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Right To Work Versus Union Employment Essay Sample. During the Resume, primitive communal period, labor and its products were a common property among the native villagers. The system of collective labor and production is the Personal Resume [corybantic.us], shared labor input and equal distribution of production output. In the 18 th century, the emergence of the proletariat (working class) in Europe was brought about by Controller the elitists and the capitalists that created business empires and the monopoly of a structured society. This is illustrated by the wealth distribution triangles, wherein society is represented in such a way that the elite are on top, the Wintek Plan Pdf, bourgeoisie (middle rich) in the middle and the working class below, inversely proportional to their population. The restructuring of the triangulated society have emerged Karl Marx’s economic theories of “ Das Kapital” and has greatly influenced the working class through several ‘industrial revolutions’ that recoiled over Europe and Americas (Engels, F., 1967). Over the years, the working class emerged from various skills which represented a large number of people with the majority group among private and public work places. The private work place consist the industries and the public work place is the governmental institutions and state-owned corporations. Today, private and public enterprises recognize the institutional development framework with the Resume, norm of equal labor opportunities adherent to Free Microsoft Templates - Publisher fundamental labor laws that uphold right-to-work policies and respect to multi-racial-cultural working environment (United States Congress, 1986). The legacy of the working class is Resume, now at the helm of developing societies and the transformation of Banquet Hall And Catering, governments into being people-oriented in its public administration. One of the government’s accountabilities for administering the public have specifically employed its police functions and disaster response by including fire personnel.

This particular function incurs the government with an exigent budgeting to which the allocation contributes substantial expenditures. As government expenditures increase, equated by Controller Resume budgetary requirements in implementing the Resume, police and fire functions, the scarcity of budget indicates inferior working conditions and restrictive rendering of benefits to personnel (Putchinski, L.J., 1976). The right to work has long been a social issue and a dilemma of the labor unions in various work places that are confined to promulgate their civil actions, contemplating on the right to work principle. This paper will objectively examine the extent and scope of the right to work doctrine as how it affects the activities of employment union, focusing at the workplace of Controller Resume, police and fire personnel. According to the declaration of Philadelphia International Labor Conference of 1944 , all human beings, irrespective of race, creed or sex, have the right to pursue both their material well-being and their spiritual development in conditions of freedom and dignity, of economic security and equal opportunity (O’Reilly, A. 2004). This means, that every person has the right to obtain employment, guaranteed by indiscriminate treatment and act freely on its workplace without compelling circumstance of - Help - Steps, any occupational group. Therefore, the right to work is a versatile function of Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], every working person to have preferential option, knowledge, desire, belief and choice to affiliate, associate, ally and Employee Template - Help interact within occupational group relative to employment union, more so, not obliged to pay whatever fees involving the Resume, organizational fund raising activities (Cooper, J.W., 2004). In John W. Cooper (2004) study, “Effects of Right to Work Laws on Employees, Unions and Business” , it claimed that right to work laws encourages high compensation, creates employee privileges, restrain employees’ union establishment, and morally promote employer-employee relationship. The literature review is a methodology of this paper that will feature some scholarly found studies. This methodology will obtain the purpose of Resume Template No Work School Student, (1) reviewing the Right to Work laws, and Controller Resume (2) fostering of - Guide - Steps, understanding the labor union.

The later part of this paper will discuss the issues and updates relating to Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] police and fire personnel, also to Contract Layout include other government employees on public safety occupation. Brief Historical Background. The adoption of the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], Right to Work began from the 1940 to 1950 period when Taft-Harley Act of 1947 was enacted. That Act has greatly inspired the Marketing Plan Pdf, twenty-two states of the United States to Resume follow the principles of the Right to Work. Likewise, the enactment of the Banquet Hall And Catering, Act was a reaction to [msbiodiesel.us] the Wagner Act of 1935 that strongly advocated unionism in which the US government believed that simultaneous collective bargaining may overpower the newly reconstituted industries that may consequently close shops (Cooper 2004). Thus, the result of closures in workplaces would result tremendous labor recession. From then on, the Right to work advocacy gave chance to the individual working class a preferential option to Microsoft - Word - Publisher - Microsoft whether get involve and participate in Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], employment union and knowing the right to refuse the non-obliging nature of Manual - Help, being a union member as well as to be compelled in paying membership pledges.

Empirical Findings on Effects of Right to work. According to [msbiodiesel.us] Cooper (2004), the effects of the Right to Resume work to unionized employment have decreased about 3-5 percent rates. This refers to Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the 2004 study on ratio by percentage of membership to No Work Experience employees union that has dramatically depleted from the 22 states of the US. Cooper also cited a similar study conducted by the US Department of Justice and several scholars from state universities in 1987 have already showed a substantial depletion in union membership with approximately 8.2%. Cooper added that the Right to work is generally adopted in Oklahoma that has accounted quantifiable decrease in union membership in the year 2001as compared to strong unionization in the previous years. However, Cooper implied that it may not be fairly confident to Controller Resume say that Right to work laws have fully affected the whole proportion of union membership within a state or decrease from zero to eight percent. Meaning, the entirety of effect does not only represent Oklahoma and other states in which to claim that the Right to work laws totally achieved union membership depletion. Cooper concluded that the Right to work laws may be a clamor of the state to persuade the people of the working class to dismember union in their employs.

In which case, the Right to work laws apparently encouraged more vulnerability of labor disparity and confusion to Templates the labor force. Reflecting on the empirical finding of Cooper (2004), the confusion may lead to exploit opportunities of the employer to the fact of protecting their interest. Although the Right to work may have achieved the balance of economic activities from the point of view of emerging industries that generates employment, the working class still prefers unionism as the objective balance of fair labor practices and supports the minimum wage earners. [msbiodiesel.us]? As this is Tapestry Banquet Hall, reflective of Cooper’s final statement, to cite, that obviously the State wants to be well positioned for success in the 21 st century wherein the Right to Work law is tried to be applied. The Issue on Controller [msbiodiesel.us] Labor Equity. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has conducted a study on the Right to decent work of disabled persons to enlighten the discussion of the UN Convention (O’Reilly, 2004). The study focused on Employee - Guide - Help the importance of labor equity by assessing the Right to work principles. Based on the parameters of the study, the Right to work is one of the Controller, essences of human rights that is adherent to fulfill the Templates - Word, right to live and acquire decency of living in Controller, an equitable working environment. With the ILO study parameters, it primarily addresses the government and other members of the Personal Resume, society to weigh and size up the Right to work principles to the activities of labor force and related issues of poverty. According to ILO, there are severe cases of employment discrimination to disabled persons in a workplace, aside from the fact of thin chances of getting employment, which is firstly demanded with physical suitability and competent adaptability to the nature of work (O’Reilly, 2004).

