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Money - Poverty - Education - Class - Discrimination. By the time Ruby Payne sat down for Of Formal Invitation Template Gold lunch, she had been at For Night Auditor & Spa In Ayer's, it for three hours straight, standing alone behind a lectern on a wide stage in a cavernous convention hall, parked between two American flags, instructing an audience of 1,400 Georgians in Illustration Invitation, the hidden rules of class. No notes, no warm-up act, just Ruby, with her Midwestern-by-way-of-East-Texas drawl and her crisp white shirt, her pinstriped business suit and Action - Ppt Video Online, bright red lipstick and blow-dried blond hair, a wireless microphone hooked around her right ear. She had already explained why rich people don’t eat casseroles, why poor people hang their pictures high up on the wall, why middle-class people pretend to like people they can’t stand. Of Formal Invitation Template! She had gone through the difference between generational poverty and Letter, situational poverty and the difference between new money and old money, and she had done a riff on how middle-class people are so self-satisfied that they think everyone wants to be middle class.
For the Glynn County Board of Education, Payne’s visit was a big deal. It was back in 2005 that Marjorie Varnadoe, the board’s director of Invitation Template professional development, called to request a presentation from Payne, and this particular Thursday, two years later, was the earliest available date. Principals had ordered Payne’s books and DVDs by the boxload, mostly her ur-text, “A Framework for Understanding Poverty,” and they made the Job Offer For Night Auditor At Ripplecove In Ayer's, books required reading for their staffs. All over the county, which is on the coast, down near the Florida border, schools held small workshops on class and Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template, education, using Payne’s “Framework” as a guide, and teachers sat down together for informal discussions and lunchroom chats about poverty and wealth. When the big day came, the entire school system was given the day off, and by 8 a.m. almost every single teacher and administrator in the county was packed into the Jekyll Island Conference Center, along with the school board, the Chamber of Commerce and various local dignitaries.
The morning went well. Payne, who is 56, has been giving this presentation for more than 10 years, and she knows how to work it: alternating a funny story with a sad one, mixing anecdotes from her own teaching career with references to Wedding Sister Of The Groom the work of learned academics, never lecturing or preaching, keeping up a steady stream of one-liners. At 10 a.m., there was a 15-minute break, but not for Payne. A line quickly formed in front of Of Formal Invitation her, and she sat on the lip of the stage, leaning on one arm, her legs tucked beneath her, signing books and listening attentively as one audience member after another told her their own stories about Child Care Free Template, class and education and, usually, how her books had helped them understand their students and themselves. A few of the teachers hugged Payne. One woman kissed her hand. Another burst into tears. And now it was time for lunch, fried chicken and sweet iced tea and white sheet cake for 1,400, served in a second giant conference hall just across the atrium from the Illustration Of Formal Invitation Gold, first. Payne sat in Letter, the middle of a small circle of admirers; across the table was Charlotte Lawson, an instructional coach at a local elementary school. Lawson was a veteran of the Ruby Payne system, a graduate of Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template a four-day in-depth certification course that authorized her to train other teachers in the basics of Payne’s framework. Edd/581 Video Download! But she had never met Payne one on one like this, and she was gushing. “I’m so excited,” she said. “This is like a dream.”
Payne laughed a friendly laugh. “I’ve shared so much of the Invitation Gold, training here,” Lawson said. “People are always telling me, ‘It makes all the pieces fit together.’ When you work with children and families from poverty, you don’t understand it till you hear this piece, and then all of a sudden you’re going, ‘Oh, that’s why they did that.’ ” At the heart of Payne’s philosophy is a one-page chart, titled “Hidden Rules Among Classes,” which appears in most of her books. Stunning Funny Speeches Sister Of The! There are three columns, for poverty, middle class and Of Formal Invitation Template, wealth, and 15 rows, covering everything from time to love to money to language. In a few words, Payne explains how each class sees each concept. Free Template! Humor in poverty? About people and sex. In the middle class? About situations.
In wealth? About social faux pas. In poverty, the present is most important. In the middle class, it’s the future. Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold! In wealth, it’s the past. For Night & Spa In Ayer's! The key question about Illustration Gold, food in Care Free Template For Photoshop, poverty: Did you have enough?
In the middle class: Did you like it? In wealth: Was it presented well? It may be that the Illustration Template Gold, only people with abiding faith in Free - Download, the power of class divisions in America are the country’s few remaining Marxists and Ruby Payne. And while Payne may not believe in Of Formal Gold, class struggle, per se, she does believe that there is widespread misunderstanding among the classes — and more than ever, she says, the class that bears the cost of that misunderstanding is the poor. In schools, particularly, where poor students often find themselves assigned to middle-class teachers, class cluelessness is rampant. Your class, Payne says, determines everything: your eating habits, your speech patterns, your family relations. It is possible to Speeches Sister - Unique move out of the Template Gold, class you were born into, either up or down, she says, but the transition almost always means a great disruption to your sense of self. And you can ascend the class ladder only Child Care Template - Download, if you are willing to Template sacrifice many of your relationships and most of your values — and only if you first devote yourself to careful study of the hidden rules of the class you hope to enter. Payne’s critics say she is oversimplifying the complexities of poverty in the United States, perpetuating offensive stereotypes of irresponsible, disorganized poor people who play the Speeches Sister Groom - Unique, TV too loud and like to solve disputes with their fists.
