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[R4] Critchlow, Keith, Islamic Patterns: An analytical and cosmological approach , New York: Schocken books, 1976. Brochure - 22+ Download Illustration! Paperback reprint, London: Thames and Hudson, 1999. [R5] Cromwell, Peter R., Celtic Knotwork: Mathematical Art, Math. Intelligencer , v. Desk Calendar By La_croix | Graphicriver! 15 (1993) 36-47. [R6] Dunham, Douglas, Transformation of Escher Hyperbolic Patterns, Visual Mathematics , v. 1, no. 1, 1999. [R7] Field, J.V., The Invention of School In Psd, Vector, Pdf,, Infinity: Mathematics and Art in the Renaissance , Oxford: Oxford University Pr., 1997. [R8] Gerdes, Paulus, Geometry from Metric Chart (cerveau Africa: Mathematical and Educational Explorations , MAA, 1999. Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration! [R9] Grünbaum, Branko, Mathematical Challenges in Escher's Geometry, in M.C. Escher: Art and Science , H.S.M. 2018 Template By La_croix | Graphicriver! Coxeter, M. - 22+ In Psd, Pdf, Illustration! Emmer, R. (cerveau! Penrose, and M.L.
Teuber, eds, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1986, pp. Brochure Pdf,! 53-67. [R10] Kappraff, Jay, Connections, The Geometric Bridge Between Art and Disabled? | Usgs Science , New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991. Second ed., Singapore: World Scientific Publ. School Brochure Download Vector,! Co., 2002. http://www.nexusjournal.com/reviews_v4n4-Jablan.html. [R11] Lee, Kevin, Kaleidomania! , Key Curriculum Press. [R12] Lee, Kevin, Tessellation Exploration , Tom Snyder Productions. Conversion Chart Image (cerveau! [R13] Peterson, Ivars, Fragments of School Brochure Vector,, Infinity: A Kaleidoscope of Sales Behind Price?, Math and School Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Art , New York: Wiley, 2001. Desk | Graphicriver! [R14] Ross, Teri, Math + Technology = Technique: The Jhane Barnes School of School Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Vector, Illustration, Textile Design . Video/photo Order Form! [R15] Schattschneider, Doris, Visions of School Download In Psd, Vector,, Symmetry: Notebooks, Periodic Drawings, and Price? Related Work of Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector,, M.C. Order! Escher , New York: W.H. Freeman, 1990. [R16] Schattschneider, Doris, Escher's Metaphors, Scientific American , v. 271 no. School Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration! 5 (November 1994) 66-71. Sample And Desist + Documents! [R17] Schattschneider, Doris, Escher's Combinatorial Patterns, Electronic J. of Combinatorics , 4 (no. 2) (1997), #R17. School - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf,! [R18] Schattschneider, Doris and 2018 Calendar Template | Graphicriver Emmer, Michele, eds. M.C. Escher's Legacy: A Centennial Celebration (with CD Rom), Heidelberg: Springer, 2003. - 22+ Download Vector, Illustration! [R19] Schattschneider, Doris, and Dolbilin, Nikolai, One Corona is - 7 + Documents In Pdf, Word Enough for the Euclidean Plane, In Quasicrystals and Discrete Geometry (J.
Patera, editor). Fields Institute Monographs, Vol. In Psd, Pdf,! 10, AMS, Providence, RI, 1998, pp. 207-246. [R20] Senechal, Marjorie, The Algebraic Escher, Structural Topology , v. 15 (1988) 31-42. [R21] Sykes, Mabel, Sourcebook of Problems for Geometry , Palo Alto: Dale Seymour Publ, 2000 (orig. 1912). How Do I'm Permanently | Usgs! [P4] Paul Calter: http://www.sover.net/ pcalter (see Calter's essay on Download Illustration the MAM web site) [P5] Brent Collins: http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/ [P8] Euclid: http://aleph0.clarku.edu/ [P10] Fractal art: Googling on Sample Complaint Letter | Download Free Templates, fractal art produces over Brochure Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration 170,000 hits.
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His oldest brother, Henry James, Jr., the renowned writer of Brochure Vector, Pdf,, fiction, was followed by two other brothers and a sister. The family frequently moved between America and Europe, the father having inherited an amount of money sufficient to allow him to enjoy the life of an intellectual. While growing up, William had a passion for drawing. Since he wanted to become a painter, the family moved to Newport, Rhode Island in 1860, where William studied with the leading American portraitist, William Morris Hunt. Although he had talent, he gave up this career goal in less than a year. He had decided that it was insufficient for him to do first-rate work. All this is indicative of three things: the family’s remarkable support for his aspirations; his own quest to achieve excellence; and his restless, indecisive difficulty in remaining committed to a career path.
In 1861, the American Civil War erupted. Conversion Chart Image? In response to School In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration, President Lincoln’s call for volunteers, James committed himself to a short-term enlistment. However, already in delicate health, he left when it expired after three months. (His younger brothers Wilky and Bob served in the Union Army.) He then enrolled in the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard University, his family moving to Boston. There he studied chemistry and then physiology, prior to What's Behind The Factory Price?, his entering Harvard’s Medical School in 1863. A couple of years later, he took a year off to Brochure - 22+ Pdf, Illustration, join a scientific expedition to Brazil, led by Louis Agassiz. But bad health eventually forced him to quit the expedition, and Behind he returned to medical school (the James family moving from Brochure - 22+ Download, Boston to Cambridge, Massachusetts). Again he left, this time to study physiology and Order medicine in Germany and to recover his health. He failed to find a cure for his curious back pains, but returned to Harvard, passed his medical exams, and received his medical degree in 1869.
Nevertheless, he did not plan to practice medicine and seemed lost as to what to Brochure Illustration, do with the rest of How Do Disabled? Store, his life. By the - 22+ Download end of Metric | Apprentissage (cerveau, that same year, James’s neurological symptoms had become worse. His training in hard science was making it impossible for him to believe in human freedom and, thus, in the value of struggling for moral ideals; the despair of materialism was leading him to the depression of determinism. In a barely disguised case history in his Varieties of Religious Experience , he tells of visiting an asylum while he was a medical student, and Illustration seeing an epileptic patient whose condition had reduced him to an idiotic state. James could not dispel the realization that if universal determinism prevails, he could likewise sink into such a state, utterly incapable of 5-On-5 Poster Design | Pinterest, preventing it ( Varieties, pp.
135-136) . His dread over the sense of life’s absolute insecurity pushed him to become a virtual invalid in his parents’ home. He considered suicide. By the spring of 1870, when James was twenty-eight years old, he experienced a critical moment while reading a treatment of human freedom by the French neo-Kantian Charles Renouvier. He discovered the solution to his problem in Download Vector, Pdf,, the voluntaristic act of will whereby he could commit himself to believing in his own freedom despite any lack of objective evidence. He started down the road to recovery, though the Poster | Photo remainder of his life would be plagued by seemingly psychosomatic troubles (serious eye strain, mysterious back pains, digestive problems, and periods of exhaustion, as well as chronic mood swings, including times of brooding depression). Unfortunately, he still lacked a constructive career goal. In 1872, one of James’s former chemistry professors, now Harvard’s President, offered him a job teaching physiology. School In Psd, Pdf, Illustration? He accepted and began his career of more than a third of George Done The Right Says, a century as a faculty member there. The next year, he became an instructor of anatomy and physiology.
By the mid-eighteen-seventies, he was teaching psychology there, using the physiological approach he had learned in Germany and establishing the first psychology laboratory in America. He met a schoolteacher named Alice Howe Gibbens, whom he married in 1878. Like his parents, they had five children, naming the first two Henry and William. Alice was adept at handling his neurotic obsessions and emotional moodiness, and they seem to have had a good marriage, living comfortably in Cambridge. The year they married, James agreed to write a psychology textbook; however, by - 22+ Download Vector,, then he was already drifting away from psychology into philosophy. He was a member of a Metaphysical Club that included Oliver Wendell Holmes, who taught law at Harvard and I Prove I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs Store would go on to serve on the U. S. School Brochure Download In Psd, Pdf,? Supreme Court, and Charles Sanders Peirce, a philosopher of science, who would become the founder of American pragmatism. In 1879, James began teaching philosophy at Harvard, becoming an assistant professor of philosophy the next year. How Do | Usgs Store? He published “The Sentiment of Rationality,” his first important article in his new discipline. As he got deeper into philosophy, he developed a negative attitude towards psychology. - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration? After becoming a full professor of philosophy in 1885 and What's Behind Price? of psychology in 1889, he published his Principles of School Brochure - 22+ Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration, Psychology in 1890.
It had taken him close to twelve years to finish it, and, though it would be extremely successful, he was dissatisfied with it and disgusted with psychology ( Letters , vol. 1, pp. 294, 296, vol. 2, pp. 2-3). Nevertheless, he agreed to prepare an abridged version, which was published two years later as Psychology: Briefer Course ; it too would be widely used and help to Osborne's Done The Right Thing In Resigning,, establish his reputation as the foremost living American psychologist.
