if only as a front. Bertie Marshall reports, “I cultivated my badjohn image.

But my badjohnism was a pose really. Still, it was necessary to cultivate the image. And I managed to do this yet at the same time keeping my hands clean—except for a couple of Chinese Visa Financial Guarantee, gambling cases which were no big thing, really. But the image was an Program Letter Word important thing in those days.” (Marshall, 1972: Vol. 2, No. Measurement - Yahoo Search Results! 5:9) Positive Influences of the Steelband Movement. Not all of the experiences of the Information Requesting Word, steelband movement were negative. There are success stories on all levels. As Carleton Constantine (Zigili) said in 1983: “I have to be very grateful to steelband.

Because I left this country in 1956 . and lived in the UK and up to Doc.#1226851: Sample Job, this day I am making a living from steelband. It was good to me because I have seen the world, I have traveled through the Study Information Requesting Letter Word, whole of Europe, the Middle East, Far East, and still playing.” (1983:5) Steelband music provided many young Trinidadian males with opportunities for Balance Definition - Jennarocca, personal growth and the development of leadership skills that they found useful in other areas of their lives. College Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word! Curtis Pierre, in response to an open-ended query about steelband, said that: “A lot of the distance I’ve covered in my life both in terms of a businessman, as a father, as an organizer, I can safely say that the Value Proposition Canvas, experience I’ve gained, I owe it completely to my exposure in the steelband world. I’ve learned how to deal with people, I’ve learned how to handle people, I’ve learned how to take insults, I’ve learned how to give. You know, it is really a forge for straightening out your whole approach to life.” (1983:10) George Yeates reports on a perhaps unforeseen outcome of the police-band violence of the early steelband era: “I had been able to command a great respect among steelbandsmen, and I had that disturbance (a steelband clash) quelled. I did as much work or perhaps even more work than the police, because most of the Study Letter Word, time the police would come and Measurement - Yahoo Image And, call me and ask me to go with them whenever they had any steelband clashes.

Superintendent Barnes would always come and College Program Information, call me to go speak to both sides because when it came to Despers, and I held the reins of Chinese Visa Financial Guarantee, Despers, I would try to keep them out of any further clashes and let them know that those who want to fight cannot be in the band that I run because I am thinking in preparing the band for the music festival and improving the arts, improving the Information Letter | Formal, instrument, and these steelband clashes is interfering with my works.”(1983:5-6) Social Change and Acceptance of Chinese Visa, Steelbands. A precise ordering of the factors that influenced the gradual acceptance of steelband music is not possible, since they overlapped and since there is no consensus even among persons on the scene, concerning the chronology of events and their importance. Growing acceptance due to one factor brought about acceptance in another area. The factors contributing to steelbands’ greater acceptance include the following: 1. Acceptance by several influential citizens, including writers, intellectuals, lawyers, musicians, and politicians. 2. Government concern, expressed in College Study Letter committee reports and the formation of a steelband association. 3. Commercial sponsorship. 4. Successful exportation to and enthusiastic reception of steel bands in foreign countries.

5. Open support from the People’s National Movement political party. 6. Involvement in the bands of white, light-skinned, and better-educated middle-class persons, including more middle-class women. 7. Refinements in the instruments. 8. The playing of semi-classical and classical music. 9. Involvement of steelbands in music festivals, in Balance Sheet Equation Definition - Jennarocca churches, at Program Information | Formal, funerals, and at middle-and upper-class social gatherings.

10. A resurgence of Black Power and pride in the early 1970s. Support of Influential Citizens. Starting in about 1946, the Trinidad Youth Council and its members, including attorney and musician Lenox Pierre, Canon Farquhar, Kelvin Scoon, and Errol Hill, made consistent efforts to gain social acceptance of Executive Summary Resume, steelband music, instruments, players, and College Study Information | Formal Word, supporters. Albert Gomes was another outspoken supporter who fought the tide of popular and official opinion of Balance Sheet Equation Definition - Jennarocca, steelbands long before the government committees were appointed. He was “frequently at the office of the Commissioner of Police, more often than not accompanied by the steelband boys themselves, lodging complaints against provocative acts by the police.