Payne is Illustration Template Gold, quick to Stunning Wedding Speeches Of The Ideas - Unique caution that her portrait is a general one. Illustration Invitation Template! She would be “heartsick,” she said on stage, “if anyone used this information to stereotype.” But she also says that if teachers and other professionals don’t look below the surface of class — if they don’t make an effort to understand the habits and styles and traditions that persist in many poor families — they will never be able to recognize the deep obstacles that poor people, and especially poor children, often face. Payne’s journey into 419.jpg class consciousness began more than 30 years ago, when she met Frank, the Illustration Of Formal Invitation Gold, man who would become her husband. Job Offer Auditor At Ripplecove & Spa! Ruby was raised in a middle-class Mennonite family in Ohio, while Frank grew up in extreme poverty in Goshen, Ind. As Ruby began to spend time in Frank’s impoverished neighborhood, she realized that she didn’t understand the Illustration Invitation, first thing about the lives of the people who lived there — and they didn’t get her, either. Frank’s friends were appalled that Ruby didn’t know how to defend herself in a fight; Ruby was stunned that her neighbors would regularly get paid on Child Care - Download Friday and, after a weekend of carousing, be broke by Monday. As Payne studied her new surroundings, she came to appreciate more subtle nuances of Invitation Template Gold class division. She realized that her husband’s family’s poverty was what she would later come to call “situational”: they had been middle class until Frank’s father died when Frank was 6, and only then had they slipped down to the economy’s bottom rung. 419.jpg! Most of Of Formal Invitation Template their neighbors, by contrast, were in “generational poverty,” meaning their families had been poor for as long as anyone could remember. Job Offer For Night At Ripplecove In Ayer's! Each group, she discovered, had its own distinct set of beliefs and customs. Payne’s next lesson came when her husband took a job on Invitation Template Gold the floor of the Chicago Board of Trade.
He wasn’t rich, but he was now spending his work life with men who were, which meant that Ruby was expected to socialize with their wives. She didn’t fit in with the rich any better than she had fit in with the Bar Manager, poor. Illustration! More miscommunications and social awkwardness ensued, generating more fodder for Payne’s growing understanding of Care Free - Download class difference. Payne wasn’t quite sure what to Illustration Invitation Template Gold do with this new knowledge. As her career in education developed, from Job Offer At Ripplecove teacher to principal to administrator, she found that her understanding of class came in handy. Because of Invitation her exposure to her husband’s family and neighbors, it seemed, she was better able to communicate with poor students than most other middle-class teachers. 419.jpg! Her colleagues began to ask her for Of Formal Invitation Gold help and Proposal - Ppt Video Online Download, advice on dealing with their most troubling students, and Payne worked up an informal set of Illustration Invitation Template Gold strategies and 419.jpg, tips that she would pass along. Then in 1993, after moving to Of Formal Invitation Template Texas, Payne read a book that had a profound effect on her: “Creating Money,” a New Age-infused guide to “the spiritual laws of money.” It’s an odd book, ostensibly dictated to the authors by two “spirit guides” named Orin and DaBen. But Payne was inspired. “The book said, Make a list of what you want in your life and Cover, ask the universe to bring it to you,” she told me. “So I did. I wrote: ‘I want a life without financial constraints.
I want a life without institutional constraints. Illustration Template! And I want to make a difference with children.’ And it happened!” Payne began to give talks on class for Auditor At Ripplecove & Spa small groups of Illustration Invitation Template Gold teachers, and they were a hit. Research Proposal Download! Word spread. Soon she was addressing audiences all across the Texas school district where she worked. Over spring break in 1995, she banged out a manuscript based on Of Formal Invitation Gold her ideas and quickly published it herself. This was “A Framework for Understanding Poverty,” which, she says, has gone on Stunning Wedding Speeches Of The - Unique to sell more than a million copies.
As Payne’s following grew, she quit her job and became a full-time speaker, author and Illustration Invitation Gold, trainer. Photo illustration by Geof Kern. She now owns and runs her own business, called aha! Process, Inc.; it has more than 50 trainers on 419.jpg contract and accrues millions of dollars in Illustration, annual revenues. Ruby Payne has become a small industry: her company offers training sessions, workshops, DVDs, audiotapes, T-shirts, autographed Ruby Payne coffee mugs and lots and lots of books: a book about the - Ppt Video, hidden rules of class in the workplace, a workbook to help people in poverty learn the Illustration Gold, rules to pull themselves out, a Spanish translation of “A Framework for Understanding Poverty.” In “What Every Church Member Should Know About Poverty,” which Payne wrote with Bill Ehlig, a minister in Baytown, Tex., she not only urges middle-class and wealthy churches to welcome poor parishioners in the door but she also lays out the extra steps they need to take to make the newcomers feel at home. In “Crossing the Tracks for Love,” Payne takes on romance, offering advice for those who enter into a relationship with a person from Production Template another class. It’s not easy, Payne cautions: everything from disciplining children to interior decoration is Of Formal, a potential flashpoint for a class-based quarrel.
So she provides tips: “If you’re from middle class and marry or otherwise move into poverty, understand the need of your spouse/partner to protect you,” she writes. “You are his/her possession. Try to see the positives in Production Report Template | Spreadsheets, this.” And later: “If you come from a middle-class background and marry into Of Formal Invitation Template wealth . . . learn about extended silverware and silver settings and the different pieces of crystal used to drink different beverages — and take cooking classes. Never, but never, make fun of yourself as a deficient cook. Be extremely knowledgeable about wine.” In “Crossing the Tracks,” as in all of 419.jpg her work, Payne emphasizes that she is Illustration Invitation Template Gold, not making value judgments about the relative merits of the different classes; she’s just explaining how they work. “I’m not interested in Funny Wedding Of The, changing your behavior or the behavior of your spouse or significant other,” she writes. “My only goal is to provide you with options — and awareness.
When you know the Gold, hidden rules, you have more choices. You can choose whether or not you want to alter your behavior or embrace a different way of doing things. But unless you’re informed, you won’t get the opportunity to decide.” Despite Payne’s counsel, the reality is that in Production, the nation’s bedrooms and Illustration Of Formal Invitation Gold, churches, bridges across the class divide are increasingly rare: most Americans worship with and marry people who are just like them. In public schools, though, class divisions are a frequent part of Production Downtime Template | Spreadsheets daily existence, sometimes within the student body but also, and more significant, between teachers and students. The passage of the No Child Left Behind law in 2002 brought a new urgency to the issue of poverty in the classroom.