As cited from the study (ILO, Equity Issues, 2004), the State should consider (1) sheltered employment, (2) supported employment, and (3) social enterprises. These considerations are key components of employing disabled persons specifically in highly industrialized countries. However, the United States General Accounting Office (US-GAO) questioned the Controller, consistency of ILO framework to employing disabled persons within the cited considerations to allegedly no basis of examination. What it appears, the US-GAO may overlooked the fact that the Hall, underlying theory to that consideration is to render social benefits to disabled persons by Controller [msbiodiesel.us] eliminating and supplementing the gaps of inconvenience in order for the disabled persons to develop and master their competencies. The establishment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps, 1990 has influenced more civil actions in the US.

The ADA became the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], platform of advocacies on Contract Layout equitable employment of the disabled persons that refers to employees in private and public (government) employment. Controller Resume? The ADA supports the call for Tapestry Hall benefits on Controller Resume housing, public accommodation, education transport, communication, recreation health services, institutionalization, voting and Contract Layout access to Resume public services (O’Reilly, 2004). Addressing of the above mentioned social benefits to private and public employers manifests the Contract Layout, unifying efforts of the disabled and able workforce to acquiring the Right to work principles encompassing with ILO’s framework for Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] a decent living. Although unionism is not well regarded in this finding, the manifestation of the call for the Right to work and the alliances may in some events be brought to Personal Resume the workplace and become an occupational agenda for organizing a labor union. As a matter of fact, the issue on equity is one in the forefront of continuing discussions in the labor sector specifically in Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], developing countries where disabled persons are considered marginalized and disadvantaged groups of the labor force. Specific Circumstance in Public Work. This specific circumstance in public work relates a study on the impact of expenditures of the local government in Contract Layout, the State of Florida. The study examines the impact of expenditures to employees union specifically composed by the police force (Putchinski, 2005). As cited from Putchinski (2005), to understand employee union relationship and the function of a local government in processing the budget is Controller [msbiodiesel.us], a complex task of a public administrator that represent decision making and mediating the burdens in a workforce most especially involving the law enforcement section. The union of police force in Florida has been organized and established since 1915 through the Fraternal Order of Police that addressed defiance on Templates - Publisher Office 12-hour daily routine duties with poor quality workplace. In 2004, the organization has accounted 21,000 union members, including the firemen and public safety personnel such as paramedics and the local security force (Puchinski, 2005).

Accordingly, with regard to the local government of Florida, the employees are bound to the local government statutes that promulgate the forming, joining, participating of employees in [msbiodiesel.us], an organization that confer cooperatively on wage, work duty and workplace condition, and to include representation to Resume No Work Experience School Student Resume addressing the issue to respective local authorities or jurisdiction and enact a unifying effort towards supporting and helping one another through lawful actions and/or civil disobedience (Public Employees Relations Commission, 2004). The Public Employees Relations Commission adjudicates the collective bargaining of the union membership. Being predominantly large by number, the police force union of Florida always wins the table battles over bargaining of welfare issues. Putchinski (2005) pointed out that the Police force union is a dominating voice to represent also the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], organizations of Manual Template - Guide - Help, other local government employees in Florida and other cities, like New York. The police force union has transformed as a super body enable to negotiate multilateral contracts with the local government. [msbiodiesel.us]? These multilateral contracts, as cited from Putchinski (2005), are done by members of the police force union that acts as middlemen to facilitate on contract propositions coming from the constituents as well as other proponents. With a situation of With Experience Resume, unionized local government of Florida, as being predominantly composing a large number of police force and employees union, the public administrative function may be overpowered and overruled. [msbiodiesel.us]? Another effect being considered is the financial plan of the local government that may from time to time be modified by over bargaining on welfare and Personal Resume [corybantic.us] benefit issues, as the local government is a captive government entity at the expense of the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], union.

The extensive study concluded that soon the local government would be dealing with larger expenditures firstly at the baseline of the growing Florida’s population of about 16 million and, secondly, on increasing numbers of employees unions, aside from the police force’s (Putchinski, 2005). Opposing Legislative Views on the Right to work. The US Congress has passed and enacted House Bill (HB) 391 on December 2003 in order to empower the Tapestry Banquet Hall And Catering, existing labor laws that adheres the right to work. At the floor deliberation, Congressmen belonging from the minority oppositions have their strong filibustering to reject HB 391 because it contradicts and Controller [msbiodiesel.us] confuses the Template No Work Experience School Resume, doctrines on fundamental rights to assembly that is corroborating the right to organize employees union in workplaces that are contained with uncertainty and issues of [msbiodiesel.us], wage disputes (Cooper, J.W., 2004). This argumentation may be recalled in Template - Help - Steps, the opposing views of President Thomas Jefferson who stated: “to compel a man to furnish contributions of money for Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the propagation of opinions which he disbelieves is sinful and tyrannical”, and with Martin Luther King’s statement: “in our glorious fight for civil rights, we must guard against being fooled by false slogans, as right to work provides no rights and - Steps no works, which purposely to destroy labor unions and Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the freedom of collective bargaining” (Cooper, J.W. 2004).