But the police were no more than instruments of the prevailing prejudice… The root cause of it all was intense class feeling.” (Gomes, 1974:99). At a 1945 meeting of the Legislative Council, to Program Letter | Formal Word, which he had just been elected, Gomes said, “Some people feel that some others should never enjoy themselves …and that the music should belong to one particular class… Personally, while I sit and enjoy Beethoven, it does not blind me to the fact that we have got to live among a people …of divers races and creeds, and that we cannot fit these in a particular design.” (ibid.) Other respected members of society became outspoken advocates of the Financial, steelband movement. Beryl McBurnie, dancer, choreographer, and founder of the Little Carib Theatre, brought the Program Information Requesting Letter Word, Invaders steelband into Proposition | Indruc her theater for a performance in 1948 and also got a number of middle-class young men and women involved in College Study Information Requesting | Formal steelband. Government Concern, Recommendations, and Action. The 1952 Farquhar Committee report noted that: “ …the government appointed a committee in November of 1949 to investigate the implications of the (steelband) problem and in Sheet Equation Definition - Jennarocca April of 1950 the steelbands themselves organized a representative body known as the Trinidad and Information Requesting | Formal, Tobago Steel Bands Association… With the setting up of machinery for negotiating with the Example Resume - Template, Steel Bands public reaction became more sympathetic, and a new psychological approach to the problem gradually became evident. The steel percussion orchestra, as the steelband is Study | Formal Word now known, is no longer regarded as an outlawed nuisance. For Office Manager Images About Best Office! These orchestras perform at social clubs, hotels, concerts and dances and, in many instances, have almost replaced the traditional orchestra.

It is hopefully significant too, to observe the formation of steel orchestras among middle-class youth of both sexes.” (Farquhar, 1952:5). A major concern of the committee was expressed in its findings: “The cohesion and unity inherent in Program Requesting Letter Word the steelband movement constitute a great social force which should be exploited and directed into Sample constructive channels. The steelband movement is a people’s movement. It has captured the imagination and energies of the youth of our masses, and provides a ready-made entity around which a whole system of educational activities and recreational interests can be advantageously organized. Study Information Letter Word! The steelband movement and Canvas Template, the problems which stem from it must he viewed as an Information Requesting Word integral part of the general pattern of Balance Definition - Jennarocca, social and economic life peculiar to the masses of the Program Requesting Letter | Formal, colony. Value! In this context one underlying conclusion emerges: there is imperative need for an awakening of a national sense of College Program Information Requesting | Formal Word, community responsibility.” (ibid.: n.p.)

Although the Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets Excel Sample, 1965 interim report of another government-appointed steelband committee found some fault with the Steelband Association’s leadership and cooperation, it could observe that: “ …the Steelbandsmen feel that they have improved the Study Word, social situation in respect of gang warfare and that the Association (which was formed partly for that purpose) and the National Steelband have improved the situation in respect of inter-band relationships. The Police are also satisfied that the steelbands as such pose no problem to Financial Sample, the peace and order of society” (Interim Report, 1965:9) The same report recommended “continuing most vigorously the struggle for social acceptance of the Steelband Movement at home and acceptance and recognition of the movement abroad.” Commercial sponsorship of the bands was another, to some a dubious, advantage, carrying with it some control over the bands and less independence than they had previously enjoyed. Nevertheless, the bands needed the legitimacy, status, funding, and perhaps organization that sponsorship could provide. Oil companies, banks, airlines, and similar large enterprises sponsored steel bands starting in the 1950s. They supplied uniforms emblazoned with their names, as were the drums themselves, and the sponsors enjoyed good publicity and public relations benefits. College Program Requesting Letter Word! They sometimes sent the bands to other islands or to Europe, Canada, or the United States. Recalling his early association with the West Indian Tobacco Company as the sponsor of his Desperadoes steelband, George Yeates said that, “From then onwards, this is Manager Images About Best where I can say that Despers has been the trendsetters…for good behavior in the steelband movement, because they no longer had cause to fight…they were thinking that they would lose their sponsorship, so that sort of Information Requesting Word, held them.” (1983:7)

Other panmen expressed their views on the role of sponsorship in Chinese Financial Guarantee the steelband movement. Curtis Pierre thought: “It was a good thing because even though we all know it came from the underprivileged, when this thing started to evolve and the costs started to go up, the bands who had a sponsor …you found that those bands were better. College Study Information Requesting Word! And then the sponsorship thing got very, very big and the government got onto it and decided, ‘Okay, well this would be a nice vote-catching gimmick if we can tell the Samples For Office Manager About Best Manager, steelbandsmen that we are giving instructions to the business community to sponsor their bands.’ So from a devious motive came a very good end result. It went out of control in the last couple years where sponsors were being called upon to pay some thing like twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year for a band.” (I983:4) “Sponsorships play a good part (in easing the tension). To me it give and it takes. Because some people say you lost your name, but you get money. And a lot of bands need money because preparing a band for Panorama (a Carnival steelband competition) is expensive.

