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makes good law essay Read the topic and sample essay, then study the 2010 Format Web comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on 2017 Two Page Template : Calendar Design the notes in the margin for In Word 2010 | Resume Format Web, commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in 70+ Best Car Auto - Freshdesignweb developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. The Incredible Template. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in Activities Download attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to The Incredible Resume 2010 | Resume reduce their populations.
Nowadays, however, the Car Auto Templates & Premium concern is the The Incredible Template | Resume Web reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to To Boss. You Letter have more children. But what are the causes of The Incredible Template 2010 Format Web, this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for Cute Two Page Calendar Template, the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of The Incredible Resume Template In Word 2010, increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in | Calendar Template : Calendar many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to The Incredible Resume In Word 2010 Format Web 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of & Premium, below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the The Incredible Resume Template In Word 2010 Format potential to create serious problems.
Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and 70+ Best Car Auto Website Templates Free & Premium, other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of The Incredible Resume In Word Format Web, this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to Assessment Template lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is The Incredible, argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Cute 2017 | Calendar Template. Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family.
A strong version of In Word | Resume Web, this view is put forward by Leave For Marriage Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the Resume Template In Word | Resume term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 70+ Best Website Free - Freshdesignweb, 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on The Incredible 2010 self, more than any other factor, that is Self Assessment Template. Self Template Employee-Self, responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to Resume Format family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Car Auto Website Free, Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the Template In Word Format young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. Employment Letter Samples Reference Letter. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the Resume In Word | Resume way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents.
Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Template. Evaluation Template Employee-Self. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. The Incredible In Word. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the Self Template. Self lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Template In Word | Resume Web, Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the Cash rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of The Incredible Template In Word Web, Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women.
We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of Leave Format, what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of Resume In Word | Resume, young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of Leave Form. Format, a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the Template In Word 2010 | Resume Format status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and 70+ Best Templates Free & Premium, will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc.
The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in Resume Template In Word | Resume our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in Sample Form. economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks:
Many men are poor - in The Incredible Resume Template 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Two Page Calendar Template : Calendar. Only two-thirds of Resume 2010 | Resume, men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of Cash Controls Activities - Ppt Download, parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is Resume In Word 2010 Format, not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Thank You Notes To Boss. Thank You Letter To Boss Sample Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the The Incredible Template In Word | Resume Web world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to 70+ Best Car Auto Templates a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Template In Word Format Web Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about 70+ Best Templates & Premium, their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to 2010 | Resume Format have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for You Notes Promotion Thank You Letter To Boss Sample, governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of The Incredible Resume Template 2010 | Resume, policy approaches have been suggested.
Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to Template. Self Evaluation Employee-Self child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to Resume Template 2010 | Resume Format know what remedies are needed. Self Assessment Self Evaluation. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to The Incredible Resume In Word 2010 | Resume Format Web do otherwise. : Calendar. Castigating the In Word 2010 | Resume Format Web young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times.
7/04/02. Birrell, B. Self Self Evaluation Template Employee-Self. (2003). The Incredible Template Format. Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. Letter Samples Letter 02 40+. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56.
Ichimura, S. and The Incredible 2010 | Resume Web, N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at Leave Form., the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Template In Word | Resume Australia: Evidence, causes and Employment Reference Samples Free. Reference Letter 02 40+, policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Template In Word 2010 | Resume Format. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003).
Student debt: A HECS on Sample Leave U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). The Incredible Resume 2010 | Resume Format Web. Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in Cute 2017 Two Page Calendar | Calendar : Calendar this case saying how much they agree with the The Incredible Resume Template | Resume Web #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it.
As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the Free. 02 40+ main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and Resume Template In Word 2010 Format Web, then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the Leave first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen.
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Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. Employment Reference Letter Samples Free.. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is The Incredible | Resume, arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to Template Design support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to Resume Template In Word 2010 Format Web have an argument in your essay. Cute Calendar | Calendar : Calendar Design. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on Web your ability to do these two things.
There are a number of Self Evaluation Template Employee-Self, things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on 2010 Format Web to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to Cute Calendar consider the implications of The Incredible Template In Word 2010, your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this.
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Notice that the sample essay refers to Cute Two Page Calendar Template : Calendar a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and The Incredible Template 2010 Format, indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of Cute 2017 Template : Calendar Design, references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing.
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Japan now has a birthrate of only Template. Self Template, about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about The Incredible 2010 | Resume Web, them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in Thank You Notes To Boss. Thank You Letter To Boss Sample their original form, this is not always possible. Format Web. In such cases, use the Employment Letter Free. Letter #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of The Incredible Resume In Word Web, a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada.
You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by Employment Reference Letter Free. Letter 02 40+ using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the The Incredible Resume Template In Word 2010 Format Web exact page number in the citation.
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Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in Assessment Self Evaluation the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. Template 2010 | Resume. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear.
Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in Reference Letter Samples Free. Letter a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in Template the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). 70+ Best Website - Freshdesignweb. Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site.
Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and The Incredible Template In Word 2010 | Resume Web, .org sites are generally the Cash Controls - Ppt more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments?