Based on the opposing views of Thomas Jefferson and Martin Luther King, the right to work and the right to unionize are the blazing issue and becoming a dilemma of individual person in a workplace. Having the right to work necessitates the right to be compensated and enjoy the fruit of Personal Resume [corybantic.us], labor as equaled to rendered work. However, it is with Martin Luther King’s notion that having the right to work is the acquiring of worker’s freedom to [msbiodiesel.us] redress grievances on issues of Banquet Hall And Catering, labor disparity, and as well to unite efforts with co-workers for a functional change in the working environment specifically on compensation and benefit claims. The public workforce is workers in the government. The government workforce represents a majority number of contractual employees which are called non-organic. These non-organic and contractual personnel are engaged in different categories of skills and expertise.

Most of them are acquired through rendering of Resume [msbiodiesel.us], professional services in categories of being consultants and other are engaged by - Guide - Help - Steps their employment firms having manpower pooling contract with the Controller, government. Looking at the workforce of the government function in civilian and Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps police affairs, its workforce is solely commissioned by the state by virtue of the civilian function of the government to upholding peace and order in communities and protecting the lives of the civilian populace. Having this mandate, the police power is not only in peacekeeping but in responding to both natural and man-made disasters wherein the fire personnel has been integrated to fully address the preservation of life and property of the citizenry (US Department of Homeland Security, 2003). Issues in the Police and Fire Employment. As the police force and fire personnel execute their mandate in peacekeeping, public safety and disaster response, their capabilities are confronted with much challenging employment-related issues. Cited from the previous report of the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], National Right To Work Committee (NRTWC), coalition of employees and employers, the Public Safety Employer-Employee Cooperation Act of 2007 is anti-federalist, anti-worker and anti-taxpayer (NRTWC, 2007).

According to NRTWC, the passing of the With Experience Student, Act, known as House bill of Representatives (HR) 980, has been rejected in 26 states upon consultation process. To further cite the reasons behind the rejection, HR 980 monopolize the bargaining by way it took away the individual bargaining rights which may cause disarray of union’s organizational system, displacement of volunteer firefighters and public safety personnel, and may lead to potential happening of strikes (NRTWC, 2007). In this case, the unions of police, firefighters and public safety personnel within the 26 states were pre-emptive of their organizations to Controller [msbiodiesel.us] act on civil disobedience considering the constituents that will be affected when they go strike. It may be deducted upon the positioning of the HR 980 as a scheme of the so-called union busting. However, the scheme did not push through to the ever conscious understanding of the Free Templates - Publisher Office, HR 980. Looking at the scheme of the HR 980 would have caused trouble at the bottom-line of service to the community of the police, firefighters and public safety personnel. Because, at the time HR 980 is enacted, it would deplete the union membership but could consequently entice more civil actions and impede the peacekeeping activities. A similar case of union busting in the public workforce also happened in New Zealand.

It reported that restructuring the New Zealand Firefighters brought about the dispute since the 1990’s (Case Study, 2001). The Case Study (2001) found out that there were allied forces that came up the reviewing and reducing the rank-and-file of the New Zealand Firefighters. In other words, the restructuring called for work displacement of public workforce and not merely a streamlining of workforce over service performance. The allied forces were collaborated by the influential New Zealand Business Roundtable (composing of the businessmen), the government itself and Controller Resume the insurance partners (Case Study, 2001). Citing from the Case Study (2001), there was even a compromised negotiation with the Fire Service Chief Executive’s appointment if the Firefighter’s fund be reduced from Manual, $72-M to Controller [msbiodiesel.us] $20-M which could be done by trimming down the labor and equipment cost. The organizational restructuring further proposed the Template With No Work High School Resume, privatization of Firefighter service and would base on per-pay-service. It may be perceived on that proposal; the government’s public administration liabilities over Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the Firefighter organization would be freed from - Publisher Office, levy of service compensation as based on work tenure and rendered service of retiring personnel. It was the benefit itself, arising from compensation benefits, that would be lost from the part of the Controller, Firefighters. The new breed of skilled Firefighters in New Zealand has been also tried to Contract Layout be dismissed in 1998, of which an altercation with the administration have alarmed the national government and some members of the parliament to conduct an inquiry. The issues tackled from the inquiry found out immense mismanagement and malversing of funds that amassed the coffer of the local government (Case Study, 2001; in Rasmusen and McIntosh, 1999).

In 1999, the New Zealand’s Court of Appeal ordered the cancellation of the restructuring plan and earmarked $8 million for wage increase. However, in the year 2001, the administration failed to negotiate with Firefighters to receive 8 percent salary increased over doubled work loads of about 50 percent increase. Obviously, the Firefighters see the salary increase as a superficial negotiation to settle the dispute in which almost 90 percent of the Firefighter’s workforce continuously resent on the issue (Case Study, 2001). The case of the New Zealand Firefighters may be viewed as a lingering power struggle on welfare issues. The reports on the case study were all on table negotiations by the individual firefighters and concerned proponents; neither had it mentioned unionism among their ranks. Thus, it may be said that the Firefighters had it their way to organize themselves as one entity-pressure group; they could have had the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], civil power to pursue their agonies into objective response and impact to Templates - Word - Publisher the issues.

The Pursuit of Resume [msbiodiesel.us], Civil Power. As discussed from the earlier part of Contract Layout, this paper, the Right to work principles has been opposed by constructive materialism from the perspectives of the labor unions. The Right to work may have not been an individual preference to measure the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], conflict of issues within the workplace and Wintek Plan Pdf the workforce itself that represent the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], civil society. The pursuit of civil power is in itself the search for the Right to work that essentially relates the civil rights of human in undertaking and interacting in the community to live by. The public workforce may have achieved to address the issues concerning welfare as they progressively influence the policy legislation and enactment of laws on labor dispute settlement, and along this achievement could again measure the opposing views on Template the Right to work versus unionism. On January 30 th 2008, the American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE) has highly praised the Congress by restoring collective bargaining and the appeal rights on Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the proposed National Security Personnel System (NSPS).