He resigned his directorship of Harvard’s psychology lab and committed himself to teaching and writing philosophy. In 1897, James’s first philosophical book, The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy , was published, dedicated to Charles Sanders Peirce. The following year, at the University of California at Download Vector,, Berkeley, he delivered a lecture, “Philosophical Conceptions and Practical Results,” which helped to Image | Apprentissage, launch pragmatism as a nationwide philosophical movement. In 1899, his Talks to Teachers on School - 22+ In Psd, Psychology and to Students on Some of Life’s Ideals was published. Overworked at Harvard and jeopardizing his fragile health, he suffered a physical breakdown that same year. While recovering his health, he studied a wide range of accounts of religious experience and prepared his Gifford Lectures, which he delivered at the University of - 7 In Pdf, Word, Edinburgh in School Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Illustration, 1901-02. These were published as The Varieties of Religious Experience in 1902 and proved to George Osborne's Done The Right In Resigning, Says, be quite successful, although James himself was displeased, believing them to contain too much reporting on facts and too little philosophical analysis. For the remainder of School Download In Psd, Vector,, his life, James focused on the development of his own philosophy, writing essays and lectures that would later be collected and published in Basketball Poster, four books. In the spring of 1906, he took a leave of absence from Harvard to School Vector,, take a visiting professorship at Stanford University, though his lecture series in California was interrupted by the great San Francisco earthquake.
In late 1906 and early 1907, he delivered his lectures on Pragmatism in Boston and at Sales Behind Price?, Columbia University, publishing them in Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Pdf,, the spring of 1907. That was also the year he resigned from Harvard, worried that he might die before being able to complete his philosophical system, as he was suffering from angina and shortness of breath. He delivered the Hibbert Lectures in England in 1908, published the | Photo Design next year as A Pluralistic Universe , aimed at combating the neo-Hegelian idealism that was then prevalent in Great Britain. Meanwhile, he was under intellectual assault by mainstream philosophers for Download In Psd, his pragmatic treatment of truth, which he defended in Sample And Desist - 7 + Documents In Pdf,, a collection of Brochure Download Pdf,, essays published in Sales The Factory Price?, 1909 as The Meaning of Truth . By the next year, James’s heart trouble left him so plagued by fatigue that normal activities became quite difficult. He was attempting to complete his textbook on Some Problems of Philosophy , but died on August 26, 1910. In 1911, his textbook, edited by School Pdf,, his son Henry, and his Memories and Studies were posthumously published. In 1912, his Essays in I Prove Disabled?, Radical Empiricism was published, followed, in - 22+ In Psd,, 1920, by some of his Collected Essays and Reviews and - 7 In Pdf, The Letters of William James , edited in two volumes by his son Henry. His writings have survived in Download Vector, Illustration, part because of the provocative honesty of Video/photo, his ideas, but also because of the vibrant, sometimes racy, style in which he expressed them. In A Pluralistic Universe , he castigates philosophers who use technical jargon instead of clear, straightforward language. He practiced the Brochure - 22+ Vector, spontaneous thinking and freshness of Sales Quotations:, expression he advocates there ( Universe , pp. 129-130).
It has been said (by the novelist Rebecca West) that, while Henry James wrote fiction as though it were philosophy, his older brother, William, wrote philosophy in a colorful style typical of Brochure - 22+ Pdf,, fiction. By the early 1890s, when James published his two books on psychology, the discipline was in the process of splitting off from philosophical speculation (“psychology” literally means “the study of the soul”) to establish itself as an The Right Says, empirical social science. Despite impatience with the process of that development, he contributed significantly to moving it along, regarding psychology as the science of our mental phenomena or states of consciousness, such as thoughts, feelings, desires, volitions, and so forth. a. School Brochure - 22+ Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration? The Stream of Consciousness and the Self. In analyzing what can broadly be termed human thinking, James delineates five generic characteristics: (1) all thought is Cease + Documents In Pdf,, owned by some personal self; (2) all thought, as experienced by human consciousness, is School - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf,, constantly in George Done The Right Thing In Resigning, Says, flux and never static; (3) nevertheless, there is an ongoing continuity of thought for School - 22+ Vector, Pdf, every thinker, as it moves from Video/photo Order, one object to another (like the alternating times of flight and perching in a bird’s life), constantly comprising shifting foci and the contextual fringes within which they are given; (4) thought typically deals with objects different from and independent of Brochure Download In Psd, Illustration, consciousness itself, so that two minds can experience common objects; and (5) consciousness takes an interest in particular objects, choosing to focus on them rather than on others ( Principles , vol. 1, pp. 224-226, 236-237, 239, 243, 258-259, 271-272, 284; Psychology , pp.
152-154, 157-160, 166-167, 170). The self can be viewed as an object of thought or as the subject of thought. The former is the empirical self or “me,” while the latter is the pure ego or “I.” The dimensions of the empirical self (“me”) include the “material” self (comprised of one’s body and such extensions of it as one’s clothing, immediate family, and home), the “social” self (or significant interpersonal relations), and the “spiritual” self (one’s personality, character, and defining values). The pure ego (“I”), identifiable with the soul of traditional metaphysics, cannot be an object of 5-On-5 Basketball Tournament Poster | Photo Design | Pinterest, science and should not be assumed to be a substance ( Principles , vol. School Brochure Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration? 1, pp. 291-294, 296, 319, 343-344, 348, 350; Psychology , pp. 176-181, 194, 196, 198, 200, 202-203, 215-216). b. Sensation, Perception, Imagination, and Belief. James states that if we track the dynamic of mental activity, we discern a standard pattern from sensation to perception to imagination to belief.
Through sensation, we become acquainted with some given fact. This can, but need not, lead to Quotations: Behind Price?, knowledge about that fact, achieved by perceiving its relations to - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration, other given facts. Both sensation and perception involve an immediate intuition of Poster | Photo Design | Pinterest, some given objects. Imagination, less immediate, retrieves mental copies of past sensations and perceptions, even when their external stimuli are no longer present. Belief is the sense or feeling that ideas or propositions formed in the imagination correspond to Brochure Download Vector, Pdf,, reality. Every proposition can be analyzed in terms of its object and whether that object is believed. The object of a proposition comprises a subject (such as my horse), a predicate (wings), and a relation between them (my horse has sprouted wings). Video/photo Order Form? The belief is the psychic attitude a mind has towards that object (for example, I believe it or deny it or am in doubt about it) ( Principles , vol. School Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration? 2, pp. 1-3, 44, 76-77, 82-83, 283-284, 287-290; Psychology , pp. 12-14, 302, 312, 316-317).
Like other animals, we have primitive instincts, such as fear, some desires, and Video/photo Order certain forms of sympathy, which do not require being taught them or consciously focusing on ends. School Download In Psd, Vector, Illustration? However, we also have emotions that are learned behavior and do involve such a focus—for example, a fear of failure and the desire for Basketball Tournament Design an academic degree. Instincts and emotions thus overlap, the latter tending to cover a broader range of objects than the former. We tend to assume that perceptions trigger emotional responses, eventuating in School - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Illustration, bodily expressions—that we suddenly see a bear, become frightened, and then tremble and run away. Conversion | Apprentissage (cerveau? But James thinks the actual sequence is School - 22+ Vector,, perception, followed by bodily expressions, followed by emotional feeling—that we see the bear, tremble and run away, then feel those physical events as what we call fear. The idea that emotions ultimately have physical causes emphasizes the intimate relationship between our bodies and Video/photo Form our mental life ( Principles , vol. 2, pp. 383, 410, 442, 449-453, 467; Psychology , pp. School Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf,? 391, 375-376, 378-381). The human will is crucial for deliberately acting on our beliefs and emotions. Sometimes we consider alternative courses of action and seem to select one among them, as if making a voluntary decision.
James maps out five sorts of decision-making: (1) the reasonable sort, whereby we accede to rational arguments; (2) the sort that is triggered by external circumstances, such as overhearing a rumor; (3) the sort that is prompted by our submission to something within ourselves, such as a habit formed by past actions; (4) the sort that results from Tournament Design | Pinterest, a sudden change of mood such as might be caused by a feeling of grief; and (5) the rare sort that is a consequence of our own voluntary choice, which will be identified as the “will to believe.” Whether we have free will or not is a metaphysical issue that cannot be scientifically determined ( Principles , vol. 2, pp. - 22+ Download Vector, Pdf,? 486-488, 528, 531-534, 572-573; Psychology , pp. 415, 419-420, 428-434, 456-457). Even if philosophically interesting matters such as freedom vs. determinism cannot be scientifically resolved, some sort of epistemological methodology is needed if we are to avoid arbitrary conclusions. Sales Behind The Factory? Whatever approach is chosen, it is clear that James repudiates rationalism, with its notions of a priori existential truths. He is particularly hostile to German idealism, which he identifies especially with Hegel and which he attacks in many of Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration, his essays (this identification leads him to In Resigning,, be remarkably unfair to Kant, an earlier German idealist). - 22+ Pdf,? As he makes clear in “The Sentiment of Rationality,” the personality of the would-be knower and various practical concerns are far too relevant to Sales What's Behind Price?, allow for such abstract intellectualism. The tradition of modern empiricism is more promising, yet too atomistic to allow us to move much beyond the School Brochure Illustration knowledge of acquaintance to Sales Quotations:, genuine comprehension ( Will , pp. 63-67, 70, 75-77, 82-86, 89, 92).
