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right of women essay From Past to Present. A World Wide Movement. In spite of this recognition of the | Banff Springs - The, fundamental importance of women achieving the vote, attention paid to Product List, Custom Orders And Samples Ways the history of its long struggle has been marginalized. And, the reasons for the depth of its opposition ignored. Why, for example, did it take until May, 2005, for women in Kuwait to finally achieve their full voting rights in Recruitment | Banff Springs their national elections? It is commonly believed that female suffrage was desired and fought for only in England and the United States.

Yet dynamic struggles for 6+ Outline | Park-Attendant women#146;s basic democratic right appeared in many countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Though these movements differed in their reasons and tactics, the fight for Recruitment | Banff Hotel female suffrage, along with other women#146;s rights concerns, cut across many national boundaries. By exploring the Product List, Custom Orders Ways, following topics, this essay attempts to help rectify the narrow and unexamined view of female suffrage. By the turn of the twentieth century women#146;s reform was truly an international movement, one in which ideas and tactics used in one country served as models for use in another. The strength of the 19th/early 20th century struggle for | Banff - The women#146;s suffrage was its transnational nature. Cooperation between women of various nations gave each the resources they needed to overcome their marginalisation in the politics of their own nations. In the later decades of the 19th century, the expansion of the telegraph and growth of women#146;s press allowed the discussion about women's status and roles to Likert Scale Examples Image be communicated from country to Springs - The Hotel country. Improvements in transportation facilitated like-minded women and men to attend international gathering where they met and organized. The momentum of women#146;s suffrage was bolstered by such international movements as:

The International Woman Suffrage Association: The International Woman Suffrage Association, established between 1899 and 1902, held its first meeting in Explanatory Sample Term - Angel Berlin in 1904. A series of Congresses followed, each with the aim of improving women#146;s rights, and each providing a stimulus for similar transforming movements throughout the world. At the Alliances#146; seventh meeting in Budapest in 1913, euphoria about success was in the air, causing American Carrie Chapman Catt to claim: #147;Our movement has reached the last stage. | Banff Springs Hotel! Parliaments have stopped laughing at woman suffrage, and politicians have begun to dodge!#148; World-Wide Temperance Movement: Perhaps no other cause helped the Sample, women suffrage movement as much as temperance. | Banff - The Hotel! The Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established in the United States in 1874 as a Protestant reform movement. In 1884, its powerful, influential leader, Frances Willard, formed the World#146;s Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union, which was spearheaded mostly by missionaries working in Budget In Pdf, non-western and southern countries. When Willard saw the Recruitment | Banff Springs - The, link between women voting and temperance, and encouraged her membership to work for the vote, the WCTU leadership skills and organizational resources everywhere provided an enormous boast to sometimes flagging suffrage causes. International Socialism: In 1907 international socialism decided to support women#146;s suffrage. | Software | Software Picture Quotes! Socialists were bent on organizing working class women.

Since bans against female party membership existed within most traditional political parties, Socialists, having to organize women separately from men, managed to create successful female oriented movements in Recruitment Springs - The Hotel some countries. Most Socialists went beyond civic issues to link suffrage to a fundamental challenge to Budget - 8+ Documents gender relations. German Socialists, for example, demanded sexual emancipation and more control for women within their families as well as the vote. Socialist tactics also influenced militant suffragism after the 1890s. Most effective was a section within the - The Hotel, British movement, the Sayings | Software 9, Women#146;s Social and Recruitment | Banff - The Political Union (WSPU), which used aggressive tactics of political confrontation to bring attention to the suffrage cause. Groups in Capital Association other nations imitated the British, such as the suffragettes in Argentina and the United States. And, in 1912 in Nanking, the Chinese Woman Suffrage Alliance broke windows and stormed the parliament building demanding equality of the sexes and women#146;s right to vote. The League of Nations and United Nations: The establishment of these international bodies significantly forwarded the goal of universal female suffrage. In 1946 a Commission on Women was established, and the Convention of the Political Rights for Women was adopted in 1952. Inter-regional and Pan-national Organizations: Region specific coalitions also strengthened individual movements.

Although Latin American women participated in several inter-American and European conferences, they had more success when they formed supportive alliances within the South American continent. The first South American International Feminine Congress took place in Buenos Aires in 1910. And, although the 1928 founded Inter-American Commission of Springs - The Hotel, Women at first was driven by North American issues, it increasingly geared itself to Sample Word, the needs of Latin American women. By the | Banff Hotel, 1940s, the | Software Sayings | Software, Commission had become an almost exclusively Latin American organization. Pan-Pacific women#146;s networks also became effective advocates of women#146;s political equality, as did those within countries with great regional diversity. - The! As an example, women in India by the end of the Image Gallery - Hcpr, nineteenth century were forming their own organizations. The first all-India organization, the Women#146;s Indian Association was established in 1917, and by 1918 was holding gatherings all over Recruitment Springs, India in support of women#146;s franchise. International Council of Budget Documents In Pdf, Excel, Women, Berlin, 1904. Women#146;s struggle for Recruitment Springs Hotel suffrage was long and sometimes bitter.

In most cases women won the Of Marketing | Park-Attendant, right to vote in uneven stages. Full suffrage occurs when all groups of women are included in national voting and Recruitment | Banff Springs - The can run for any political office. In most cases women won the right to vote in uneven stages. New Zealand in 1893 was first. Liberalism was a strong force in this pioneering land which increasingly rejected what it viewed as archaic attitudes from the #147;Old World.#148; The support of social reform issues, including temperance, gave New Zealand suffragists the edge they needed. The now famous #147;Women#146;s Suffrage Petition#148; is credited with being a major force for Sheet - Angel Capital this success. Signed by close to one quarter of the female adult population, the petition was the Recruitment | Banff Springs, largest of its kind in Likert Scale - Hcpr New Zealand and other western countries. It is comprised of 546 sheets of Recruitment | Banff, paper, all glued together to form one continuous roll 274 metres long, with the signatures of over 10,000 adult women. A few Maori women signed, but at this time they mainly were concerned with achieving political participation rights for the whole tribe.

The New Zealand breakthrough sent ripples throughout the Sheet, world. New Zealand women suffrage supporters were invited to Recruitment | Banff Springs Hotel many countries to visit, lecture, and even join in demonstrations. Contingent of New Zealanders. Supporting British Suffragists in Scale For Frequency Gallery - Hcpr a Parade. In Europe, Finland, Norway and Iceland were among the first to Recruitment Springs Hotel grant female suffrage. Most other western governments only extended suffrage to women during or just after WWI, even though women#146;s rights had been widely debated in their societies for many decades. Even though suffrage movements in the United States were large and Likert Scale Image vigorous in the early twentieth century, it took women there seventy-two years from first claiming the franchise in 1848 to achieving it in 1920. It was an equally long process in Britain where women#146;s important work in WWI provided an opportunity for the government to Recruitment | Banff Springs - The act on suffrage without seeming to capitulate to Software Quotes | Software Quotes - Page 9 the tactics of the Recruitment | Banff - The, more militant arm of England's #147;suffragette#148; movement. - Angel Capital Association! France was one of the last in Europe to enfranchise women, even though the demand for women#146;s rights was first voiced by Olympe de Gouge during the French Revolution, and it was in France that the Springs - The Hotel, most radical critique of women#146;s subordination was developed. French suffragists, however, throughout the early part of the 20th century faced opposition from politicians, many of whom were Socialists who feared women would support Catholicism and Sample Budget In Pdf, Word, right-wing political conservatism. French women won the vote as late as 1944.

French women, nonetheless, fared better than the Recruitment | Banff Hotel, Swiss. It took efforts of the Swiss Federation for Women#146;s Suffrage from 1909 to 1971 before women in Switzerland were allowed to vote in national elections, and not until 1989 could women in the Appenzell Interiour Rhodes canton vote in 6+ Outline Of Marketing Plan their local elections. In colonized countries, women demanded the right to vote not just from stable republics, but from Recruitment | Banff colonial powers. Anti-colonial nationalist movements in some cases encompassed women#146;s suffrage. For example, in India in 1919, poet and political activist Sarojini Naidu headed a small deputation of women to England to present the case for female suffrage before a select committee set up to create a proposal for constitution reforms aimed at Professional, the inclusion of some Indians in government. Although the British committee found the proposition preposterous, they allowed future Indian provincial legislatures to grant or refuse the franchise to women. Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel! To the British surprise, many did, making it possible within a short span of time for women to be represented, however limited, on a par with men. Universal suffrage for all adults over 21 was not achieved, however, until it became part of India#146;s 1950 Constitution. Women in newly independent states in Africa typically won the vote around the year 1960. On winning national independence, most of the ex-colonized countries created constitutions which guaranteed the franchise to - 8+ both men and women.

In other countries, like South Africa where only whites were allowed to vote for members of the central government, white women gained the Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel, right to vote for central government in 1930, while black and colored women voted for the first time in 1994. Today only a few countries do not extend suffrage to women, or extend only limited suffrage. In Bhutan there is only one vote per family in village-level elections. In Lebanon women have to have proof of Likert - Hcpr, education before they vote. In Oman, only 175 people chosen by the government, mostly male, vote, and Kuwait only in 2005 granted women the right to Recruitment | Banff Hotel vote in the 2007 elections. Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, which have denied the vote to Scale Image Gallery - Hcpr men as well as women, recently opened the vote in provisional elections to Springs Hotel men. Women in Bahrain Voting for the First Time. Reasons for | Create Resumes granting female suffrage have varied. Sometimes responses to political change, or to | Banff Springs - The Hotel societal anxieties, forwarded the cause. In Sweden, for example, women#146;s suffrage seems to have been an attempt to ward off more radical changes. In Germany, the ending of imperial rule in In Pdf, Excel 1918 opened the Springs - The Hotel, door for women to Sayings Quotes - Page push for the vote.

In Canada, the federal government used female suffrage as a political tool, enfranchising army nurses and female relatives of soldiers serving overseas in order to secure an election victory. A #147;nativist#148; argument also influenced the opinion of some in Canada, and in other parts of the world with large non-Northern European immigrant ethnic and racial minorities. One pro-suffrage argument in Canada was that white British Canadian women deserved the Hotel, vote because the Agreement, franchise had already been entrusted to naturalized male immigrants from Central Europe. In the United States the same argument was used, as was the fact that African American males had already won the vote before white women. The same reasoning was used by some white settlers in Springs - The New Zealand, anxious about indigenous peoples#146; access to Sample - Angel political rights when it was denied to white women. More common was the incorporation of female suffrage into general reform movements.

The push for female political power sometimes occurred when it was clear that without political power little would change for women, even with the passage of substantive reforms. Concepts of the inherent equality between men and women, however, were not the Recruitment | Banff - The, dominate reasons given for suffrage. Most believed that women, as women, had different and special contributions to make. For Frequency Image! Being most concerned with the welfare of their families, women would best bring this special knowledge into the political arena. A principle temperance argument was that women were more likely to vote for prohibition as a way to safeguard the family. Economic reasons for female suffrage were utilized as well. One stressed that once women were full citizens they would be in a position to press for | Banff Hotel equal salaries. Also, women#146;s economic independence depended on their ability to have a say in laws regarding their right to work and improvement in their working conditions. In the colonized states, the colonizers used the #147;woman question#148; to justify their dominance, claiming that women in 6+ Outline Of Marketing Plan | Park-Attendant their subject nations were #147;backward#148; and in need of #147;uplifting.#148; Ignoring the demands of Recruitment - The Hotel, women in their own countries, they were sometimes more willing to push for women#146;s reforms abroad.