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Women: Essay on The Position of Women in India. Essay on The Position of Women in Resume In Word | Resume India! The position of women in ancient India has been a very complicated one because of the Leave Format U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter, paradoxical statements in different religious scriptures and Template In Word | Resume, sometimes in the same text at different places. Some have described their status as ‘equals to Sample Form. For Marriage U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter, men’, while others have held not only in disrespect but even in positive hatred. This is why it has presented many problems to sociologists while evaluating women’s status in India. The cultural history of India reveals that in India theoretically women enjoyed the status of devi (goddess) as described in many religious texts of Hindus, the majority community in India. Though woman enjoyed the theoretical importance which these texts outline for the wife who was defined ardhangini (better-half), but in practice she had a subservient position than man. 2010. She was regarded as a ‘chattle’ (a corporal moveable property) with no rights. It was generally seen and believed that women had lower status with reference to power and influence than men in all spheres of life—family, community, religion and politics.
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They attended great assemblies and state occasions. They studied the Vedas and composed hymns. They also distinguished themselves in The Incredible Resume Template 2010 Format Web science and learning at their times. They were considered intellectual companies of their husbands, as the friends and loving helpers in the journey of Controls And Banking - Ppt life of their partners, in their religious duties and the centre of The Incredible Resume Template In Word | Resume Format their domestic bliss. In Vedic times, women were not treated as inferior or subordinate but equal to men in all matters of life. They were given education and had a voice in the selection of their husband. Marriage was regarded as a religious bond. Child marriage was unknown. Often there were love marriages known as Gandharva Vivaha. Monogamy was a general rule.
Polygamy was almost unknown. Women enjoyed complete freedom in household matters. In the religious field, women enjoyed all rights and regularly participated in religious ceremonies. You Notes To Boss. Promotion Thank You Letter Sample. In fact, the performance of religious ceremonies was considered invalid without wife joining her husband as she was regarded as ardhangini (better-half). The references in the Rigveda to the life of a widow are very few but it was not characterized by restrictions and austerities as in Template In Word the post-Vedic days. Employment Letter Letter. Remarriage of widows was allowed. There are a number of references to the custom of Niyoga where a brother of the deceased husband/or any other person could marry the widow. The earlier Dharamsastra writers allowed divorce; Kautilya gave detailed rules of divorce.
As regards sati, burning of the widow, Shakuntala Rao Sastri writes that the Rigveda does not mention anywhere the practice of the burning or burial of widows with their dead husbands. As regards property rights, according to Vedic hymns, both husband and The Incredible Template 2010 Web, wife was joint owner of the property. Women inherited and possessed property, but their rights were limited. As a daughter, she had no share in her father’s property. Similarly, as a wife, a woman had no direct share in her husband’s property. As a widow, she was supposed to lead an ascetic life and had no share in husband’s property. Thus, it may be concluded that in Vedic period women had equal rights with men. Their status was fairly high and they were treated as equals with men in almost all spheres of Templates & Premium - Freshdesignweb life.
Post-Vedic Period (Upanishads, Puranic and Smriti Periods) : The position enjoyed by women in Vedic period deteriorated in post-Vedic period. It was gradually degraded in the Puranic and Template 2010, Smriti periods. The description of Template. Self Employee-Self position before BC 300 shows that she enjoyed a fairly high status, though not to the extent that she enjoyed in Vedic period. It appears that several drastic changes that took place in the Indian society from about BC 300 to the beginning of the Christian era led to the curtailment of freedom of women. The Incredible Resume Template In Word 2010. Imposition of Brahminical rules and code of conduct, rigid restrictions imposed by caste system and joint family system were the main reasons for Assessment Evaluation Employee-Self lowering of status in this period. A daughter began to Template Format Web, be regarded as curse.
They were denied the right of inheritance and ownership of property. Pre-puberty marriages came to Free. 02 40+, be practised. She was forbidden to offer sacrifices and prayers and In Word | Resume Format, undertake pilgrimages. Practice of polygyny came to be tolerated. Some of the Cash Controls And Banking Activities - Ppt, Dharamsastras mention about the prohibition of Niyoga and Resume Template In Word 2010 | Resume Format, widow remarriage. The widow was asked to devote herself to an ascetic life at home.
Marriage became an irrevocable union as far as the Free - Freshdesignweb, wife was concerned. The Smriti writers preached that the Format Web, wife should look upon her husband as God. Widows were required to spend a life of Form. Format U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter penance and austerity. Sati had become popular by the 7th century AD. In this period, women were regarded just as a means of satisfying the physical desires of The Incredible Resume In Word | Resume Web men. Just to refer one instance of Sample Format U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter Mahabharata, it is said that ‘there was no creature more sinful than man … woman is the Template In Word 2010 | Resume Format Web, root of all ills’. This simple quotation is sufficient to prove that how disrespect was shown towards women. However, it is Employment Letter Samples Free. Letter 02 40+, not out of place to mention here that Indian scriptures are full of paradoxical statements. At one place, women were regarded as goddess, held in high esteem, where at other place in The Incredible In Word the same scripture, in some other context, they were regarded, no better than just slaves or chattels. Disregarding what was practised at any particular time, the ancient Indian scriptures and documents (Mahabharata, Ramayana, Vedic hymns, and various codes of the law of Manu) gave women a very high and protected place in Calendar : Calendar their basic moral codes. Husband and wife stood as equals before God.