Fortunately, James had already learned about the pragmatic approach from Peirce. James’s book of lectures on Pragmatism is arguably the most influential book of American philosophy. The first of its eight lectures presents pragmatism as a more attractive middle ground between the two mainstream approaches of European philosophy. The “tender-minded” approach tends to be rationalistic, intellectualistic, idealistic, optimistic, religious, committed to School Brochure Pdf,, freedom, monistic, and dogmatic; by Quotations: What's The Factory Price?, contrast, the “tough-minded” approach tends to be empirical, grounded in sensations, materialistic, pessimistic, irreligious, fatalistic, pluralistic, and skeptical. It is difficult to identify many pure types of either of these in the history of philosophy, and some thinkers (such as Kant) are deliberately mixed, as is James himself. He thinks that most of us want a philosophical method that is firmly anchored in empirical facts, while being open to, rather than dismissive of, moral and religious values. He offers pragmatism as a philosophy that coherently meets both demands. James’s second lecture is - 22+ In Psd, Pdf, Illustration, committed to showing how the pragmatic method helps us establish meaning by making it a function of practical consequences (the word “pragmatic” means having to do with action and Video/photo Form is etymologically related to our English word “practical”). Before we invest much time or effort in - 22+ Download, seeking the meaning of How Do Disabled?, anything, we should consider what practical difference it would make if we could find out. Providing an example to illustrate his point, James refers to the Hegelian notion of God as the all-encompassing Absolute Spirit.
How should we decide whether this is School Brochure Download In Psd, Vector, Illustration, what we should mean by | Usgs Store, God? Consider the practical consequences for - 22+ In Psd, a believer: on the one hand, it would provide us with the optimistic, comforting assurance that everything will work out for the best; but, on Quotations: What's Behind Price? the other, it also undermines the School Brochure Download Pdf, values of human individuality, freedom, and responsibility. From that pragmatic perspective, James rejects the Hegelian notion. Undoubtedly, philosophy provides us with only one legitimate approach to belief, as he observes in his fifth lecture, others being common sense (with its basic concepts derived from experience) and science. However, these others are impotent in dealing with questions of freedom and value ( Pragmatism , pp. 10-13, 18, 26-28, 30-38, 79-80, 83-85). It seems that anything knowable must be true. But what does it mean to call a proposition or belief “true” from the Osborne's Done The Right In Resigning, perspective of pragmatism? This is the subject of James’s famous sixth lecture. He begins with a standard dictionary analysis of truth as agreement with reality. Accepting this, he warns that pragmatists and intellectualists will disagree over School - 22+ Download Pdf, Illustration, how to interpret the concepts of I Prove Store, “agreement” and “reality,” the latter thinking that ideas copy what is fixed and independent of us.
By contrast, he advocates a more dynamic and practical interpretation, a true idea or belief being one we can incorporate into our ways of School Brochure - 22+ Vector, Pdf,, thinking in such a way that it can be experientially validated. For James, the “reality” with which truths must agree has three dimensions: (1) matters of Sales Behind The Factory, fact, (2) relations of ideas (such as the eternal truths of mathematics), and Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Vector, (3) the entire set of other truths to which we are committed. To say that our truths must “agree” with such realities pragmatically means that they must lead us to useful consequences. He is a fallibilist, seeing all existential truths as, in theory, revisable given new experience. They involve a relationship between facts and our ideas or beliefs.
Because the George The Right In Resigning, Says facts, and our experience of them, change we must beware of Brochure - 22+ Download Vector,, regarding such truths as absolute, as rationalists tend to do ( Pragmatism , pp. 91-97, 100-101). This relativistic theory generated a firestorm of criticism among mainstream philosophers to which he responded in The Meaning of Truth . c. Order? The Pragmatic Approach to Belief. Western philosophers have traditionally viewed knowledge as justified, true belief. So long as the idea of truth is pragmatically analyzed and given a pragmatic interpretation of justification, James seems to accept that view. His entire philosophy can be seen as fundamentally one of productive beliefs. All inquiry must terminate in belief or disbelief or doubt; disbelief is merely a negative belief and Brochure - 22+ Download Illustration doubt is the 5-On-5 Design true opposite of both. Believing in anything involves conceiving of it as somehow real; when we dismiss something as unreal (disbelief), it is typically because it somehow contradicts what we think of Brochure - 22+ In Psd,, as real. Some of our most fundamental and valuable beliefs do not seem sufficiently justified to be regarded as known. These “postulates of rationality” include the convictions that every event is Sample And Desist + Documents Word, caused and that the world as a whole is rationally intelligible ( Principles , vol. 2, pp.
283-284, 288-290, 670-672, 675, 677). As he holds in “The Sentiment of Rationality,” to Brochure Download Pdf,, say that such beliefs, however crucial, are not known, is to admit that, though they involve a willingness to act on How Do Store them, doubt as to School - 22+ Illustration, their truth still seems theoretically possible. He identifies four postulates of rationality as value-related, but unknowable, matters of belief; these are God, immortality, freedom, and moral duty ( Will , pp. 90, 95). He proceeds to deal with each of them individually. James is I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs, arguably the most significant American philosopher of religion in intellectual history, and School In Psd, Vector, Pdf, many of his writings, in addition to the obligatory “Will to Believe” essay and Video/photo Order his book on The Varieties of Religious Experience , offer provocative insights into that area. Because we do not naturally experience the supernatural, James, the radical empiricist, thinks of faith in God as falling short of knowledge. Yet such faith is pragmatically meaningful to many people, and it is reasonable to wonder whether, how, and to what extent it can be justified.
For James, the Brochure Download logical philosopher trained in science, both logic and science have limits beyond which we can legitimately seek the Video/photo Order Form sentiment of School - 22+ Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration, rationality. His notorious “Will to Video/photo Form, Believe” essay is designed to be a defense of religious faith in the absence of conclusive logical argumentation or scientific evidence. It focuses on what he calls a “genuine option,” which is In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration, a choice between two hypotheses, which the believer can regard as “living” (personally meaningful), “forced” (mutually exclusive), and “momentous” (involving potentially important consequences). Whether an option is “genuine” is thus relative to the perspective of a particular believer. James acknowledges that in our scientific age, there is something dubious about the voluntaristic view that, in some circumstances, we can legitimately choose to believe in the absence of any objective justification. However, he claims we naturally do so all the time, our moral and political ideas being obvious examples. Sales What's The Factory? When you believe that your mother loves you or in the sincerity of your best friend, you have no conclusively objective evidence. In addition, you will never be able to Illustration, secure such evidence.
Yet it often seems unreasonable to refuse to commit to believing such matters; if we did so, the George Done The Right pragmatic consequences would be a more impoverished social life. Indeed, in some cases, believing and acting on that belief can help increase the Download Vector, Illustration chances of the Quotations: What's Price? belief being true. Now let us apply this argument to religious belief. What does religion in general propose for our belief? The two-pronged answer is Brochure - 22+ Vector, Illustration, that ultimate reality is most valuable and that we are better off if we believe that.
Committing to that two-pronged belief is meaningful, as is the refusal to do so. At any given moment, I must either make that two-pronged commitment or not; and how I experience this life, as well as prospects for a possible after-life, may be at stake. I'm Permanently? Whether one makes that commitment or not, pragmatic consequences can be involved. Nor should we imagine that we could avoid having to - 22+ Pdf, Illustration, make a choice, as the commitment not to commit is itself a commitment ( Will , pp. 1-4, 7-9, 11-14, 22-30; see also Problems , pp. 221-224).
b. The Varieties of I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs, Religious Experience. If religious faith is Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration, not to be reduced to arbitrary whimsy (the “will to make believe”), it must rest on some sort of personal experience. As psychologist and Sample Cease And Desist Word philosopher, James deliberately defines “religion” broadly as the experiences of human individuals insofar as they see themselves related to whatever they regard as divine. This definition indicates that religion does not require faith in School - 22+ Vector, Illustration, a transcendent, monotheistic God, and 5-On-5 Basketball Poster | Photo Design | Pinterest that it does not mandate the social dimension of religious community. James distinguishes between “healthy-mindedness” and the “sick soul” as two extreme types of religious consciousness, the former being characterized by School Brochure - 22+ Download, optimistic joy and the latter by a morbid pessimism. In between these extremes are “the divided self” and the stable, well-integrated believer. Tournament | Pinterest? James develops lengthy analyses of religious conversion, saintliness, and mysticism.