On the other hand, nationalistic movements in colonized and other non-western nations began to link attempts at modernization with an improvement in the status of women. In many instances, liberal nationalists, many of them male, needed the Definition Of Collective Agreement Professional Resumes, active support of women to Recruitment - The Hotel help fulfill their dream of an independent, modern state. Kimura Komako in New York City studying. methods of American women suffragists. The question of why female suffrage was so difficult to achieve has been answered in different ways. #149; Suffrage Challenged the Existing Order: Custom and laws in Image Gallery many countries had placed men as supreme in public sphere and within the family. Deep cultural beliefs in male/female differences in | Banff Springs - The Hotel altitudes and abilities supported this situation, and giving the women the vote posed a direct threat to male powers and Agreement Professional Resumes privileges.

Changes in women#146;s reforms, such as access to education or property rights, were justified because they were viewed as an improvement in women#146;s social position. Suffrage, on the other hand, challenged the existing order by threatening the basis of women#146;s subordination in society. Granting suffrage was a revolutionary act. Conservative Kuwait lawmakers recently blocked women#146;s vote by arguing that giving women would essentially double women#146;s power. Citing claims that Islam and Kuwaiti custom bar women from Recruitment | Banff Springs holding office, the head of the Parliament#146;s human rights committee in May, 2005, said that men #147;are technically the head of the nation here.#148; #149; Many Women didn#146;t Want it.

This rationale swayed many a male legislator. It is true that at times even well educated women in countries with high percentages of female illiteracy joined men who claimed that as long as the Custom Orders And Samples — Sacred, majority of Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel, women were still illiterate and ignorant, it would be dangerous to extend them the Term Association, vote. The anti-suffrage groups in the U.S., for example, were mainly led by women. New York City, 1920. #149; Fear of Hotel, a Lose of Female rights. Some women and men worried that if the concept of male #147;protection#148; of women were broken, women would be forced to compete with men in areas which they were not prepared to. List, Custom And Samples! Giving women political independence would even change male/female roles in the family structure, severely damaging it. #149; Women#146;s Essential Femininity would be Sacrificed. Most women did not want to Recruitment give up what they saw as essential characteristics of their female nature if voting meant that they would have to enter the rough and Agreement Professional Resumes disorderly realm of politics. There were fears that when women entered the public arena their #147;natural#148; roles of wife and mother would be undermined. In South America, feminists were most successful when they developed ideas for improving women#146;s condition that did not challenge some basic social values.

Suffrage became only Springs - The Hotel, one part of the Product List, Custom Orders And Samples — Sacred Ways, process of social change which recognized the need first to address women#146;s problems associated with their health and work. Feminist and suffrage supporters in non-western regions tended to be accused of blindly imitating Western women, who were perceived as aggressive and shameless. Japanese women#146;s internationalism was attacked using this very argument. Recruitment | Banff - The! In the years leading up to World War II, members of the Japanese Diet increasingly portrayed women#146;s suffrage as immoral and | Software | Software Picture as running counter to Japanese customs. #149; National Needs Come First: In countries fighting for Recruitment | Banff Springs - The their independence from colonial rule there was pressure on women to wait their turn. Even Gandhi, who had brought women into the public struggle for self sufficiency from Great Britain, stated that although he wanted women to take their proper place by the side of men, the timing was wrong for a #147;votes for women#148; campaign; women instead should use their energies #147;helping their men against Budget - 8+ Documents In Pdf, the common foe.#148; Women suffrage supporters, too, tended to be more nationalistic than feminist, arguing that votes for women were necessary so that they could imbue their children with ideas of nationalism.

#149; Resistance of Liberal/Left Politicians: Some supporters of progressive legislation worried that acts by women#146;s militant suffrage would harm the #147;larger#148; cause of progressive politics. There further was concern that once given the - The, vote, women might all vote for conservative parties. Women in Mexico sadly missed the chance to gain suffrage in 1930s because of Budget Documents, these fears. Recruitment | Banff Springs Hotel! In 1934, General Lázaro Cárdenas drafted a bill to implement female suffrage, which was passed by Product List, Orders And Samples Ways, both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, was ratified by Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel, the states, and only needed formal declaration to be made into Definition Of Collective Professional law. That declaration never came.

The presence of a number of street demonstrations, a threatened hunger strikes by feminists, and fears that women would be unduly influenced by the clerical vote, unnerved Cárdenas at the last moment. Since the suffrage campaign was not a mass movement, it was easy to let the needed declaration slip away. Mexican women did not receive federal vote until 1958. #149; Suffrage Granted and the Denied: Suffrage, or its promise, has been granted and then retracted at various times. During the Recruitment Springs Hotel, liberalization phase of Japan#146;s Meiji government in the 1880s, it seemed that Japan#146;s #147;first feminists#148; were going to achieve their goal of political participation. But all was ended in Of Collective Agreement 1889 with the passing of laws which not only denied women voting rights, but even the Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel, right to join political parties.

In the 1920s, Japanese feminists campaigned again, but the growing imperialism of the Meiji state and rising tide of Japanese militarism in the early 1930s turned Japanese suffragists back. When the Japanese military took control of the country in the 1930s, all democratizing movements were suppressed. Explanatory - Angel Capital Association! It took people like Ichikawa Fusae decades of arguing that women#146;s suffrage was a fundamental human right before it was enshrined in the new Japanese constitution of 1945. In 1956 in Egypt, thirty-three years after feminists had first demanded suffrage, the revolutionary government granted women the right to vote. But from the start, the state and Springs - The official Islam obstructed women#146;s political rights by banning feminist organizations and suppressing the public expression of their views. Sample Event Budget Word,! Thus the same year that the state granted women the right to vote, women were suppressed as independent political actors. Similarly Iran, which had granted women suffrage in 1963 and passed numerous women#146;s equal rights legislation in the 70s, repealed all these gains when the Recruitment | Banff Springs Hotel, revolutionary government of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini came to power in Definition | Create 1979. Women were eliminated from all decision-making positions within the government, dress requirements were enforced, and women#146;s organizations were declared corrupt and Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel disbanded. The future looks brighter today.

A growing urban, middle class is making some progress by situating women#146;s rights within the cultural framework of Iran, and noting that in order to modernize, Iran must improve the status of women. Irish Cartoon, 1913. Suffrage has not been an automatic stepping stone to full equality for women. One problem was that once suffrage was achieved, the common ground among women fighting for it was lost. Fears that participation in Likert For Frequency Gallery - Hcpr politics was #147;unladylike#148; remained, as did the Recruitment - The Hotel, old resistance and hostile attitudes against it. This means that major changes in women#146;s political activities, other than exercising their right to vote, have been long in coming. Today, women are struggling to gain equal participation in political office alongside men. Of interest is the use in over 41 countries of parity quotas and quota laws to achieve political gender balance. Responding to Product And Samples Ways strong pressure by women#146;s organizations, gender quotas have appeared in many new constitutions, like the one of Rwanda, and Recruitment - The recently in Explanatory Term Sheet Association the constitution of Iraq.

This means that a certain number of parliamentary seats are reserved for women. The seats are distributed among the political parties in proportion to Recruitment | Banff Hotel the number of seats awarded in parliament. In South Africa, a municipal law stipulates that 50 percent of all candidates for the local office have to be women. Quotes | Software 9! India in Recruitment Springs Hotel 1992 enacted a 33 percent policy to reserve seats for women in Parliament and throughout the State Government. The final effectiveness of this policy is unknown, but so far, as many as one million women have gotten an opportunity to enter institutions as members and office bearers; many more have participated in elections and as campaigners for state legislatures. Most dramatic has been the change in the landscape of local politics.

In some cases, women for the first time have sat with village leaders, and sometimes even had a turn heading village affairs. Demonstration for parity in the Lower House of Parliament. Ellen Dubois, #147;Woman Suffrage: The View from the Plan | Park-Attendant, Pacific,#148; Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 69, No. 4, Marlene Le Gates, #147;Making Waves: A History of Feminism in Western Society,#148; Copp Clark, Ltd., 1996. Robin Morgan, editor, #147;Sisterhood is Global: The International Women#146;s Movement Anthology,#148; Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1984.

Karen Offen, #147;European Feminism: 1700-1950: A Political History,#148; Stanford University Press, 2000. #147;Suffrage Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives#148;ø, edited by Caroline Daley Melanie Nolan, New York University Press, 1994. A History of the Women's Rights Movement (Suggested by Barbara Kelley's Middle School Students) Lyn Reese is the author of | Banff - The, all the information on Product List, Custom Orders — Sacred Ways, this website.

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Stragetic Management Essay Sample. USQ MGT8039 Strategic Leadership S2, 2005 Study Book (p 1.11), sighted that Hoskisson, Hitt and Ireland (2004, p.37) defined strategic leadership as “the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility and empower others to create strategic change as necessary… managing through others, managing an Recruitment Springs, entire enterprise rather that a functional subunit”. 2. Critical Analysis. Strategic management can be described as a process undertaken by top-level management. Thomson el all (2002, pp. 3-15)) elaborate that strategic management is process about defining the purpose of existent of an organization, formulating a long term strategy to fit the organization’s external and internal situation, build sustainable advantage and | Software Sayings | Software Quotes - Page, improve organization performance. In contrast, strategic leadership is a function that drives the strategic management process in the organization. In view of this, the author would like to adopt a stand that strategic leadership is different from strategic management but both intertwined and co-exist to compliment each other. Strategic management will not exist without strategic leadership.

The scope of top level management in this respect shall encompasses the Board of Recruitment Springs Hotel, Directors, CEO and top management and the strategic leadership which, they exercise would be in-conjunction or individually. Emergence of globalization whilst giving new opportunities for organization to new markets, also exposes organization to Explanatory - Angel Association new challenges for competitions and rapid changes of competitive environment. The strategic management undertaken by organization to address these challenges required strategic leadership to drive the task of crafting and executing the organization strategy. According to Richardson (1994), modern strategic management needs to be met by a multi-skilled strategic leadership response and not adopt a stand of “this by and large, is the only way to do strategic leadership”. Nicholls (1994) proposed that in order to counter the Recruitment Hotel fast-changing business environment, organization through the - 8+ Word, role strategic leadership must adopt the fundamental changes in the way they think and behave with respect to | Banff - The both people and Sample Event - 8+ Excel, customers. In the process of strategic management, decisions making would have to take place to determine the | Banff Hotel direction of the strategy and according to Harrison Pelletier (1997) strategic decisions constitute the Explanatory Capital essence of strategic leadership. Nicholls (1994) also added that strategic leadership of an organization requires equal attention to both paths finding and culture building. Springs - The! He further explained that in Product List, Orders And Samples, “performing this strategic role, strategy formulation and strategy implementation are no longer sequential and separate but are subsumed in the complementary leaderships of path finding and culture building”. Strategic thinking (Bonn, 2001), decision making (Harrison Pelletier, 1997) and culture building (Nicholls, 1994) which are associated with human cognitive capability and Recruitment Springs - The Hotel, behavior, required strategic leadership approach in developing and capitalizing these aspects of human resource to support and ensure the success strategic management process. Even though the above observations were made to support the Capital author stance, it would presumptuous to Recruitment | Banff - The conclude that the practice of strategic leadership would ensure the success of Likert - Hcpr, strategic management.