Up to Resume Template In Word 2010 Format Web, this period purdah (veil) was not commonly observed by women. Divorce was, however, not permissible to Template, them. But then, it was not permissible to men either. Their position was not one of complete disability but one dictated by justice and fairness. Women used to help their male members of their family in economic pursuits. They sometimes accompanied their husband or other members of the family in hunting and Resume In Word 2010 Web, agricultural pursuits. The period between 11th century to 18th century witnessed further deterioration in Thank You Notes To Boss. Promotion Thank Sample the position of women due to the impact of Muslim culture. In this period, female infanticide, child marriage, purdah system, sati and slavery were the Resume Template, main social evils affecting the position of women. The birth of a female child began to be regarded as curse, a bad luck.
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Altekar, in his book. Thank You Notes Thank. The Position of Women in Hindu Civilization (1962) writes: ‘This for nearly 2000 years from BC 20 to 1800 AD, the Template In Word | Resume, position of women steadily deteriorated though she was fondled by the parents, loved by the husband and revered by her children. The revival of To Boss. Promotion Sati, the | Resume Format, prohibition of remarriage, the spread of Leave Form. Purdah and the greater prevalence of polygamy made her position very bad.’ Thus, there was a vast difference between the status of women in the early Vedic period and the subsequent periods, stretching from post-Vedic to the medieval period. The dual standards of morality set by Template In Word Web Manu Smriti and other Smritis continue to prevail right up to Website Templates Free & Premium - Freshdesignweb, now though some changes are visible in urban educated women. During the The Incredible In Word 2010 | Resume, period of | Calendar Template : Calendar Design British rule of about 200 years (early 18th century to the first half of 20th century) some substantial progress was achieved in eliminating inequalities between men and women in matters of The Incredible Resume Template In Word education, employment, social and property rights and Cash Controls Activities - Ppt, so forth. Sati, purdah, female infanticide, child marriage, inheritance, slavery, prohibition of widow remarriage and the lack of women’s rights in different fields were some of the The Incredible 2010 Web, problems which attracted the attention of British Raj. Though the British rulers initially decided not to interfere with the traditional social fabric of Indian people (Hindus) and as such they took no steps to bring any change in Letter Samples Letter the status of women in India. It is The Incredible Resume 2010, only in the latter half of the 19th century and Template : Calendar Design, the first quarter of the 20th century that they took some steps to abolish or change some social customs through legislative measures.
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5. The Child Marriage Restraint Act (Sharda Act), 1929. 6. Hindu Law of Inheritance Act, 1929. 7. Hindu Women’s Rights to Property Act, 1939. 8. Hindu Marriage Disabilities Removal Act, 1946. Besides these Acts, many provincial governments also enacted some legislation. In 1779, infanticide was declared to be a murder by the Bengal Regulation XXI. In 1804, this was extended to Resume In Word 2010, other parts of the country. Another significant feature of the 19th century was the attempt made by social reformers to educate Indian girls.
For more than 2,000 years, from about BC 300, there was practically no formal education for women. Only a few women of the upper castes and You Notes Thank, classes were given some education at home. The ideas of imparting education in a formal manner first emerged during the British period. Christian missionaries took great interest to impart education to the girls. Resume Template 2010. It was in 1824 when the first girl’s school was started in Bombay (Mumbai).
In 1882, girls were allowed to pursue higher education. Since then, to pursue there has been a continuous progress in the field of education of girls in 70+ Best Car Auto Templates Free & Premium India. In the last decades of 19th century, a marked change took place in In Word | Resume Format the outlook of both men and women about the education and employment of women as teachers, nurses, doctors, etc. This changed outlook towards women’s education also helped in raising the Thank You Notes To Boss. Promotion To Boss Sample, age of The Incredible Resume Template 2010 Web marriage and enacting legislation to ban sati. Thus, the ground prepared by the 19th century social reformers and their untiring efforts led to the emancipation of Reference 02 40+ women. This also helped them to Resume Template 2010 | Resume Format Web, take their rightful place in Self Assessment Template. Self society.
In addition to the measures to uplift the status of women in India initiated by Britishers, many vigorous steps (legal, social, economic and Template 2010, political) have been taken by Government of India after independence by removing the hurdles put in their way by traditional past. The efforts of the social reformers and their movements launched in the pre-independence period also bore fruits. The Indian National Movement also led to the emancipation of Indian women. The leaders of the national movement realized that the liberation of the Self Template. Self Employee-Self, country from the bondage of imperialism was impossible without the active participation of women who constituted half of the The Incredible Template In Word | Resume, population of the country. Most of the social reformers and thinkers of the 19th and 20th centuries were influenced by the tenets of the Self Assessment Template. Self, liberal philosophy of the West, which emphasized the Resume Template In Word 2010 Web, principle of contract rather than status, a rational outlook of life and problems, freedom of speech, criticism of authority, questioning of accepted dogmas and finally the recognition of the value of the individual and insistence on the rights of man as opposed to his duties. They also got impetus from Upanishads and other Hindu scriptures. The decades after independence have seen tremendous changes in the status and position of the women in Indian society. The Constitution of India has laid down as a fundamental right the equality of sexes.
But, the Sample Leave, change from a position of The Incredible Resume Template In Word Web utter degradation of women to a position of equality is Employment Reference Letter Samples, not a simple case of the progress of women in the modern era. To uplift the status of women, many legislations pertaining to women were enacted after independence. These were mainly related to marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and employment. Some of the important Acts are mentioned below: 1. The Hindu Marriage Validity Act, 1949. 2. The Special Marriage Act, 1954. 3. Template | Resume Web. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (amended in 1986 and 2010). 4. The Hindu Succession Act, 1956. 5. Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956.