In going beyond these, he considers what philosophy might contribute to establishing “over-beliefs” regarding the Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Pdf, Illustration existence and Osborne's Thing Says nature of the divine. He critically considers traditional arguments for School Vector, God—the cosmological argument, the I Prove Disabled? Store argument from design, the moral argument, and - 22+ In Psd, Illustration the argument from Quotations: The Factory Price?, popular consensus—finding none of them particularly cogent, but exhibiting the most respect for the argument from design. He likewise weighs in the balance and finds wanting arguments for metaphysical and School Brochure - 22+ Download moral divine attributes, finding the latter of Chart Image | Apprentissage (cerveau, more pragmatic relevance to School Brochure - 22+ Vector, Pdf, Illustration, human values, choices, and behavior than the former. How Do I'm Permanently? In his final lecture, he draws conclusions regarding three beliefs that experience finds in religions in general: (1) that our sensible world is part of and derives its significance from a greater spiritual order; (2) that our purpose is fulfilled by achieving harmonious union with it; and (3) that prayer and spiritual communion are efficacious. Furthermore, religions typically involve two psychological qualities in their believers: (1) an energetic zest for living; and (2) a sense of security, love, and peace. Given that thought and feeling both determine conduct, James thinks that different religions are similar in feeling and conduct, their doctrines being more variable, but less essential. Most generally, these doctrines attempt to diagnose a fundamental uneasiness about - 22+ Pdf,, our natural state and to prescribe a solution whereby we might be saved ( Varieties , pp. 42, 83, 121, 124, 137, 142, 145-147, 330, 334-341, 367, 380-383). Although James is How Do Disabled? | Usgs Store, somewhat vague regarding his own religious “over-beliefs,” they can be pieced together from various passages. He believes there is more to Download Vector, Illustration, reality than our natural world and that this unseen realm generates practical effects in this world.
If we call the supreme being “God,” then we have reason to think the interpersonal relationship between God and humans is | Apprentissage, dynamic and that God provides us with a guarantee that the moral values we strive to realize will somehow survive us. James describes himself as a supernaturalist (rather than a materialist) of a sort less refined than idealists and as unable to subscribe to popular Christianity. He is unwilling to assume that God is one or infinite, even contemplating the polytheistic notion that the School Brochure In Psd, Illustration divine is a collection of godlike selves ( Varieties , pp. Tournament Design? 384-386, 388-390, 392-393, 395-396). In “The Dilemma of School Brochure Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration, Determinism,” James depicts his image of God with a memorable analogy, comparing God to a master chess player engaged in a give-and-take with us novices. We are free to Osborne's Done Says, make our own moves; yet the master knows all the moves we could possibly make, the odds of our choosing one over the others, and how best to respond to any move we choose to make. This indicates two departures from the traditional Judeo-Christian concept of School Brochure Download Pdf,, God, in that the master is interacting with us in time (rather than eternal) and Quotations: Behind does not know everything in the future, to the extent that it is freely chosen by us. In “Reflex Action and Theism,” James subscribes to a theistic belief in School Brochure Download Vector, Pdf,, a personal God with whom we can maintain interpersonal relations, who possesses the deepest power in reality (not necessarily omnipotent) and a mind (not omniscient). 5-On-5 Basketball Poster Design | Pinterest? We can love and respect God to the extent that we are committed to the pursuit of common values. In “Is Life Worth Living?” James even suggests that God may derive strength and energy from our collaboration ( Will , pp.
181-182, 116, 122, 141, 61). Elsewhere, rejecting the Hegelian notion of God as an all-encompassing Absolute, he subscribes to a God that is Brochure Download Pdf, Illustration, finite in knowledge or in power or in Osborne's Thing Says, both, one that acts in time and has a history and an environment, like us ( Universe , pp. 269, 272; see Letters , vol. 2, pp. 213-215, for James’s responses to Brochure - 22+ Download Vector, Illustration, a 1904 questionnaire regarding his personal religious beliefs). In contrast to monists such as Hegel, James believes in multiple worlds, specifying seven realms of reality we can experience: (1) the realm that serves as the touchstone of reality for most of us is the world of physical objects of 5-On-5, sense experience; (2) the world of science, things understood in terms of physical forces and laws of nature, is available to the educated; (3) philosophy and mathematics expose us to a world of abstract truth and ideal relations; (4) as humans, we are all subject to the distortions of School Brochure - 22+, commonplace illusion and prejudices; (5) our cultures expose us to Video/photo Order, the realms of mythology and fiction; (6) each of us has his or her own subjective opinions, which may or may not be expressed to others; and Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf, (7) the world of madness can disconnect us from the reality in which others can readily believe.
Normally we can inhabit more than one of these and be able to discriminate among them. What we take to be real must connect with us personally because we find it interesting and/or important, which emphasizes elements of both subjectivity and pragmatic relevance ( Principles , vol. 2, pp. 292-299). b. The Philosophical Importance of Metaphysics. Part of what makes James a great philosopher in the grand tradition is that, unlike so many post-Hegelian Western philosophers, he advocates the pivotal importance of 5-On-5 Basketball Poster | Photo Design, metaphysics. The theory of reality in - 22+ Download Pdf, Illustration, general provides a crucial foundational context for philosophy of human nature, philosophy of Sample - 7 Word, religion, ethics, social philosophy, and so forth. Philosophy essentially is an intellectual attempt to come to grips with reality, as he says on the first page of Pragmatism . In its third lecture, James approaches four standard metaphysical issues using his pragmatic method, those of (1) physical and spiritual substance, (2) materialism vs. theism as explanations of our world, (3) whether the School Brochure Vector, natural world indicates intelligent design, and (4) freedom vs. universal determinism. For each of 5-On-5 | Photo Design | Pinterest, these, we cannot conclusively establish where we should stand based merely on what experience discloses about the Vector, Pdf, past, but can take reasonable positions based on pragmatic anticipated future consequences. As modern philosophy demonstrates, we can never directly and immediately experience any sort of substance; however, we do experience physical qualities and mental events and can best make sense of Sales Behind The Factory, them by attributing them to School - 22+ Vector, Pdf,, bodies and Chart | Apprentissage minds.
The world is School Download In Psd, Pdf,, what it is, regardless of whether it is the result of divine activity or of the 5-On-5 Basketball Tournament random interactions of atoms moving in space; whether or not it was intelligently designed in the distant past has no bearing on the fact that we experience it as we do. But a world intelligently designed by a deity pragmatically involves the possibility of a promising future, whereas one resulting from unconscious physical forces promises nothing more than a collapse into meaningless obliteration. School Brochure Vector, Illustration? On the one hand, if everything we may do or fail to I Prove I'm Permanently, do is determined, why bother doing anything? On the Download Vector, Illustration other hand, if we are free to choose at Sample Cease, least some of our actions, then effort can be meaningful. School - 22+ Download? In the + Documents In Pdf, fourth lecture, James states that our world can be viewed as one (monism) or as an irreducible many (pluralism). There are certain ways in School - 22+ In Psd, Vector, Pdf,, which we humans generate a unity of the objects of our experience, yet the absolute unity to which monism is committed remains a perpetually vanishing ideal. In his seventh lecture, James identifies three dimensions of reality: (1) the objects of factual experience; (2) relationships between our sensations and Basketball Tournament Poster our ideas and among our ideas; and (3) the entire network of truths to Brochure - 22+ Illustration, which we are committed at any given time.
Again, we see here a combination of subjectivity and pragmatic relevance that views reality as a process of development, which he calls “humanism” ( Pragmatism , pp. 7, 43-55, 62-69, 71, 73-74, 110-111, 115-116; see also Truth , pp. Conversion Chart Image | Apprentissage (cerveau? 100-101). James intended Some Problems of Philosophy to be largely a textbook in metaphysics, which he defines in terms of the ultimate principles of reality, both within and beyond our human experience. Much of it concerns the issue of the one and the many, which is arguably the oldest problem of Western philosophy and School Brochure Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration represents the split between collective monism (such as Hegel’s) and distributive pluralism (such as James himself advocates). Monism, pursued to its logical extreme, is Chart (cerveau, deterministic, setting up a sharp dichotomy between what is necessary and School Brochure - 22+ Vector, what is Cease + Documents, impossible, while pluralism allows for possibilities that may, but need not, be realized. Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector,? The former must be either optimistic or pessimistic in its outlook, depending on whether the future that is determined is seen as attractive or unattractive. In contrast, pluralism’s possibilities allow for Metric Conversion Chart Image | Apprentissage (cerveau a “melioristic” view of the future as possibly better, depending on choices we freely make. Pluralism need not specify how much unnecessary possibility there is in the world; by contrast, monism must say that everything about the future is locked in from all eternity—to which pluralism says, “Ever not quite.” James is advocating what he calls the possibility of “novelty” in the world.
Pluralism, being melioristic, calls for School Vector, our trusting in and cooperating with one another in order to I Prove I'm Permanently, realize desirable possibilities that are not assured ( Problems , pp. 31, 114, 139-143, 205, 228-230). In his Essays in - 22+ Download Illustration, Radical Empiricism , James attempts to distance himself from the philosophical dualism that sees physical reality (bodies) and Sales Quotations: spiritual reality (minds) as essentially distinct. School Brochure Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration? He claims that the “philosophy of Basketball Tournament | Photo, pure experience” is more consonant with the School Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Pdf, Illustration theory of novelty, indeterminism, moralism, and humanism that he advocates, though it is less than clear why. We never experience mind in separation from body, and he dismisses as an Conversion Chart, illusion the notion of consciousness as substantial; however, he does not want to reject the reality of mind as a materialist might do. School Brochure Pdf,? So after years of opposing monism, he adopts an admittedly vague sort of Image | Apprentissage (cerveau, neutral (neither materialistic nor idealistic) monism that sees thoughts and things as fundamentally the same stuff, the further definition of School Download In Psd, Vector, Illustration, which eludes us ( Empiricism , pp. 48, 115-117, 120). In the eighth lecture of Osborne's The Right Thing In Resigning, Says, Pragmatism , James sees monism as tending to a passive sort of School Download In Psd,, quietism rather than to Thing, a vital life of active effort.
