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Introduction: GlobalizationPoverty Channels and Case Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa. Machiko Nissanke, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies; e-mail: [email protected] Erik Thorbecke, Graduate School Professor and H.E. Babcock Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Cornell University, Ithaca; e-mail: [email protected] Search for more papers by this author. In 2004 the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) embarked on a large-scale research project on the ‘Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor’ co-directed by Machiko Nissanke and Erik Thorbecke. The first conference was essentially conceptual in nature, meant to understand better the various mechanisms and channels through which globalization affects the poor either directly or indirectly. The other three conferences focused on each of the Housekeeper Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, major regions of the developing world: Asia, Africa and Latin America.
The objectives of 400 Word Essay this introduction are threefold: first, to review briefly how the Housekeeper Resume Cleaning Sample, forces of globalization influence poverty in general; second, to describe and discuss the main transmission channels and mechanisms; and third to For Job Application | Action Plan, analyze the Ingenious Housekeeper, impact of globalization on Planner Template Africa and present an overview of the six Africa case studies included in this issue. 1. The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. Globalization provides a strong potential for Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume a major reduction in poverty in the developing world because it creates an environment conducive to Word, faster economic growth and transmission of knowledge. 1 However, structural factors and policies within the world economy and national economies have impeded the full transmission of the Ingenious Housekeeper Cleaning Sample, benefits of the various channels of globalization for poverty reduction. In particular sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been relatively less affected by the forces of globalization than other parts of the world. World income distribution continues to be very unequal and many poor countries particularly in Africa are stagnating. Moreover, there is much empirical evidence that openness contributes to more within-country inequality.
China is a good example with coastal provinces as opposed to inland provinces reaping the major benefits of globalization. Progress on poverty reduction has also been uneven. Although the share of the population of developing countries living below US$1 per day declined from 40 per cent to 21 per cent between 1981 and 2001, this was mainly achieved by Philippines Image Gallery - Hcpr, the substantial reduction of the poor in Asia, in particular in China. Notwithstanding the drop in relative poverty, the total number of people living under US$2 per day actually increased worldwide. In particular, poverty has increased significantly in Africa in both absolute and relative terms.
The risks and costs brought about by globalization can be significant for fragile developing economies and Housekeeper Resume, the world's poor. The downside of globalization is most vividly epitomized at times of global financial and economic crises. The costs of the repeated crises associated with economic and financial globalization appear to have been borne overwhelmingly by the developing world, and often disproportionately so by the poor who are the 400 Word Essay, most vulnerable. On the other hand, benefits from globalization in booming times are not necessarily shared widely and equally in the global community. Though any trend in poverty and income inequality observed so far cannot be exclusively or even mainly attributed to globalization without rigorous analyses, even the most optimistic estimates cannot dismiss concerns that the globalization process, as it has proceeded to date, may have had some adverse effects on poverty and Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume, income distribution.
These concerns have generated a passionate debate worldwide as well as a powerful anti-globalization movement. 2. Channels Linking Globalization to Template, Poverty. What are the transmission mechanisms through which the process of globalization affects poverty directly and indirectly? The first and most important of these mechanisms is the growthinequalitypoverty channel. Other channels operate, respectively, through changes in relative prices of factors of Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping production (labour and Letter | Hr Letter, capital) and commodities, movements of capital and labour migration across borders and Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Sample, within countries, the nature of technological change and technological diffusion, the impact of globalization on volatility and vulnerability, the worldwide flow of information, global disinflation, and institutions. 2.1 The GlobalizationGrowthInequalityPoverty Causal Chain. To analyze and understand the 4+ Writing Letter Letter, impact of openness on poverty, the globalizationopennessgrowthinequalitypoverty causal chain has to be scrutinized link by Resume Resume, link.
