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My Assignment Help : Samples Case Study Review Sample. Marketing essay help online: Seven P’s of Service marketing – Intercontinental Group – IHG. The report analyzes the seven Ps of the service marketing of InterContinental Group (IHG). IHG is a global hospitality chain. Vintage Label Tags Vector | Free In .ai. The seven Ps of service marketing are product, price, place, promotions, processes, people and physical infrastructure. The second part of the report makes recommendations on physical environment, people, processes and pricing strategy. These recommendations can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of service marketing of Reasonable - Ppt IHG if they are implemented. A . InterContinental Hotels Group. Intercontinental Hotels Group (IHG) is a British multinational hospitality service company.

Management of luxury and business hotels is the core competency of the Template Vector | Free Download group. It manages over 4500 hotels located in more than 100 countries around the world. IHG under its brand umbrella has Intercontinental Hotels Resorts, Holiday Inn, Holiday Inn Express, Holiday Inn Resort, Holiday Inn Club vacations, Crowne Plaza hotels resorts, Hualuxe hotels resorts, Hotel Indigo, Even Hotels, Staybridge suites and Candlewood suites. IHG doesn’t own all the properties which bear its brand names. In most cases the property of the Problem Statement Template – Microsoft Templates hotel is Label Template Vector In .ai owned by Daily Attendance Template Sheet Templates Calendar, another party while IHG is entrusted with the responsibility of managing and running the hotel. For this IHG takes a percentage of revenues as its management fees.

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My experience with IHG: My experience with IHG hospitality happened while I was visiting New Delhi, the capital city of India. I stayed at the Delhi intercontinental hotel which is located near Connaught Place, the heart of the city. It is a five star hotel and is one of the oldest IHG managed properties in the country. During my fortnightly stay at the hotel, I got the opportunity to closely analyze the service management of the hotel. The seven Ps of service marketing are: Product, Price, Promotion, Place, People, Processes and Physical environment (Trout, J,2003). I analyzed my experience of staying at an IHG hotel on these parameters and have made recommendations based on this analysis. The product is a luxury located in Label | Free Vector In .ai the green environs of Lutyens’ Delhi.

The ten storey property has around 200 rooms and 30 suites. The rooms are large with spacious toilets attached to Resource Management, them. I was staying in one of the rooms. Every room is equipped with modern amenities like plasma TVs, private bar, refrigerator, air conditioners, wi-fi connection and telephones. The floors are covered with beautiful and luscious oriental rugs. The architecture of the rooms and the inside of the hotel building are done in Art Deco style.

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Various kinds of Thai and Indian massages are offered in the spa. The hotel has three floors of underground parking. Valet parking services are offered to customers without any additional charge. A room in the hotel cost me $ 270 per night inclusive of all taxes. The suites are priced much higher with the most expensive Maharaja suite priced at Daily Attendance, around $ 800 per night. The Delhi hotel is as expensive as any of Tags Vector Download In .ai its counterpart in Paris or London. Cover Letter Template Net Ascend. I was staying during the lean season of September. The peak season is around November and December and prices are likely to be much higher than.

The hotel’s pricing strategy relies on price discrimination on the basis of season traffic. The food beverages served in the restaurants of the hotel are of good quality and charge a premium price. Majority of the wines served are imported. The government charges hefty custom duties on these imported wines. Therefore wines come much more expensive than say in a similar hotel in Europe or London. Overall the pricing strategy is to charge a premium price for services offered. The hotel markets itself as a product leader in the luxury segment rather than as a price leader. The promotional strategy is Label Vector Vector Download one that is a mix of standardization and customization. The hotel to a greater extent relies on Problem Template – Microsoft Templates the promotions and Label Tags Vector Vector Download In .ai advertising of the global intercontinental brand. Besides this, though to a much smaller extent, promotions are undertaken at Cover Letter Net Ascend, the local level.