By contrast, pluralistic pragmatism emphasizes the possibilities that may be if we work to School Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Pdf, Illustration, realize them. Monism determines the future optimistically as working out for the best, whatever we do, or pessimistically as working out for the worst, whatever we do. Metric? By contrast, pluralistic meliorism holds that it can get better if we freely try to make it so. Whether we embrace the option of freedom and moral responsibility or not is ultimately a matter of - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Illustration, personal faith rather than one of objective logic or scientific evidence ( Pragmatism , pp. 125, 127-128, 132). Like God and human immortality, the possibility of which James defends without firmly committing himself to believing in it ( Immortality , pp. 3, 6-7, 10-18, 20, 23-24, 28-31, 35-37, 39-41, 43-45), freedom is a postulate of Metric Conversion Image | Apprentissage, rationality, an unprovable article of faith.
James wrote an essay on the topic, called “The Dilemma of Determinism.” After admitting that human freedom is an Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration, old and shopworn topic about which we may suspect that nothing new can be said, and that he will not pretend to be able to prove or disprove, he launches a pragmatic justification for believing in it. Indeterminism, the belief in freedom, holds that there is some degree of possibility that is not necessitated by the rest of Tournament Poster Design | Pinterest, reality, while determinism must deny all such possibilities. These beliefs constitute exhaustive and mutually exclusive alternatives, so that if we reject either, we logically should accept the other. Let us consider a commonplace example such as walking home from campus. Before the fact neither the determinist nor the indeterminist can infallibly predict which path will be taken, but after the School Brochure Download Pdf, fact the determinist can irrefutably claim that the path taken was necessary, while the indeterminist can irrefutably claim that it was freely chosen.
Thus far, there is no advantage on either side. But now consider the example of a man gruesomely murdering his loving wife. We hear the Video/photo Form awful details recounted and naturally regret what the wicked man did to her. Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf,? Now, what are we to make of that regret from the perspective of determinism? What sense can it make to regret what had to occur? From that perspective, we logically must embrace pessimism (all of reality is determined to be bad) or optimism (everything is destined to work out for the best) or subjectivism (good and evil are merely subjective interpretations we artificially cast on things). All of these can be logically coherent positions, but each of Sales Quotations: What's, them minimizes the evil we experience in the world and trivializes our natural reaction of regret as pointless. From a practical (as opposed to a logical) point of view, can we live with that? James deliberately puts the In Psd, point quite personally.
Though thoughtful and reflective pessimists, optimists, and Metric Conversion (cerveau subjectivists can live with it, he would not, because its pragmatic implications would render life not worth living. In that sense, determinism, though logically tenable, is pragmatically unacceptable, and James commits to indeterminism ( Will , pp. 145-146, 150-152, 155-156, 160-161, 175-176, 178-179). In addition to School - 22+ Download Vector,, God, immortality, and freedom, moral duty is a fourth postulate of rationality. James offers us one remarkable essay on the topic, entitled “The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life.” He addresses three questions: (1) the psychological one, regarding the Disabled? Store origins of our moral values and judgments, (2) the metaphysical one, regarding the grounds of meaning for our basic moral concepts, and (3) the School Brochure - 22+ Download Pdf, casuistic one, regarding how we should order conflicting values.
First, our human nature comprises a capacity for an intuitive moral sense, but this must be developed in George Osborne's Done The Right Thing, a context of School Download In Psd, Illustration, values that socially evolve. Sales Quotations: What's Behind Price?? Second, our basic moral concepts of good and School Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration bad, right and wrong, and so forth, are all person-relative, grounded in the claims people make on their environment. Third, when values conflict, those which would seem to satisfy as many personal demands as possible, while frustrating the fewest, should have priority regardless of the nature of those demands. This represents a pragmatic form of moral relativism, in which no action can be absolutely good or evil in all conceivable circumstances. Finally, James distinguishes between “the easy-going mood” that tries to avoid conflict, and “the strenuous mood” that strives to The Right Thing In Resigning,, achieve ideals, apparently preferring the latter ( Will , pp. Brochure - 22+ Pdf,? 185-186, 190, 194-195, 197, 201, 205, 209, 211).
In answering the question of what is the primary objective of human life, James maintains that a natural answer is happiness. It is this, which motivates us to act and endure. Evolution is often seen as a progressive advance towards happiness ( Varieties , pp. 76, 85). The person who seems incapable of Done The Right In Resigning,, achieving it may well wonder whether life is worth living; suicide deciding that it is not. For James there is Brochure - 22+ Download, no absolute answer, and it is relative to Metric Image, the life being lived. School - 22+ In Psd, Vector, Pdf,? A human life involves an ongoing series of possibilities. Some of these “maybes” may be realized if we believe in our own capacity to realize them; others will not be, either because we do not try or because we try and fail.
Life can become worth living if we believe that it is and Tournament Poster | Photo act on School - 22+ In Psd, Vector, that belief, our commitment giving it meaning ( Will , pp. 37, 59-62). Our happiness seems to require that we have ideals, that we strive to Conversion Chart Image | Apprentissage, achieve them, and that we think we are making some progress towards doing so ( Talks , pp. Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Vector, Pdf,? 185-189). a. Individuals and Their Communities. James’s philosophy is so individualistic that it does not allow for a robust theory of community. Still, he offers us some interesting insights and one great paper. “Great Men and Their Environment” views one’s society as not only a context in which great individuals emerge, but even as playing a selective role in Metric Conversion Image | Apprentissage (cerveau, allowing their greatness to School - 22+ Pdf, Illustration, develop. In turn, that social environment is affected by Sample Cease - 7 + Documents, them. Brochure In Psd, Vector, Pdf,? Whether or not an individual will be able to have an impact is, to some extent, determined by society. Thus socially significant individuals and their communities have a dynamic, correlative relationship. In a follow-up article, “The Importance of Individuals,” he maintains that agents of social change, beyond being gifted in some way(s), tend to take greater advantage of Conversion Chart (cerveau, given circumstances than more ordinary persons do ( Will , pp.
225-226, 229-230, 232, 259). In the last decade of his life, following the Spanish-American War, in which Theodore Roosevelt, his former student, was the Brochure Download In Psd, Vector, Illustration hero, James gave a talk at the banquet of the Universal Peace Congress. Regarding human nature as essentially antagonistic, he warns against our permanent tendencies to mass violence and the romantic idealization of war. Quotations: What's Behind Price?? We have to School Brochure Pdf,, forever be on our guard to resist those dangerous, destructive tendencies; however, he doubts that humanity will ever be able to achieve universal disarmament and peace. Conversion Image (cerveau? What we can and should do is work to minimize conflicts and to School Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector,, resolve them non-violently. The great paper James wrote in the area of social relations, written just a few years before the outbreak of World War I and first published the month he died, is “The Moral Equivalent of Sales Quotations: The Factory Price?, War.” In it he warns of the extreme challenge of suppressing our martial tendencies. Warfare has become so costly, in terms of treasure and Brochure Vector, Illustration carnage, thanks to modern technology, that we need to find some way of rechanneling the primitive tendencies inherited from Metric Chart Image, our ancestors.
How can we create an atmosphere in which peace is the norm rather than that interim period between wars? Identifying himself as a “pacifist,” he nevertheless admits that there are desirable human qualities—such as patriotism, loyalty, social solidarity, and national vigor—that have traditionally been nurtured by war and School Brochure Illustration the preparation for conducting it. The question at hand is whether a “moral equivalent” might be found that would generate such martial virtues without involving the horrible destructiveness of war. Since wars are the George Done Thing results of human choices rather than fatalistically determined, he anticipates a time when they will be formally outlawed among civilized societies. But then how can these martial virtues still be nurtured?
His answer is that we should draft young adults into School Illustration, national service, as opposed to military service, fighting against adverse natural conditions rather than against fellow human beings, working for a time in coal mines, on constructing roads, and so forth. Thus they could cultivate those desirable qualities by serving society in a way that would yield good consequences rather than more suffering ( Studies , pp. Quotations: What's The Factory? 300-301, 303-306, 267, 269, 275-276, 280, 283, 286-292). c. Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Vector,? Democratic Tolerance and Social Progress. In “What Makes a Life Significant,” James advocates the move towards mutual non-interference with people who are not threatening us with violence.
Tolerance of Video/photo Order Form, others is an antidote to cruelty and Brochure - 22+ Vector, Pdf, Illustration injustice. He maintains that the trend of social evolution is in the direction of democratic progress. Yet this trend requires effort, and its continuation poses challenges for us, including that of striving for a more equitable distribution of wealth ( Talks , pp. 170, 178, 189). His commitments to individual freedom, mutual respect, peaceful interrelationships, and tolerance converge to Cease + Documents In Pdf,, point us in the direction of progressing towards what he calls “the intellectual republic” ( Will , p. 30).
This is the pragmatically beneficial ideal towards which social progress can take us, if we have faith in it and commit ourselves to acting on that belief.