Sponsors have done a lot. They needed money to progress and sponsorship assisted a lot of bands to progress. Program Letter Word! Some bands don’t need sponsors, they get along somehow. But the bands with sponsors, those are the progressive bands today.” (1963:8). Pat Chu-Foon’s opinion of sponsorship throws a new light on the issue: “Well, long after when they settle down properly and they were like gentlemen of Equation Definition, pan, and pan started to make history in Study Requesting Word Europe, then and only then certain top companies started to assist to choose sponsorships here and - Template, there.” (1983:12). Sponsorship did not blossom, in fact, until after the successful 1951 European tour of the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra, discussed in more detail below. The Steelband Abroad. Another important factor in College Program Information Requesting | Formal Word the increasing acceptance of steelband music was its exportation to other countries.

In 1951, under the sponsorship of the Trinidad Youth Council, an all-star steelband, called the Trinidad All-Steel Percussion Orchestra (TASPO) was sent to England to play at the Festival of Britain, and to Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets Templates Excel, France. The 1952 Farquhar Report stated that the band “convincingly demonstrated the possibilities of the steel orchestras as a distinct and original contribution to | Formal, the field of Guarantee Sample, music.” (1952:n.p.). College Program Information Requesting! Errol Hill has observed that: “They were very successful, and once the pan became recognized as a new kind of musical form in England, then the local population had to accept it. Once people outside said, ‘this is great, there’s something here that needs development.’ “(1983:5) Led by Balance Equation Definition - Jennarocca, police lieutenant Joseph Griffith, the band amazed the Information Letter Word, European audiences. A London correspondent wrote: “People smiled indulgently as the rusty pans were rolled off the cart and Guarantee, set up. It seemed impossible that music could come out of College Study Program Requesting Letter Word, such unlikely instruments. But jaws dropped and eyes widened as the first sweet notes were struck and the band swung into Mambojambo. Feet were soon tapping to the rhythm of the music.” (Hill, 1972:51) The music critic of the Manchester Guardian found the Executive - Template, band’s playing of Toselli’s Serenade “equal to anything that a first-class band could offer. The playing is wonderfully skilled.” (ibid. College Program Information Word! :51) Today there are steelbands in many countries outside Trinidad. There is Chinese Visa Financial a U.S.

Navy steelband organized with the help of Trinidadian Ellie Mannette and steelbands in Boston, New York, Washington-Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, and in high schools, colleges, and Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word, universities throughout the United States, thanks largely to Mannette, now living in the United States, and other Trinidadian promoters. This spread is at once the result of, and Value Proposition, evidence for, acceptance and creates even more legitimacy. Support by the People’s National Movement Party (PNM) Errol Hill reports that: US Navy Steelband. “After 1956, with the coming to power of Williams’ People’s National Movement, we saw a change in Study Information | Formal the whole psychology of the people. They had at last got in a government of their own that purported to represent the people. They were moving toward self-government.

It was necessary to Executive Example - Template, establish an indigenous culture, and there was a great surge forward to Program Requesting Word, find those elements of Summary Example Resume, our culture that could be identified as belonging to Trinidad and College Program Letter | Formal Word, Tobago. Job Sheets Templates Excel! The calypso was one, the steelband was another. And I think as a result of this that the steelband began to come into its own.” (1983:8-9) J. D. Elder supports this view: “The sickening picture has undergone radical transformation. The most obvious change in the carnival calypso- steelband movement is the demonstration, at State level, of the admission that Trinidad popular music and musical festivals are elements of a high order in the national culture and that government has responsibility to so recognize it and give tangible demonstration of this attitude. This move is vitalizing; it has been effective in Study Program Requesting | Formal raising to a high status not only the traditional music…but it has also elevated the total folk cultural complex to a status never known in Visa Guarantee the past. Folklore in all its forms has suddenly attained an attractive status. This new awakening in the whole society to the fact that the folk and their art and craft are important, must be put down squarely to the new attitude of government.”(1968:25-26). Susan Craig has observed that, “the PNM had an appeal for the urban unemployed, especially those who had created the steelbands. Steel bandsmen became the Study Program Information Requesting, unofficial ‘army’ of the PNM in 1956.” (1982:391). George Yeates, in Body Search Results a 1983 interview, said that if Despers were to College Word, simply move in and play in an area in support of Sheet Definition - Jennarocca, a political candidate, that could almost assure election.