The first link of the chain is from globalization via openness to growth. The main manifestation of openness is through trade and 4+ Writing A Goodbye Cover Letter, capital movement liberalization, affecting growth directly through increased exports, imports, and capital inflows. Trade liberalization policies encourage exports, which benefit export industries and contribute directly to GDP growth while switching from import substitution to opening up the domestic economy to imports leads over time to a more efficient resource allocation and a higher growth path. In turn, foreign direct investment (FDI) raises the Housekeeper Resume Cleaning, productive capacity of the receiving countries, and is often the conveyer belt for transferring technology and know-how. The second link in the causal chain from openness to poverty is the interrelationship between growth and inequality. While it is most likely that the poor will benefit from growth, the ultimate poverty-reduction effects will depend on how the growth pattern affects income distribution. If growth leads to an increase in 5+ Biodata For Job Application Template, income inequality, the poor may benefit only Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Cleaning Sample, slightly or, in some instances, actually be hurt by the globalization process.
Indeed, the growthinequality link is much more complicated than what the classical approach postulated with its emphasis on 4+ Writing A Goodbye Letter | Hr the growth-enhancing effects of inequality (the rich save a larger proportion of their incomes than the poor so that the impoverishment of the masses is a precondition to higher investment and growth). There are many consequences of, and phenomena linked to, inequality that at least potentially, could reduce future growth and hence future poverty alleviation such as the diffusion of social and political instability and conflict which could dampen investment because of greater uncertainty. The final link in the globalizationpoverty nexus captures the combined net effect of growth and a change in Resume Cleaning Sample, income inequality on 400 Word Essay poverty. A higher aggregate growth rate of GDP is good for poverty reduction, while increased inequality acting as a filter dampens the positive effects of growth on poverty reduction. Consequently, policymakers should focus on the pattern (structure) of growth and development rather than the rate of growth per se. In short, poverty reduction requires a combination of higher growth and a more pro-poor distribution of the gains from growth. 2.2 The GlobalizationCapital and Labour MobilityPoverty Channel. According to Housekeeper Cleaning Sample, economic theory, the Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, impact of globalization on developing countries well endowed with unskilled labour should lead to a decline in Ingenious Sample, income inequality through an increased demand for unskilled labour, while unskilled labour in developed countries would lose out with an adverse effect on equity. However, the empirical evidence reveals that wage gaps between skilled and unskilled labour have been increasing in many developing countries, particularly in Latin America and Africa. Several specific features associated with the current phase of globalization explain why the theoretical prediction does not hold.
For example, the nature of technical progress and new technology is heavily biased in favour of skilled and educated labour, as technical change emanates from RD activities in the developed (industrialized) countries in response to local conditions. 400 Word Essay? Hence, technical change tends to be labour-saving and skill-biased, and new technology is complementary to capital and skilled labour, while it is a substitute for unskilled labour and Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, tends to increase inequalities in both developed and developing countries. Furthermore, technological diffusion and access to Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, new technology is not universal and spontaneous, while intensified privatization of research (e.g. in bio-technology) may have adverse effects on access to new technology by developing countries and the poor. The resulting widened productivity differences explain cross-country wage/income inequality. ‘Perverse’ factor movements could provide another explanation.
Capital and Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Sample, skilled labour do not migrate to poor countries as much as among developed countries. Rather, there is Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 a tendency for skilled labour to migrate from developing countries to developed countries, as the massive migration of African nurses and Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning, medical doctors to the US and Europe testifies, while unskilled labour migration tends to be strictly controlled. With capital market liberalization, there is a propensity for capital flight from Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, developing to developed countries, particularly during periods of instability and crisis. Income convergence among the globalizing countries during the first wave of modern globalization was driven primarily by migration. Sixty million people, largely unskilled workers, migrated from Europe to North America and other parts of the new world between 1870 and 1914. In contrast, the Housekeeper Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, extent of cross-border mobility differs significantly between skilled and Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, unskilled labour in the current phase of globalization. Unskilled workers from developing countries face increasing obstacles in their attempts to migrate to developed countries. In consequence, wage equalization does not take place through labour migration, as was the case in the previous globalization era. 2.3 The GlobalizationTechnologyPoverty Channel. The nature of technical progress and technological diffusion can be a further channel through which globalization affects income distribution and poverty. As indicated, technological change tends to be highly capital- and skill-intensive and unskilled labour-saving, as befits the resource endowment of the rich industrialized countries where most innovations originate.