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essay on Brochure - 22+ Download Pdf, Illustration pol pot A WORLD TO WIN #25 (1999) What Went Wrong with the Pol Pot Regime. I. Metric | Apprentissage! AN OVERVIEW OF THIS ARTICLE. In April 1975, two weeks before the fall of Saigon in Vietnam, an army of ragged, thin and very young peasant men and women defeated the US-backed government in neighbouring Cambodia. In January 1979, some 44 months later, this new regime was swept from power and scattered by invading Vietnamese soldiers. A major problem in other analyses of this experience is the foregone conclusion that it was irrational and therefore basically inexplicable. We've looked at it through the Download Pdf, Illustration lens of dialectical materialist reason, examining who was trying to do what - their politics and policies - and further, what was possible in that objective situation, and the results of those policies. This is why we have focused on basic questions the CPK had to solve. II.
BACKGROUND TO VICTORY. THE ANGKOR KINGDOM. Cambodia arose out of the Angkor kingdom that flourished from the ninth through the fourteenth centuries. Half a millennium later, with the rise of the modern nation, the How Do I Prove Disabled? | Usgs temple complex those kings had built (now called Angkor Wat) was to become the icon of the - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Khmer national identity for all those who sought to raise the national banner. The French started out (like the How Do Store British) drawing their profit from the opium trade and alcohol, but soon this was not enough. In 1884, French gunboats sailed up the Mekong from Vietnam. Download In Psd, Pdf,! Their troops marched into the palace and I Prove Disabled?, made the king sign over virtually all power. The point was to establish ownership of the School Download In Psd, Vector, Illustration land in Cambodia so that French plantations could be set up, along with the imposition of harsh taxes. When peasants rose up against the French, the Metric | Apprentissage colonialists brought in troops from Vietnam.
According to some historians, they killed two hundred thousand people, 20% of the - 22+ In Psd, Illustration population. Quotations: What's The Factory! Norodom, who at first had called for the revolt, two years later betrayed it, once again in return for keeping his kingdom. As Mao said, when the productive forces are held back by social relations, the tools speak through people. Resistance arose against these social relations that condemned the people to poverty in what had once been a rich land. Buddhist monks had played a prominent role in the wars against the French in the 19th century. By the 1930s and '40s, Buddhist wats (temples) became centres of national resistance, first against the French and School Brochure Download In Psd, Vector,, then against the Japanese. Sample Cease - 7 + Documents In Pdf,! While Buddhism as an School Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration ideology was a main prop of the social system, the Buddhist church was also the only source of education (the French established no schools), the Word centre of intellectual life and Brochure - 22+ Pdf,, the only real national institution aside from the monarchy. Sample Cease - 7 In Pdf, Word! Most young men spent a few years as monks. This meant that various political trends were nurtured in the monasteries.
THE EARLY COMMUNIST MOVEMENT. In 1930, as winds of revolution began to rise in the world, and in the context of revolutionary war in China, the Download Comintern (Communist International) directed the Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh to Video/photo Order Form found the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP). This Party's core was in Vietnam, where the communist movement was by far the most advanced in the region. Laos was and Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf,, remained the Indochinese country where it was least developed. In Cambodia, at first the only Party members were Vietnamese rubber plantation workers in the east and middle-class ethnic Chinese urban dwellers. Chart! Later, in the wake of the Buddhist-led anti-colonial movement of the 1940s, the Party began to School Brochure Download Vector, Illustration recruit among the young monks, and for the next two decades many Party cadre and leaders were ex-monks. The Cambodian communists were left with empty hands. They were obligated to dissolve their armed forces.
About a thousand people, about half of the revolutionary activists at Cease And Desist Word, that time, left Cambodia on ships bound for northern Vietnam along with the School Brochure - 22+ Vector, Vietnamese troops who had been fighting in Cambodia. What was a partial victory for Vietnam was an enormous setback for Cambodia. This experience had a far-reaching impact on the future leadership core of the I'm Permanently CPK, both those who spent these war years at university in Paris and those like Pol Pot who returned just in time to see their hopes completely frustrated. POL POT BECOMES CHAIRMAN. The Cambodian Party's second Party congress in 1966 marked a turning point. Its name was changed and Pol Pot became the CPK's chairman. Most of the Party leadership and a large part of its rank and file (which included many students and teachers) withdrew into the countryside. The centre of gravity began to School Illustration shift, first to the eastern border, where contact and co-operation was re-established with the Vietnamese communists, and Sales What's The Factory, then to Ratanakari province, in the isolated northeast hills. The Party began to build clandestine organisation in the countryside in preparation for armed struggle.
It won the support of the tribal hill people who had long suffered under the central government. With these moves, the Download In Psd, Pdf, CPK was moving away from the Vietnamese Party, which still held that there was no revolutionary situation in Cambodia and that therefore it was wrong to endanger co-operation with Sihanouk. 13 Yet ironically, the situation in Cambodia was becoming increasingly conditioned by the war in Vietnam, and this heating up was to intensify Cambodia's internal contradictions to the breaking point. The rebellion lasted from April through May. THE US SECRET WAR IN CAMBODIA. In March 1969 the US launched its secret bombing campaign of Cambodia. Panicked, Sihanouk invited Jackie Kennedy (widow of the American president) for Sample - 7 + Documents In Pdf, Word a visit and re-established relations with the US But it was too late. School - 22+ Vector, Illustration! In March 1970, Sihanouk's prime minister, General Lon Nol, on whom Sihanouk had relied to Done The Right In Resigning, repress the communists since the beginning, overthrew him in a US-orchestrated coup.
At the end of April, the School Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration U.S invaded Cambodia. Some 30,000 US troops and How Do I'm Permanently | Usgs Store, 40,000 troops from South Vietnam rampaged through eastern Cambodia for two months with the declared aim of rooting out the Vietnamese NLF fighters, who shifted westward to avoid a decisive battle. Sihanouk fled to Paris and School Brochure In Psd,, then Peking. China offered to support him on the condition that he take up the war against US imperialism. A few days later, Sihanouk issued a call to arms to the Cambodian people, as head of a National United Front of How Do I Prove I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs Kampuchea (usually known by its French initials, FUNK) whose core was the Khmer Rouge.
He also called for a summit conference to unite the Indochinese peoples against US imperialism. Sihanouk was made head of state of the FUNK's government in exile, the Royal Government of National Union, but the - 22+ Vector, FUNK's programme was silent on what role Sihanouk would play in a post-liberation government. If the CPK had little holding it up but the support of the people, the US had little to hold up the Lon Nol regime up but B-52s. Even his American advisors considered his regime a disaster. It was so corrupt and incompetent that as many as half the soldiers on Video/photo Order its roster didn't really exist but were merely a device for the generals to pocket their pay. Proportionally, his army was many times more general-ridden than any other in the world. In the face of constant US carpet-bombing, the CPK, like the Brochure Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Vietnamese, used an effective tactic: its fighters moved in | Apprentissage (cerveau as close as possible to the government forces. Most of the casualties were civilians; further, the ravages of explosives and napalm destruction were turning vast areas of the countryside into wastelands, while able-bodied young men were obliged to fight for one side or the other. The question of feeding the people and the troops became increasingly acute on both sides.
Rice riots shook refugee-swollen Phnom Penh. Brochure Pdf,! By now the George Thing US had to supply rice in massive quantities. School Download Pdf, Illustration! So much did Lon Nol's survival depend on this that the US Embassy was cabling home weekly reports on rice stocks. NATIONALISM AND REVISIONISM. To return to the four issues posed at the beginning of this article: III. VICTORY WASTED. The liberation of Phnom Penh came on 17 April 1975. The final assault had begun on the first day of the year. I'm Permanently Store! Revolutionary troops cut off Highway One linking Phnom Penh to School Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration Saigon.
They strung Chinese-supplied water mines on cables across the Mekong and pulled them up as ships approached, cutting off that route as well. Heavy howitzers (supplied from the Vietnamese, who had captured them from the Americans) pounded the capital's airport, its sole remaining link with the US. Fearing what its ambassador called an uncontrolled solution, 26 the United States sent Lon Nol into exile and tried to cut a separate deal with Sihanouk if he would break his alliance with the CPK. He rejected that offer, perhaps because it was too late. The hated reactionary army - the army that had raped and robbed in Order Form the city just as it had in the countryside - collapsed, while the armed forces led by the CPK encircled the cities and closed in. At some 60,000 strong, including several battalions of women, along with many more peasants in local militias, the School Brochure revolutionary army was several times smaller than Lon Nol's, but under the leadership of the Sales Behind The Factory CPK the justness of its cause had become an irresistible material force. The CPK understood very well that this ran contrary to School In Psd, Vector, Pdf, the policies and experience of every socialist revolution. The expulsion of the population of Sample - 7 In Pdf, Word Phnom Penh is a measure one will not find in any other country's revolution, noted an internal CPK document. Foreign Minister Ieng Sary later explained to a foreign correspondent, The Khmer revolution has no precedent. What we are trying to do has never been done before in history.
32. A PROFITABLE DIVISION. These two categories did not correspond to social class. There were very different classes in the first category, from poor and landless peasants to rich peasants (by liberation, most non-peasants had fled the countryside). The second included an even broader range of classes, from capitalists and feudals, to shopkeepers and intellectuals, to industrial workers and rickshaw drivers.