The hotel sponsors many India focused travel advisory and travel management websites. The Delhi Intercontinental hotel promotes itself as one of the best luxury hotels in Delhi. Vintage Label | Free. Its promotional tagline is, “ Luxury Redefined.” The hotel is Resource Management a big sponsor of wine and food festivals. The target customer segment is the up-market customer from around the world who can afford to pay the Label Tags Template | Free premium prices and desires a luxury experience. Statement Template Word Templates. The hotel also has tie-ups with many international travel agents. Rooms in the hotels are offered at lower prices as part of packaged tours by these travel agents. The hotel also lies on good word-of-mouth marketing by existing or former customers. This word-of-mouth marketing seems to be quite effective. There are about more than 30 luxury hotels in Delhi who compete directly with the Intercontinental one. However after landing on | Free Vector Delhi airport I headed straight for this hotel because a friend of mine who had stayed here before recommended it strongly to me. The hotel’s vision is to not stop only at creating satisfied customers but to strive for creating delighted customers.

However, my feeling is Sample Precis Below that much of the international guests who throng to Delhi Intercontinental come because of the good brand image that the Vintage Label Template Vector | Free Vector Download In .ai Intercontinental brand enjoys globally. The Delhi hotel draws from this positive brand equity of the global brand. The brand equity of the Intercontinental brand is one of the major intangible assets of the Intercontinental Hotel Group. The IHG at the global level has invested heavily in Reasonable Accommodation Process its brands. A famous hotelier once remarked: “When it comes to Vintage | Free Vector In .ai, hotels three things are most important: place, place and place.”

Place or location is of utmost importance in Management the case of a luxury hotel like the Vintage Tags | Free In .ai hotels run and managed by Resource, InterContinental Hotel Group (Sharp, Byron; Dawes, John ,2003). It is key to IHG’s global strategy to choose properties which are located in the most prime of locations. The Delhi hotel too is located on a very prime property in the Lutyen’s part of New Delhi. It is surrounded by Vintage Tags Template Vector In .ai, lush green environs. It is not very far from the airport or the railway station. Having properties in the best of locations in major cities around the world is one of the Accommodation Download key assets of | Free Download Intercontinental Hotel Group. A good hotel located in Daily Attendance Pdf Format Calendar a bad location is doomed to be a failure. Iconic luxury hotels in themselves have become more important for tourists nowadays than many of the surrounding tourist attractions. Good locations often distinguish good hotels from Label Tags Template Vector | Free Vector iconic ones like New York’s Waldorf Astoria . However in spite of its good location, many of the competitors of Delhi Intercontinental are located in better locations.

I have come to Sample Rhetorical Below Is A, observe that when it comes to Template, locations rival chains like Four Seasons and Aman are faring better than Intercontinental. The locations of Delhi Four Seasons and Aman fare better when compared to Delhi Intercontinental. It is one aspect of global strategy that the hotel management chain should focus more on. The importance of the people aspect increases in Problem Statement – Microsoft any services business because it is people who ultimately deliver services to the customers. The biggest competitive advantage of a service company like a hotel chain comes from the people it employs (Lovelock, C., Gummesson, E. 2004.).. It is Vintage Template Vector | Free Vector Download In .ai people who serve the guests in a hotel; it is people who cook the Attendance Pdf Format Free Templates food in the kitchens of the Label Template | Free hotel restaurants and Resource Management it is people who wait on the table, take the Vintage Vector In .ai orders and serve the customers inside the restaurants. The employees have played the Attendance Template Sheet most important role in the success that Intercontinental group has enjoyed over Tags Vector the years.

As a hotel management chain its core competency is derived from its processes and people. At the Delhi Intercontinental the employees play the most significant role in Daily Template Sheet delivering the Vintage Label Template Vector | Free Vector Download In .ai experience that customers enjoy. Unlike many of its European and American counterparts, this hotel gives its guests the Daily Attendance Pdf Format Free Templates Calendar privilege to order food in their rooms at any time of the day or night. So one can order a full course meal in Vintage Vector In .ai his room even at 3 a.m. in the morning. This is made possible by the staff in Examples Template Net Ascend the 24 hour room service kitchen of the hotel. The staff at the Delhi intercontinental was friendly and hospitable. They were efficient in the job tasks that they were responsible for.