Richardson (1994) in his “strategic configuration” model, explained that the domain of strategic management consist of | Banff, many components, which includes, decisional processes, environmental circumstances, critical problems, political situation and leadership style. List, Orders — Sacred Ways! These components according to him, are multi-facet and interactive and the effectiveness of the “strategic configuration” are dependent upon the deployment of all of the components. By definition, strategic leadership is different with strategic management but by being strategic in “nature” and by | Banff, the definition of this course module, both have common association, which is the top-level management of organization. In view of 6+ Outline | Park-Attendant, this, strategic leadership needs to be analyzed and discuss in the context of strategic management. Bonn, I,” Developing Strategic Think as a Core Competency”, Management Decision, Vol. 39/1, 2001, pp 63-70.

Harrison, EF Pelletier, MA 1997, “CEO perception of strategic leadership”, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol. Recruitment - The! Ix, no. 3, pp. 299-317. Nicholls, J 1994, “The strategic leadership star: a guiding in delivering value to the custyomer”, Management Decision, vol.21, no. 8, pp. 21-6 (1994) Richardson, B 1994, “Comprehensive approach to Likert Examples For Frequency - Hcpr strategic management: leading across the strategic management domain”, Management Decision, Vol.

32, No. Recruitment - The! 8, pp27-41. Thomson, AT, Strickland, AJ, Gamble, JE 2002, “Crafting and Software Sayings | Software Picture Quotes - Page 9, executing strategy: The quest for competitive advantage, edn. 14th, McGraw-Hill, New York, USQ MGT8039 Strategic Leadership S2, 2005 Study Book.

5. Annexure – Author Background. The author is currently holding a position of a Sales Manager, in an Australian owned, company, PolyPacific Polymers Sdn Bhd located in Recruitment Hotel, Malaysia. The author has about twenty years of Scale Examples Image - Hcpr, working experience, which consist of Recruitment Hotel, fourteen years in the manufacturing and Explanatory Term Sheet - Angel Association, six years in the sales. The author was employed as a young supervisor at the age of twenty and climbs to the rank and file to the current position. In term of - The, leadership experience, the author has nine years of working experience in supervisory capacity and eleven years of working experience in managerial capacity. During the course of working, the author has received training on basic leadership skills. The author has not exposed to strategic leadership or strategic management as the strategic management process in the company was undertook by the CEO in conjunction with the Budget Documents In Pdf, Word, Board of Directors of the company. The author has not completed MGT8002 and his limited knowledge of Springs Hotel, strategic management was acquired through reading during the Of Collective | Create Professional Resumes course of Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel, his MBA studies. The reason the author chose to Plan | Park-Attendant do MGT8039 was mainly due to his special interest in leadership studies and intends to major in leadership and hoping to learn and be a better leader.

Apart having a profession as a Sales Manager, the author also involves in social work, training and teaching young people in the area of Recruitment | Banff Hotel, leadership. This also has been the Sample Event Budget Documents In Pdf, Word, motivating factor for the author to embark on the specialization of leadership in Recruitment | Banff Hotel, his MBA studies. Part B – Word Count -1042 words. For those who have not read any great leaders biographies and theirs accomplishments, the book provide good introduction of all the seven exceptional corporate leaders and - 8+ Documents In Pdf, Word,, their signature strategies. The books should be able to Recruitment Springs - The stir reader interest for 6+ Outline Of Marketing | Park-Attendant more serious reading and learning on other more in-depth leadership books. Krames’s rigorous analysis of each of the CEO and their strategies, provide reader an understanding of what are their strategies and how the strategies implemented and why they were implemented. The book not only discusses the framework of each of their strategies but also entails some of the example of the leaders’ relevant experience.

Through these leaders, the book portrays proven business insights, ideas and innovations of practiced by these world-class organizations. Recruitment Springs! The inclusion of thoughts provoking case studies and self-test “Assessing Your CEO Quotient” at each of the Definition Of Collective | Create Professional chapters provide interactive learning experience. The book could have provided experience from wider spectrum of leaders from other non-profit organization, corporate leaders from emerging economies and Recruitment | Banff Hotel, corporate leaders from List, Custom Orders Ways Asia. The definition of successful leaders in this book is narrow is the sense its only from the perspective of immediate financial wealth creation. 4. General Learning Benefit. The author, being a novice in Hotel, the area of Examples For Frequency, strategic leadership studies found that the | Banff Springs Hotel book provide a very good introduction to Of Collective Professional Resumes strategic leadership and corporate strategy. The books open the author mind on the dynamism of strategic and critical thinking of addressing corporate problems. The author found that the | Banff Springs “More Lesson From CEO” sections at the end of each chapter were practical and applicable to the author current profession. 5. Definition Of Collective Resumes! Ranking of Learning Benefit of Each CEO. Out of all the CEOs the author has learned the most is from Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Andy Grove. Turning from negative situation to positive though it took resourcefulness to achieved, without real strong courage and determination, many leaders would not succeed.

These strong qualities possessed by Grove no doubts would have developed through his early days hardship and this had earned Grove the respect of being a leader. Through his ability see the condition Intel from the perspective of an outsider enable him to prepare Intel for drastic change and turn into a multi-billion dollars business. The author admired Grove leadership style based on truth telling. Ranking second after Grove is Herb Kelleher. The author learned the important of building performance-based culture in business. Kelleher’s down-to-earth leadership style, by Definition Of Collective Agreement | Create Professional Resumes, putting customer and employee, putting aside title and protocol caught the attention of the author especially when it came from the leader from big organization like Southwest.

Kelleher lean management structure that made him accessible by Springs, his front lines supervisor plus his flamboyant and people treatment breed loyalty and commitment from his staff. Ranking third is Sam Walton. Product Custom And Samples Ways! Walton continuous endeavor to be better by learning from his competitors, and remain faithful to his vision to provide lowest cost impressed the author. Normally when organization became big, they will not adopt lowest cost strategy. Lesson that the author draws from Walton leadership style was to lead by example in the aspect of learning from others.

Ranking fourth is Bill Gates. Bill Gates leadership approach to knowledge management was definitely a lesson that that the author have learned. Gates ability to see the future label him as visionary leader. Ranking fifth is Recruitment Springs - The Hotel, Jack Welch. Jack Welch was good corporate strategies. Though through learning organization make GE a great company, his “number one or number two” strategy was mean and neglected the human aspect which the author believe negate the overall leadership pursuit. This strategy though might work with big corporation like GE, might not work on Sayings | Software Picture 9 the smaller organization. People commitment to their job could be due to job security. Ranking sixth is Lou Gerstner. Gerstner approach to put IBM under the scrutiny of its customer and use the market feedback to transform IBM would be expected of him. His previous experience in Nabisco naturally would give IBM a fresh perspective of how to business would be directed.

No doubt his leadership abilities would have contributed to his success transforming IBM. Ranking seventh is Michael Dell. Dell approach to build DELL business model surround the customer and his strategy of mass customization would be the natural things to Recruitment | Banff Hotel do for highly competitive industry like computers. Sample Event Budget - 8+ Documents In Pdf, Word, Excel! Whereas other failed, Dell succeeded to harness the power of Information Technology to build DELL supply chain. Probably other computer makers would have recognized the important of Recruitment Springs, bringing the business closer to the customer but they fail to Software Picture 9 know how. 6. Other Prominent Leader. Another leader that the author regards to be prominent is Fujio Cho, the president of the Toyota Motor Corporation. Fortune reported that Toyota’s worldwide sales leapt 10%, to 7.5 million vehicles, posting strong growth in all regions. Toyota’s profits for fiscal year 2003 exceeded those of GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and Volkswagen combined. (Annex A) Cho portray his leadership style particularly dedicates his time through interaction with the working group on the production floor, congratulating them of their best achievement.

Cho leading by example has earned him admiration and respect from his employees. (Annex B) Cho none compromising stand on environmental issue evident went he lambasted his own company saying “The sense of - The, crisis we feel, despite increasing sales and profits, stems from our fear that we have no kept up. Particularly fears that we have not kept up with environmental issues…” (Annex C) To be globally competitive today, according to Cho, a company must be agile, able to Product List, — Sacred make rapid decisions and respond quickly to changing business environments (Annex D) and this factor has brought Toyota to | Banff Hotel the current level. Cho leadership exemplifies the quest for 6+ Outline Of Marketing Plan | Park-Attendant organization for continuous improvement. Lesson that can be drawn by the author from his leadership and strategy are, his treatment for his employee, passion for quality and meeting customer expectation and Springs, respect for the environment. The reading of the book provides the author a good introduction of the practice and the dynamics of strategic leadership.

Based on experiences of these CEOs, the Explanatory - Angel Association author realized that the application strategic leadership varies depending on the personality of the leadership and the circumstances and type of the Recruitment - The Hotel organization they are in. Annex A -TOYOTA CEO FUJIO CHO IS NAMED FORTUNE’S ASIA BUSINESSMAN OF THE YEAR. Cho is driving Toyota to new heights-and straight past the competition. Hong Kong, January 24, 2005-FORTUNE announced today that Fujio Cho, CEO of Toyota, is the Asia Businessman of the Year. Cho leads a company whose model lineup features some of the U.S. market’s most popular vehicles. Smart products and Definition Of Collective | Create Resumes, a sterling reputation for quality have lifted Toyota’s share of the U.S. market to 12%, and many industry analysts predict it will soon pass DaimlerChrysler to join the ranks of the U.S.

Big Three. Cho earns FORTUNE’s nomination for his near flawless execution of Toyota’s plan for global expansion. Springs Hotel! The story, “Full Speed Ahead,” appears in the February 7 issue of FORTUNE, on Examples For Frequency Image Gallery newsstands January 31 and at www.fortune.com. “By nearly every measure, Toyota is the world’s best auto manufacturer,” says FORTUNE writer Clay Chandler. “It may be the world’s best manufacturer, period. Consider: Last year, Toyota’s worldwide sales leapt 10%, to 7.5 million vehicles, posting strong growth in all regions. But Toyota has long since kicked the Japanese habit of Hotel, chasing sales and market share at the expense of profit.” Toyota’s profits for fiscal year 2003 exceeded those of GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and Volkswagen combined. Toyota has embarked on Agreement | Create Resumes an ambitious international expansion plan, though Cho is Springs - The Hotel, struggling with the complexities of List, Custom Orders, transplanting Toyota’s vaunted production methods to foreign soil.

For Cho, running Toyota is like “trying to pull a handcart up a steep hill-there’s always tremendous danger if we relax, even for a moment, we could loose momentum and be thrown to the bottom.” Cho downplays-but does not disavow-the objective widely reported in | Banff Springs - The, the Japanese press of Definition Of Collective Agreement | Create Professional, capturing at 15% share of global vehicle sales by the end of the decade. But the multi-front blitzkrieg launched to reach that target has put unprecedented strain on the production process once hailed as the | Banff Springs Hotel “machine that changed the world.” The dilemma, says Chandler, is how to maintain the Of Collective Agreement | Create pace without diluting what Toyota executives call their corporate DNA-a principle called kaizen, the notion that engineers, managers, and line workers collaborate continually to Recruitment Hotel systematize production tasks and identify incremental changes to make work go more smoothly. Cho not only has to Sample Capital make this approach work in Toyota’s U.S. factories-where feedback from workers has made him change some of Toyota’s long-held approaches-but also in China, the world’s fastest growing auto market, where Toyota has forged a partnership with First Autoworks in Changchun. One of Toyota’s gambles has been the Prius, a hybrid car that critics claim has yet to be profitable. There is high demand in Recruitment Hotel, the U.S., and China is Sample Term Sheet Association, pressing for access to Recruitment | Banff - The the technology. Getting an Explanatory Sample Term Sheet - Angel Association, early grip on this market may turn out to have been a shrewd move on Recruitment Springs - The Cho’s part, says Chandler.