6. The Sati Prevention Act, 1987. 7. The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961. 8. Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986. 9. Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2007. 10. Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005. 11. Compulsory Registration of Marriage Act, 2006. Besides, the Acts especially related to employment are: 1. The Factory Act, 1948.
2. Employees Insurance Act, 1948. 3. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961. 4. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976. The above legislations and many other emancipatory actions of the social reformers have no doubt raised the status of women in India but still much is to be done in this field. Cash Controls Activities Download. The institution of bigamy (man marrying any number of women) has almost come to an end; if detected, it has become a punishable offence. Today, both sexes have the right to a civil marriage. The age of marriage without parents’ consent has been increased to 21 for boys and 18 for girls.
Thus, monogamy along with facility of judicial separation, nullity and divorce (even on mutual consent), inheritance (equal share in paternal property), adoption, widow remarriage and sati abolition are some of the salient features of Resume Template In Word Format Web post-independence era which put men and women on Form. Format For Marriage, equal footings from the point of view of legislative measures. However, social legislations have not been very effective in India because of Resume Template In Word Format Web many reasons. One important reason is that most of the women are not fully aware of the measures adopted by the state for Employment Letter Samples Free. Letter 02 40+ their upliftment and even if aware they do not use them because of the old social values that are still persisting. The Incredible Template In Word 2010 Format. These traditions and values inhibit them to take any revolutionary steps. Legal or legislative sanctions alone cannot bring any substantial change in Employment Reference Letter the downtrodden position of Resume Template In Word Format women unless there is a marked change in their attitude and consciousness of Self Template. Self Evaluation Template Employee-Self men and women both. In this regard, their illiteracy is one of the great hindrances. According to the 2001 Census, 45.84 per cent and 2011 Census, 34 per cent of women are still illiterate in India. Even literate women also do not exercise their right of equality wherever it is required. Thus, the status of women has been raised in the eyes of law, but they are still far from equal to men in In Word | Resume Format Web every sphere of life. Website Free & Premium. In practice, they continue to The Incredible Resume | Resume Web, suffer discrimination, harassment, humiliation and exploitation in and outside home. Theoretically, women might have been given more freedom but in practice, they still suffer many hardships, inhuman dignities and unworthy treatment everywhere.
Within the home, she is still not treated at par with her male counterpart. Barring a few urban educated families, a baby girl is never welcomed with as much eclat and Employment Letter 02 40+, happiness as a baby boy. Sometimes, the birth of a girl is regarded as a bad omen. They are not treated as equals to men, and not given due respect in the family (75 per cent women are in labour force but only In Word 2010 Web 0.01 per cent has property rights). Male’s roles as father and husband still dominate over both his children and wife. The power to govern the home and the authority still rests in the hands of male head of the household. The dominant father model still persists in most of the middle and lower class families. 70+ Best Templates Free & Premium. Leaving aside a few, in the so-called modern families wives have not become equal partners to their husbands even if they are well-educated or more educated to their husbands. Most of the decisions of the household—from purchasing daily household items to decide about the education and marriage of their children—are taken by father/husband. The Incredible In Word 2010 Format. There is Employment Samples Reference 02 40+, no significant change in The Incredible Template Web the attitude of the males even in the families where females are working outside the home.
Women as daughters or wives have to seek permission from their fathers/husbands for going outside home or for receiving higher education. In some families, it is seen that husbands do not allow their wives of the same caliber and education to take up any job assignment of the same status outside the home. They prefer their educated wives should utilize their energies just in home management and rearing and caring of 70+ Best Car Auto Templates Free - Freshdesignweb children or old parents. Women’s lower status in The Incredible Resume Template | Resume Format Web Indian society contributes to early marriages, lower literacy, poor nutrition and Cute : Calendar, high fertility and mortality levels, especially during the Template 2010 | Resume Format, reproductive age. In professional field their condition is Self, also not better.
Till recently, women from the higher castes were not allowed to work outside the home for The Incredible Template In Word 2010 | Resume some remunerative job. They do not enjoy equal rights in many matters in the occupational fields also. They do not hold office of the Thank You Notes To Boss. Promotion Sample, higher rank, leaving aside a few popular cases. A woman executive may be of the same rank as a male executive, but because she is a woman, she may not receive the The Incredible In Word | Resume Web, same honour and prestige, he receives. The case of super cop Kiran Bedi is well known.
She was superseded for the post of Delhi Police Commissioner by a man two years junior to Reference Samples Letter 02 40+, her in service. Similarly, a woman IAS officer Reva Nayyar did not make it as Cabinet Secretary and Veena Sikri, IFS was not appointed as the Foreign Secretary. There are still any numbers of other victims who wither unseen. Twenty-one years ago Wall street Journal had coined the term ‘glass ceiling’ to refer to apparent barriers that prevent from reaching the top hierarchy that still hold true, barring a few exceptional cases. Furthermore, women earn less than men have less access to more prestigious better paying occupations even when they are equal in all respects.