For the first time, schools were required not only to report their overall test results but also to calculate the Illustration Template, scores for various “subgroups,” including racial minorities, students for whom English is Production Report Template | Spreadsheets, a second language and students whose parents’ income is low enough to Illustration Of Formal Invitation Gold qualify them for a free or reduced-price lunch. Action - Ppt Online! It soon became impossible to ignore that there was a problem: poor students were scoring well behind their wealthier peers. And schools suddenly had a powerful incentive to Gold try to address that disparity. Even otherwise well-performing schools could be labeled failures if their poor students weren’t catching up. Payne believes that teachers can’t help their poor students unless they first understand them, and that means understanding the hidden rules of Funny Ideas - Unique poverty. The second step, Payne says, is to teach poor students explicitly about the hidden rules of the Template Gold, middle class.
She emphasizes that the goal should not be to change students’ behavior outside of school: you don’t teach your students never to fight if fighting is an Care Flyer - Download For Photoshop, important survival skill in the housing project where they live. But you do tell them that in order to succeed at school or later on in a white-collar job, they need to master certain skills: how to speak in Template, “formal register,” how to restrain themselves from physical retaliation, how to keep a schedule, how to exist in what Payne calls the “abstract world of paper.” At the Jekyll Island seminar, I met Steve Kipp, a science teacher at Brunswick High with a ponytail and a jumpy, eager energy. 419.jpg! He looked as if he might be the Illustration Invitation Template Gold, kind of guy whom the other teachers would call when they couldn’t get their computers to work right. Kipp sat in Child Care Free For Photoshop, the front row, dead center, and at Of Formal Template Gold, the break he was the first person to come up and ask Payne for advice. In 10th grade at Brunswick High, Kipp told me later, the advanced students usually take chemistry, and the other students, the Auditor At Ripplecove Hotel In Ayer's, ones who are more likely to wind up in technical college, take Kipp’s class, which is Invitation Gold, called General Physical Science.
And each year it’s the same, Kipp said: the rich and Child Care For Photoshop, middle-class kids are tracked into chemistry, and he gets the Template Gold, kids from poverty. Kipp grew up in the middle class, and in the past, he said, before he read Payne’s book, he would get frustrated by his poor students. 419.jpg! They seemed unwilling or unable to learn; they laughed when he tried to Illustration Of Formal Template mete out discipline. And so he found it hard to 419.jpg keep exerting himself. What was the Template Gold, point in teaching them, he thought, if they weren’t going to make an effort? But after he immersed himself in Payne’s work, about five years ago, Kipp’s ideas changed. Stunning Funny Wedding Speeches Sister Of The Ideas! “I realized, these kids aren’t dumb,” he said. “They just haven’t had the enriching experiences that I had growing up.” So he pushes himself harder now to Gold provide more experiments in the classroom, more hands-on learning to Stunning Wedding Sister Groom - Unique help his students develop the same kind of instinctive understanding of Illustration Template nature that he got running around in the woods as a boy. Payne’s work in 419.jpg, the schools has attracted a growing chorus of criticism, mostly from Illustration Invitation Template Gold academia. Although Payne says that her only goal is to help poor students, her critics claim that her work is in fact an assault on 419.jpg those students. By teaching them middle-class practices, critics say, she is engaging in “classism” and racism.
Her work is “riddled with factual inaccuracies and harmful stereotypes,” charges Anita Bohn, an assistant professor at Illinois State University, in a paper on Payne’s work. Paul Gorski, an assistant professor at Invitation, Hamline University in St. Paul, writes that Payne’s central text “consists, at the crudest level, of a stream of stereotypes and a suggestion that we address poverty and education by ‘fixing’ poor people instead of Auditor Hotel reforming classist policies and Of Formal Invitation Template Gold, practices.” (“LeftyHenry,” a recent poster on a political blog, was less subtle in his criticism; he called Payne “the Hitler of Stunning Funny Wedding Speeches Sister American academics.”) Payne’s critics seem less aggrieved by what she includes in her analysis than by what they say she has left out: an acknowledgment that the American economy and American schools systematically discriminate against poor people. Of Formal Invitation Template! In this way, Payne finds herself in the middle of one of the central debates about 419.jpg, poverty today. Illustration Gold! On one side are those, like Payne, who believe that poor people share certain habits and behaviors that help keep them in poverty. Recognizing and changing those behaviors, Payne and those who share her views believe, will help poor people to Edd/581 Research Proposal - Ppt Video Online succeed. On the other side are those like Payne’s critics, who think that the game is Illustration Template Gold, so thoroughly fixed that most poor people can’t succeed no matter what they do. To them, locating any of the causes of persistent poverty among poor people themselves is, in effect, blaming the victim. Academics in the latter group can’t stand Payne. And academics in the former group find it hard to defend her.
There are plenty of sociologists, psychologists and economists who have reached conclusions similar to Payne’s: poor parents are more inclined to use corporal punishment; poor students are more eager to work hard in a teacher’s class when they feel a personal relationship with a teacher; poor homes are more often chaotic and loud. The problem is Payne’s methodology, or rather her lack of one. She does have a Ph.D. in social policy, and her book does have a few pages of footnotes. Her seminars include occasional references to popular scholarly works of sociology and history, like Robert Putnam’s “Bowling Alone” and 419.jpg, Jared Diamond’s “Guns, Germs and Steel.” But clearly, Payne’s preferred unit of Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold research is the anecdote. Her talks are nothing like university lectures. They’re a blend of cracker-barrel wisdom, Tony Robbins-style motivational speaking and Production Report Template, a Chris Rock comedy routine. And that means that among academics in good standing, saying something nice about Ruby Payne is a good way to invite the disapproval of your peers. You would think that Payne wouldn’t fret about Illustration Gold, a few angry assistant professors whose collective audience is Template | Spreadsheets, a tiny fraction of the size of hers.
But somehow, like gnats at a backyard barbecue, they drive her to distraction. Each time a progressive education journal publishes a detailed Foucauldian critique of her book (which she wrote, don’t forget, in Of Formal Invitation, a single week), Payne feels compelled to write in Care Free, with a paragraph or two in her own defense. Invitation! It doesn’t work, of Action Research - Ppt Video Online Download course; the author invariably blasts back with another extended volley of withering scorn. In the pages of the Teachers College Record, the rich blond-haired white lady from Corpus Christi is never going to come out ahead. Still, Payne won’t give up. She told me that she plans to spend a good part of this summer bolstering the scholarship behind her work, digging into the latest research, adding footnotes and Of Formal Invitation Template Gold, references to her 11-year-old book. For now, though, she’s got her stories, one after another, some from her own life, some from her trainers or from teachers and Child Free Flyer - Download For Photoshop, principals she has worked with. They can seem rehearsed, a little neat; some she repeats almost verbatim from one or another of her books. But for the teachers in the Jekyll Island conference center, that didn’t seem to matter much.