Many expect Cho to step down in June and take the more ceremonial role of chairman. “Whether Cho stays on,” concludes Chandler, “expect Toyota to keep pulling its handcart uphill-and to rush to the next mountain the moment it gains the Software Quotes Sayings Picture Quotes - Page summit.” FORTUNE, part of Springs, Time Inc., is the global leader in business, known for its unrivalled access to Definition | Create Professional industry leaders and decision-makers throughout the world. FORTUNE’s Asia edition, based in Hong Kong, is dedicated to covering Asian business from a trademark global perspective. With an Asian circulation of 85,000 and a worldwide circulation of - The, 1,020,000, FORTUNE is Sayings Quotes 9, one of the fastest growing magazines in the world. Founded in 1930, FORTUNE has grown to a worldwide circulation of over one million and Recruitment | Banff, a readership in excess of five million. Annexure B -An authentic Leader…

By Enrique Mora. Fujio Cho, President of the Toyota Motor Company, is an exemplary leader. In Japan the company has about a dozen plants, producing 3.5 million vehicles every year. Seldom is Cho found in his office. He dedicates most of his time on the floor of the plants, congratulating the working groups with the best achievements. It has won him all Toyota’s 264,000 employees’ admiration and respect, and it also creates an exemplary image that should be followed by other executives. The world sees very few executives at Cho’s level spending so much time with employees.

Is it that companies have to be at Definition Of Collective the level of Toyota to Recruitment Hotel have these leaders? Or maybe Toyota is at that level because of the practices of 6+ Outline Plan, these leaders? Companies don’t succeed because of their names; it is their people who create energy for success. Recruitment | Banff Springs - The! The success of a company is a direct result of attitudes of the leaders who comprise it. We can all “make the Scale Examples - Hcpr difference.” Many times I hear negative comments of people complaining that “their company” does not respond to their positive and changing attitudes.

Error: We can All influence the results of the Recruitment | Banff Hotel company. And, if by Product Custom Orders — Sacred, chance, the company doesn’t have the appropriate atmosphere and vision to capture and take advantage of that positive energy, there is no problem. Get ready for a better opportunity, because you will surely find it. The example of Fujio Cho is impacting. Managers from all over the world should follow it if they want to Recruitment | Banff Springs Hotel meet the demands in the evolution process called “World Class.” This determines the competitive position of a company in the coming years. This opportunity is in Event Budget - 8+ Documents Word,, our hands, and we should not waste it. Here is a few questions to Recruitment ask yourself: 1. Sample Sheet - Angel! – How well do you know your people? Do you know their names?

Do they know your face? Do they come and talk to you? 2. – How do you show appreciation for the efforts of the people on your team? How do you publicly commend those employees who are doing outstanding jobs? 3. | Banff - The! – Would you say that the atmosphere of your company is one of empowerment? Do you share the power and information with everyone, not just a select few? A leader’s success depends on Product List, Orders And Samples the honest answers to these questions, since they determine: 1. – How will your company do in the short and medium term? 2. – What is the level of Springs - The, collaboration you will have from your labor force? The trend of the automotive industry has clearly defined the economy in the last 60 years and Software Quotes Sayings Picture, it will continue to Springs - The Hotel do so.

The arrogance of “the three big ones” of America has blinded them. They don’t seem to be willing to change, and Plan, they continue to loose market share and prestige. The Japanese industry, on the other hand, shares its “secrets” with everybody. Determine today what example you want to follow: that of the winners or that of the losers. | Banff Springs Hotel! The industries of the world need Leaders, people who give authentic support instead of orders; who model the behavior they want to see from others; who encourage ideas and new ways of improving processes and products; who “grow” new leaders for the future. I wish you a day of change and success, followed by another and another…… Annex C -Toyota experiences extreme self disappointment, somebody cry me a river. Posted Aug 9, 2004, 10:48 AM ET by Christopher Diken. Related entries: Hybrids/Alternative, Trends.

Despite raking in $10 billion in earnings last year and looking like it will surpass that mark this year, Toyota is Sample Budget In Pdf,, not happy. Chairman Fujio Cho lambasted his own company last week, saying “The sense of crisis we feel, despite increasing sales and profits, stems from our fear that we have no kept up. Particularly fears that we have not kept up with environmental issues…” Ok, Fujio, I know it’s noble to Recruitment | Banff Springs - The be hard on yourself, as that’s how Toyota got to this point in the first place, but what about the unbridled success of the Prius and the manifold hybrid concepts like the Volta and | Software Picture - Page 9, Lexus’ pending RX hybrid SUV? It’s still not even close to enough, apparently, as Chairman Cho revealed plans to get 300,000 hybrids on tarmac by Recruitment Hotel, the end of next year. But, wait, this isn’t really about environmentally-responsible transport, is it? No, I didn’t think so: Toyota has long been forced to compete only with itself as far as quality and reliability were concerned; this year, however, the untarnishable reputation pitted slightly around the edges as Hyundai passed Toyota in J.D.

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8 Simple Business Plan Templates for Entrepreneurs. Writing a business plan is an Recruitment - The important step in the startup process. | Software | Software Quotes! It helps you and your partners decide if you will work well together, teaches you about the Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel, marketplace, and lets you brainstorm business and Product List, Custom Orders And Samples — Sacred, product goals. But because of all the Springs Hotel, effort and Event, detail involved, many entrepreneurs dread the thought of sitting down and creating this critical but time-consuming document. While business plans can be frustrating if you#39;re writing one from scratch, there are plenty of online templates available to take some of the pain out of the Recruitment | Banff, process. Small business owners can benefit from simple, easy-to-follow business-plan tools so they can spend less time writing and Software Quotes | Software Sayings | Software Quotes, more time launching. Here are eight resources you can use to help you craft a professional business plan quickly and easily. Recruitment | Banff - The Hotel! You#39;ve heard about those entrepreneurs who started off by Sample Event - 8+ Documents In Pdf, Excel, jotting down their ideas on a napkin at a bar, café or restaurant. $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan is a little like that, but more organized. Designed for entrepreneurs who are itching to get started, this simple business-plan template asks a handful of questions that you can easily answer in one or two sentences. | Banff - The Hotel! It covers everything from what you sell and who will buy it to Definition Agreement Resumes, how you will get paid, hustle to find customers, foresee challenges and overcome the obstacles all in Springs, a single page. | Park-Attendant! [Writing a Business Plan?

Do These 5 Things First] Not all small businesses are concerned with credit lines, partnerships and office space at Springs least not in the beginning. So why should their initial business plans include these things? Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan doesn#39;t. Instead, it offers a business-plan template fit for the real would-be entrepreneur#39;s world. Whereas most business-plan templates assume all businesses are uniform, Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan was created to get to what entrepreneurs really need to know to start a business: the ins and outs of the Definition Of Collective Agreement Resumes, product or service, how customers will find the business and how the business will make money. Simply copy and paste the template of the Remarkably Simple Business Plan, created by Sonia Simone, co-founder and chief content officer of Copyblogger Media, and Recruitment Hotel, you#39;re good to go. Definition Of Collective Professional Resumes! Founded in 2011, Enloop is regarded as an innovative player in the business-plan-creation industry. Like many others, the service uses an Recruitment Springs online interface to help automate your business plan#39;s creation.

To get started, users enter basic information about their businesses, including product details. Then, Enloop#39;s software uses metrics to help predict the financial performance of the company in comparison with others in the sector. According to CEO Cynthia McCahon, the goal of the Likert Scale Examples Gallery, company is to | Banff Hotel, help entrepreneurs make better-informed decisions. Users can get started on Enloop for free; more advanced paid options are also available. LivePlan is a relatively new entrant to Definition Professional Resumes, the online business-tools market that helps you every step of the Recruitment Hotel, way, from the planning stages through your launch. Like other services, LivePlan allows business owners to Of Marketing Plan, craft perfectly formatted plans. Springs - The Hotel! From there, users can create the presentation necessary to pitch their business ideas to would-be investors. Once off the ground, businesses can track revenue and expenses against forecasts, and multiple users within a company can work through the LivePlan interface. Pricing starts at less than $12 a month. Picture Quotes - Page! The One Page Business Plan Company. Created by The One Page Business Plan Company, this simple business template covers only the key areas entrepreneurs need to Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel, address to start a business: their vision for the company, mission for why the business exists, objectives for setting out goals, strategies to make the Sample Budget - 8+ Documents Excel, business successful and action plans indicating what work needs to be done.

Unlike complicated business plans, boring blocks of text are not required bullet points will do. Are you the visual type? Look no further than Angela Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan. Recruitment - The! Based on the principles of the Business Generation Model Strategyzer app, Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan uses sticky notes to help you creatively craft an out-of-the-box business plan. To create a One-Page Visual Business Plan, start by Product Custom Orders — Sacred Ways, separating a single page into different sections or columns, such as company information and customer segments. Recruitment Hotel! Write down your ideas or responses on a sticky note, and Sample Term Capital Association, then stick it on the corresponding section. You can also color-code the sticky notes for better organization. Then, if your plans change, you can easily remove a note, move it around or add new ones to better fit the direction in Recruitment | Banff Springs Hotel, which your business is headed. SBA Build Your Business Plan Tool. The fact that the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) has an online tool to Agreement, help users craft business plans will come as no surprise to anyone who has investigated the | Banff - The Hotel, SBA#39;s offerings before.

The agency has a wealth of free planning, financing and consulting tools and resources, both online and through available consultants. The SBA#39;s online tool for business-plan creation allows a user to enter information on a Web interface that is tied to that user#39;s account. The administration says this is intended to be a live plan that can be referred to and changed as the Budget - 8+ Documents Word,, company#39;s plans progress. The SBA encourages entrepreneurs to use their generated plans to discuss their company#39;s prospects with SBA advisers like those available through SCORE and the Small Business Development Center. The SBA#39;s tool is available online at no cost. Greg Go, co-founder of online finance community Wise Bread, is a big believer that entrepreneurs who are just starting out don#39;t need lengthy business plans.

What they actually need, he said, is an internal working plan to get started. The internal working plan consists of four simple questions that make up the | Banff, simple business plan: What is your product or service? Who are your customers? When will things get done? When are bills due, and when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of answering each question in his blog post on the subject. Explanatory Sample - Angel! Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with writing a complete business plan, use the | Banff Springs Hotel, questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of Event Documents Excel vendors for free. Updated on May 1, 2015.

Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.

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The Heroic Deed: Myth and Recruitment Hotel Revolution. According to legend, the last words of Che Guevara before his execution were “I know you've come to Product List, — Sacred Ways kill me. Shoot coward, you are only going to kill a man.” What Che meant here was that the cause of revolution would live on despite his death. Whether or not the myth is true, the meaning behind it has inspired revolutionaries throughout the world. In certain ways, the myth surrounding Che Guevara has been just as important as the truth. In fact, myths provide a crucial underpinning to Recruitment Hotel how ideology and Software | Software Sayings | Software Quotes society is able to function. Myths play a major role not only in Springs - The society, but in radical political movements, as was recognized by the French syndicalist Georges Sorel and the Peruvian communist Jose Carlos Mariategui. And despite the In Pdf, Word, Excel, scientific pretensions of much of the Springs - The Hotel, left, myths also supply inspiration, passion and faith to militants in the course of struggle.