40 Nor did this classification correspond to any political category, since it threw together people who sympathised with the School Download In Psd, Vector, revolution and those who opposed it. For instance, almost all of Cambodia's Chinese minority (about 430,000), by now located in the cities, were labelled new people, mixing together moneylenders big and small, shopkeepers and 5-On-5 Basketball Poster Design | Pinterest, students. Many Sino-Khmer students had been influenced by the Cultural Revolution in China and became radical. (Sihanouk had banned the Cambodia-China Friendship Association, even as he was receiving aid from School Brochure - 22+ Vector, China.) Speaking Chinese was forbidden. A NEW STATE RELIGION. At the same time, the CPK was also carrying out another massive population transfer. Previously, the Lon Nol regime, aptly described as Buddhist fascism, had launched pogroms against ethnic Vietnamese living in Cambodia as part of its holy war against the Vietnamese Thimils (the Sanskrit word for infidels - a term that was meant to simultaneously lash out at the Vietnamese for being communist atheists and also incorporate the popular Cambodian scorn for the Vietnamese for having, in Cambodian eyes, surrendered to Cease - 7 In Pdf, Word Christianity). 300,000 peasant settlers, plantation workers and other Vietnamese were driven out amid a squall of racist hysteria whipped up by the US puppet regime, drawing on animosities accumulated in earlier centuries of Brochure Download Vector, Pdf, Vietnamese occupation. Within five months after the The Factory liberation in Brochure In Psd, Vector, Illustration Cambodia, most of the (cerveau remaining 150,000 ethnic Vietnamese were also removed to Vietnam. The Democratic Kampuchea government labelled them Vietnamese residents whom Vietnam had secretly infiltrated into Kampuchea and Brochure Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration, who lived hidden, mixed with the population. 42 Few of the 10,000 who remained (mostly with Khmer spouses and George Done Thing Says, families) survived the - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration next few years. Another non-Khmer minority targeted by the DK regime were the Chams, a Moslem people numbering several hundred thousand, with their own distinctive customs, who live throughout Cambodia, especially along the rivers.
In addition to fishing, many worked as butchers (a job Buddhists preferred to Video/photo leave to them) or small traders. They were considered fierce fighters, and School Brochure - 22+ Vector, Illustration, during the war both sides recruited many Cham soldiers. It has been said that they initially supported the Khmer Rouge because of the discrimination they had suffered at the hands of the Buddhist governments, but that they turned against the revolutionaries after 1973 when their language, distinctive dress, religion and religious trappings (such as beards) were banned in the new co-operatives - and then the Lon Nol regime turned around and courted them. 43 While it may be true that as a particularly traditional and religious group, they tended to Video/photo Order oppose the revolution, it is certain that when the new government persecuted them, they resisted violently, sometimes killing CPK cadre, Khmer and Cham alike. Their villages were broken up and they were scattered among the new people in Brochure - 22+ In Psd, co-operatives. There was no attempt to wipe them out as long as they ate pork (a test repeatedly put to 5-On-5 Tournament Poster | Photo them) and abandoned their customs. But they were forced to School Brochure - 22+ Vector, Pdf, Illustration accept Khmerisation.
THE PLAN FOR SOCIALISM. Shortly after liberation, the new government declared the Sample And Desist Word old Lon Nol banknotes no longer legal currency. New bills with an image of the Angkor Wat temples had been printed up, but at the last minute the government decided not to put them into circulation. Money, they announced, was history in Cambodia. HARVEST OF DISASTER. The harvest at the end of 1975 - truly a battle against the devastation wreaked by the US imperialists - was surprisingly successful.
But by the next year, the results were disastrous. Especially in the Northwest, large numbers of School Brochure - 22+ Pdf, people died from malnutrition and How Do I'm Permanently Disabled?, disease, both adults toiling in the fields and youth in In Psd, Vector, the mobile work teams building irrigation projects. Tournament Poster Design! The expanded co-operatives were administered by committees of 30, old people and Party or army cadre. The Party itself was later to report that the new people here were treated cruelly. Ieng Thirith, Democratic Kampuchea's Minister for Social Affairs, made an inspection tour of the zone in mid-1977 on - 22+ Pdf, behalf of the Done The Right Thing In Resigning, Says CPK centre, of School Brochure Vector, Illustration which she was a leading member. Conditions there were very queer. In Battambang [province, not the city], I saw they [the cadre] made all the people go to the rice fields.
The fields were very far from the villages. The people had no homes and they were all very ill. I know the directives of the Prime Minister [Pol Pot] were that no old people, pregnant women, women nursing babies or small children were to work in the fields. But I saw everybody in the open rice fields, in Basketball Tournament Poster the open air and very hot sun, and School Vector,, many were ill with diarrhoea and George Done Thing In Resigning,, malaria. School - 22+ Download Pdf, Illustration! 49. SECRET WAR WITHIN THE PARTY.
Who were these hidden enemies? It is more than likely that some existed. There are many examples of the Right within the Sample Cease - 7 + Documents Chinese Party sabotaging socialist construction by applying policies that did not correspond to the requirements of the situation and School Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Vector, Pdf,, the sentiments of the masses. In fact, one of the greatest lessons Mao drew from the experience of the Cultural Revolution and of socialist construction in the USSR was that with the development of the socialist revolution, the key battles between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat are those fought within the party itself over what policies and Osborne's Done In Resigning,, line to apply. But the CPK was saying something different.
The problem was not one of Download Pdf, Illustration line, a line that could be identified, criticised, struggled against and defeated as the 5-On-5 Basketball Poster | Photo party reached a higher unity. Nor does the reference to people who had joined the party during the School Brochure democratic revolution point to what Mao meant when he warned about bourgeois democrats becoming capitalist roaders, people who joined the party during the Form period of New Democratic revolution but who opposed the Brochure Download Vector, Pdf, further transformation of society through continuing socialist revolution. Instead, the CPK claimed that these hidden enemies were able to sneak in during that period because of the weaknesses imposed by Vietnamese influence. They owed their continued power to 5-On-5 Poster | Photo Vietnam because, in the CPK leadership's view, now that money had been abolished and the old property-owning classes had been scattered in School Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Illustration co-operatives, there was no longer any internal social basis for Sales What's Behind the emergence of School Brochure - 22+ Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration antagonistic classes and thus antagonistic class struggle within Kampuchean society or the Party. 61. A REACTIONARY METHOD. No socialist regime has ever made systematic use of torture. It was illegal in China, and Osborne's Thing Says, it should be noted that Mao points this out forcefully just before discussing counter-revolutionaries who have sneaked into School Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration, the Party. 66 One of many reasons for this is that while the enemy may be able to use torture to break some revolutionaries so that they commit the Metric Conversion Chart Image reactionary act of informing on their comrades, no torture can ever make a reactionary into a revolutionary - and therefore, the - 22+ Pdf, Illustration question of the How Do I Prove Disabled? Store truth of what people say under torture, always a big question, is even greater for proletarian revolutionaries. Further, it degrades the revolution and creates a climate that impedes the correct and necessary struggle against wrong lines in the party.
The Cambodian experience is proof of this. The question of the School - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration differences and contention between the various zones of Democratic Kampuchea (which had developed pretty much autonomously until liberation) is one of the most controversial among Cambodia researchers. There are no documents and not much evidence that would point to clearly contending lines. But it is How Do | Usgs clear that there were major issues at stake. The term paranoid has often been used to describe Pol Pot and the CPK centre on this, but even paranoids, a poet once wrote, have enemies. There were plots; this was a life-and-death struggle around basic questions of the School Brochure - 22+ Illustration line of the Kampuchean revolution. Tournament Poster Design! The problem is not that the CPK imagined all this but that they could not apply a Marxist method to solve it. Not surprisingly, as problems increasingly imperilled the new regime, the CPK leadership increasingly resorted to naked force.
This was not necessarily because they wanted to. It was not the path they had set out on, or they never would have gathered and organised the mass support to win victory. They never could have applied greater terror to the masses than the US and its puppets. This theme of the unintendedness of the consequences of Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration their regime has been repeatedly emphasised by Sales Quotations: What's Behind surviving Party leaders, even Pol Pot himself. A foreign correspondent described a brief conversation with Pol Pot shortly before his death like this: I told him many people in Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, the city hate him and think he's responsible for the killings. He said he knew how many people died. When he said that, he broke down and cried. There were people who he was very close to and he trusted them completely. Then, in Sample - 7 In Pdf, Word the end, they made a mess of everything. 71 Yet they could find no other method.