They could do this even without a police permit to play. Program Information Letter Word! The police would be afraid of them because of their reputation and, in any event, would not want to shoot their own people (1983:12). Others have contended that whoever controls the Desperadoes controls the whole Laventille area. And the band has always supported the PNM. Bands in the PNM areas prospered after they came to power, but then so did many others, because of the cultural resurgence. Selwyn Mohamed has stated that the PNM does get Despers and other bands to help it. The bands, says Mohamed, disrupt meetings of other political parties and Doc.#1226851:, they take people to the polls. A political party split in one band caused bloodshed before the election, and for some PNM functions, only Casablanca would play. (1985:2) In 1956 Bertie Marshall formed a small band he named the PNM Band, because they played at everything the PNM had in Laventille. The PNM office was near their practice yard, and College Program Word, although the PNM officials always praised the band and promised to help them, “I have never gotten any of the things promised me by members of government over Images About Best Office Manager, the last fifteen or sixteen years. Still, we played as the PNM Band.” (Marshall, Vol.

2, No. 4:4). Although the evidence is College Study mixed concerning the precise role the government, ruling party, and bands play with respect to Balance Equation - Jennarocca, each other, Curtis Pierre points out that, clearly, the steelbandsmen constitute a potentially valuable voting bloc: “You would look at the number of bands and they are made up of fifty guys each, and each one of those guys has a spin-off factor of 4.3 or something like that in his family. If you get hold of College Study Program Information | Formal, some of those bands and you multiply by forty and then multiply by five, you have a sizable voting population.” (1983:4-5) Personal Involvement of the Middle Class. The acceptance of steelbands grew when middle-class, lighter-skinned, and white young people started getting involved, often over the strenuous objections of their parents, teachers, friends, and relatives. Curtis Pierre became involved in 1949: “I took the instrument home and I got enough flak from my parents, ‘What the Chinese Financial Guarantee Sample, hell you doing with this thing here? I don’t care who plays that. This is the underprivileged.’” (1983:1).

The grouping in my band would be considered a little above middle class, which was anathema, that kind of thing was just not done by people in that class” (ibid. :2). Pierre attributes to Study Program Information, his group the change in the degree to which steelbandsmen and women are accepted in society: “We have been told it’s because of our group…that …’ You fellas made a breakthrough. Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc! You guys don’t realize what you did. You fought society and you said, We’re going to make this thing great’”(1983:3). Study Program | Formal! Concerning the racial makeup of his band, Dixieland, he says that, “it could be considered what the people here would call fair-skinned boys. And there was not a predominance of Negroes in Manager Images Best Office it at College Study Program Requesting | Formal, all, mainly because that was what middle class meant in those days. And that’s true, middle class had a certain color. It no longer applies today… These boys from the Template, best schools,…you found they were all fair-skinned.” (ibid. :6).

Teacher, pan player, and arranger Ray Holman recalls that: The change came about when people like myself, who might have the benefit of a secondary school education, began to come into the bands. So people began to look, the College Information | Formal Word, public at large began to look at Measurement Chart - Yahoo | Boho And, it a little differently.” (1983:3). The principal of my college, Queen’s Royal College, was an English Army Officer; he was a pretty stern fellow. He couldn’t really understand how I could get involved in Program Requesting that (steelbands). It was like a social outcast at the time.” (ibid.:6). The band he joined at age thirteen, the Oval Invaders, accepted him easily: “They were very glad to have us.

It was like we injected something new so we were very welcome and we had a privileged place in the band. If you are mixing with people, sometimes you would have to follow the crowd. Chart Search Results And! But following the crowd for Information Requesting | Formal Word, me didn’t mean getting involved in violence. It just meant playing pan…having a good time within the limits of certain standards. I saw my role should have been to try to uplift them, rather than my coming down. This is how I saw it.” (ibid.:7-8).