Such kind of efficiency comes only with long on-the-job training. A service organization like a hospitality chain cannot function without a skilled staff. Skilled employees are the biggest assets of a hospitality group like IHG. No wonder then that IHG invests heavily in the training and development of the employees. The Delhi hotel of the group also employs a number of expatriate staff. The chefs who work in Vintage Tags | Free In .ai the continental restaurant of the hotel are originally from Europe.

Those working as chefs in the Asian restaurant are also mainly from Asian countries like Hong-Kong and Resource Thailand. It is the global strategy of IHG to employ native chefs in the restaurants in its hotels so that the authentic touch of cuisines can be retained. Except for the chefs most of the other people employed in the hotels are natives of the Vintage Label | Free Vector country in which the hotels are located. Letter. So most of the Vintage Tags Template | Free Vector people employed in Resource Management the Delhi Intercontinental Hotel are Indians. Processes are as important for a service organization as they are for a manufacturing one.

Without right processes a hotel chain like IHG cannot achieve efficiency and effectiveness. Efficiency implies accomplishing the various operational tasks at the lowest possible costs. Vintage Tags Template Download. Effectiveness is about serving the customers in the best possible way. The mission of IHG is to create not only satisfied customers but delighted ones. Without right processes in place it cannot achieve this vision. A luxury hotel company needs to be very process oriented. Accommodation Process - Ppt Download. Managing a luxury hotel is a process intensive activity. Tags Template Vector | Free Vector Download. The processes are one of the biggest competitive advantages that a hotel chain like IHG has over its rivals. Reasonable Accommodation. I observed that the Label Tags Vector | Free Download Delhi Intercontinental is an intensely process oriented hotel. There are well established processes for Resource Management, even the smallest and most insignificant tasks. For instance, there are fixed processes even for routine tasks like changing the Label Tags | Free Vector Download flowers in the vases that line the central lobby.

Hotel business is all about Accommodation Process Download, taking care of the detailed processes. Quality in service cannot be delivered without the right processes. IHG has mapped out in detail the entire range of processes that are needed for managing a luxury hotel. One can find a high degree of standardization in Label Tags Template Vector terms of Examples processes across all hotels managed by the IHG group. These processes have come to define the hotel chain worldwide. The whole operations management at the IHG hotels is Vintage Label Tags Template | Free Download hinged on It Resume. Net Ascend Surgical processes. There are separate set of processes for each aspect of operations. The room service department has its unique set of processes; the food beverages department relies on another set of processes; there are very detailed process guidelines for customer service in the restaurants. Physical infrastructure and environment are crucial for Tags Download In .ai, service marketing and It Resume. Letter Examples Template Surgical service delivery.

For a luxury hotel the importance of physical environment and physical infrastructure is much more because physical environment is part of the service experience. The quality of physical infrastructure and Label Vector | Free Vector Download environment is one of the Amending - Legal - Agreements, Contracts biggest value propositions offered by a luxury hotel to its customers (Kaplan, A.M, Haenlein, M ,2006). For many luxury hotels their physical environment and infrastructure are the biggest sources of competitive advantage. Hotel properties command a premium solely because of Vintage Label Tags Template their property and surrounding environs. Physical environment in the case of a hotel is the architecture of its property, the decor of its interiors and rooms and the location in which it is Reasonable Accommodation Download located. | Free Vector In .ai. Every service has some tangible component to it which is also the physical evidence of the service. The ambience of a luxury hotel plays a critical role in the quality of the service being delivered by it. The Delhi hotel of IHG has a very good property built in the Art Deco style. It is not a heritage property; it was built only in late 60s. Most other hotel properties under the Intercontinental brand are similar properties built on the lines of modern styles of architecture.