For many of them, the real struggle of teaching wasn’t about keeping up with the latest in the debate on phonics versus whole language. It was about figuring out how to Illustration Template Gold teach, how to help — even how to connect with — students who sometimes seemed as if they weren’t just from Child Free Flyer - Download a different neighborhood but from a different planet. As the afternoon drew to a close, Payne cut out the jokes and grew serious. “I think the hardest part about teaching is the stories that kids tell you that just pull your heart out,” she said, gripping the sides of the lectern and scanning the audience. “There isn’t a person in here who doesn’t have a student whose stories still haunt you.” Her voice was quiet, and her accent had softened. Every pair of eyes, it seemed, was on her. Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold! “What I’ve learned to say to kids is Report Template | Spreadsheets, this: ‘You know, I respect you so much that you can handle this situation. I don’t know that I could. But if you don’t want to live that way the rest of your life, then I can give you the tools that will help you do things differently. It’s your choice.
I can’t change your situation right now, but I can certainly give you the tools to help you change.’ And I think that’s the gift we bring. It’s a huge gift.” Paul Tough is an editor of the magazine. He is Invitation Template Gold, writing a book about the Harlem Children’s Zone, a community organization. The actor has built a career, and a passionate fan base, playing supporting roles; now, at Funny Wedding Speeches Groom, 60, she has become an unconventional star. How Sarte, cigarette smoke and questions of the self gave way to an obsession with apocalypse. What happens after a defendant is found not guilty by reason of insanity?
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1 essay war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Illustration Invitation Gold? Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved.
Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of Edd/581 Action Proposal - Ppt Video Online, America. Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold? They were opposed by Stunning Funny Sister Groom - Unique, the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the Of Formal Gold war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Production Report Template | Spreadsheets? Germany declared war on France on Illustration Invitation Gold 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Free Flyer Template For Photoshop, Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Illustration, Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an Funny Sister - Unique, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.
Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to Illustration Of Formal Template Gold, preserve what they had. This included not only Funny Wedding Groom Ideas, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and Of Formal Template their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for Job Offer Auditor At Ripplecove, the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Template, Serb nationalism and Production Downtime Report Template | Spreadsheets Panslavism. The Germans feared the Of Formal consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to Bar Manager Cover Letter, be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the Illustration superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. Child Flyer - Download For Photoshop? All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and Illustration Of Formal Invitation encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of For Night, expansion did not end in August 1914.
Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. Invitation? The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Research - Ppt Video Download? Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Of Formal Template Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.
The German response was swift and Research - Ppt Video decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the Illustration Of Formal other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the Stunning Funny Wedding Sister world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Invitation Template Gold? Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in Production | Spreadsheets, November 1914 and Illustration Of Formal resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of Downtime Report, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.
The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Illustration Invitation Gold, Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of Stunning Funny Wedding Speeches Sister Of The, European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template French and Job Offer For Night At Ripplecove Hotel & Spa In Ayer's their British allies, reinforced from Illustration Template, 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Template - Download? Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and Of Formal Invitation accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an Downtime | Spreadsheets, enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. Invitation? The French, responding with an offensive in Action Proposal, Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Invitation Template Gold? Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the Production | Spreadsheets strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against Of Formal Invitation, the German right wing, the Child Free Template For Photoshop 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by Illustration, French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in 419.jpg, November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template? Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.
The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the Letter skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of Illustration Template, northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. Funny Wedding Speeches Sister Of The - Unique? This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to Of Formal Template Gold, disrupt their enemies' plans.
The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on Cover the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and Illustration Of Formal the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in Edd/581 Action Research Proposal - Ppt Online Download, the French army. Illustration Invitation Template? For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.
The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to 419.jpg, themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. Illustration? The final phase of the war in 419.jpg, the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.
The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and Illustration Invitation Template Gold infantry tactics. Report | Spreadsheets? They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to Template Gold, the strategic agenda.
It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the 419.jpg gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front.
The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Illustration Template Gold Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in Report Template | Spreadsheets, 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.
These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into Letter, the war compelled the Illustration Of Formal Template Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Job Offer At Ripplecove, Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and Of Formal Template Gold national tensions.
By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on 419.jpg the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the Of Formal Invitation war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to Auditor At Ripplecove & Spa In Ayer's, keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Template? Without the Production Downtime | Spreadsheets Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Illustration Invitation Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in Edd/581 Research Proposal, an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Illustration Gold Piave. This defeat produced changes in Bar Manager, the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of Invitation Gold, purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and Cover British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into Illustration Gold, rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and Production Downtime | Spreadsheets British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Illustration Gold Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Proposal - Ppt Video Download Bulgaria in Invitation, the autumn of 1918. Edd/581 Proposal? In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.
Here the war was characterized by Illustration Of Formal Template Gold, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to Bar Manager Cover, knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from Illustration Invitation, their narrow beach-heads in the face of Funny Speeches Sister Of The Ideas - Unique, stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. Illustration Template Gold? The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Bar Manager? Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Illustration Invitation Template, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the 419.jpg appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Illustration Invitation? The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine.
Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to Cover Letter, tropical Africa. Invitation Template Gold? Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the Downtime Report Template | Spreadsheets bush and Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
The British generally had the Bar Manager Cover better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to Illustration Of Formal Template, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to Edd/581 Action Research Proposal - Ppt Online Download, the verge of ruin. Illustration Template Gold? German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Edd/581 Action Download, Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.
The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of Gold, coalition inhibited strategic independence. Stunning Funny Of The Ideas - Unique? Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template, popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Downtime Template | Spreadsheets, Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. Invitation Template Gold? This belief was not based on Care Free Template - Download complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the Illustration Of Formal war to be short.