George Goddard believes that only when middle-class youth began being brought up on charges before the police magistrates did public concern over steelband grow and efforts begin to “reform” the movement and work with it. This concern speeded up the changes, even if they might have come eventually without middle-class involvement (1983:2). The 1965 Interim Report of the Committee on the Role of Financial Guarantee, Steelband in National Life reported that much of the struggle for social acceptance has been fought by persons outside of the groups from which the original steelbands sprang: “The efforts…of Dixieland (a group of the St. Mary’s pupils which contained many persons of largely European descent) which persisted in the early 1950s despite some disapproval by some persons closely connected to its members, and Girl Pat (an all female steelband of teachers, civil servants, etc.) of the early 1950s. Now we find that there is an College Information Letter appreciable number of ex-Secondary School pupils in Balance Sheet Equation Definition the Steelband Movement and College Program Information Requesting Letter Word, the movement has enjoyed such confidence of the Community that it has been upwardly socially mobile to the extent that it embraces many persons who would be classified in our society as middle class.

Racial integration has perhaps been the Doc.#1226851: Doc717555 Job, most resounding sociological achievement of the steelband movement. Born in circumstances rather confined to one ethnic group—the Negro—it has spread to every ethnic group in College Program Requesting Letter | Formal society…We have come across no bands whose rules relating to recruitment would restrict admission of any sector of the population…The steelband movement has made a most significant contribution to the integration of the races.” (1965:10) Changes in the Repertoire and Instruments. Steelbands were more accepted when the instruments became more refined and Balance Sheet Definition - Jennarocca, melodious, when bands started playing more difficult classical and semi-classical music, and as they performed at local and foreign music festivals and competitions, in churches, at weddings, and at middle and Study Program Information | Formal, upper class social gatherings. Curtis Pierre believes that the music sounds better today because money and sponsors have led to Ready-To-Use Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc, improvements in Program Information Letter | Formal the instruments.

“The instruments can be tuned better and you can afford a better class of arrangers, musically, and they’re not afraid to tackle any type of music. When that kind of music is played, it will naturally attract a more curious and Sheet, probably a better style of individual to play.” (1983:8-9). Kelvin Scoon, Trinidadian businessman, steelband supporter, calypso judge, and former Secretary of the Youth Council, contends that panmen themselves wanted to learn to play the classics in order to use more notes, to challenge and stretch the range of their instruments and their own abilities, not to please others or to Study Requesting | Formal, be more accepted by them. - Jennarocca! They first broadened their repertoires to include Latin and popular music. (1985:2) Musician, conductor, and arranger Pat Bishop points out Information | Formal that at first the playing of classical music, religious music, hymns, or Christmas carols was met with revulsion by the upper classes. They were shocked that such “lofty” music would be attempted with the crude instruments and felt the Canvas, steel drum unworthy of the effort. But the pan players persisted and gradually their music was accepted. (1985:2). College Study Program Word! According to Scoon, compared to Visa Financial Guarantee Sample, the early days of the College Program Information Letter, steeldrum, the sound of today’s instruments is far more refined, mellower in tone, and there is Example a much wider range of pitches utilized. Forty years ago there were not as many types of drum, and the repertoire consisted primarily of calypsoes and Latin music. Popular and classical pieces were added, and a variety of arrangements used.

Considerable talent and ingenuity in tuning and designing the instruments has evolved, and more is known about working the metal and tempering it. The drumsticks are now rubber-tipped, creating a mellower tone. Influences from jazz and Study Requesting Letter | Formal, fusion and constantly evolving experimental arrangements characterize the present repertoire. (1985:1) Although there is no empirical evidence to Doc717555 Job Sheets Sample Job, verify the observation, it seems quite likely that as the steelbands began to engage in Study Program Information Requesting Letter | Formal Word sponsored musical competitions with audiences including middle-class people, they sought to Guarantee Sample, maintain and increase the latter’s interest and support by striving for a smoother, more refined sound, a wider range of notes, and Study Program Requesting Letter, a broader repertoire. They were also motivated by their own inner desire to stretch their talents and the potential of Balance Sheet Definition, their instruments by taking on more challenging musical scores and showing themselves, their fellow countrymen, and the world what could be achieved with talent, hard work, and an instrument of humble origins. The attention received from respected musical personages, both local and foreign, at first informally and then more formally at competitions, carnival time and steelband festivals, encouraged those involved in College Study Program Information Letter steelband music to expand and excel. The middle-class social contexts in which they were asked to play also had an impact on the kinds of music they found appropriate. Participation in Music Competitions. In 1952 steelbands were invited to participate in Chinese Guarantee the prestigious biennial music festival in Trinidad and foreign music adjudicators judged their performances. One of these, Dr. College Program Letter Word! Sydney Northcote from England, at first quite skeptical about steel bands, eventually came to Summary Example Resume, hail the College Study Requesting | Formal Word, music as “truly astonishing.” In 1956 he commented that “their performance was orchestral in Executive Summary Resume every way.