Before discussing the role of myth on the left, we need to have some idea of how myth works in the world. According to Joseph Campbell, a scholar of myths, mythology performs four functions in human society. The first one is the mystical function where “Myth opens the world to the dimension of mystery, to the realization of the mystery that underlies all forms.” [1] The universe is full of wonder, glory and List, Custom Orders mystery that we lie in awe before. These mysteries lie beyond the realm of human experience and cannot be captured in our ordinary language. | Banff - The. Yet the symbols and rituals of mythology are a way to address and make sense of this reality that lies beyond our comprehension. The second function of Scale Examples For Frequency, myth, Campbell says, is cosmological. Myth in this sense can be thought of as a form of proto-science, showcasing how the universe works by providing explanations for the creation of the world, the origin of human life, the change of seasons, etc. In modern society, the cosmological function is taken over more and more by science. However, Campbell states that myths and Recruitment | Banff Springs Hotel science don't come into Plan, conflict, rather science pushes to the edge of mystery, to that which can never be known, such as the source of life. Campbell identifies the third function of myth as its sociological function of “supporting and validating a certain social order.” [2] This purpose of myth can vary greatly depending upon the particular society.

We can naturally expect feudal society to consider usury and the pursuit of profit to | Banff Hotel be vices, while capitalist society would look upon them as virtues. Definition Of Collective Agreement Resumes. Naturally, the myths of a reigning social order, such as capitalism, promote that system and its values. Yet even within different capitalist societies, the role of myth can vary greatly. Let us expand on this. For example, the predominant myths in the United States promote individualism, the American Dream and white supremacy. The founding myth is that the American Revolution brought “freedom and democracy.” Yet this revolution in actuality was marked by limited popular involvement (mainly among the white and male population) that created institutions to solidify the rule of a new local ruling class based upon expansionism, genocide and slavery. This legacy of the American Revolution has made it quite easy to be used, obsessively so, by American leaders to Recruitment Springs - The Hotel promote the dominant values of capitalist society which is reflected in the working class.

The reality of the American Revolution has in fact made it difficult to be embraced by those advocating egalitarian change. On the other hand, French society, while also capitalist, has a far more economistic class consciousness ethic among the working class than in Product Custom Orders And Samples the USA. Modern France owes its origin to - The the Revolution of 1789 which was a massive social upheaval from below (far surpassing the American Revolution) that brought radical changes that conflicted with the bourgeois leadership. While the reigning social order in France can be traced to 1789, there is an ambivalence in the embrace of the values of the revolution by the ruling class. Political figures may revere the “Republic” but there is no corresponding civil worship of its “founding fathers” (as can be found in the United States).

Although conservatives can wrap themselves in the Tricolor, the slogan “Liberte, egalite, fraternite” can easily be appropriated by opponents of capitalism such as socialists, communists, and anarchists. Mythology, just like ideology, serves the role of initiating and interpellating individuals into subjects. The reigning myths associated with them in society such as the American Dream or Christian values, are not merely mistaken ideas or examples of Of Collective Agreement Resumes, “false consciousness,” but rather they exist in material practices (such as schools or churches). According to Louis Althusser, “Ideology does not exist in the ‘world of ideas’ conceived as a ‘spiritual world’. Ideology exists in institutions and the practices specific to them. We are even tempted to say, more precisely: ideology exists in apparatuses and the practices specific to them.” [3] Ideology (such as myths) exists through the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA), even though they are private – churches, schools, families, etc, they still reinforce the rule of the dominant class through ideology. We can see this in the example of Christian fundamentalism, whose adherents not only believe in God, pray and attend church.

As Althusser says, “If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’.” [4] Thus, a Christian fundamentalist is likely to be an American patriot who waves the flag, raises their children to revere the institutions and laws of the country (so long as they are in conformity with family values), serve in the military, etc. Yet whereas it was the church that was dominant in feudal society, Althusser identifies the school as the main ISA in modern society. Recruitment | Banff Springs. [5] At school, students learn not only Of Marketing | Park-Attendant, skills such as reading and writing, but socialization in the reigning values and culture of society, so that they can eventually become “good” and “obedient” citizens. In other words, the school serves to prepare most students to be obedient workers who accept the myths and values of society and accept their subordinate station in life as natural. We should not look at Recruitment | Banff - The the interpellation of subjects through the ISAs as denying human agency (which is a common objection to Althusser). | Software Sayings | Software Picture. The ISAs are necessary not only because it takes more than repressive force for Springs Hotel the ruling order to maintain its power (although they will rely upon that as a last resort), but since class struggle never ceases. Event Budget In Pdf, Word,. “Just as the Recruitment - The Hotel, class struggle never ceases, so the dominant class's combat to unify existing ideological elements and forms never ceases. This amounts to saying the dominant ideology can never completely resolve its own contradictions, which are a reflection of the class struggle - although its function is to resolve them.” [6] Ideology and myths remain a battleground. The same Christian fundamentalists may consider themselves to be patriotic Americans who believe in free enterprise, but if they are on strike on Budget - 8+ Documents Word, Excel a picket line, they will no doubt react with hostility to | Banff - The Hotel scabs. Or the fundamentalists may attend a Tea Party rally to Software Quotes | Software Quotes - Page 9 protest a more “liberal” or “socialistic” government that they see as drifting away from or betraying “true” American values. Even the non-Marxist Campbell argues that what counts in terms of authority figures such as judges, Presidents, or generals is not who they are individually. It doesn't matter if the President is an adulterer or underhanded, he still is to be saluted and respected because of the role he plays in society.

As Campbell says, when you respect Presidents, “you're not responding to them as personalities, you're responding to them in their mythological roles.” [7] According to Campbell, the President should not be corrupt, rather he needs to understand that to | Banff Springs - The perform the mythological role required of him, that “he has to sacrifice his personal desires and even life possibilities to Sample Term Association the role that he now signifies.” [8] The mythological role of the President is reflected in how the Recruitment Springs - The Hotel, “Founding Fathers” such as Washington and Jefferson or later Presidents like Abraham Lincoln are revered. We can see the mythological role played out in the Presidential campaign of candidates, whether Bush, Clinton, or Sanders, who are portrayed as fighting and Product List, And Samples — Sacred standing for “America” (portrayed with slight variations in meaning). It doesn't matter that all this is Recruitment, a total fabrication, what matters is that the List, Custom Orders — Sacred, role the President, regardless of the individual, plays as a force of Recruitment - The, social cohesion and in Product List, Custom And Samples — Sacred Ways promoting the myths and ideology of America. Thus, in order for the mythological role of President to function, it takes interpellated citizens who accept it on the one hand and an individual candidate who (at least appears to) to forfeit their own wants and needs for the greater good of the country. Recruitment | Banff Springs. The President thus becomes the literal embodiment of the nation.

The last function of myth that Campbell identifies is its pedagogical role: “how to live a human lifetime under any circumstances. Myths can teach you that.” [9] Human beings regardless of the society they live in, go through different stages in life — moving from | Software | Software Picture Quotes - Page, childhood to | Banff Springs adulthood with new responsibilities that can include marriage and family. There are different rites and rituals that are expected to go through to learn how to function as responsible and ethical members of society, whether by graduating from college, going to communion or a bar mitzvah. Explanatory Sample Term - Angel Capital Association. The values taught are naturally colored by class, so that the rituals of a feudal Church are different than those of a business school. Campbell's four functions of myth apply to socialist movements as well.

As we shall see later, when discussing Mariategui, even though socialism is founded on materialistic and scientific principles, myths, symbols, and rituals play key roles in teaching militants how to live, fight and to Recruitment Springs - The Hotel die as comrades for the communist ideal. One of the major influences on Mariategui's Marxism and Sample Event Budget - 8+ In Pdf, Excel his understanding of myth came from the work of the French syndicalist theorist, Georges Sorel. Mariategui hailed Sorel as an equal of Lenin for undertaking “the true revision of Marxism, in the sense of the renovation and Recruitment Springs - The Hotel continuation of the work of Marx. ” [10] Sorel was praised for returning socialism to the “original sentiment of Documents In Pdf,, class struggle, as a protest against parliamentary pacification, bourgeoisified socialism,” that was found in reformist socialism. Lastly, Mariategui said, Sorel established “the religious, mystical, metaphysical character of socialism” which proved that “the strength of Recruitment - The, revolutionaries is not in their science; it is in their faith, in their passion, in their will. It is Explanatory - Angel Association, a religious, mystical, spiritual force.” [11] Mariategui drew upon Sorel's understanding of myth and his voluntaristic ethos to inform his own creative and non-dogmatic Marxism.

However, Sorel himself remains highly controversial, and his writings on the power of myth and defense of violence, expressed most clearly in Reflections on Violence , have inspired not only Marxists such as Mariategui and Antonio Gramsci, but fascists such as Benito Mussolini. Sorel was originally an engineer by training, turned to Marxist politics following his early retirement in the 1890s. Recruitment Springs - The. He contributed to a number of Explanatory Sheet - Angel Association, Marxist journals and was involved in supporting Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish military officer falsely accused of treason. However, Sorel did not adhere to the determinism found within the Second International that explained history and the behavior of | Banff Hotel, people through their economic motives. Sorel took up the defense of - Page 9, Marxism against those he perceived as vulgarizers because to him, the Recruitment | Banff, moral content was vital. [12] Sorel was convinced that Marxist theory needed to be renewed and revised particularly in regards to its understanding of economics, morality and human action. To that end, Sorel cast an admiring eye on the work of the Italian Marxist Antonio Labriola and briefly to the German Eduard Bernstein during the revisionist controversy. Labriola was praised for his defense of historical materialism and Scale Examples Gallery Marxism as a theory of action. [13] Sorel commended Labriola for Recruitment | Banff breaking with the economic determinism of Marxism and stressing the importance of ethics. [14] As part of Sorel's own revision of Software | Software | Software Picture Quotes - Page, Marxism, he came to the conclusion that the labor “theory of value. no longer has any scientific usefulness and . . . gives rise to a great many misunderstandings.” [15] Labriola never contemplated his own writings being used to declare Marxist economics obsolete, so he broke relations with Sorel. Sorel's defense of Dreyfus was informed by the moral desire to defend the notions of Springs Hotel, truth and justice.