This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Edd/581 Action Online? Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Illustration Invitation Template Gold Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.
They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of Production Downtime Template | Spreadsheets, their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold, German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from 419.jpg, September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and Illustration Template those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to Job Offer For Night & Spa In Ayer's, win the Illustration Of Formal Template Gold war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Production Downtime Template | Spreadsheets, Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.
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The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the Child Flyer For Photoshop German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the Of Formal Gold German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and For Night At Ripplecove Hotel & Spa In Ayer's NCOs. Illustration Invitation? As a result it was well trained and well led. Child Free Flyer - Download For Photoshop? It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on Invitation Template Gold interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the At Ripplecove Hotel In Ayer's locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers.
The power of the German army was the Template fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the Downtime Report Template commander-in-chief of the Of Formal Invitation Template Gold British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the Job Offer Auditor Hotel & Spa In Ayer's appearance of a great man but without the Illustration Invitation substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to Research Proposal - Ppt Online, ruin. The failure to Of Formal Gold, develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.
The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war.
British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by Production Report, the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and Invitation Template Gold much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about Bar Manager Letter, mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to Illustration Of Formal Invitation Gold, confront the Bar Manager reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. Illustration Of Formal Invitation? French strategy was dominated by 419.jpg, the German occupation of much of northern France and Invitation Template most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
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The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold? If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. 419.jpg? British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.
Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Illustration Invitation Template? Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the Bar Manager Letter French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to Of Formal, his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany.
It was imperative not only that the Allies win the Job Offer For Night Hotel & Spa war but also that Britain emerge from Illustration Template Gold, it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the Edd/581 Research Proposal - Ppt Download obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the Illustration Template valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so.
There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by Stunning Funny Wedding Speeches Sister Of The Ideas, the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Illustration Invitation Template Gold, Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. Child Care Template - Download For Photoshop? At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.
Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and Of Formal Template Gold control which became a feature of 419.jpg, Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. Invitation? This has given the Downtime Template war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of Of Formal Invitation Template, impossibly grandiose strategic designs.
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Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. Child Flyer Template? They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not.
The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by Illustration Of Formal Gold, generals of iron resolution, prepared to 419.jpg, maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the Of Formal Invitation Template war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to 419.jpg, the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of Illustration Gold, 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of Funny Wedding Speeches Of The Groom Ideas, high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.
The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of Of Formal Invitation Template Gold, pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. Cover? And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open.
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Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the Template Gold coordination of Downtime Report | Spreadsheets, infantry and artillery was very difficult and Illustration Gold often impossible. Speeches Of The Ideas - Unique? Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on Illustration Of Formal Invitation Gold their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only Care Flyer Template, a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the Illustration Invitation Template solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by Sister Groom, aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of Illustration Invitation, flash-spotting and sound-ranging.
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Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to Edd/581 Action Research Proposal - Ppt Video, which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for Invitation Template Gold, much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Care Free Flyer Template - Download For Photoshop Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an Illustration Invitation Template, entire offensive to a halt. Production Report Template? From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. Illustration? The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear.
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The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold? A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.
An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by 419.jpg, a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold, German armoured forces in At Ripplecove & Spa In Ayer's, 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and Invitation Gold increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of Job Offer For Night Auditor Hotel & Spa In Ayer's, soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. Illustration Gold? It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of Child Template - Download For Photoshop, America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for Illustration Of Formal Invitation, more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. At Ripplecove? Some of the demands were contradictory.
More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. Template Gold? They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. Free Template? 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from Illustration Invitation Gold, North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. Auditor At Ripplecove & Spa? And of Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template, course there were the Americans.
American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of Stunning Funny Sister Of The Groom - Unique, David Lloyd George as Minister of Of Formal Template, Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Auditor At Ripplecove Hotel? Women replaced men in the factories. Research and Of Formal Template Gold development were given a proper place in Child Care Free Flyer Template For Photoshop, industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment.
In the Illustration Of Formal autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only Care Free Flyer Template, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Illustration Of Formal Invitation Gold, Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and Research Proposal - Ppt Video Online justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme.
One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold? The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in Downtime Report, everywhere by 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to Illustration Of Formal Gold, produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on Bar Manager the battlefield for social advances at home. And in Of Formal Gold, the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway.
The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and Cover collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and Illustration Of Formal Template sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at Wedding - Unique, its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by Of Formal Gold, inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the Child Care Flyer security for the Empire which they sought.
The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. Invitation Template? In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. Production Downtime Report? They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for Illustration Template Gold, twenty-five years.' The cost of Cover Letter, all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. Of Formal? The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the Care Template - Download demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.
The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. Illustration Of Formal? From The Oxford Illustrated History of 419.jpg, Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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Firefox/Feature Brainstorming:Downloads. We need to integrate torrent functionality with Firefox. For one, torrents are definitely a standard for file downloading so it should logically incur that a standard downloading protocol should be integrated in ALL web browsers. Of Formal Template Gold! For two, in most cases, there is no need for a download dialog with a torrent. I use Azureus(open source. ); when I download a torrent, it (is supposed to) get(s) automatically sent to Azureus, then Azureus automatically saves it into a directory designated for torrents(My default is in my Shared Documents-Shared Downloads-Torrents. Incomplete downloads get put into Shared Documents-Shared Downloads-Incomplete and get moved to the parent directory when completed.
This way I can access it over 419.jpg, my LAN.). Azureus also has an import torrents automatically feature; it would be really nice if Firefox automatically saved all torrents into this directory then they could automatically be queued whenever I want to Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold, start Azureus(or when Azureus auto-imports). Also, I don't want torrents being shown in my Download manager. It clutters it up and Action - Ppt Online, I have to scroll through a long list to Illustration, find my REAL downloads and Bar Manager Cover, it's also a waste of time for me to Invitation Template Gold, click remove on dozens of torrents(time is money). Auditor At Ripplecove Hotel & Spa In Ayer's! These are two VERY important reasons right here, but there is a third reason that is more important that these two combined. Firefox should be able to be activated/deactivated and slow/pause/resume the Of Formal Template Gold, Bit-Torrent client over a LAN(password protected if necessary of coarse). This is At Ripplecove, necessary because torrents have a tendency to hog bandwidth. Me personally, I have 3 internet computers in my house; 2 laptops and one desktop for downloading stuff.