The melodic line was beautifully smooth, almost like the playing of Study Requesting, a string orchestra The technical skill of it all proved that there are possibilities of acquiring with the steelband an orchestral precision.” (Hill, 1972:52). The enthusiastic reception of steelbands by the U.S. armed forces stationed in Visa Trinidad also enhanced their image, as did their inclusion in the carnival celebrations. Today it is not unusual in Trinidad to Program Requesting, hear and see live steelband music in Canvas Template church services, at funerals, at wedding ceremonies or receptions, diplomatic affairs, or middle-and upper-class parties. There has been some decline in recent years, however, due to the high costs of Information Requesting Letter, steel bands, competition from U.S. Ready-To-Use Canvas! music styles, and the bands’ more limited repertoire (they have largely become “one-tune bands” for the annual carnival steelband competition). Today there are all women steelbands, bands sponsored by companies for College Program Information Requesting | Formal Word, their employees, and children’s steel bands. Summary and Analysis of Factors of Social Change. The gradual acceptance of steelband music seems to have started with a few outspoken persons who, motivated by social conscience, egalitarian ideology, nationalistic pride, and favorable attitudes toward Afro-Trinidadian culture, pressured the government for acceptance, tolerance, change, and involvement.

Government concern led to the formation of a steelband association of concerned citizens and, along with commercial sponsorship, inroads were made with the general citizenry. After foreign acceptance of the music and the instruments, even more local middle-class people supported the development of steel bands. When it was seen in the early 1960s that local middle-class, white, educated youth were taking steeldrum music seriously, and even excelling at it, involvement in it became popular (Pierre, 1983:3). Balance Sheet Equation! Politically and historically the mid-1950s were suitable for the development of a Trinidadian and West Indian identity and pride. Great Britain was granting independence to its colonies. Local political leaders needed and wanted the support of the masses and would not have been wise to Program Requesting Letter | Formal Word, oppose a form of Doc.#1226851: Job Sheets Templates, musical and cultural expression that was so vital to their identity. Program Letter! As the instruments developed a more refined and mellow tone, and as they were used to play semi-classical and classical pieces, the - Jennarocca, middle classes slowly began to accept them.

Because their social and personal identities had been so closely linked to steelband music, some panmen may have suffered from the greater involvement of government and the middle class. Generally though, because of greater involvement in formal education and in the labor market, Trinidadians were upwardly mobile during the era of the Study Information Requesting | Formal Word, rise of the steel bands, and they developed alternate and supplemental social roles and identities (Scoon, 1985:1). Most bands seem to have benefited from the involvement of the Balance Sheet Equation Definition - Jennarocca, middle classes because sponsorship and support allowed them to hire expensive arrangers and tuners, as well as to purchase quality instruments and uniforms, and at times to travel abroad. This is a question on which opinions differ, however. Steelbands have undergone considerable change. Their role in Requesting | Formal the annual carnival celebration, at first a progressive step, has diminished considerably. Canvas Template! The large carnival masquerade groups, some numbering three thousand, cannot hear the Program Information | Formal Word, steel bands playing while they are parading.

The steelbands do not want to use amplification, and their method of moving on Samples Manager About, the streets, with somewhat clumsy racks or stands, seems to hinder their effectiveness at College Information Requesting Word, carnival. They are being replaced with brass bands using amplification or by disc jockeys. Chinese Visa Financial! Panorama, the steelband competition at carnival, has caused bands to focus on one tune they can perform very well, so they reduce their repertoire for ftes and Study Program | Formal Word, other social events. The Panorama, many observers believe, is now seen by steel bandsmen as the Resume Samples Manager About Best Office, whole carnival and not just one part of it. Some bandsmen will move from a band unsuccessful in the preliminary rounds of the competition to play for bands making it to the semifinals or finals, evidence that the legendary loyalty to a particular band has decreased. Arrangers are Trinidadians living abroad and command very high salaries for preparing music for the annual Panorama competition. Sponsors may pay up to $250,000 a year to College Study Program Requesting Letter Word, support a band and $100,000 is not uncommon. The players do not earn much money, the Executive Summary Example - Template, bulk going to the captains and arrangers. In 1985 the Black Power-oriented National Joint Action Committee issued a national appeal to fte promoters to hire steelbands rather than disc jockeys to support their national heritage throughout the year (Obika, 1985:1). It is hard to keep bands together throughout the year. Some feel that drug use is part of Study Information Requesting Letter Word, this problem; others point out that there is also competition from jobs (more panplayers are employed than before), education (more are in school), and Executive Example - Template, television.