As a background, as cited from AFGE (2008), the NSPS have been held by the US Department of Defense (US-DOD) by a fallacy concerning issues on counter-terrorism that misinformed the Congress to intently preserve collective bargaining and ensuring of fair appeals on procedural suspension and Wintek Marketing Pdf termination of government rank-and-file personnel. It was clear that the US-DOD would want to shred the employee’s rights for fair legal procedures and representation to collective bargaining of employees union they belong (Victorian, M., 2008). The restoration of the Controller, collective bargaining and the appeal rights on the NSPS have provided the Section 326, cited as, “Federal employees in all agencies would finally have the opportunity to appeal contracting out decisions to the US Government Accountability Office (US-GAO), a right contractors have long enjoyed” (Victorian, M., 2008). Through this development, we may quote AFGE National President John Gage, who was overwhelmed by the congressional approval, as he stated that; “we, along with our partner unions in the Defense Workers Coalition, have been fighting for four long years to thwart this underhanded attack on fundamental rights and Contract Layout principles that are crucial to our democracy. Controller Resume? It is in the best interest of the US-DOD civilian workers, military service members, and the American public that the NSPS be overturned” (Victorian, M., 2008).

The NSPS achievement enjoined the public workforce as a legislated precedent on the employment security tenure and welfare benefits. Meanwhile, cited from the most recent article of the National Right To Work’ (NRTWC) newsletter dated February 2008, the 2.2 million members of Contract Layout, NRTWC have pledged to oppose the Section 2123 of the Controller Resume, current U.S. Senate version of Police and Free Microsoft - Publisher - Microsoft Fire Monopoly-Bargaining Bill known as H.R.980 to which accordingly imposing union exclusive representation (monopoly bargaining) over state and local police, firefighters, and other public-safety employees nationwide (NRTWC, 2008). This development is therefore perceived as a continuing legislative battle in collective bargaining and the rights of every individual workforce to which the labor unions exerts all efforts to position the civil power. The opposing views on understanding the Right to work and labor unionism collide at the forefront of vital issues on labor unrest.

What is then significant is the interpellation of the Controller, principles that is set upon the understanding that Right to work is a preference of individual as to whether join a labor union or not, and be compelled to support materially and financially the cause of the Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft, labor organization. The “versus” norm that underlies the difference to labor unionism might be attuned to the objectives of Controller [msbiodiesel.us], unionism. In essence, the right to work from the point of Employee Template - Guide - Steps, view of personal preference is a marking line to understand oneself within a workplace and being a member of a society. The knowledge that is attributed within self-understanding of right to work may somehow be misled by the factual circumstance affecting ones choice, condition, status, authority and [msbiodiesel.us] qualification in a workplace setting. The labor unionism, as this paper fosters the purpose of understanding, is a social contract of the working class as protractedly waging the plight from the historical development of society and Wintek Marketing Pdf continuously pursues the interest of just and dignified labor. Case Study (2001). Restructuring at the New Zealand Fire Service. Retrieved February 8, 2008 from http://www.employment.org.nz/Case%20study%20NZ%20Fire %20Service.pdf-.

Cooper, J.W. (2004). Effects of Right to Work Laws on Employees, Unions and Controller Businesses . Retrieved February 8, 2008 from http://www.johnwcooper.com. Engels, Friedrich (1967). Capital, Vol.3. Resume With Experience Student? International Publishers Co, Inc.. ISBN.

NRTWC Newsletter (2008). Pledge-Breaking Senators Feel the Heat. Retrieved February 8, 2008 from http://www.nrtwc.org. NRTWC Newsletter (2007). Factsheet . Retrieved February 8, 2008 from. O’Reilly, A. (2004). Equity Issues: The Right to Decent Work of Persons with Disabilities . International Labor Organization (ILO), Skills Working Paper No.4, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved February 8 2008 from http://www.ilo.org. Putchinski, L.J. (2005).

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A* GCSE Art Coursework: Sense of Place. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This Edexcel GCSE Art Coursework project was completed by Controller [msbiodiesel.us] Samantha Li, while studying at West Island School, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Samantha gained full marks (120/120 and 80/80) for both her Coursework and Hall And Catering, Examination. This article contains images of Resume Samantha’s GCSE Art sketchbook pages: outstanding observational drawings of architectural spaces, artist research, development of ideas and experimentation with media. In an interview with the Student Art Guide, Samantha shares the themes she explored – a reflection of daily life and busy routines – and Contract Layout, provides insight into how she developed a high level of artistic skill and the ability to work with speed.

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The city scenes are of Sham Shui Po, Central, Aberdeen and Contract Layout, Causeway Bay, all in Controller [msbiodiesel.us] Hong Kong. For my artwork, I used reference photos I took myself and also drew from life. I was lucky to be living in Aberdeen during that time and often went to the marketplace to buy groceries. It felt good to be part of the Hall And Catering busy, yet simple routines. The woman with the red gloves speaking in Cantonese while I just pretend to understand by nodding#8230;the smell of flowers interrupted by Resume the metallic smell of fish. There was so much going on!

As I twisted through the lanes searching for Resume [corybantic.us] the perfect potato, what visually appealed to me the most were the dripping, grungy walls hidden behind the stalls. Controller Resume! A mix between the freshness of vegetables, combined with what looked ancient, seemed somewhat natural, which makes it beautiful. It’s like that feeling when looking at the hands of an aged farmer, it’s beautiful ! This International GCSE Art sketchbook page is filled with rich mixed-media experimentation: layered mediums encouraging the exploration of shape, pattern, detail and form. Your Coursework project contains exceptional gestural drawings. Drawing quickly is something that many students struggle with. How did you develop this skill? Samantha : When sketching without resources, I rarely think and just jump straight into it.

Thinking too much restricts your mind’s ability to use the information it has gathered through experience, so I try to just trust my instincts and Free Microsoft Templates - Publisher, adjust it afterwards if it doesn’t look right. I have done a lot of drawing as a hobby ever since I could hold a pencil. I only started to develop my techniques professionally during the summer of 2012 (towards the end of first GCSE year) when I was introduced to a small, unfamiliar art group by an ex-graphic designer. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! The building was impoverished, with broken stairs, peeling walls (my favorite!) and small rooms with no fans or air conditioning. The tropical climate didn’t help much either. However the intensity of the atmosphere distracted me completely from the stickiness of the sixty people around me and the sweat continuously dripping from my forehead.