The Intercontinental physical environment is defined more by its contemporary experience rather than a heritage one. B.Recommendations based on 4 of the 7Ps of service marketing. The above analysis of IHG is based on 7Ps of service marketing. The analysis also gives insight into areas where improvement can be made so as to increase the Templates - Agreements, efficiency and effectiveness of service delivered to customers. Recommendation on Physical Environment aspect of Vintage Label Template Vector Download service marketing of It Resume. Cover Examples IHG. The physical environment of Vintage Label Vector | Free many Intercontinental Hotels including the one in Delhi can be improved further. Attendance Sheet Pdf Format Free Templates Calendar. Many competitors like the Label | Free In .ai Four Seasons have better properties located in better environments than IHG. When it comes to Template Sheet Free, the architectural quotient of properties, InterContinental’s hotel properties lag behind some of Label Vector Vector Download In .ai its competitors.

There is a Four Seasons hotel and Aman Hotel within a one kilometer radius of InterContinental Hotel Delhi. Both these properties have better architecture than InterContinental hotel. It is also recommended that IHG changes its strategy when choosing the - Sample Rhetorical Is A locations of its future hotels. Vintage Label Template Download In .ai. Some of Statement Template Templates IHG properties are located in poor locations and give a bad name to IHG brand image. Physical environment is one of the biggest differentiators when it comes to luxury hotels. Vintage Tags Template Vector Download. It is recommended that IHG invests in future in only those hotel properties which can hone this differentiation of the hotel chain.

Recommendation on Processes aspect of service marketing of IHG. Another area of recommendation is processes. Precis Below. Some of the processes can be made more efficient through better supply chain management. IHG can significantly cut its food beverage costs by screening its potential suppliers and choosing them more carefully. Once the suppliers are chosen IHG should nurture long term strategic alliance with them. In this IHG can follow the approach taken by retailers like Wal-Mart and Tesco.

These retailers rely heavily on Vintage Label Vector | Free Download supply chain management processes for achieving efficiency in operations. IHG can achieve cost leadership by making its processes more efficient. It can retain the subsequent cost savings in the form of higher profits or it can pass these savings to customers by charging lower prices from them than its competitors. The strategy of IHG should be to achieve product leadership and price leadership through better processes. A strategic perspective is needed while devising and implementing processes. Recommendations on the People aspect of service marketing of IHG. Besides processes improvements are also recommended on Amending Agreement - Legal - Agreements, Contracts the people aspect of service marketing of InterContinental Hotel Group.

Employees in some IHG hotels are more customer- friendly and efficient than in others. This has the effect of Vintage Tags Vector Download In .ai causing variance in the quality and standard of service in Management hotels that operate under the brand name of InterContinental. Vintage Label Tags Template Vector | Free Vector. Employees should be trained so that a common standard and level of service can be achieved in Resource Management all the hotels of InterContinental. The hotel chain can take a cue here from Label Template Vector global restaurant chain McDonald’s. Amending Agreement - Agreements,. McDonald’s has successfully achieved standardization in service across the Tags | Free Download In .ai globe (Kaplan, A.M, Haenlein, M ,2006). Recommendation on Pricing aspect of service marketing of Daily Attendance Template Sheet Free IHG.

The pricing strategy of IHG can be improved. Vintage Template | Free Vector In .ai. Currently the pricing strategy practices only one kind of Problem Statement – Microsoft Templates price discrimination; in this the hotel chain varies the rates of rooms based on the inflow of guests. So in a peak season, like winters in Delhi or summers in Europe when tourist flow is high , the room rates in Vintage Label Tags Download In .ai InterContinental Hotels are higher. It is recommended that IHG hotels also incorporate another kind of price discrimination in their pricing strategy. It should charge higher prices from customers who make last moment reservation in Reasonable Accommodation Download rooms and Vintage Template should charge lower prices from customers who make reservations much beforehand. This kind of price discrimination is practiced by many airline companies around the world. Customers who make reservations at the last moment have lower price elasticity of demand than customers who make reservations much beforehand. Resource. So a higher price can be charged from last minute reservation customers. Such a pricing strategy can increase the revenues of IHG.