More people play alternate roles in Study Letter | Formal society and Balance Sheet Definition - Jennarocca, find the College Study Program Requesting Letter Word, pan player role merely subsidiary. Some bands have established working relationships with schools whereby they recruit a pool of players from the schools and in return provide pan instruction in their panyards. Pan seems to reflect less cultural and national pride today. More panmen need and want pay. Curtis Pierre contends that today’s steelbands are too large to be hired for social events such as weddings or ftes. Balance Sheet Equation! He feels they should number about Study Letter | Formal Word, fifteen players and Measurement Image Search Results And, use amplifiers to cut the costs and increase bookings (1983:8).

Socioeconomic class, color, and race have affected the creation and evolution of steelband music in Trinidad and Tobago. African customs, including skin drumming, were suppressed by the British colonial government and Information Requesting Letter | Formal, later by many elite or status-seeking black and colored persons who wished to disassociate themselves from the music, instruments, and life-styles of Trinidad’s poor urban masses of African heritage. Because the instrument and the social organization of the steel bands came to symbolize important, even vital, forms of cultural and Body Measurement Image Results | Boho And, racial expression, the poor, urban Afro-Trinidadian steel bandsmen and women persisted in their efforts, refining the instrument and sharpening their own musical talents and skills, expanding their musical repertoire, and eventually winning the support, encouragement, and active assistance of a few key people in Study Information Requesting Letter Word Trinidad and abroad. The organization of the bands provided needed social roles for Balance Equation - Jennarocca, players and opportunities for bandleaders to develop and demonstrate leadership skills and thus fill leadership roles otherwise unavailable to them in the society. Not all of this leadership was channeled into violent conflicts with other bands or the police, and College Requesting Letter Word, many steelbandsmen have credited their experiences with steelband music with developing skills they have used in work or life in general. Their self-image, as well as that of the players, was enhanced by Body Measurement - Yahoo Image Search | Boho, their roles in College Study Program Information | Formal Word the steelband. As the steelbands gained favor both at home and abroad, they were viewed as symbols of individual, racial, community, and national pride and Ready-To-Use Value Canvas | Indruc, as a unique creative accomplishment. As recognition from abroad grew so too did support at home from Requesting Letter higher-status persons. The several factors that contributed to Samples Images Best Office, the gradually increased acceptance of the bands, the players, their instruments, and music indicate that this acceptance was achieved at the expense of the bands’ independence and that it came about only after the musical repertoire had changed, business had exercised some control over the bands’ behavior (lighter-skinned, white, and College Program | Formal, higher-status people had joined the movement and Excel, the government openly supported it.) In short, it was not accepted on its own merits, but was changed by those who could confer legitimacy and higher status on it. Paget Henry, writing on decolonization and neocolonialism, has observed that there is a locally rooted demand for College Letter | Formal Word, foreign culture, persisting even after decolonization. As a result of colonial domination, the colonized ceased to have an easy, creative, and self-reflexive relationship with their cultural environment.

Elements of it had now been systematically imposed from without. (Henry and Stone, 1983:115) Colonial domination further inhibited the demand for the words, songs, ideas, and other products of the local cultural system. Value Canvas | Indruc! There was a greater demand for foreign cultural products. Decolonization only partially uprooted the set of social and psychological processes that generated the demand for imported culture. College Information Letter | Formal Word! The demand for foreign culture shows no signs of abating, writes Henry (ibid.: 1l6), and Resume Samples For Office Manager Images, the major dynamic in the foreign sector of the cultural system is the institutionalization of a growing American presence (ibid.:117). College Information Requesting | Formal! This helps explain why many Trinidadian intellectuals, artists, and Doc717555 Job, musicians blame the lack of what they consider sufficient local support for the steelband on Program Information, the influx of American music and lifestyle in general, which they feel many Trinidadians are adopting too readily, trying to “live like Yankees” at the expense of their own culture’s contributions. Although steelband music has become much more accepted in Trinidad and Tobago and For Office Manager Images About Office, abroad, it still faces competition from foreign musical tastes and difficulties caused by Program Information Word, technology, costs, and a lingering and deeply-rooted self-denigration on the part of many Trinidadians. I am deeply grateful for Executive Summary Example, the invaluable assistance of Anthony and Letter Word, Avril Bryan, Mackie Burnette, Deborah Cabral, Rhode Island College Dean of Arts and Measurement Chart - Yahoo Image, Sciences David Greene, Professor Errol Hill of Dartmouth College, Yvonne James of Providence, RI , and Arima, Trinidad and Tobago, Cynthia Mahabir of Suffolk University, Boston, Ancil McLean, Judith Philip, Everald Philip, Charles Price, Kelvin Scoon, Daniel Segal, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Rhode Island College Faculty Research Committee and the talented and dedicated steelbandsmen and women of Trinidad and Study Requesting Letter | Formal Word, Tobago. 1. Anonymous 1, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 2. Resume Samples For Office Manager Images Best Manager! Anonymous 2, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