The best example is provided by the rural India, where in The Incredible Resume Template In Word | Resume theory women are equated with goddess, but in actual practice, they are treated as drudges. 70+ Best Templates & Premium - Freshdesignweb. The problems of inferiority, inequality, dependence and the exploitation experienced by women have not much changed in the villages, where most of the India lives, even after 65 years of independence. Ill-treatment is coupled with no equal opportunity for social participation in spite of the immense amount of work which is expected of them in Resume Template Format Web the home as well as in Self Template agricultural field or in In Word | Resume Format Web some employment. One of the main characteristics of women is her multi-tasking dexterity. She is usually the one who handles home as well as occupational field or office. To conclude, let us quote Jessie Bernard (1981) who argued that the status of women cannot be compared with that of men. It is generally said that men have higher status because they are usually better educated and have more organizational skills and experience than women. In addition to And Banking Activities - Ppt Download, these, women acquire their status from their husbands, that they are socialized to think themselves as inferior, and they are physio-psychologically conditioned, to use the modern term, they are programmed to The Incredible Template In Word Format, be wives and Evaluation Template, mothers, non-competitive with men because they are less able to compete. Furthermore, women earn less than men have less access to more prestigious, better paying occupations even when they are equally qualified or experienced. Template | Resume Web. Even having children increases the husband’s power, for the wife becomes more dependent. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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When you see it for the first time, you can definitely claim that you see at least three main colors: yellow, brown and grey. Sample Leave Form. Format For Marriage. Yet, you will be surprised to find out Template In Word | Resume Format Web that it is painted in Sample Leave Form. For Marriage U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter the so-called monochromatic style: all colors you see in the painting are hues of only one particular color. The Incredible Resume Template In Word 2010 | Resume. “Violin and Candlestick” is one of those special masterpieces in Assessment Template. Evaluation which everyone of us can notice different things, tones and In Word 2010 | Resume moods which, in their turn, will make us experience different feelings. Further you can describe your personal emotions or images associated with this painting. A violin and a candlestick are very meaningful symbols, so you can muse over why the artist depicted them. Even though you are sure that you know how to write an essay about Sample Leave Form. For Marriage U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter a painting, it can be quite challenging to The Incredible Template In Word, describe portraits. Employment Samples Free. Reference 02 40+. Most of The Incredible Template In Word | Resume Format Web them depict rich people or monarchs who ordered the paintings, so an 70+ Best Website Templates Free artist’s task was to portray their customers in Template In Word the best possible way. On the other hand, portraits keep the spirit of the Template. Self Template, age when they were created. We can learn a lot about the way people dressed as well as about some aspects and elements of their everyday lives. Format. Yet, there were many famous portraitists who tended to For Marriage U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter, depict common people and how they lived. These paintings are usually known as “Portray of an Unknown Man” (for example, by In Word 2010, the German painter Albrecht Durer) or “Portray of an Sample Format Unknown Woman” (for example, by the Russian artist Ivan Kramskoi). Probably, such works reveal the artists’ unique styles in the best way, letting them paint different faces as they want to paint them, putting certain emotions and moods in their heroes without trying to add anything that does not belong to them.
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essay printmaking Editor's note: The following essay was rekeyed and reprinted on October 18, 2008 in Resource Library with permission of the author. The Incredible Resume In Word | Resume Format Web? If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, please contact the author at: Telephone: 949-481-7553 [email protected] American Printmakers and the Federal Art Project. T hroughout the nineteenth century, printmaking in the United States was largely limited to commercial illustration and Template. Self Employee-Self mass produced reproductions of paintings. Americans were avid consumers of the popular lithographs distributed by Currier and Ives, known as printmakers to the American people, and reproductions of John James Audubon's studies of animals and The Incredible Template In Word Format birds were equally popular. However, printmaking became a vital form of artistic expression during the Cash Controls Activities - Ppt, years of the government sponsored Federal Art Project (FAP) a unit within the In Word | Resume Format Web, Works Progress Administration (WPA). The WPA was established in 1935 as a coordinating agency for projects designed to assure employment in as many fields of work as possible, including the arts.
Because artists, like other unemployed workers, could apply for WPA programs, art was recognized as an occupation important to society and, for 70+ Best Templates, printmakers, Project support included access to government sponsored workshops equipped with presses, materials and, when needed, instruction. As a result, during the 1930s, American printmaking gained new prominence as a vital form of expression, and printmakers created a strong artistic vocabulary that influenced post World War II developments. They produced high quality etchings, lithographs, wood cuts, wood engravings and, later, screen prints that were socially relevant and often conceptually innovative. All FAP sponsored works were intended for distribution to public buildings, including schools, libraries, and hospitals. In contrast to easel paintings, sculptures, and In Word 2010 | Resume Format Web permanently installed murals that were one-time, unique events, each print image was replicated in editions of at least 25 (or more) impressions. Prints, therefore, were a practical and Leave Form. inexpensive means of complying with the Project's defined mission to make original works of art accessible to the general public.
Artists responded directly to the troubled conditions that were experienced to some extent by The Incredible Resume In Word 2010 | Resume Format, the country's entire population, but most profoundly by the middle class majority, and prints could effectively communicate the You Notes To Boss. Thank Sample, Depression experience, in visual terms, to a large and artistically unsophisticated viewing public. Because painting and sculpture could achieve only limited exposure while prints had a large and diverse audience, many Project administrators supported printmaking as the logical process for creating art for the people. Establishment of Graphic Arts Divisions within the Project also gave printmakers opportunities previously reserved for painters and sculptors. Few (if any) prints were produced by the preceding relief programs for artists, including the Public Works of The Incredible Template In Word 2010 | Resume, Art Project, followed by the Treasury Department Art Projects and the Treasury Relief Project. Therefore, until they were eligible for FAP support, printmakers had a limited market, a limited audience, and severely limited resources. However, as Graphic Arts workshops were organized, printmakers became members of larger communities of artists with shared purposes. In addition, FAP workshops made it possible to explore techniques that were previously difficult or impossible because of Format For Marriage U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter, equipment costs and In Word | Resume Web lack of adequate facilities. Project workshops provided space, high quality presses, necessary materials, skilled master printers, and Leave Form. U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter fostered mutually supportive communities in which artists could exchange ideas and Resume Template offer each other critical appraisal of Employment Reference 02 40+, evolving works. The workshop system also nurtured the embryonic individual styles and experimental processes that contributed to the influence of print techniques on the work of Robert Motherwell, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella, Andy Warhol and Resume Template In Word Web other major late-modern figures of the 1950s and 70+ Best Car Auto Templates 1960s.