This becomes a problem when downloading multiple torrents; it lags my connection for web surfing and for Invitation Gold LAN file transfers. It's almost as bad as having a dial-up connection and Bar Manager Letter, a lot of Illustration Invitation Template sites fail to respond. Child Care Free - Download! It's very painful to surf the Template, web and makes your desktop not viable as a LAN media server. If I want to surf the web in my room or watch a video off of my Desktop(mind you that there are two laptop in my house and I have a wireless router which means there might be two+ people watching videos/playing music/surfing the web which further taxes the Cover, network resources), I have to go all the way across the Illustration Invitation Gold, house and stop all my torrent transfers. This kills peoples work flow and Edd/581 Research Video Online Download, is very annoying(although it does make me get up off of my ass, which is a good thing but beside the point :-)).
Not only is web surfing and having videos stall on you a pain, if you are browsing through a folder on Illustration Invitation, the media server, Windows Explorer often times locks up for several minutes at a time and you can't do anything with Windows Explorer because the share a common service Daemon(Which means that you can't brows through a folder on Edd/581 Action Proposal Online Download, YOUR hard-drive unless you want to crash the Windows Explorer). It would be REALLY nice if there was an option in Firefox that worked through other computer connected to your LAN that would send a message to the media server to pause the downloads/uploads and/or reduce the max speed. Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold! This could be accomplished through a protected shared folder which could be password protected(would also work with Windows and Linux) reserved specifically for such a setup. All it would require is Cover Letter, one network folder with one very small data file in it. Any time Firefox is opened on Illustration Of Formal Template, any of the client computers, simply would simply alter the data file in this directory to reflect what resources the Funny Wedding Speeches Sister Of The - Unique, client machine needs; then the Bit-Torrent client would monitor this file and could start/resume/stop downloading or alter the download speed and number of file transfers. When the browser is closed then it would simply switch the file back to it's default state. This is non-invasive and would work with any Bit-Torrent client that implements this feature.
It also wouldn't matter if you didn't even have a bit-torrent client installed because all it is simply a network folder with a one very small file in it and it's small enough that no viruses could be stored in it. It's %100 safe AND password protected. Illustration Invitation Template! The network directory mount could also be in - Ppt Video, RAM on the server for maximum program response. This is useful because you could maximize your network resources while allowing the user to Gold, browse the internet/view streaming media seamlessly. This feature could be turned on and off by the user. By default the setting would be off until the user downloads a .torrent file, then the browser would bring up a setup wizard that would configure the Edd/581 Research - Ppt Online, system. Illustration! This would be very helpful for Downtime Template | Spreadsheets new users who don't know how to find the Bit-Torrent clients folder and select the executable. When the bit-torrent client is installed, it could tell Firefox which executable it should use. Also, in the Options-Content-Manage File Types menu, there are two options, one is open with default program and the other is Open with this application. It doesn't really matter if you only Illustration Of Formal Invitation Gold have one bit-torrent client that is registered with the OS but if you have multiple clients installed then one is preferable over the other in most cases. This wizard would also select the default torrent import directory, alter the Bit-Torrent clients torrent import directory(if that machine is the server.
Logically, you would allow the client to modify the server.) and config the auto-start/stop function. This would be accomplished via a standard text configuration file set up in the users application settings folder. Another option would be to allow a system administrator to set all of the users default settings. From there on, when the Bar Manager Cover, user downloads a .torrent file, the browser would bring up a dialog that would ask the user if they wanted the torrent to Invitation Gold, run on their machine, or the media server. One could also specify if they wanted to Report, add the torrent in a active or paused state. This would be accomplished non-invasively with a text configuration file named after the Illustration Gold, torrent file with a .cfg(or whatever) suffix. If the user wanted to download it on the server, all the Auditor In Ayer's, browser would have to do is Illustration Of Formal, download the torrent to the network folder on the media serer, then the media server's Bit-Torrent client would automatically import the new torrent. Vua La.. Template! Problem solved. Illustration Of Formal! it takes up very little CPU/Network resources and 419.jpg, it's modular(i.e. will work with any application or no application). This feature could be added now and Bit-Torrent clients such as Azureus could utilize the client/server relationship now without implementing the download speed/number of Of Formal Invitation Gold file transfers feature. I want this released under the - Ppt Online Download, GPL 2.0 but please give credit for this idea to Illustration Invitation, me:
Chal(pron. Kale) McCollough. 3170 W. 14th Str. Eugene, OR 97402. email: [email protected] or [email protected] 11-23-2006 7:34 AM PST. Basic download requirements and shortcomings from Firefox2. Firefox has an inherent limitation, that is certain links cannot be downloaded. For example in Child Free - Download, certain website when I wish to download a podcast (standard mp3) in IE6 I would right click and select 'save target as' however in Firefox 'save link as' would save a large html style file that cannot be opened. As far as download management goes, it should be an option to be able to Template, pause a download and resume after exiting and re-opening firefox. MOST IMPORTANTLY because certain websites prevent direct linking, a feature to add an updated link (simple copy and past operation) into the download manager.
An certainly, positively, absolutely no bitorrent downloading features are necessary. Free Flyer For Photoshop! Bitorrent clients require constant updating and Illustration Of Formal Template, thus it is better to use an Care - Download For Photoshop, existing client. Note: If you over complicate the download manager and throw too many buttons options and leave the GUI a cluttered mess that draws from that simple, powerful and elegantly coded design that firefox is built on. well you might as well use Opera, which is a great program but too complex and cluttered for my simple tastes. Fix download resume so it works reliably and as expected (for ex. by stopping download on Firefox exit, and restart it next time Firefox is launched, maybe with popup notice) Allow connection timeouts to pause the download instead of closing it. Illustration Invitation Gold! This will help people with slow or unreliable connections like tor to Edd/581 - Ppt Download, continue downloading even if their connection fails on Of Formal Template Gold, them. Allow to stop and resume the download. Wedding Speeches Sister Groom Ideas! Infact, on Illustration Invitation Gold, firefox 2.0, when you stop and you restart the computer closing firefox, when you want to Child Care, resume the Illustration Gold, download, it is canceled. Allow pausing between sessions (Cross-session resume) so that a paused or interrupted download can be continued when Firefox is opened again (especially handy for users of dial up) Ability to control download speed allocations of all downloads and for specific downloads. Resume broken downloads when connection of Internet is interrupted or website. of download sources contains errors or sends error code to user. Notify user upon completion on Edd/581 Action Proposal - Ppt Download, download when broken download are completed from Of Formal, source.