3. Araujo, Ralph, 1984, Memoirs of a Belmont Boy, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 4. Bishop, Patricia, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 5. Blood, Peter, 1983, People in Carnival , Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 6. Program | Formal Word! Brereton, Bridget, 1979, Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad, 1870-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. Brereton, Bridget, 1981, A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783-1962, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann University Press. 8. Cho-Foon, Patrick, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 9. Constantine, Carleton, 1983, personal interview, Port of Balance Sheet Definition - Jennarocca, Spain, Trinidad and College Requesting Word, Tobago. 10.

Craig, Susan, 1982, Contemporary Caribbean: A Sociological Reader. Vol. 2., Maracas, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press 11. Da Silva, Fabio B., 1984, The Sociology of Music, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. 12. DeLeon, Rafael, 1983, personal interview, Mt.

Lambert, Trinidad and Tobago. 13. Elder, J. D., 1968, Social Development of the Traditional Calypso of Trinidad and Tobago, Mimeographed, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Ready-To-Use Canvas, Tobago: University of the West Indies. 14. Farquhar, M. E., 1952, Report of the Government Steel Bands Committee, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 15. Goddard, George, 1983, personal interview, Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago.

16. Gomes, Albert, 1974, Through a Maze of Colour, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Key Caribbean Publications. 17. Henry, Paget, and Carl Stone, editors, 1983, The Newer Caribbean: Decolonization, Democracy, and Development, Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues. 18. Hill, Errol, 1972, The Trinidad Carnival, Austin: University of Texas Press. 19. Hill, Errol, 1983 , personal interview, Hanover, N.H. 20. Holman, Raymond, 1983, personal interview, Woodbrook, Trinidad and Information Requesting Letter, Tobago. 21.

Interim Report of the Committee Appointed to Consider the Role of the Steelband in the National Life, 1965, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 22. Keens-Douglas, Paul, 1979, When Moon Shine, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press. 23. Keer, D. F., 1981, Music of the Pans, Information Bulletin Series F, 91, No. 4., Port of Excel, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Trinidad and Tobago Tourist Board. 24. Lovelace, Earl, 1979, The Dragon Can’t Dance, Essex, England: Longman Group. 25.

Mahabir, Cynthia, 1986, “Steeldrums,” Faces: The Magazine about People (Sept.):33-35. 26. Marshall, Bertie, 1972, “The Bertie Marshall Story,” Tapia, Vols. 1, 2, 4, 5. 27. Martin, Von, 1981, Audio tape on the Trinidad steelband movement, Washington, D.C. 28. College Information Requesting! Mohamed, Selwyn, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

29. Obika, Nyahuma, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 30. Pierre, Curtis, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 31. Pierre, Curtis, n.d., “History of the Drum” Script for slide/tape program, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 32. Pile, Oscar, 1983, personal interview, Barataria, Trinidad and Tobago. 33. Equation! Scoon, Kelvin, 1985, personal interview, Bay Shore, Trinidad and Tobago. 34.

Seeger, Peter, 1961, The Steeldrums of Kim Loy Wong, New York: Oak Publications. 35. Shepherd, John C., 1979, “Music and Social Control: An Essay on the Sociology of Musical Knowledge,” Catalyst, 13:1-54. 36. Slater, Tony, 1983, personal interview, Port of Study Program Information Letter | Formal, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 37. Warner, Keith Q., 1982, Kaiso!

The Trinidad Calypso, Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press. 38. Weber, Max, 1958, The Rational and Social Foundations of Music, edited and translated by Don Martindale, Johannes Reidel, and Gertrude Neuwirth, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 39. Yeates, George, 1983, personal interview, Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Equation Definition, Tobago.

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