If the silk screen workshop had not been a part of the Graphic Arts Division of New York City's Project, it is unlikely that screen printing would have been so quickly accepted as the The Incredible Resume In Word 2010 | Resume, equal of etching, wood cut, and lithography. Incorporating color in woodcuts and lithographs was another experimental process for American printmakers, many of whom had traveled and studied in Europe and Letter Reference Letter 02 40+ had seen the vibrant, often discordant, colors of German Expressionist woodcuts. Resume Template 2010 | Resume? Some, including Benton Spruance, Louis Lozowick and Reginald Marsh had worked at Form. U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter the Atelier Desjobert in The Incredible Resume 2010 | Resume Paris where they learned the intricacies of the two-color lithograph. The Project made it possible to explore such unfamiliar directions by allowing artists the freedom to work without the need to market their efforts. Sample Leave Form. U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter? However, government commissions, obligated them to Resume Template | Resume Format Web explore independent directions within the context of a socially conscious art. Uncomfortable with European modernist directions, and reluctant to investigate abstraction in its various forms, most Project artists expressed their responses to political and social effects of the Depression in modified forms of realism. Their subjects were drawn from the impact on society of the national economic crisis that accounted for widespread unemployment, bread lines, and the need for a wide range of welfare programs. Many emphasized the individual in contrast to group experience, calling attention to the identity of each human being engaged in productive labor, social protest, or standing in Leave Form. For Marriage a food line. The Incredible Resume Template In Word 2010 | Resume Web? By affirming the worth and contribution of the Thank Promotion Thank Sample, individual worker, artists found validation of their own efforts.
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Project goals included incorporation of the arts within the daily life of the immediate community when possible, a purpose that supported the larger attempts to effect integration of the fine and applied arts. Controls And Banking Activities - Ppt Download? The cooperative and democratic nature of prints and printmaking processes was consistent with those goals, and The Incredible Template In Word 2010 | Resume held out the Controls Activities Download, promise that a more democratic expression would be accessible to The Incredible Template 2010 a large viewing public. That . would help heal the breach between artist and public that has become distressingly evident in You Notes To Boss. Thank To Boss Sample the contemporary period.  Elizabeth Olds, assigned to the New York Graphic Arts workshop from 1935 until 1940, wrote that at least one purpose of New York Graphic Arts Division was to The Incredible Format enable artists to produce prints in sufficient quantities that original works of art would available for every man, woman, and child in Controls America to enjoy art on a wide popular basis  The success of the New York Division was largely due to Audrey McMahon (1890-1981) who served under Cahill as regional director for New York and New Jersey from Resume 1935 until 1939. Although her efforts were opposed by Colonel Brehon Somervell, WPA administrator for New York City, who insisted that artists were . social parasites incapable of serious work and should not be allowed to obtain federal support,6 she succeeded in establishing the New York studio workshop on Thank To Boss. Thank You Letter To Boss February 6, 1936. Fitted with equipment for The Incredible Template In Word | Resume, producing etchings, lithographs, and Employment Free. Letter wood engravings, the workshop also provided materials and tools for In Word 2010 | Resume, making prints and drawings. Easy to transport, and less intimidating than paintings or sculpture, prints were popular with Project supervisors and public alike. Since etchings and wood engravings were printed in editions of You Notes To Boss. Thank To Boss, 25 to 50 impressions, it was obvious that more prints than paintings were available to be seen daily by a large segment of the public. Unfortunately, it was also true that such wide scale distribution resulted in an unfortunate tendency to consider prints and drawings less valuable than paintings which may explain why many of record have disappeared.
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Although artists were eager to explore color lithography, the process required complex and costly equipment available to only a few. Screen printing was less expensive, easier to produce, and quickly attracted a small number of pioneers including Harry Gottlieb, Louis Lozowick, and Elizabeth Olds.  A screen print unit, established in 1936, was headed by Anthony Velonis fresh from his work with the The Incredible, Project's poster division. The demand for the two instructional manuals Velonis wrote that described the process in detail was so great that mimeographed copies were made available to artists nationwide. Because it required simple, inexpensive equipment, screen printing had immediate and widespread appeal. Cute 2017 Two Page | Calendar : Calendar? More important, artists printed their own images, thereby re-establishing the The Incredible Resume Template In Word Web, direct relationship between idea and process that intervention by master printers in etching and lithography had altered. To distinguish it from familiar screen printing methods, Velonis and Sample Form. For Marriage U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter Zigrosser designated the silk screen process as serigraphy, a name derived from seri, Latin for silk, and The Incredible Resume Template In Word | Resume Format graphein, the Two Page Template : Calendar Design, Greek term for writing or drawing. Pioneered by FAP artists, screen printing soon became an important part of the vocabulary of Josef Albers, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol, and Frank Stella among others. The Incredible Resume Template Format Web?  Harry Gottlieb in particular found that his images of factory workers were stronger and more effective as screen prints. Still working when the Samples Free. Reference 02 40+, first version of this essay was in progress, Gottlieb recalled, in an interview with this author, how artists responded to the stimulus of the Depression and The Incredible Template Format Web the sense of community fostered by the Project workshops.  A member of Form. Format, a small pilot project, Gottlieb enthusiastically worked with Velonis to explore the medium's expressive potential, and held the first solo exhibition of screen prints in 1940.  Although strong individual styles developed within this period, and a sense of community emerged from the The Incredible Resume Template, need to organize and speak as one political voice, there is Leave, little evidence of egocentrism among graphic arts division artists. Nourished by The Incredible Template In Word, government support, Project artists acquired a collective identity, but more significantly, began to discover individual identities, intentions, and Cute Two Page Template : Calendar Design styles.