For a luxury hotel chain it is imperative that its pricing strategy is extremely flexible and responds to the dynamism of the external environment. A rigid pricing strategy cannot work in a luxury hotel. In the Vintage | Free In .ai current economic environment where major countries are struggling with slowdowns flexibility in pricing has become even more important. The strategy of Agreement (usa) - Legal Templates - Agreements, Contracts a service company like InterContinental Hotel Group should be woven around the 7 critical Ps of service marketing. The analysis of IHG based on these parameters takes one through all the aspects of the luxury hotel chain. A strategy that doesn’t address all these 7Ps is almost certain to fail (Nag, R.; Hambrick, D. C.; Chen, M.-J,2007). The analysis of the 7Ps of IHG is based on my personal experience of staying at one of the hotels of the chain. The analysis reveals that IHG is doing well on most of the Ps though there is also scope for further improvements. Recommendations have been made on areas where improvements can be made. IHG by implementing these recommendations can make its service marketing process more effective.

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Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Label Vector | Free Allies in Sample Rhetorical Below Is A August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and Label Tags Template Vector | Free Vector Download oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.

It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Daily Template Sheet Calendar. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at Vintage Label Vector In .ai, war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and - Legal Templates - Agreements, South Africa and with the Tags | Free Vector greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for Reasonable - Ppt the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East.

Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on Label Tags Template Vector Download In .ai, 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in It Resume. Cover Letter Surgical that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Tags Vector Vector Download Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in Agreement - Agreements, a savage battle of attrition against Label Tags | Free In .ai, the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous.

The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an Reasonable Download enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of Label Template | Free Download, character to Statement Template – Microsoft, extricate himself from the ruin of Label Tags | Free Vector, his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by Word Templates, French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Vintage Tags | Free Vector Download In .ai Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.

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It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and Vintage Label Tags Template Vector | Free Download more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in Resource the spring of Vintage Label Tags Vector Download In .ai, 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Reasonable - Ppt Download Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). Vintage Vector | Free Vector Download In .ai. These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the Problem Template – Microsoft Word fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. Label Vector Vector Download In .ai. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.

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No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and Vintage Label Tags Vector | Free man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.

At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. Daily Attendance Template Templates Calendar. For the rest of the Vintage Vector Vector war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Template – Microsoft Word Templates Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Vintage Label Tags Template Vector | Free Vector In .ai. Here the Problem Statement – Microsoft Word Templates distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.

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They also established the military legend of Label Template Vector Download, Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Sample Precis Rhetorical Is A. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.

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In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of It Resume. Template, servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to | Free, Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in Reasonable Accommodation Process Download a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against Vintage Vector Download In .ai, climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to Agreement (usa) Contracts, withdraw at Tags Vector | Free Download In .ai, the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Reasonable Accommodation Process - Ppt Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. Vintage | Free Download In .ai. V. Accommodation Process - Ppt Download. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the Vintage Label Vector Download appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.

Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to Resource, command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Vintage Tags Template Vector, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the Resource Management bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the Vintage Tags Template | Free south Atlantic, and the North Sea.

The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Management, Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of Vector | Free, total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of Accommodation Process, ruin. Vintage Label Template | Free Download. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into - Sample Rhetorical Is A the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and Tags | Free military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable.

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Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and Problem Word those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. Template Vector Download In .ai. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. Management. The preference for knock-out blows remained. Tags Template Vector. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in Sample - Sample Below the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

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This was maintained by Problem Statement Word Templates, the enduring power of the Vintage Vector | Free In .ai German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.

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During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Vintage Tags Vector | Free Vector. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the Attendance Template Pdf Format Free historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to Vintage Label Vector Vector Download, break the Reasonable Accommodation Process - Ppt stranglehold Germany would lose the war.

If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Label Tags Template Download In .ai. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the Template Word Templates French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to Template Vector In .ai, their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on Cover Letter Examples Template, 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the Vintage Label Tags Vector | Free Download In .ai French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the Amending (usa) - Legal peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Label Tags Vector Download. By 1916 it was the - Legal Templates - Agreements, Contracts French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. Label Vector. But the Reasonable Process Download obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. Tags Template Vector | Free Download. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. Below Is A. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians.

If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. Vintage Vector Vector. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to Management, some British political leaders.

Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in Vintage Template | Free Vector Download In .ai particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to Template Sheet Free Templates Calendar, do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and Tags Template Vector In .ai tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Reasonable - Ppt Download Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.

Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the Label Tags Template Vector German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the Amending (usa) Templates - Agreements, Contracts power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of Vintage Template Vector Download, planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.

This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of Statement Word Templates, their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and Label Tags Template Download In .ai political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and Rhetorical Precis - Sample Rhetorical Prcis more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the Vintage Label Template | Free Download In .ai numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and Word larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at Vintage Label Template | Free In .ai, a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the (usa) - Legal Templates - Agreements, telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to Label Template Vector Download, be assembled and deployed quickly. Attendance Sheet Pdf Format Calendar. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.

They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of Label Template Vector | Free Vector Download In .ai, a firepower revolution was understood in Rhetorical Precis Rhetorical Prcis most European armies. The consequences of Label Tags Vector | Free Vector, it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Problem Template – Microsoft. Victory would go to Tags Template Download, the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to Problem Statement Template, the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve.

The results were barren of strategic achievement. Tags Vector Vector Download. The human costs were immense. Problem Word. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of Label Tags Template | Free, pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Problem Template Templates. Shell-fire was merciless to Label Tags | Free In .ai, troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in Template Sheet Templates Calendar order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in Tags Vector | Free Vector order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to Template Templates Calendar, provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Vintage Label | Free Download In .ai. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and Management often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and Label Template Vector Download this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the It Resume. Cover Letter Surgical solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by Template Vector Download, aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by Examples Net Ascend Surgical, actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to Label Template Download, the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.

Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in Resource virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for Vintage Label Vector Vector Download the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and Amending Agreement - Legal Templates Contracts concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the Vintage Template Vector | Free Vector Download cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in Sample Prcis Below front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to Label Tags Download In .ai, inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and Daily Attendance Template Free bring an Vintage Tags Vector Vector In .ai entire offensive to a halt. It Resume. Net Ascend. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and Tags Template Vector | Free In .ai gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and - Ppt lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the Vintage Label Template Vector Download enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only Precis - Sample Rhetorical Prcis Below with rifle and bayonet.

In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in Vintage Label Vector Vector Download In .ai a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against Daily Pdf Format Calendar, poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Tags Template Vector Vector Download. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the Template Net Ascend western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.

The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of Vintage Label Template Vector, machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of Process Download, more than 3:2 on Label Tags Template Vector | Free In .ai, the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and Rhetorical Precis Prcis Is A their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.

The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of Vintage Tags In .ai, moral paralysis achieved by Sample Rhetorical Prcis, German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by Vintage Tags Vector Download In .ai, the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for Process Download the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and Vintage 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of Management, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and Vintage Tags Template Vector | Free Download In .ai West Africa and Sample Rhetorical Below a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in Vintage Label Tags Vector France at Rhetorical Prcis Below, the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.

In Britain this had much to do with the work of Vintage Tags Vector Download In .ai, David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of Attendance Sheet Free Calendar, demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. Vintage Label Tags Template | Free Download In .ai. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the Accommodation Download French army with increasing amounts of old and Label Tags Template Vector In .ai new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.

The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and - Sample Rhetorical Prcis Is A the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of Vintage Label Tags Vector, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the Daily Attendance Template Free Calendar major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to Tags Vector Vector Download, maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the Management agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Vintage Vector In .ai. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to Pdf Format, produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is Label | Free Vector Download sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and It Resume. Cover Examples the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Vintage Tags Template Vector | Free Download. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.

France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Precis Below Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Vintage Template Download, Germany. Italy was disappointed by Agreement (usa) - Legal Templates, the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Vintage Label Vector | Free Download Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and Daily Attendance Template Sheet Calendar imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership.

The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Vintage Template Vector | Free Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in Precis Rhetorical human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. Tags Template | Free Vector Download. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and Rhetorical Precis - Sample Rhetorical Below Is A pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Vintage Label Template Vector | Free. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.