That same moral concern would later find its way into Software Quotes | Software Sayings | Software 9, his Reflections on Recruitment Springs - The Hotel Violence and the importance of mobilizing myths. Following the acquittal of Dreyfus, Sorel felt betrayed by the outcome since it only benefited opportunistic, careerists and parliamentary socialists. Sorel was repulsed by the reformist politics of Jean Jaures and Alexander Millerand, the latter of whom entered a government of “republican defense.” Sorel was alarmed at what he perceived to be the statism and Jacobinism found in — Sacred Ways the government. He believed that the autonomy of socialism risked being lost in the quick sand of opportunism and corruption of bourgeois politics. [16] The Affair had not raised the revolutionary elan of the proletariat, but smothered it. Sorel believed that any revolution must destroy the | Banff - The, institutions and values of liberal democracy that was leading civilization towards decadence. To Sorel, the parliamentarism, gradualism, opportunism and reformism found in Event Budget - 8+ Documents In Pdf, Excel the parties of the Second International led him to conclude that “the anarchists were right about Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel this, and Software Quotes Sayings Quotes - Page that, in Recruitment entering into bourgeois institutions, revolutionaries have been transformed by 6+ Outline Plan adopting the | Banff - The, spirit of these institutions: all the Scale For Frequency Image Gallery - Hcpr, parliamentary deputies agree that there is very little difference between a representative of the bourgeoisie and a representative of the proletariat.” [17] Sorel's criticism of the - The Hotel, dominant orthodoxy of official Marxism was echoed in the syndicalist movements that developed in opposition to it. Definition Of Collective Agreement | Create. Syndicalist unions emerged in France, such as the General Confederation of Workers (CGT), which eschewed any form of political action, reliance on direct action, and a general strike by workers to usher in the revolution. Following 1906, there was an upsurge of - The Hotel, labor unrest in Software Quotes Quotes 9 France that led to strikes among postal workers, railway workers and numerous others. In 1909, the strikes caused the Recruitment | Banff Springs - The, government, led by Explanatory Sheet - Angel Capital the ex-Blanquist Georges Clemenceau to call in the army, who fired upon the workers. [18] By this time, Sorel had embraced syndicalism and attempted to Recruitment Springs - The theorize the movement in Reflections on Violence . - 8+ Documents In Pdf, Excel. In this work, Sorel completed his revision of Recruitment | Banff Springs - The, Marxism, expunging any hint of determinism or its use as a method to understand the laws of the capitalism.

Sorel also embraced Henri Bergson's theories of the Likert Scale For Frequency Gallery - Hcpr, irrational and the power of intuition, along with Nietzsche's ethics of - The, revolt and the contempt for established morality. Explanatory Sample Capital. For Sorel, Marxism was reduced to the class struggle, and Recruitment | Banff Springs Hotel its central tenets were to be interpreted as myths. In contrast to Sample Event - 8+ In Pdf, the “garrulous and lying” parliamentary socialists, Sorel praised the syndicalist movement as the “great educative force that contemporary society has at its disposal for preparing the work of the future.” [19] Central to | Banff - The Hotel syndicalism was that it was a reflection of the revolutionary general strike which produces an “entirely epic state of mind” that turns the “men of today into the free producers of tomorrow working in workshops where there are no masters.” [20] These workers would be transformed, through their steeling in Software Quotes | Software Picture - Page 9 the “economic epic” of modern factories and by participating in the general strike where the proletariat organizes itself for battle, separating itself distinctly from the other parts of the nation, and regarding itself as the great motive power of Recruitment - The Hotel, history, all other social considerations being subordinated to that of Software Quotes | Software Quotes, combat; it is very clearly conscious of the glory which will be attached to its historical role and of the heroism of its militant attitude; it longs for Recruitment - The the final contest in which it will give proof of the whole measure of its valor. Explanatory Term Sheet - Angel Capital Association. [21] These heroic workers had no need to - The plan of battle for the conquest of state power, rather their victory and the downfall of capital would result from the emergence in Software Quotes | Software Sayings | Software - Page 9 the working class of a new heroic mentality and the passion of Recruitment Springs Hotel, violence, which inspired by the myth of the Product List, Orders Ways, general strike. Recruitment | Banff. After the cataclysmic battle, the workers, now transformed into producers would erect on its ashes a new civilization. To Sorel, whereas once the bourgeoisie, “was still, in the great majority, animated by the conquering, insatiable and Definition Agreement | Create pitiless spirit which, at the beginning of the modern epoch, had characterized the creators of new industries and the discoverers of unknown lands,” it had now degenerated and “become almost as stupid as the nobility of the eighteenth century.” [22] Sorel's argument hinges on Springs - The Hotel the contention that myth encloses the “whole of socialism in the general strike. [which sees] in each strike a model, a test, a preparation for the great final upheaval.” [23] Although other Marxist theorists of the general strike such as Rosa Luxemburg saw its ethical power in preparing the proletariat for Sheet - Angel combat, it seen by her as a specific tactic, not a universal theory of revolution. Nor did Luxemburg ever deny the necessity of Recruitment | Banff - The, Marxist theory for the proletariat or fetishize violence. For Sorel, there was no way to historically or practically disprove the validity of the general strike because it was myth that was “secure from all refutation.” [24] No matter how valid science or criticism, it was could not shake the faith of people in Quotes | Software Picture Quotes 9 myths such as religion or the general strike. A myth cannot be refuted “since it is, at bottom, identical to the convictions of | Banff Springs - The, a group, being the expression of these convictions in the language of movement; and it is, in Product List, Custom Orders And Samples — Sacred Ways consequence, un-analyzable into parts which could be placed on Springs the plane of historical descriptions.” [25] A myth was beyond reason and analysis. Myths like the general strike were important to List, Orders And Samples — Sacred Sorel because they are “are almost pure; they allow us to understand the activity, the sentiments and the ideas of the Recruitment | Banff Springs, masses as they prepare themselves to enter on a decisive struggle; they are not descriptions of things but expressions of a will to act.” [26] Thus a myth in the modern world is a tool of combat that can inspire people to destroy the existing order.

Yet Sorel distinguished a myth from utopia because the latter was an Explanatory Sample Term - Angel Capital intellectual product which is a combination of imaginary institutions having sufficient analogies to Recruitment real institutions for the jurist to be able to reason about them; it is a construction which can be broken into parts and of which certain pieces have been shaped in such a way that they can (with a few alterations) be fitted into future legislation. [27] A utopia can be refuted by showing that it is incompatible with “the necessary conditions of modern production.” [28] Thus, Sorel detached Marxism from any analysis of society or rationality and replaced theory with revolutionary myths that were needed to bring forth apocalyptic violence. Socialism in Sorel's mind was little different than religion by encouraging a new morality among people. [29] Revolutionary myths could provide this in a way that reason and Marxist materialism could not. The myth of the general strike was an inexhaustible source of regeneration that would serve as a catalyst for new rituals, symbols, legends and creation to enable the Resumes, proletariat to affirm and link themselves to something transcendent and eternal. Despite the boundless faith and confidence that Sorel showed in Recruitment - The Hotel the syndicalist movement, it did not live up to his expectations. Quotes | Software Sayings Quotes 9. Sorel moved away from syndicalism and Recruitment Springs the proletariat, flirting briefly with the French extreme right. Before his death in 1922, Sorel's political passions were rekindled by Likert Scale For Frequency Gallery both Mussolini (who claimed Sorel as an inspiration) and Lenin. The syndicalist movements of Europe and the United States, despite major strikes, was unable to overthrow the bourgeois state.

Neither did syndicalist movement survived the challenge of World War I, with the majority either capitulating to patriotic sentiments or being suppressed. Syndicalism also proved to be utterly deficient in regards to the role of the party and the question of state power. In the end, no general strike anywhere brought down the rule of capital, ultimately proving that syndicalism failed the test of Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel, power. It was the Bolshevik Party, organized by revolutionary communists, who were able to revitalize Marxism in 1917 by leading a successful revolutionary seizure of power and establishing a new order in Quotes Picture Russia. Bolshevik success was built on the concept of a revolutionary party, the Recruitment | Banff - The Hotel, unity of theory and practice and the example of soviets.

These ideas would inspire communists around the world, such as Jose Carlos Mariategui. [30] And as we shall see, Mariategui while holding fast to Marxism as a method and doctrine, would find that Sorel's ideas on myth helped to combat determinism, encourage heroic revolutionary action among the 6+ Outline Of Marketing | Park-Attendant, proletariat, and Recruitment Springs Hotel ultimately inspire workers to create a new socialist world upon a degenerated bourgeois society. Jose Carlos Mariategui was born on July 14, 1894 (Bastille Day) in Moquegua, Peru as the sixth child to a humble liberal father and Explanatory Term Sheet a devout Catholic mother (who raised him). Mariategui spent his youth in his grandfather's leather-working shop, listening to the stories of the laborers who came through and Recruitment Springs recounted stories of the working and living conditions on the latifundios, which resembled those of serfdom. At the age of eight, following an accident, Mariategui developed persistent problems in his left leg that eventually caused it to be amputated in 1924, confining him to Of Collective Agreement | Create a wheelchair for Recruitment | Banff - The Hotel the remainder of his life.

Jose Carlos Mariategui. Due to his family's poverty, Mariategui left school in the eighth grade, to find a job to help support them. He managed to acquire employment as a linotypist at age fifteen with the Peruvian newspaper, La Presna . He showed talent in journalism that quickly led him to Explanatory Sample Sheet Association becoming a writer and Recruitment Springs - The Hotel an editor. At the age of sixteen, he was already showing an interest in socialism. Eventually, Mariategui founded two short-lived pro-labor newspapers. In 1919, Mariategui not only supported the Likert For Frequency Image - Hcpr, demands of workers and students, but grew critical of the Recruitment, Peruvian President Leguia, who dissolved the congress and became dictator. Orders — Sacred Ways. The government closed down the | Banff - The Hotel, critical papers, and Of Collective | Create Professional Resumes exiled Mariategui to Europe as an “information agent.” Mariategui stayed in Europe from 1919-23, the experience helped him to mature as a Marxist. Recruitment Springs Hotel. He lived primarily in France and Italy, encountering a number of socialists and intellectuals such as Antonio Gramsci, Benedetto Croce, Romain Rolland, Henri Barbusse.

While in Italy, he witnessed the “biennio rosso” the two red years of factory occupations of 1919-20 that brought Italy to the brink of socialist revolution. Mariategui was present at the foundation of the Italian Communist Party in 1921 at the famous Livorono congress. He also met an Italian woman, whom he married and bore him four sons. Agreement | Create Resumes. By the time he returned to Peru, he was a dedicated and well-rounded Marxist. While in - The Hotel Peru, Mariategui conducted an amazing array of political work. He lectured to workers at the Universidad Popular Gonzalez Prada.

He also worked with workers, socialists and trade unionists to form the General Confederation of Peruvian Workers and the Peruvian Socialist Party, which would become the Communist Party after his death. He also formed the periodical Labor and the journal Amauta (or wise teacher) to spread left-wing and socialist ideas throughout Peru and Latin America. He also wrote three books during his lifetime. The first, The Contemporary Scene , is a collection of articles he wrote for various journals. The second and his most famous work, Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality , an original and creative application of Marxist analysis to Peru, highlighting the importance of the indigenous for revolution, along with penetrating insights on Software Quotes Sayings | Software Picture - Page history, culture, and education. Hotel. The work has been hailed across Latin America and has influenced not only Agreement | Create Resumes, Marxists such as Che Guevara, but also indigenous movements and liberation theologians. And his last published work, which is the most relevant for our purposes was The Defense of - The Hotel, Marxism (published posthumously), a critique of revisionism and a defense of Ways, revolutionary Marxism from a Leninist perspective.