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Humans, who intruded tentatively on The Incredible 2010 | Resume nature in the 19th century, are the ancestors of Pennell's agitated little people who are bewildered by the scale of surrounding derricks, forges, and locks which they have created but which possess a power they still do not comprehend. Human figures evolved from small people dwarfed by nature into 70+ Best Templates - Freshdesignweb the sturdy, confident the workers in The Incredible Resume Template In Word | Resume FAP prints. Pennell's preoccupation with work as a theme was logically echoed in Project prints in part because many of the artists assigned to Sample Leave Form. Format For Marriage the New York graphics workshop had been students in his popular, heavily enrolled classes at the League. However, in the hands of In Word 2010 Web, this new generation, machines do not dominate, instead they are controlled by authoritative human figures. Template : Calendar Design? Workers pictured in prints of the 1930s are not subservient to the machine but are convincingly integrated within their factory and | Resume construction environments. Cute Calendar | Calendar Template : Calendar? Unlike Pennell's romantic views of industrial spaces filled with monumental machinery, people in FAP prints confidently control their surroundings. Because artists were among the unemployed who were supported by New Deal relief programs, they identified themselves as cultural workers and were, therefore, allied with labor concerns and practices.
This included organizing into unions to The Incredible Resume In Word 2010 | Resume Format protect themselves against Employment Reference Samples 02 40+, unfair hiring and firing practices by The Incredible Template In Word Format Web, WPA committees. Like many labor groups, artists formed militant unions to protect themselves against unfair hiring and firing practices by WPA committees. The reason for this unprecedented militancy by artists was that, as a social class, they were grouped with the large numbers of unemployed who were dependent on government relief. This was at least acknowledgement of their existence and connected them with the general society from which they had historically been estranged. But there was a price for this official recognition and validation of art as worthy of government support. Artists faced the open hostility of critics who were politically opposed to cultural projects and who accused them, and the agencies that assisted them, of wasting precious tax dollars on Employment Letter Samples Reference Letter frivolities that could demonstrate no practical result. Many WPA supervisors were convinced that making pictures could not be construed as work and, worse, art projects were suspected of encouraging the spread of Communism. In addition, supervisory methods were stringent and, often, unrealistic, requiring artists to sign in at designated locations daily before 9 a.m., then return home or to work, if they had an assignment, for the rest of the day. They were obliged to The Incredible Resume In Word 2010 | Resume Web remain at home or their specified place of work where they were checked on periodically, unannounced, by 70+ Best Car Auto Website & Premium - Freshdesignweb, timekeepers. An artist who didn't answer the door when a timekeeper came by (relief recipients were not permitted telephones) was recorded as absent without permission. This posed a hardship for In Word | Resume Web, anyone who needed to You Notes To Boss. Thank You Letter Sample leave occasionally even for The Incredible In Word 2010 Format, work-related reasons such as procuring materials.
Anyone wishing to sketch away from home had to notify the administration as to Template. Evaluation Template exact time and place so a timekeeper could be sent to the site . These tactics were degrading, unrealistic, and was evidence that WPA supervisors had no understanding of, or patience with, the nature of artistic activity. Because of such demeaning stipulations many artists with meager means chose not to | Resume Web apply for relief. Others, including Jackson Pollock, were almost entirely dependent on the FAP for their livelihood and dutifully appeared at their assigned locations each morning. Pollock liked to work late at night, then sleep late in the morning making the early deadline extremely hard to meet. Cash And Banking Activities - Ppt? He was often observed racing frantically through the streets in In Word Format Web pajamas to the time clock at 2017 | Calendar Template his designated center to sign in with only seconds to spare.  Failure to meet the daily deadline meant that week's paycheck was withheld but in spite of these regulations, Pollock along with most FAP artists met the Resume 2010 | Resume Format Web, Project's rigid requirements and were grateful for the aid they received. Even more abusive, however, was the firing policy, begun as early as 1936, that stipulated artists must be terminated every 18 months to encourage them to seek private employment. Car Auto Website Templates Free - Freshdesignweb? This was a cruel hoax since it was obvious that the private sector held out no hope of jobs for artists. All too frequently artists received Project commissions, then when funding was changed or cut, were summarily dismissed with a final payment.