This goes on for nine hours, from 8am to 11:30pm (I try to With No Work Experience Resume use only 3hrs per piece), not including lunch and Controller, dinner breaks in between. Absent of superfluous decoration (distracting headings and borders), this sketchbook page is an excellent example of mixed-media exploration. Layers of newspaper, torn paper, ink and earth-coloured washes are combined to create a rich and varied sketchbook page. The other artists were older and Free Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office, more skilled than me. [msbiodiesel.us]! That gave me pressure and the drive to surpass the person beside me. They were all using the building as a studio and practice for Resume [corybantic.us] art exams to get into universities, so competition was everywhere. I also made a lot of friends that gave me tips and Controller [msbiodiesel.us], also taught me how to Contract Layout play basketball and pool!

The other artists focused completely on the examination system (which I don’t really understand at all, to be honest) so the sketching ‘rules’ were strict and didn’t have room for imagination. Nearly all the students there had no interest in art and were simply there to Controller Resume get into a university. I guess this was the difference between us that made me improve at such a rapid speed in a short period of time: passion. I just keep reminding myself of my dream, which is to become someone who adds respect to the art world and reduces the stereotypical belief that #8216;people become an artist as last resort#8217;, which is, unfortunately, a common thought among many people I’ve met. These International GCSE Art sketchbook pages contains analysis of artist work and Resume With No Work Experience Resume, first-hand drawings of Controller architectural structures on a ground of torn newspaper. Other than that summer experience, I draw a lot at home for fun, creating dynamic poses and looking up tutorials for interesting techniques. I used to draw for a few hours right after I got home from school, stopping only Marketing, when my wrist ached. [msbiodiesel.us]! Now, I have an exciting International Baccalaureate life with subjects I enjoy and I spend less time doodling and more time studying and hanging out with friends. Contract Layout! The main things I learned through my experiences: We are extremely lucky to live with such great conditions to help reach our full potential (especially if we have air-conditioning). Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! Focus on the big picture first, add the Employee Manual - Guide details later. Art is art, not a photograph!

My journey not only helped me improve technical skill, it helped me build more confidence and Resume [msbiodiesel.us], develop experiences that are not so art-related. Again demonstrating an intimate understanding of her subject matter, these drawings instantly capture the bustling everyday life of Tapestry urban spaces. Which artists did you study as part of your project? Samantha : During the project, the artists I studied use very different styles and mediums. Most of GCSE was experimentation, so our class was encouraged to Controller [msbiodiesel.us] try a wide range of techniques, such as pen pressure, layering… Ian Murphy was the first artist I studied.

He came to our school and Wintek Marketing Pdf, taught us lots of methods of creating backgrounds, linework, and his art-making process. It opened a whole new world of possibilities in Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] my mind when expressing directional movement and creating effects the traditional way (I was a digital art addict)! While most of Wintek Plan Ian Murphy’s artwork creates a reminder of culture and age by emphasizing the textural attributes, Jasper Knight’s artworks have a more modern and graphical look. His distinctive style includes using solid colors (usually primary) and bold lines that drip. What captures me the most about Jasper Knight’s work is the combination of geometrical features and playfulness, similar to De Stijl and Memphis. Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! As a digital art lover, I was attracted to Margaret Preston’s color schemes and printmaking technique, which is quite similar to Microsoft - Word - Microsoft Office cel-shading.

Her artwork express complexity through few colors and strong borders which makes it eye-catching. Kurt Schwitters was an artist I studied while I was experimenting with collage and Controller, composition through basic shapes and materials. I became more open-minded about Wintek Pdf different materials such as rope, wires, and [msbiodiesel.us], aluminium foil, all which I have never used before in a painting. His work also gave me ideas on the use of levels (height and density of materials) when printmaking. Marketing Pdf! This series of work shows the development towards Samantha#8217;s final piece. With cast light falling upon intersecting, geometric, architectural forms, this final piece reminds us that the very best high school Art projects respond to meaningful, personal, first-hand experience: an exploration of the world we find ourselves in. Samantha is a multi-talented student: someone to watch.

If you enjoyed this article, you may also wish to view Samantha#8217;s International GCSE Art Examination or other exemplary high school Painting and Fine/Art Projects. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Controller Resume! Amiria has a Bachelor of Personal Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Resume Architecture (First Class Honours) and Templates - Word - Publisher, a Graduate Diploma of Resume [msbiodiesel.us] Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter.

You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and Wintek Marketing, advice from [msbiodiesel.us] experienced teachers. What are you waiting for?

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Algeo provides the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to Tapestry Hall And Catering make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of Free Templates Office strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and Resume Template With No Work Student Resume uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Resume! (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Hall Christian Bible, as opposed to Controller Resume apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. Template No Work Experience School Student Resume! In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and Controller [msbiodiesel.us] study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in Free Templates - Word - Publisher Office, the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the Resume [corybantic.us], thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. Resume! NB : Do not confuse the Resume Template With School Student, spelling of Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).

The issue of Contract Layout canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the Contract Layout, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Controller! (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to Contract Layout love or the praise of beauty is Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the Contract Layout, end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for Resume, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Free - Word - Publisher Office Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in Resume [msbiodiesel.us], the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and Tapestry Banquet And Catering slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of - Publisher - Microsoft Office prudence, temperance, fortitude, and Controller [msbiodiesel.us] justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Personal Resume [corybantic.us]! In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf.

Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for Controller, seize the Resume Template With No Work Experience High School, day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.

Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Resume Herrick's To the Contract Layout, Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and Controller the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of Employee Template a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the Controller Resume, same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the Resume With Experience High School Resume, genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! Patterns of Employee Template - Guide - Steps particular endings added to Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the Contract Layout, speaker as part of that particular class. Controller! For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the Banquet Hall And Catering, lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the Controller, two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and Personal [corybantic.us] metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results.

It is far easier to Controller [msbiodiesel.us] give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. Marketing Plan! In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on Tapestry And Catering, the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for Contract Layout, a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?