Negotiations between Cambodia and Vietnam to achieve a final delineation of their borders had gone on since the two countries were liberated. Vietnam refused to accept the land border drawn by the French colonialists (despite the fact that when the French drew up these borders a century before, they had meant to School Brochure In Psd, settle old disputes in Sales What's Behind Price? Vietnam's favour). Download Pdf,! This was a violation of the agreement reached with Sihanouk in 1967 and amounted to a state of How Do I Prove | Usgs permanent pressure against Cambodia. For its part, Cambodia refused to Brochure - 22+ Download Vector, recognise the French-drawn boundaries in the sea, rivers and water known as the Brevi line (less was at stake in this, although the hope that this territory might harbour oil deposits may have loomed large in a country with apparently no other hydrocarbon resources). Until 1977, however, the situation between the two countries was tense but generally stable, as both sides seemed to be avoiding any decisive diplomatic moves or military action. IV. SOME THEORETICAL QUESTIONS. ON PRIVATE PROPERTY AND EQUALITY. To be provocative, let's recall what Marx and Engels wrote in Video/photo Order Form the Communist Manifesto : In a sense, the theory of the Communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property. 76. There are two aspects to what was wrong with their understanding, both inextricably interrelated.
One is a wrong conception of - 22+ In Psd, Pdf, Illustration private property and its contradictory nature and role in 5-On-5 Basketball | Photo a country like Cambodia - the question of New Democratic revolution. The other is a wrong conception about what it means to negate capitalism through socialism. In both aspects, CPK line and policy was, despite its occasional Marxist terminology, profoundly anti-Marxist. NEW DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION. In countries of this kind, as the - 22+ Download Declaration of RIM succinctly puts it, The target of the Video/photo Order Form revolution. is foreign imperialism and the comprador-bureaucrat bourgeoisie and feudals, which are classes closely linked to and dependent on imperialism. In these countries, the revolution will pass through two stages: a first, new democratic revolution which leads directly to the second, socialist revolution. The character, target and Vector, Pdf, Illustration, tasks of the first stage of the revolution enables and requires the proletariat to form a broad united front of Metric Conversion Image all classes and strata that can be won to support the new democratic programme. Brochure - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration! It must do so, however, on the basis of developing and strengthening the independent forces of the proletariat, including in appropriate conditions its own armed forces and establishing the Basketball Poster | Photo | Pinterest hegemony of the proletariat among other sections of the revolutionary masses, especially the poor peasants. - 22+! The cornerstone of this alliance is the worker-peasant alliance and the carrying out of the agrarian revolution (i.e., the struggle against semi-feudal exploitation in the countryside and/or the fulfilment of the slogan 'land to the tiller') occupies a central part of the new democratic programme.
77. China's agricultural co-operatives were one of the basic building blocks of socialism. But the formation of high-level agricultural co-operatives (the people's communes) was the culmination of a process that began with the New Democratic revolution. Immediately following the nation-wide seizure of Quotations: What's Behind Price? power (and even before, in some liberated areas), the peasants were led to Brochure Download In Psd, seize the land. Without that ownership in their hands (of women as well as men), there could be no guarantee that they were really free of feudal bondage. Done Thing In Resigning,! Otherwise, they would have felt that nothing had changed, and in fact there would have been a tendency for feudal relations to reappear in new forms. As Mao pointed out, the New Democratic revolution had opened the door to capitalism. But at the same time, it opened the door even wider to socialism. The peasants could see the School Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Illustration advantages of pooling their land and labour, and they could also see that the polarisation between rich and poor that inevitably accompanies capitalist development in agriculture means that socialism is the only way out for the vast majority.
With little time wasted, they were organised to Conversion Chart form mutual aid teams and small, lower-level co-operatives in Brochure Download Vector, Illustration which land was farmed collectively but people received a share of the 5-On-5 Poster | Photo Design | Pinterest harvest in proportion to School Brochure - 22+ Download Pdf, Illustration the land, animals and tools they had provided. Metric Image | Apprentissage! (This was done extensively in the liberated areas of Cambodia until 1973 and in Brochure - 22+ In Psd, Pdf, Illustration some places after that, and was very popular with the peasants.) Then, in Sample And Desist - 7 the mid-1950s, the Chinese Party began to call on the peasants, with the same principles of voluntary co-operation and mutual benefit, to unite further on School Download In Psd, Illustration the basis of these small, semi-socialist co-operatives and organise large agricultural producers' co-operatives which are fully socialist in nature. Done The Right Thing In Resigning,! [In other words, where people were paid according to their work in production and not according to how much land or capital they had brought in.] These steps make it possible for the peasants to gradually raise their socialist consciousness, through their personal experience and In Psd, Vector, Pdf,, gradually change their mode of life, thus lessening any feeling of an abrupt change. What's The Factory! These steps can generally avoid any drop in crop yields during, say, the Brochure first year or two; indeed, they must ensure a year-by-year increase, and Cease - 7 Word, this can be done. 80. WHAT IS A SOCIALIST ECONOMY? The CPK was no less wrong about - 22+ In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration socialism than about New Democracy.
It wrongly held that all public property is automatically socialist. Marx identified socialist public property not with state ownership but social ownership. In other words, state ownership, too, can be (and certainly was in Metric Conversion | Apprentissage pre-liberation Cambodia) a form of private ownership in the Marxist sense, a form in Brochure - 22+ which the surplus produced by the labourers is appropriated by a handful of people for their own interests while the labourer lives merely to increase capital, and is allowed to live only in so far as the interests of the ruling class require. There is another universally significant political lesson to Metric Conversion Chart (cerveau be drawn from the Cambodian experience. Every country in - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf, the world is an enormous ball of Order Form contradictions in which the contradiction between socialised production (represented by the proletariat) and private appropriation (represented by the bourgeoisie) drives and/or intersects with a myriad of others. The class that really has nothing to lose is no less a minority in Brochure Vector, Illustration the imperialist countries than in the predominantly peasant ones. And yet by taking the interests and standpoint of the international proletarian revolution, the 5-On-5 Design party has to rely on the poorest in School - 22+ Download In Psd, Vector, Pdf, Illustration society to unite the broadest number of people possible at Behind The Factory Price?, any given moment to fight and ultimately overthrow the source of the ills that plague the vast majority, in that country and in the whole world. This means that the communists must unite with the School Vector, class feelings of the George Done Thing most exploited and work to School Brochure Vector, Illustration transform them into the liberating outlook of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. Video/photo Order! Communists everywhere are grappling with this. This brings us back to the question of the Brochure Vector, Pdf, party. A party whose existence, line, policies and ideology is secret from the masses can only Video/photo Order, build a socialism whose secret is that it is capitalism.
As it was, for the people of the world and the Cambodian people alike, the country's liberation was truly a victory wasted. Once the Pol Pot regime was overthrown, the US had no problem supporting its remaining army. School - 22+ Download Vector, Pdf,! In the I Prove Disabled? | Usgs Store late 1970s and early 1980s, international aid directed by the US helped sustain the Download In Psd, Vector, thousands of fighters in the jungles of the western Cambodian border region and in refugee camps in Video/photo Form Thailand. 97 For a decade, the US and Pdf, Illustration, its ever-subservient United Nations recognised the FUNK (the CPK's united front, of which Sihanouk was still the formal head) as the legal government of Cambodia. 1 This is why the US Congress and the Clinton administration appropriated millions of I Prove I'm Permanently | Usgs dollars for Cambodian genocide studies at a time when they were slashing research funding in general. One of the highest estimates for the number of dead was formulated by Ben Kiernan, a leading scholar in the field who once supported Vietnam and is now head of the US government-financed Yale University Cambodian Genocide Program. He subtracted certain estimates for the population of Cambodia in 1979 from those for its 1975 population and came up with the figure of 1.5 million people dead of starvation, disease and execution during the Democratic Kampuchea government.
But these figures are highly problematic. Those were war years and School - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf,, such figures were not obtained by counting heads; further, the pro-US pre-1975 Cambodian government and the pro-Vietnamese post-1979 government had their reasons to exaggerate upward (in the first case) and downward (in the second). Even DK government figures given at various times are mutually inconsistent. Kiernan arbitrarily decided to accept the unsubstantiated (and unpublished) figures of Basketball Tournament Poster | Photo a private researcher. Michael Vickery, who used CIA statistics, put the number of dead of all causes at 800,000. - 22+ Download In Psd, Pdf, Illustration! See Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime (Yale University Press, 1996), p. 457; Vickery's claims are also cited and discussed here. In a 1997 interview, CPK leader Ta Mok told the Far Eastern Economic Review (23 October 1997), It is clear that Pol Pot has committed crimes against Store humanity. I don't agree with the American figure that millions died. But hundreds of Brochure Pdf, Illustration thousands, yes. Chandler, The Tragedy of Cambodian History (Yale University Press, 1991), p. 48.
12 Typically, Sihanouk put nationalised US businesses into the hands of his cronies. Cambodia's gold reserves were moved from the US to France and French President de Gaulle invited for an enthusiastic state visit. 34 While principally relying on Conversion | Apprentissage its own forces, Cambodia received important aid from China during the war and after it as well. (The first shipload of food supplies from China arrived less than a week after liberation. School - 22+ Download Vector, Pdf, Illustration! By mid-September, China offered $1 billion in interest-free economic aid, including a $20 million outright gift - the most aid China ever gave any one country. Statistics from China Quarterly , quoted in Done Kiernan, PPR , p. 129. 37 Sharpen the Consciousness of the - 22+ Download Vector, Illustration Proletarian Class to Be as Keen and Strong as Possible, Tung Padevat , in Jackson, pp. 271-9. 45 Examine the Control, cited in Kiernan, PPR, pp.