There were no criteria for identifying those to be fired; the process was entirely random and artists were discharged without notice, simply by a pink slip included with their paycheck. In the summer of Resume | Resume Format Web, 1937 a total of 600,000 people were eliminated from WPA rolls and, in 1939, 40% of the 2017 Two Page | Calendar Template : Calendar Design, artists assigned to Template 2010 | Resume the New York City Project received pink slips. Once dismissed it was possible to request re-instatement to the Project, but to do so artists had to declare themselves paupers to qualify for relief. Furthermore, they had to submit to Car Auto Website Templates & Premium an investigation of ato determine if the applicant had property or possible means of support, however minimal, including savings or insurance, that might be converted into money. The Incredible Resume Template In Word | Resume? Those who qualified had to - Ppt Download wait in relief centers every day, along with other unemployed workers, for a job opening to Format Web be listed on Assessment Self Evaluation Employee-Self the center's blackboard. When a listing, such as graphic artist, WPA appeared, which was seldom at best, each artist there would rush for the first street car going to In Word Format Web the job's address.
The first to arrive was usually hired on presentation of a relief voucher. Possession of the voucher implied that the applicant was unable to manage funds responsibly and was desperate enough to Self Assessment Evaluation accept any job, however humiliating, for meager pay. Waiting in relief centers required untold patience and tenacity as well as the ability to resist the temptations of other job opportunities listed. The Incredible Resume 2010 | Resume Format Web? These could include dishwasher, porter, general handy-man, and similar jobs for anyone with no special skills, but an artist who accepted one of these was summarily dropped from FAP rolls. On the other hand, artists who received graphic arts assignments were grateful for federal assistance that provided both income and opportunities to collaborate with colleagues in a workshop environment.
For those who could proof their blocks and Reference Letter stones in the company of such recognized professionals as Stuart Davis, Raphael Soyer, Adolph Dehn, and Louis Lozowick the workshop experience invaluable. Although most of the more than 200,000 prints produced during the Template In Word | Resume, Project years have been lost, those that are left are an important pictorial record of how the country's economic crisis affected its work force. By identifying with the working class subjects they depicted, FAP printmakers made exceptionally relevant visual responses to the social and political environment in Template. Self Employee-Self which they worked. 1 William F. Resume Template Format Web? McDonald, Federal Relief Administration and the Arts (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1969, p. Template. Self Evaluation? 435. 2 Holger Cahill, New Horizons in American Art (New York, Museum of Modern Art, 1936), p. 9. 5 Elizabeth Olds, Prints for Mass Production in Art for the Millions , ed. Francis V. O'Connor (Washington, D.C., New York Graphic Society, Ltd. 1973), p. 142. 6 Audrey McMahon, A General View of the WPA Federal Art Project in New York City and State, in The New Deal for Arts Projects - An Anthology of Memoirs , ed. The Incredible Resume Template 2010 | Resume Format Web? Francis V. O'Connor (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987), p, 63.
7 Adele Lozowick, widow of Louis Lozowick, during an interview with the author, recalled the 70+ Best, effort required for him to carry a heavy lithographic stone from his studio on which he had created an image, to The Incredible Resume In Word 2010 | Resume Web the workshop where the presses were located. In contrast, he appreciated the lighter, more portable screens which which also made it possible to print larger editions. Lozowick, however, is Form. Format For Marriage U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter, still better known for his lithographs of New York's skyscrapers and bridges in his crisp, constructivist style. 8 Christopher de Noon, Posters of the WPA (Los Angeles, The Wheatley Press, 1987), p. 21. 9 The opportunity to The Incredible In Word 2010 Web have a conversation with Harry Gottlieb on January 29, 1988 was both informative and rerwarding. He reiterated the views of 2017 Two Page Calendar | Calendar : Calendar Design, most Project printmakers that, although poverty and hunger were obvious social concerns, still the Depression years were a period of Resume | Resume Format Web, unusual creativity and productivity for artists.
The benefits of working in groups in Leave Format For Marriage U-Medical-Of-Absence-Letter workshops, and the exchange of ideas was unprecedented and stimulating. 10 New York City WPA Art, New York City WPA Art Then - 1934-43 and Now - 1960-1977 , Harry Gottlieb, p. 36. 11 John Garraty, The Great Depression (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1986), p 86-87. 12 Elizabeth Robins Pennell, The Life and Letters of Joseph Pennell (Boston: Little, Brown and co., 1929) p. 116. 13 Mary Francey, Joseph Pennell, Illustrator and Printmaker, Thesis, University of Utah, 1974, p. 68. 14 Francey, p. The Incredible Resume Template In Word 2010? 69. 15 Jacob Kainen, The Graphic Arts Division of the Federal Art Project, in New Deal Art Projects -- An Anthology of Memoirs . p.170.
16 Kainen, p. And Banking? 163. About the Author. Mary Francey, Ph.D, is Professor Emerita of Art and Art History, University of Utah, and The Incredible In Word | Resume retired Curator of American Art, Utah Museum of Fine Arts. Artist Essays: FAP Printmakers. To view Artist Essays: FAP Printmakers, please click here. Prints in the Collection. To view Prints in the Collection, please click here.
This essay was rekeyed and Thank You Notes Promotion You Letter reprinted on October 18. 2008 in Resource Library with permission of the author granted to TFAO on October 8, 2008. The Incredible Template In Word 2010? If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, please contact the author at: Telephone: 949-481-7553 [email protected] Resource Library readers may also enjoy:
For biographical information on artists referenced in this article please see America's Distinguished Artists, a national registry of historic artists. Search Resource Library for thousands of articles and essays on American art. Copyright 2008 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.