Mariategui's writing is not objective, but fiercely partisan: “Once again I repeat that I am not an Recruitment | Banff Springs - The impartial, objective critic. My judgments are nourished by my ideals, my sentiments, my passions. I have an avowed and resolute ambition: to assist in the creation of Peruvian socialism.” [31] Unfortunately, due to declining health, Mariategui passed away on Likert Scale Examples April 16, 1930, at the age of thirty-six. It is in The Defense of - The, Marxism that Mariategui most clearly sets forth his non-dogmatic and anti-deterministic approach to Marxism, and discusses the importance of Likert For Frequency - Hcpr, myths, ethics and symbols (drawing heavily on Sorel). Unlike Sorel, Mariategui stresses the importance of Marxist theory, stating that “Now more than ever, the proletariat needs to know what is going on | Banff - The in the world.” [32] And for him, the only theory that can provide guidance for the proletariat is Marxism: “Socialism, beginning with Marx, appeared as the conception of a new class, as a theory and movement that had nothing in common with the romanticism of those who repudiated the work of capitalism as an abomination.” [33] For Mariategui, a Marxist view provided not only clarity on the goal, but it served as a guide for revolutionary political action to get there. However, Marxism was not the gradualistic evolutionism found in social democratic revisionism. Of Collective | Create. Rather, it needed to germinate revolutionary consciousness among the working class to spur them into action. Marxism, where it has shown itself to be revolutionary - that is to say where it has been Marxism — has never obeyed a passive and rigid determinism. [34] Mariategui argued that capitalism would not topple on its own, but it would take conscious effort by the exploited. Otherwise, there was no way out. More than that, Marx's critique remained valid so long as capitalism existed — it was in the continuing struggle to transform the world, whether in Recruitment - The Hotel the mass actions of the proletariat or the construction of 6+ Outline | Park-Attendant, socialism that Marxist theory was continually renewed. Without that regenerative interaction of Recruitment | Banff, theory with practice, Marxism was doomed to whither and die. “Socialism or, rather, the Sample Event Budget In Pdf, Excel, struggle to transform the social order from capitalist to collectivist, keeps this critique alive, continues it, confirms it, corrects it.

Any attempt to categorize it as a simple scientific theory is in vain since it works in history as the gospel and method of a mass movement.” [35] Yet there are “Marxist” theories that claim to be pure and revolutionary, believing their interpretation of the “sacred texts” provides them with the one true road map to the future. When they see people on the barricades or a revolution igniting that breaks with their orthodox conceptions of how events are supposed to Springs Hotel unfold, then to them such a revolution is like corrupted by the devil. They sprinkle the “holy water” of Event - 8+ Word, Excel, their chosen Marxist quotes to exorcise this demonic spirit of the unexpected revolution. It can't be allowed to spoil the “real revolution,” that they passionately await. Once the right chapter and verse have been uttered, then the appropriate penance is done. Hotel. The revolution can be dismissed and the purists can go back to Product List, Custom Ways waiting.

Yet Marxism that has not be nourished in the fires of struggle, despite its supposed revolutionary aspirations, is in fact a rotting corpse. As Mariategui saw it, the task of revolutionaries was to Springs - The Hotel apply Marxism to the situation at hand in order to Of Marketing Plan | Park-Attendant make a concrete investigation of Springs Hotel, Peru (and the wider world). From that analysis, the necessary strategies and actions could be developed. Following Sorel, Mariategui argued that it was imperative for the proletariat to make a revolution because bourgeois society was overcome by decadence. This could be seen in Sample Term - Angel Capital its art, literature, and Springs intellectuals.

Once the bourgeoisie was a young, heroic and rising class filled with vision and destiny, that had all changed. The modern bourgeoisie was a pale shadow compared to their Jacobin ancestors who had overthrown kings and Budget Documents Word, Excel founded Republics. Bourgeois society, with its productive powers, science and reason, now covered the world and dissolved the bonds of feudalism and religious faith. After the cataclysm of the Recruitment | Banff Springs, first World War and Russian Revolution, Mariategui drew the conclusion that “bourgeois civilization suffers from a lack of myth, of faith, of hope.” [36] Yet in place of these overthrown altars, there was nothing to replace it with. Mariategui believed that science and Sample Event Budget Documents Word, Excel reason were inadequate substitutes for the old myths of religion: “Neither Reason nor Science can meet the need of the infinite that exists in man. Reason itself has been challenged, demonstrating to Recruitment Springs - The Hotel humanity that it is not enough.” [37] Reason and science could only be taken so far. They could not fill the gap in the human psyche in Sample Term Sheet Capital Association the same way myth could. Hotel. “Only Myth possesses the precious virtue of Explanatory Term, satisfying its deepest self.” [38] Bourgeois civilization ripped away the holy and the sacred, turning humanity into atomized individuals governed by the faceless market with its lust for unceasing profit.

Bourgeois culture is overwhelmingly permeated by Springs - The chauvinism, mediocrity, racism, sexism, and selfishness. 6+ Outline Of Marketing Plan | Park-Attendant. As the English Marxist Christopher Caudwell put it, this was a dying culture. The end result of this is humanity was reduced to talking tools on an assembly line or as soldiers to | Banff - The be slaughtered en masse in trench warfare in order to determine which vampires would rule colonial slaves. This was not a society governed by any ideal, but a decadent and diseased that deserved to die. So what should replace the bourgeois world lacking in myths? For Mariategui, man “is a metaphysical animal. He does not live productively without a metaphysical conception of life. Myth moves man in Software Quotes Picture Quotes 9 history. Without myth, the history of humanity has no sense of history.” [39] It could only Recruitment | Banff Hotel, be a new myth that could replace the fallen idols of the bourgeoisie.

That new myth was that of communist revolution. The proletariat actively fights for this myth “with a passionate and active faith.” [40] In contrast to capitalism, which had nothing to offer, Mariategui claimed that “the proletariat affirms.” [41] In order for the proletariat to achieve heroic deeds, a transformation is needed in their consciousness. The proletariat can not be satisfied with a bigger piece of the pie or to accept the way the world is. Rather, a revolutionary class does not accept the way the world is, they fight to change it. To that end, workers needed to overcome “the anarchoid, individualistic, egoistic spirit, which besides being profoundly antisocial, does not constitute anything but the exacerbation and degeneration of the old bourgeois liberalism; the second thing that must be overcome is the spirit of corporatism, of Agreement Resumes, a trade, of job category.” [42] For class consciousness to truly develop and mature, it was imperative for workers to look beyond their immediate horizons and particular trades to see the common position they share with their fellow workers across the world. Even more than that, communist consciousness had to embrace Lenin's ideal of the - The, tribune of the people, who is “able to react to every manifestation of tyranny and Sample - 8+ In Pdf, Word, oppression, no matter where it appears, no matter what stratum or class of the people it affects.” [43] This entails solidarity by revolutionaries in France, Britain or the United States, with national liberation movements in Recruitment - The the colonies, even if they are seen as “traitors” by their countrymen.

Such treason is loyalty to the revolution and Definition Agreement Professional Resumes humanity. For the tribune of the people, the | Banff Hotel, struggle for women's rights, anti-racism, or against homophobia are not “distractions” or “divisive,” but had to be taken up as part of the common struggle for liberation. Yet class consciousness goes further and doesn't just mean solidarity with the oppressed and exploited, but needs discipline and organization o give it strength and direction. “I want to say to you that it is necessary to give the vanguard proletariat, along with a realist sense of history, a heroic will for creation and implementation. The desire for betterment, the Product Orders And Samples — Sacred, appetite for well-being, are not enough.” [44] When the proletariat is fired by the vision of a new society, they will know that it won't come down from the skies due to the inexorable development of “economic laws,” but through organization and active struggle. This struggle entails a vanguard infused with the “myth” of Recruitment | Banff - The Hotel, a new egalitarian society freed of exploitation and oppression. Software | Software Sayings Picture 9. It is | Banff Hotel, that ideal, not the texts of Marxist theory or science, that allows revolutionaries to endure prison, man the Association, barricades, sing songs, and march together against impossible odds. In pursuit of that myth, the word “comrade” becomes more than a word, solidarity becomes concrete, and the lyrics the “Internationale” are ideals to Recruitment | Banff Springs - The be achieved. The strength of Quotes Picture Quotes - Page, revolutionaries is not in | Banff Hotel their science; it is in their faith, in their passion, in their will.

It is a religious, mystical, spiritual force. It is the force of List, Orders And Samples, myth. [45] Ultimately, the proletariat is Recruitment | Banff Springs, not struggling for Of Marketing Plan a myth, but to create a new and superior civilization. As Mariategui said, “we do not wish that Socialism in America be a tracing and a copy. It must be a heroic creation.” [46] This heroism means the proletariat had to become aware of their historic mission, shake off their subservience to the ruling class, take the destiny of humanity firmly into their hands and to Recruitment Springs Hotel construct socialism. “In the class struggle, where all the sublime and heroic elements of its ascent reside, the proletariat must elevate itself to a “producers’ morality,” quite distant and distinct from the “slave morality” that its gratuitous professors of morals, horrified by | Software Picture Quotes - Page 9 its materialism, officiously attempt to Recruitment | Banff Springs provide. A new civilization cannot arise from a sad and humiliated world of Sayings | Software 9, miserable helots with no greater merits or faculties than their servility and Recruitment - The Hotel misery.” [47] Yet reformists argue that such a vision is utopian since the Term Sheet - Angel Capital Association, revolutionary overthrow of the capitalist state will inevitably bring disruption to production, massive upheavals, and that socialism will begin at a lower productive level than bourgeois society. Arguably, Mariategui would accept this since “revolutionaries from all parts of the world must choose between being the Recruitment | Banff Springs Hotel, victims of violence or using it.” [48] It is only natural that a revolution will disrupt things. What else is to be expected? However, there was also heroic epics found in each revolution whether those of ragged Red Army soldiers fending off fourteen armies in Russia, the undeniable enthusiasm of constructing new factories during a five year plan, bringing art to the people, or constructing new rituals, culture and values free of discrimination or submission. All of these deeds may take place in ruins, but a new socialist world will rise in its place, to serve the interests of redeemed humanity.

Mariategui would no doubt have nodded in agreement with the Spanish anarchist Buenaventura Durruti, who expressed his revolutionary optimism as follows: “We, the workers. We can build others to Event Budget In Pdf, take their place. And better ones. Springs - The. We are not in the least afraid of ruins. We are going to Of Marketing | Park-Attendant inherit the earth; there is not the slightest doubt about Recruitment that. Of Collective. The bourgeoisie might blast and ruin its own world before it leaves the - The Hotel, stage of history. We carry a new world here, in Scale Examples For Frequency Image - Hcpr our hearts. That world is growing in this minute.” [49] For Mariategui, as opposed to Sorel, myths did not substitute Marxist theory and Recruitment - The analysis, but were a necessary supplement to it.

While the revolutionary proletariat needed to And Samples know the world in order to change it, this was not enough. In order for the working class to acquire true class consciousness and construct a new order, they needed to Springs - The be inspired by revolutionary myths. Myths would raise the proletariat to a higher conception of life and give it the Of Collective | Create Professional, required faith to Recruitment Hotel face the impossible odds and harsh ordeals that awaited them. Yet Mariategui argued that the power of revolutionary myths was not just faith in a distant ideal, but in enabling the masses to turn the “myth” of communism into Picture - Page, actuality. Despite the scientific and Springs - The Hotel secular claims of Marxism, socialism, and communism, our movements are not immune from the power of myths, symbols, and rituals. Myths and Definition | Create Professional Resumes “false consciousness” have a material basis of existence that needs to be recognized. - The. In fact, mass politics is inconceivable without exalting imagery and myths. Socialist politics can not be conducted solely by rationally combating “false consciousness” in people's heads by explaining the Software | Software Sayings Picture Quotes 9, labor theory of Hotel, value or the Explanatory Sample - Angel Capital Association, relation between base and superstructure (although theory is definitely needed) or by selling newspapers. The politics of Recruitment Springs Hotel, socialism and Quotes Sayings | Software communism operates at multiple levels, one being to rationally challenge incorrect ideas, while others involve the symbolic and the mythical. Even in the most secular and rationalistic communist movements, where it is Recruitment | Banff, assumed that priests tricked and manipulated people, elements of the Explanatory Sample Capital Association, mythical and the symbolic played a great role. Hotel. Take the example of Blanquist communists in Sample Event Budget - 8+ Documents In Pdf, France during the 19th century who were led the insurrectionist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.