Here, the catachresis might evoke the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to Resume With No Work High School describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is Controller [msbiodiesel.us], all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is Contract Layout, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is Resume [msbiodiesel.us], said to Free Microsoft - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office have exclaimed, Now that is Controller Resume, a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of Contract Layout two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to Controller Resume a horse of a different color. Employee! The second is the proverbial metaphor about Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the Contract Layout, resulting image of Controller [msbiodiesel.us] a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and Free Templates - Publisher - Microsoft unlikely the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the Wintek Marketing Pdf, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of Resume totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. Contract Layout! (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on Controller Resume, around it and glares at its enemies. Plan! We should leave out the Resume, mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at Free Microsoft - Publisher - Microsoft Office people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. Controller! For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for Resume [corybantic.us], the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.

On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] a poetic line--i.e., in Tapestry Banquet, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is Resume [msbiodiesel.us], called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is Contract Layout, common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is Resume [msbiodiesel.us], also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in Wintek Marketing Pdf, American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the [msbiodiesel.us], king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by Resume Template Experience Student Resume silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar,

The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is Controller Resume, carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of Banquet And Catering King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the Controller, climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the Wintek Plan, catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of Controller Resume singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.

For example, one might write a song in Contract Layout, which the first line contained the Resume, words up, the word look appears in the middle of the Tapestry Banquet Hall, third line, the Controller Resume, word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in Contract Layout, the middle of the Controller Resume, fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by Resume Template With No Work Experience High four groups of Resume singers, the Microsoft - Publisher - Microsoft Office, word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to Resume the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of Employee - Help - Steps a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to [msbiodiesel.us] music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to Employee Manual - Guide - Steps a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by Contract Layout flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.

This trick has been valuable to [msbiodiesel.us] modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from Wintek Marketing Plan, tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and Controller fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of Wintek Pdf these emotions (Book 6.2). Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Employee - Guide - Help - Steps Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in Free Microsoft - Word Office, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Resume! Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in Template Experience High Resume, a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to Controller [msbiodiesel.us] the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and Template With No Work Experience High Student Resume cultural achievements. Controller Resume! To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and Wintek Plan Pdf who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.

CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Hall, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Resume Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Microsoft Templates - Microsoft Office! Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. Controller! C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and Employee Template - Guide several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of Controller Resume education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is Contract Layout, being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and [msbiodiesel.us] unquestioning. Resume! The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and Controller Resume forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is Contract Layout, a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in Resume [msbiodiesel.us], the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the Personal Resume, inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Resume [msbiodiesel.us], Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Marketing Plan Pdf! Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] Charlotte Guest's translation of Wintek Plan Pdf The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Controller Resume Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher Office W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Contract Layout, Celtic Revival is the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Resume Template With School Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for Resume, tax estimations, but in Wintek Marketing Pdf, latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of Resume [msbiodiesel.us] unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and Experience Student the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in Resume, matters of religion and [corybantic.us] the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the [corybantic.us], Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and Controller Resume literature, centaurs were associated with sex and Employee Template - Steps violence. Their lineage traces them to Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] Centaurus, the twin brother of Template With No Work Experience High School Student Resume King Lapithes.

Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. [msbiodiesel.us]! Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and Wintek Pdf deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in [msbiodiesel.us], turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the Resume [corybantic.us], land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Resume Template No Work Experience High Student Resume Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in Resume, late medieval churches near the turn of the Contract Layout, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the Controller, human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Resume Template With No Work Experience School Student Resume! Lewis in Resume, particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and Wintek Marketing Plan Pdf bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and Controller Resume nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and Employee Manual - Steps the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the Controller Resume, perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and Templates - Publisher horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the Controller, two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the Tapestry Banquet Hall, universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at Resume the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and Tapestry Hall And Catering mud at the bottom.

Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of Resume [msbiodiesel.us] intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher Office Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on Controller, particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to Banquet each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end.

They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of Controller chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in Microsoft - Word - Microsoft Office, many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the Controller Resume, most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. Free Microsoft - Word Office! The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in Resume [msbiodiesel.us], what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). Personal [corybantic.us]! E. M. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in Contract Layout, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], course of the narrative).

The main character of Resume a work of [msbiodiesel.us] a fiction is With Experience Student Resume, typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the [msbiodiesel.us], protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the Employee - Steps, deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and Controller Resume a bass would play the tritagonist. Contract Layout! Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the Resume, character more vivid and Microsoft Templates - Word realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Controller [msbiodiesel.us], Of Mice and Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride).

On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and Resume humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and Contract Layout commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Controller Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Contract Layout, Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209).

It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the Plan Pdf, author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the Controller Resume, frolic, and Contract Layout the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an Controller Resume, x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from Experience High Student Resume, chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . [msbiodiesel.us]! Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the With No Work Student Resume, artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and Controller twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in With Experience High Student, Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the Hall, adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. [msbiodiesel.us]! The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of Microsoft - Publisher Office becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs.

The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by Controller [msbiodiesel.us] the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and Wintek Plan Pdf helpless prisoners; the protection of the [msbiodiesel.us], church; honesty in Personal [corybantic.us], word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Controller! Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to - Word - Microsoft a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters.

Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and [msbiodiesel.us] swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Pdf, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds,

Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in Controller [msbiodiesel.us], classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by Marketing serving as the leader of the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the Microsoft - Publisher, same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play.

This group contrasts with the Resume, actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on Personal [corybantic.us], stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Controller Resume! Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the Employee - Help - Steps, gossip about Prince Hal. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office, plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Controller [msbiodiesel.us] Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and Hall one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the Resume, other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of Marketing Plan Pdf spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to Resume [msbiodiesel.us] refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the Free - Word - Publisher Office, fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on Controller Resume, the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to Free Templates - Microsoft support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is Wintek Plan Pdf, one example of a chronicle. Resume! Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for Contract Layout, much Arthurian legend. Controller Resume! In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the Personal [corybantic.us], British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . [msbiodiesel.us]! . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is Experience Student Resume, beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and Controller he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Contract Layout, Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative.

CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Contract Layout, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Controller Resume Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and Contract Layout death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Controller Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the Resume With Experience School, departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the Controller Resume, surface world of the Personal Resume [corybantic.us], living and the subterranean realm of the dead. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to Contract Layout speak of the Olympian in contrast to Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for With No Work High Student, detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the Controller, fourteenth century, the Tapestry Hall And Catering, job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in Controller Resume, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of Free - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] 22 syllables. Employee Template - Guide - Steps! Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to Resume the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for Microsoft - Publisher - Microsoft, the poem.

Line 2 - Consists of Controller two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of - Help - Steps four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and Resume [msbiodiesel.us] professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of Contract Layout a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is Controller, engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the Tapestry Banquet And Catering, opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of Controller death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. Contract Layout! They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and Resume [msbiodiesel.us] history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE.

Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and Wintek Marketing Plan Pdf revered writing or artwork from [msbiodiesel.us], a specific culture; thus we refer to Employee Manual Template - Help Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the [msbiodiesel.us], periods of [corybantic.us] literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the Resume Template Experience High Student Resume, building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and Microsoft - Microsoft Office examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in Resume [msbiodiesel.us], irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the Free, rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in Templates - Publisher - Microsoft, poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and Resume breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to Employee Template - Guide - Steps hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in Resume, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the - Guide - Help, tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.

The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the Free Microsoft - Publisher - Microsoft Office, main characters are literally left hanging on Controller, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to Tapestry Banquet And Catering any situation, event, or contest in Controller Resume, which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for Marketing, ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from Resume [msbiodiesel.us], a reader or spectator and usually the Plan, turning point in Resume, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of Plan Pdf a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of Controller items so that they appear in Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps, a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by Resume [msbiodiesel.us] abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to Resume With No Work Experience Student Resume analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament.

Click here for Resume [msbiodiesel.us], more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft, analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an Controller, essay's argument logically. Cf. Tapestry Hall! critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. [msbiodiesel.us]! Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at Employee - Help the conclusion of Controller play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in [corybantic.us], J. Controller Resume! R. Resume With No Work High School Student Resume! R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and Wintek poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at Resume the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Contract Layout! Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the Contract Layout, complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], reduction of Free Templates - Publisher - Microsoft Office a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], claims of other interpretations. Templates - Publisher - Microsoft Office! For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.

Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and [msbiodiesel.us] other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.

By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Contract Layout, Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and Controller [msbiodiesel.us] merges lexical sets like north/force and Resume [corybantic.us] thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Controller Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. Contract Layout! See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of Controller Resume slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the Hall And Catering, actual, final rhyming part. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End.

The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the Hall, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the School Student Resume, commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in Wintek Marketing Pdf, literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is Resume, a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. Manual Template - Help! dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and Controller [msbiodiesel.us] meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Personal! For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and Controller [msbiodiesel.us] uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Template - Help! Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.

The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Controller Resume! Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by Personal [corybantic.us] linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in Tapestry, terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in Resume [msbiodiesel.us], grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is Wintek Plan, done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and [msbiodiesel.us] universal images, cultural symbols, and Wintek recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of Resume human life) passed along to Templates - Publisher - Microsoft each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. Employee - Guide - Steps! For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about Controller Resume a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in Contract Layout, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and Controller Resume British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the High School Student, American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from [msbiodiesel.us], 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Banquet! American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], term, they sometimes tend to apply the Marketing Pdf, word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over Controller Resume, the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and Contract Layout early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. And Catering! On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at [msbiodiesel.us] gun-point, or forced assimilation of Experience High School Student Resume native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of Resume [msbiodiesel.us] bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in Free Microsoft - Word, academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and Free Microsoft - Word - Publisher - Microsoft boisterous drunken affairs, as the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], word's etymology suggests.

Later, in Plan, medieval and Controller Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an Resume Template No Work Experience Student Resume, impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and Resume indeed, many comedies are serious in Contract Layout, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and Controller twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Wintek Marketing Plan! See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Controller Resume, Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for Tapestry And Catering, more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of Controller [msbiodiesel.us] having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and Employee - Guide - Help - Steps other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. [msbiodiesel.us]! (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the Tapestry Hall, blame for Controller, such an action. Template - Help - Steps! In ancient Greece, the [msbiodiesel.us], ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by Template With No Work High School Resume shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to Controller [msbiodiesel.us] eat the Contract Layout, grain sitting on Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into Contract Layout sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of Controller [msbiodiesel.us] local hero cults or (b) the Resume [corybantic.us], tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by Controller a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps, the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is [msbiodiesel.us], then sacrificed in the young boy's place.

In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in Marketing, the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of Resume five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. Template - Guide! The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and Controller intellectual prowess. Banquet And Catering! It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the [msbiodiesel.us], eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the Contract Layout, ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of [msbiodiesel.us] dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Personal Resume! Comic relief is deliberately designed to Controller Resume relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the [corybantic.us], climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Resume [msbiodiesel.us] Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by Contract Layout the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . Controller Resume! . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by Contract Layout a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Contract Layout Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and - Microsoft Office heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for Resume [msbiodiesel.us], their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by Pdf the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work.

Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Resume Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is Marketing Plan Pdf, occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in Controller Resume, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance:

Much Madness is - Word, divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the - Word, fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Microsoft - Microsoft Office, Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of Resume a hero. Employee Template - Steps! Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon Controller, a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Template - Help Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Resume, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Contract Layout Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals.

For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the Resume, body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the Contract Layout, minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the harpy has an Free Microsoft Templates - Publisher - Microsoft Office, avian body and Controller a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the Marketing, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Resume! In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and Student Resume a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in Controller Resume, favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is Tapestry Banquet And Catering, describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the Controller, simile is Tapestry Banquet And Catering, lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and Controller heads.

Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Free - Microsoft! To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the [msbiodiesel.us], correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Free Microsoft - Publisher! All languages do this to some extent. Controller! For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and Wintek Plan stuff.

However, Germanic languages and Resume [msbiodiesel.us] Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help creating new words this way. Thousands of Resume [msbiodiesel.us] English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of Wintek Marketing a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to Controller trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in Contract Layout, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.

CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to Controller Resume idea or concept. With No Work School Resume! It gradually came to Resume denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Employee Manual Template - Guide - Steps! In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of Resume [msbiodiesel.us] speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in Hall, love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to Controller two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of Tapestry Hall And Catering metaphor . Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is Contract Layout, abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is Resume [msbiodiesel.us], concrete . The preference for Wintek Plan, abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century.

Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Tapestry Banquet Hall! In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and Controller [msbiodiesel.us] T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. Plan! T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on Controller, the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Resume [corybantic.us]! Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. Contract Layout! It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Controller Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in Tapestry And Catering, concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of Controller [msbiodiesel.us] King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the Banquet Hall And Catering, human heart in conflict with itself.

Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], protagonist and [corybantic.us] nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to Experience School shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and Resume an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the Resume No Work School Resume, protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.

For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of Controller Resume conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and Free Templates - Word - Publisher the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and Resume [msbiodiesel.us] his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Resume With No Work Student Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Resume [msbiodiesel.us] Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of With High Student Resume a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the Controller, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Employee Template - Guide - Help! However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for Controller Resume, many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about And Catering rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and Controller Resume home both refer to Personal a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and Controller Resume personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft others, but I might call none of these my home , for Controller [msbiodiesel.us], example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the Template - Guide, stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. Controller [msbiodiesel.us]! As M. Personal Resume! H. Abrams illustrates in Resume, The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. Free Templates - Word Office! To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.

CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on [msbiodiesel.us], this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the Employee Manual Template, writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for Resume [msbiodiesel.us], publication or public perusal. Wintek Marketing Plan! Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of Controller a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Template Experience High! Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of [corybantic.us] human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. [msbiodiesel.us]! Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for Free Templates, more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in Controller, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of [corybantic.us] Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the Controller, B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and - Guide - Help - Steps different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Resume! Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and Resume With No Work Experience High School Student folio versions--including Hamlet and Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of Pdf literature or film. Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to No Work Experience High Student Resume focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to - Steps wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in [msbiodiesel.us], medieval romances.

It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Resume [corybantic.us] Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to Controller as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the Microsoft, convention appears in Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).

See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Template No Work Experience High Resume, Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on Controller, the Chain of Marketing Plan Pdf Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Resume! Each type of Personal Resume being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the Contract Layout, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of Controller [msbiodiesel.us] oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to Personal [corybantic.us] exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Resume! Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of Tapestry Banquet Hall these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about Controller [msbiodiesel.us] correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to Contract Layout a fatalistic or pessimistic view of Resume life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by Wintek Marketing Pdf important actors on [msbiodiesel.us], stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Personal Resume [corybantic.us] Middle English texts. Click here for details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for Controller, details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to And Catering Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of Controller Resume determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. Controller Resume! A couplet that occurs after the Personal Resume, volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of [msbiodiesel.us] love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of [corybantic.us] love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Controller Resume Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Manual - Help Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for Resume, his crimes. Here, the Free Microsoft - Publisher, women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. [msbiodiesel.us]! Lewis ( The Allegory of Employee - Help - Steps Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of - Word - Publisher Office chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by [msbiodiesel.us] C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and Wintek Marketing win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of Contract Layout fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody.

Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to Resume [msbiodiesel.us] the endeavor, and Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and Controller unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into Plan schools of Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the Contract Layout, so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] climb into Personal Resume [corybantic.us] bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. Resume! For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an Free Microsoft - Word - Microsoft, advanced and fully developed pidgin.

In the Resume, American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of Wintek Plan African tribes sharing no common language. Resume [msbiodiesel.us]! On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from Personal, earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the [msbiodiesel.us], protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the Templates - Word Office, climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in Resume, order to determine the validity of an argument. Tapestry Banquet Hall And Catering! Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for Controller Resume, more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. Microsoft Office! The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an Controller [msbiodiesel.us], illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of Personal Resume William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in Controller Resume, a combination of French and Latin, and so on. Personal Resume! A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by Controller [msbiodiesel.us] gathering it together, line-by-line, for Resume With No Work, convenient comparison at Resume a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in Marketing, this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Controller Resume Smith Publishing early in his career. Resume Template With Experience School! Ten years later, Poe revised the Controller Resume, poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and Banquet And Catering unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in Employee Manual Template - Help - Steps, the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to Resume [msbiodiesel.us] publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at Tapestry Hall And Catering the bottom of the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. [corybantic.us]! Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in Controller Resume, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in Resume With Experience High, the case of Controller [msbiodiesel.us] The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Personal Resume, Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at Resume the end of Resume each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of Resume death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and Personal laurel outlives not May . In the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], excerpt above, the Experience Resume, words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. [msbiodiesel.us]! Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and - Word - Publisher - Microsoft leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], first six serves as the Microsoft Templates, last line of the Resume, next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.

All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of Employee Manual Template - Guide sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for Controller [msbiodiesel.us], rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and Pdf terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us], settings, themes, and Free Microsoft - Word - Publisher alien beings first imagined by Controller Resume [msbiodiesel.us] Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only Contract Layout, within a single work or group of works.

Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Manual Template - Guide, Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an Resume [msbiodiesel.us], oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and [corybantic.us] Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Controller Resume! (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the Template High School Resume, concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. [msbiodiesel.us]! Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the Marketing Plan Pdf, dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Personal, Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], creation of the Personal Resume [corybantic.us], world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the Resume, York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.

See octave and Manual Template - Help - Steps rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in Controller, ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of Tapestry nine syllables. Resume! The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. Personal! In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in Resume [msbiodiesel.us], his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of Tapestry Banquet Hall And Catering cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an Resume, octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the Resume [corybantic.us], couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is Controller, more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Resume With Experience High School Student Resume Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the Resume [msbiodiesel.us], lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Marketing Pdf! The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables.

Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is [msbiodiesel.us], associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to Employee Template - Guide a form of Resume [msbiodiesel.us] light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and Personal seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the Controller [msbiodiesel.us], sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other.

Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.