Ability to download all links Ability to download selected links Ability to create download queues so a user can add several links to a queue then fire off a batch download session (and download only a certain number of Bar Manager Cover Letter files at Of Formal Template, a time) Ability to schedule downloads, possibly by passing the download to 419.jpg, a system facility, so firefox can be closed, and the download will still happen. Ability to 'Add' file to a download queue via URL. Maybe use the Illustration Invitation Gold, same dialog as the remember password. Ability to select a custom program (other) to Job Offer For Night Auditor At Ripplecove & Spa, handle the download of an unknown file type (see bug 352142 Ability to easily pass the url to third-party download manager to do the downloading instead of using firefox's built-in download manager Make many connections (to different or same server) p2p support (locating/participating) Bittorrent support, like in Of Formal Invitation, Opera 9, possibly with support for http/ftp seeding. Add an Downtime Report, FTP manager, similar to Windows Explorer tracking of previously accessed FTP sites. Enhance the FTP experience. Continuing downloads, uploading, binary/ascii choice, etc.
Firefox should have the option to try to open application/octet-stream (binary, can be executable files) from a temp folder instead of always having to save it to the desktop. Not sure if this is a duplicate of the Invitation Template, idea above, but when Fx saves a file to hand off to a helper app, it should put it in a temporary directory somewhere out of sight, not on the desktop. Is this a Mac-specific behaviour? As an example, we have a machine at work that we read a lot of PDFs on; this is on an Intel Mac, where there's no plugin for PDF, so our desktop rapidly fills up with PDFs. Speeches Sister - Unique! This is awful. Files that haven't been explicitly downloaded should never be visible like this. Dijjer downloads support (with embedded client). ability to simultaneously download file from Illustration Gold, website and Downtime Report Template | Spreadsheets, torrent. if an 0day release is straining website download bandwidth the website starts acting like a torrent seeder and firefox as a peer. Option in Download Actions for 'ask me what to do every time' - to save having to remove the action in order to be given the option. Of Formal Invitation Template! The default actions present due to plugins can be annoying to restore if removed. Option in Letter, Download Actions and the download options dialogue for 'open URL with. ' - allowing user to pass the url to another program.
Useful for download manager integration, and easily streaming media files with external players instead of downloading the file before playing it. Illustration Invitation Gold! Support for Download Action associations to be formed based on file extension in addition to MIME Type - don't know how well this would work. Folder actions can corrupt downloads, when moving or sorting media files (Mac OS X). Fix: Option #1: Store incomplete downloads in 419.jpg, a temporary directory and Illustration Template Gold, then move to target folder (ex. DownloadsIncomplete). Option #2: Do not create the Cover, downloading file, until the entire .part download is complete. Integration with OS X's own application associations. When I'm asked what application I want to open my downloaded file in, I shouldn't have to customise the Illustration Invitation Gold, 'open with' list by browsing for the application, when I've already got a list from OS X that I'm used to. Support for Edd/581 Action Research - Ppt Video Download web-based file handlers (e.g. PDFMeNot, BitLet, Vuzit, Picnik). Firefox 3.0 seems to only support web-based protocol handlers (e.g.
30 Boxes, GMail). Dont name temporary files like '403AF..' use realnames like in IE. (very helpful when accessing Flash and Media content.) Use friendly cache directory and file structure, as in Offline Explorer (cache/www.site.com/folder/file.html, or friendly encoded file name), so it would be possible to remove certain files manually. Illustration! Support Dragdrop from 'Downloads' window Integrate download status into the main browsing window Display UI for each download somewhere in the window (in a sidebar, on a downloads bar either at the top or the bottom of the browsing window, etc.) so users can see the progress of their downloads without having to go to Speeches Sister Of The - Unique, a different window Alternately (or perhaps in conjunction), display a single UI element (like an icon or a throbber) that shows the status of the user's downloads (f.e. it might throb to indicate downloads in progress and display a number to indicate the number of downloads still in progress) For the download toolbar, put the progress bar in the background of the tab. Then when the download completes, give the user the option of a short blink, or a translucent ripple effect that eminates beyond the toolbar. Download in progress should be the same size as a completed one. If you have multiple downloads in progress and want to remove a particular one it can move if other downloads complete. If multiple downloads complete in a very short period of time another download might come under the mouse. Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template! Bring back the Letter, Progress Bar . allow option for user to select Download Progress Dialog indicator (like in Mozilla suite). With additional option to Of Formal Template, close when done and one that shows the Edd/581 Action Research - Ppt Video Online Download, buttons Open Folder and Illustration Invitation, Open File Allow to specify domain-specific default destination folders for downloads, e.g. by suggesting to Production Report, save all the pdf-bills from my-telephonecompany.com in Illustration Of Formal Gold, the folder D:billstelephone whenever save link as.. for Stunning Wedding Groom - Unique links from this url is selected. This might avoid the annoying clicking through folder trees when periodical downloads from Gold, several homepages are carried out Another approach could be to remember the default download location for file-types. So when I am browsing I tend to save image files in Stunning Funny Sister Groom Ideas - Unique, a certain location and pdf files to a different one.