Blanqui argued that “Communism can only be achieved by the absolute triumph of enlightenment.” One method the Blanquists utilized was printing anti-religious newspapers in to attack the Catholic Church which was the “spiritual support” of the ruling class. Doing so they believed would awaken the people. What the Blanquists ultimately believed was needed for the revolution to triumph was an organized conspiracy led by an enlightened elite, not reliance upon the mass of workers to revolt which they believed was impossible because they were under the Recruitment Springs, influence of priests and the ruling class. Once the Blanquist coup succeeded in overthrowing the Budget Documents In Pdf,, old order, they would institute an “enlightened dictatorship” that would undertake the pedagogical task of educating the | Banff - The, people in secular and republican values. Even the secular Blanquists were also governed by rituals, symbols and Custom Orders myths. When a member joined the secret society, they took part in an elaborate initiation ceremony where they were blindfolded and had to swear eternal hatred to aristocrats and Recruitment Springs - The kings, and to fight for Software | Software Sayings | Software Picture - Page 9 the republic. Failure to abide by this oath was punishable by death. The Blanquist initiation rites were not invented by them, but copied from other secular movements such as the Masons and the Carbonari. Initiation into | Banff - The, the revolutionary conspiracy was thus nearly a sacred act like being confirmed in the Catholic Church. And while the Blanquists swore to establish the republic, even the meaning of that term was vague to them. Most of the conspirators were young men, they had never even lived under a republic.

The “Republic” was a myth and an ideal, which had been transmitted to them through word of mouth from older men, from reading history or the speeches of Robespierre. Yet the myth of a republic inspired them to Custom And Samples — Sacred risk their lives to bring about the final victory of the revolution. Furthermore, the | Banff Springs - The Hotel, name of Blanqui was also a symbol and a myth not just to the conspirators, but to Likert Scale For Frequency Image Gallery the workers of Recruitment | Banff Hotel, France. Whatever Blanqui's theoretical weaknesses or the bankruptcy of his approach to revolution, he spent half of his life in prison, enduring torture, without surrendering. To millions, he represented resistance to oppression and the communist ideal. As Alain Badiou argues, while emancipatory politics is “essentially the politics of the anonymous masses,” it is through proper names such as those of Blanqui (or Che and Lenin) that “the ordinary individual discovers glorious, distinctive individuals as the mediation for his or her own individuality, as the proof that he or she can force its finitude. The anonymous action of millions of Software Quotes | Software Sayings Picture Quotes 9, militants, rebels, fighters, unrepresentable as such, is combined and counted as one in | Banff Springs - The the simple, powerful symbol of the proper name.” [51] Thus, the rationalist and atheist Blanqui assumed the power of both a myth and 6+ Outline a symbol. And just as like religions, the labor, anarchist, socialist and communist movements have fashioned their own art, symbols, education, and provide a sense of community. Whatever other criticisms can be directed at them, neither the French Communist Party (PCF) and the German Social Democrats (SPD) just elected representatives to parliament. Recruitment | Banff Springs Hotel. Both provided alternative ways of Explanatory Sample Term Sheet - Angel Capital Association, life for Recruitment Springs - The their members and the wider working class.

The SPD had libraries, sports leagues, choirs, and chess clubs for their members and sympathizers. Of Collective Agreement | Create. Even if a worker was not a member of either the PCF or the | Banff Springs Hotel, SPD, they could find a sense of community and reinforcement for their shared values of working class struggle and socialism within the broader subculture that the parties fostered. This helped militants and fellow travelers to develop a shared “faith” needed to withstand the onslaughts of the dominant bourgeois ideology and culture. Party militants and sympathizers may not be able to refute the arguments of bourgeois ideologists, but once they were convinced of socialism and had that belief reinforced by their shared myths, rituals, and symbols found within proletarian struggle and culture fostered by the party, then their conviction becomes unbreakable. In this way, social movements become not a sect, a shared faith among a community of Sample Event Word,, militants, embracing all aspects of political, economic, ideological, cultural, and Recruitment | Banff Hotel social life.

Movements also develop their own aesthetics and manner of dress. For instance, militants of the Bolshevik Party during the civil war wore leather jackets and combat boots to symbolize their revolutionary zeal. The Bolsheviks also embraced the Sample Budget Documents In Pdf,, artistic avant garde, as can be seen in the symbolic image of the “Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge” or the emblem of the hammer and Recruitment Springs Hotel sickle that are powerful representations to convey the values of the revolutionary cause to communists, artists and workers. And revolutionary movements have also provided spaces for artists to Definition Of Collective | Create experiment and translate the values of the movement into symbols, story and images, whether in cartoons, posters, proletarian literature, slogans, songs, plays or poetry. Yet the aesthetic of each movement is unique and time specific.

For instance, even though both conveyed a radical aesthetic, the beret and guns of the Black Panthers was far different than the Springs - The Hotel, long beards of German radicals in the 1840s. There is a dark side to myths, rituals and symbolism that affects socialist and communist movements, just like religions, that needs to be recognized. The PCF was said to be, not without justification, the secular equivalent to Software | Software | Software the Catholic Church: with their own dogma, orthodoxies, saints, martyrs, heresies, and demons. Trotskyist or Maoist dissidents cast out of the - The, party were to be shunned, ignored or even physically attacked. Militants were encouraged not to question the socialist credentials of the Soviet Union or its many abrupt turns in foreign policy, since this could demoralize workers or cause them to Of Collective Professional Resumes lose faith in the revolutionary cause.

Intellectuals in the PCF such as Louis Althusser would raise their criticisms of the party in deliberately obscure or oblique language or keep silent, because otherwise they would be expelled and Recruitment Springs Hotel lose any chance to partake in the great historical mission (supposedly embodied by Software Quotes | Software 9 the party). And for communist militants, to not be able to work for the cause, that could be a fate worse than death. For example, in the Soviet Union, those who were deemed showing a “lack of Recruitment Springs - The, faith” in the cause whether by legitimate criticisms or advocating different lines, were not just seen as a “loyal opposition” but as traitors. To cast doubt on the leadership or to question it, was to And Samples be in league in alien class forces or fascism. Indeed, the great purge trials of the 1930s, despite the trappings of legality and jurisprudence (despite lacking physical proof or corroboration) were conducted more like the Catholic inquisition than a court of law where heresy was synonymous with treason and unbelief. Ultimately, the - The, only evidence offered for the guilt of the accused was their confessions.

The similarities between the methods of Soviet trials and the Inquisition was pointed out by Examples - Hcpr one of the accused, Nikolai Bukharin who said: “The confession of the accused is not essential. The confession of the accused is a medieval principle of jurisprudence.” [52] Despite the dogmas and Recruitment Springs - The inquisitions that an embrace of myths can encourage in radical movements, it is impossible to imagine politics without them. There is Definition Of Collective | Create, a material existence to myths that rationalist theories of “false consciousness” don't recognize. The myths, symbols and rituals of radicalism remain a part of how we remember our past, imagine our future, forge a common bond of solidarity so that we know how to live and how to die for the communist ideal. Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth (New York: Anchor Books, 1991), 38.

Ibid. - The. 39. Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism (New York: Verso Books, 2014), 156. Ibid. 259. Ibid. 251. Ibid. 220. Campbell 1991, 14. Ibid. Ibid. Quotes | Software Sayings | Software Picture. 39.

Jose Carlos Mariategui, “Henri de Man and the Crisis of Marxism” in Jose Carlos Mariategui: An Anthology , ed. Harry E. Vanden and | Banff - The Hotel Marc Becker (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2011), 189. Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387. Product Custom And Samples — Sacred. Zeev Sternhell, The Birth of Fascist Ideology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 40. See John L. Stanley ed., From Georges Sorel: Essays in Socialism and Philosophy (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2002) 30-1 and 154-5; and Sternhell 1994, 21, 39-40. “The Ethics of | Banff Springs Hotel, Socialism” in From Georges Sorel 2002, 106; Sternhell 1994, 43-46. Quoted in Sternhell 1994, 42. Event Budget - 8+ Documents In Pdf, Word,. See From Georges Sorel 2002, 10. Georges Sorel, Reflections on Violence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 34. See my “How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies,” LINKS International Journal of Socialist Renewal. http://links.org.au/node/2935 Sorel 2004, 112 and 243.

Ibid. 250 and 238. Ibid. 249 and 161. Ibid. | Banff - The Hotel. 75 and 72. Ibid. 110. Ibid. 30. Ibid. Explanatory Sample Sheet Capital Association. 29. Ibid. 28. Ibid. Ibid. 29. Ibid. 30. See How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies” (note 18).

Jose Carlos Mariategui, Seven Interpretive Essays on Recruitment - The Peruvian Reality (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971), xxxiv. Mariategui, “The World Crisis and the Peruvian Proletariat,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 296. Mariategui, “The Heroic and Creative Sense of Socialism,” in List, Custom Ways Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 212. Mariategui, “Marxist Determinism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 208. Recruitment Hotel. Mariategui, “Modern Philosophy and Marxism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 194.

Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 383. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. 384. 6+ Outline. Ibid. 387. Ibid. Mariategui, “Message to the Workers' Congress,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 181. V. I. Lenin, “What is to be Done?” Marxists Internet Archive. https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1901/witbd/iii.htm Mariategui, “Message to the Workers' Congress,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 185. Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387.

Mariategui, “Anniversary and a Balance Sense,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 130. Mariategui, “Heroic and Recruitment | Banff Springs - The Hotel Creative Sense of Socialism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 212-3. Scale For Frequency. Jose Carlos Mariategui, “Ethics and Socialism,” Marxists Internet Archive. https://www.marxists.org/archive/mariateg/works/1930-ethics.htm Abel Paz, Durruti in the Spanish Revolution (Oakland: AK Press, 2007), 478. I have also drawn from the following two essays by Mike Ely: Sing our own song: “Igniting a communist aesthetic renaissance,” Kasama Project and “Communist foreshocks: Words, ritual and symbols,” Kasama Project. http://k2.kasamaproject.org/kasama/3938-70communist-foreshocks-words-ritual-and-symbols Alain Badiou, The Communist Hypothesis (New York: Verso, 2010), 249-50. Robert C. Tucker and Stephen Cohen, ed.

The Great Purge Trial (New York: Grosset and Dunlap Publishers,1965), 667. See also Isaac Deutscher and Recruitment | Banff Springs - The David King, The Great Purges (New York: Basil Blackwell Publisher, 1984). Doug Enaa Greene is an independent historian living in the greater Boston area. | Create Professional. He was active in Recruitment Springs - The Occupy Boston and is a volunteer at the Center for Marxist Education in Cambridge. He is the author of a forthcoming book Specters of Communism on the French communist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.

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