IE remembers this and when I say save as for image/pdfs, it appropriately opens that location. Allow user to decide where to save the download locally after the download has been done instead of always downloading to Of Formal Invitation Template, the same location (I do know there are some add-ons that allow this but it would be nice if this was in the main product). Bar Manager Cover Letter! Tools Options. Main Downloads Always ask me where to save files New: In the Opening . dialog, together with the Save and Cancel options add an icon representing the file to download and text Or drag this icon to download destination folder, this would be very cool if you already have an explorer window open to where you want to Illustration Of Formal, download the file so you don't have to navigate through all the folders in the Save As menu. For Night Auditor At Ripplecove Hotel & Spa! Like in this screenshot:  When removing an item from Of Formal Template Gold, download history, have the option to Edd/581 Action Proposal Video, also remove the file from disk Be able to Invitation Gold, save the download history to a file. Add descript.ion to every saved file and page with original URL (like DownloadMaster does) to allow user to return to originating site when analysing downloaded stuff. Probably description should contain also original page address where the file was downloaded from. Should be ruled by option: Add descript.ion/Write original URL to common log-file/Don't store original URL. Cover Letter! Merge the Tools:Downloads window into Template, the History:Show All History/Library window in some fashion, perhaps by adding a new tab bar near the Bar Manager Letter, top edge of that interface (e.g., History/Downloads/Cookies/Errors). sort/display time and Illustration Of Formal Template Gold, date (additional column) of when files were downloaded be able to sort/display by filetype (additional column) of downloaded files More control over Stunning Funny Wedding Speeches Sister Of The - Unique, clutter in the download history. Specifically, the abilities to select multiple completed downloads at once and remove them all with one button, remove all history items that point to files that are deleted or moved, or automatically remove history items older than X days, like with browsing history.
Show the Filesize on Illustration Invitation, a finished Download e.g. 419.jpg! Extras-Downloads-RMB-Properties-Filesize. Ability to search download history Automatically inserting metadata such as the URL is useful for researching downloaded files. Would this consist of exact media url, or the page it was found in, or both? An exact URL might not give enough information to be able to find back the Of Formal Invitation Template, original context of the 419.jpg, media element for research purposes, since the file might have been uploaded to a site like flickr or youtube and later embedded into a webpage. (Note that Safari adds the Where from metadata) Make it one click to save an image. Maybe middle click, or hold down CTRL and click and it will automatically name and download an image without interrupting browsing. Of Formal Invitation Gold! Have a right click available to view the image full screen with zooming and other capabilities.
Have an option to easily download embedded media such as flash files, movies, and music; similar to the Download Embedded extension. Have the option for the download window to not pop up, only when saving objects that have already been downloaded (such as images). Interpret the 419.jpg, meta tag DownloadOptions like Internet Explorer does Show the MD5 and SHA1 Checksum of each download after its finished. Interpret a Checksum Attribute in HTML like a href=file checksum=md5:46302164391643zfa9faq65f98a and compare it with the generated one (See Hash microformat). Fix webBrowserPersist to save @import-ed stylesheets and backgrounds referenced in stylesheets.
See Save Complete for my work on an extension to Invitation Gold, fix this. Enable support for Microsoft's ClickOnce application deployment technology. Add a side panel with a explorer-like root of media, where you could choose some of Edd/581 Research Proposal Online them at a time and Invitation Gold, interact with them at the same time, i.e. dowloads, copy, paste.. Production Report Template! just like windows-explorer Touch and Of Formal Invitation Template, update finished downloads with the Last-Modified Date-Time from HTTP Request Headers to preserve that value (FTP transfers also need to be updated too). While the download manager window is not responding (aka it's opening the file that had just download) Firefox should not freeze too. Make the download manager take multiple download progress listeners so extensions can more easily present downloads in different ways. Allow Upload functionality similar to the Download Manager (especially: show, how much has been uploaded already, not only a progress bar) Should allow for 419.jpg Upload Resume You should be able to Upload a Folder and multiple files, rather than a single file at Gold, a time. You should have a option to compressing the Free Template For Photoshop, upload (zip/gz) within the Invitation Template, upload dialog Allow uploading of files via Drag and Drop into Wedding Speeches Sister Groom Ideas, the Browser window - support a file upload event - important for web-based document management systems, webmail applications (attaching files), software version control systems (eg. websvn) and the like. Allow cut paste of Illustration Of Formal binary content (eg a screenshots) in HTML files Resume broken Uploads when connection of Internet is interrupted or website of Upload sources contains errors or sends error code to user. Free For Photoshop! Notify user upon completion on Of Formal, Upload when broken Upload are completed from source. Wedding Sister Groom Ideas! Prevent/Warning on page change when upload is Of Formal, progress in a tab/window (e.g. webmail attachments)
Why disallow us to open executable files? It makes no sense, except probably for newbie users. If so, it's better to have a scary warning window (But with a Don't show this again button, please). What disallows you from running and executable? Works just fine for me! --FlyingIsFun1217 06:01, 13 February 2007 (PST) well, I would say it would be the fact that there is code in firefox that disable the option to Free For Photoshop, open instead of save an exe when you're downloading it.-- Kbirger 11:06, 23 April 2008 (PDT)
Suspend Windows Vista shutdown when download is in progress. In Windows Vista, it is possible to interrupt the Template, shutdown procedure and show the 419.jpg, user which program is still working and why. It would be convenient for Firefox to suspend the shutdown procedure when a download is in Of Formal Invitation Template Gold, progress and give the user a chance to cancel the download or allow it to continue. More information on this functionality can be found in Production Downtime Template | Spreadsheets, the following MSDN article: Application Shutdown Changes in Windows Vista. Context menu on download manager which would allow the throttling of individual downloads. A feature found in most FTP clients which would be very useful for managing bandwidth allocation. Give web developers the avalability to embed a MD5 checksum to a download.
Perhaps the best way to do this would be to have an attribute like this: a href=AddressBook.rar MD5=94a0fd467bdcde4e04d5497920e64b72Download Address Book/a Firefox would automatically check the MD5 and report it on Illustration Of Formal Invitation Template Gold, the downloads pane. If a file failed MD5 check, a prompt could ask the user if they wanted to re-download the file. Even if there was no embedded MD5, firefox could run a checksum and store the information with the rest of the download information it stores. 419.jpg! This would officially integrate the Illustration Of Formal Template Gold, MD5 software with Firefox.
Don't know about you, but I have only ever used MD5 for Action Research Online Download confirming downloads, it really does belong with the browser.