Even though much of the new technology does not conform to Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, the resource endowment of poor countries, the potential exists for globalization to confer significantly higher food productivity and Travel Philippines Gallery, rural incomes on developing countries via the mechanism of NorthSouth technology transfer. Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample? For example, to realize the potential positive effects of biotechnology on poverty reduction, the public and private sectors must: • establish institutions with local capacity for technology innovation and adaptation; • reduce transaction costs in the process of Travel Philippines Gallery international transfer of technology; • provide standardization, transparency, and access to information for property rights over technologies. In addition to significant investment in higher education and research capacity in low-income countries, a new type of institution (namely the Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample, Intellectual Property Rights Clearinghouse) might be capable of overcoming the lack of access to intellectual property rights and 5+ Biodata Application | Action, the burden of high royalty payments for small and poor farmers in the developing world. Even with such policies, there are important barriers to diffusing technology through globalization. Even if a new technology can potentially increase the 6 Housekeeping Sample, income level of small farmers, its diffusion may be slow due to sunk costs of Planner Template adoption and uncertainties about net payoffs of the technology in question. The lack of capital, credit, and risk-sharing possibilities as well as limited access to Sample, information about new technologies hinders technology adoption and diffusion.
Adoption of new technologies can be slowed by uncertainties about their efficiency. For example, without independent external information sources, farmers in developing countries have to rely heavily on their neighbours (‘leaders’ who have already adopted the Letter | Hr, technologies) to Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample, obtain vital information about new methods. 2.4 Other Channels: Vulnerability, Information Diffusion, and Institutions. Beyond increasing aggregate income, globalization increases uncertainty via greater variation in income and Sample | Action Plan, expenditure caused by global shocks, such as the various financial crises that have hit Latin America and Asia in Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, the last two decades. It was found that the Free Word Template, extremely high volatility of consumption observed in Central and East Europe since the early 1990s is strongly related to Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping, trade shocks encouraged by trade liberalization. Consequently trade liberalization, as implemented in the 1990s, may have actually worsened growth and welfare performance in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the per capita income of the poorest population quintile is most vulnerable to these trade shocks. These results point to the need for emerging and transition economies to adopt forward-looking national policies to support trade liberalization, that is, policies to 5+ Biodata Sample Application, mitigate the impact of trade shocks, and enhance coping mechanisms.
A new ‘culture of prevention’ with mechanisms for limiting the size and Ingenious Sample, frequency of shocks at Sample Application | Action the international level might also be called for. It can be argued that while globalization is a major engine for Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning growth in aggregate, globalization either introduces or exacerbates other trends that affect people's well-being as much if not more than income, for example, through the increasing flow of information about the living standards of others, both within and beyond country borders. This flow of information can result in changing reference norms and increased frustration with relative income differences, even among respondents whose own income is rising. For example, individuals in a given location or socio-economic group in 400 Word Essay, a developing country compare their incomes increasingly with those of relatively similar individuals in other locations in more developed regions or countries and might become frustrated by the rising differences in their standard of living vis-à-vis that of other groups. Many social and collective measures should be in place for globalization to have positive effects on poverty. These include measures such as: public investments in Ingenious Resume Cleaning Sample, health; institutions that can ensure adherence to basic norms of equity and Planner, fairness; and collective investments in social insurance to protect workers from the volatility that often accompany integration into global markets. In the absence of these measures, the process of globalization may only Housekeeper, create opportunities for those that are best positioned to take advantage of Travel Philippines - Hcpr them, leaving behind large sections of poor and vulnerable individuals. Institutions mediate the various channels and mechanisms through which the globalization process affects poverty. Institutions act as a filter intensifying or hindering the positive and negative pass-through between globalization and poverty and can help explain the Housekeeper Resume Sample, diversity, heterogeneity, and non-linearity of outcomes.
Thus, on the one hand, the impact of globalization on Daily the poor is mediated by domestic political economy structures and Housekeeper Cleaning Sample, institutions such as social polarization, oligarchic structures, and predatory regimes, which may bias, confiscate or nullify the gains from globalization for | Hr Letter particular groups of Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample poor. On the other hand, the positive effects of Brochure Philippines - Hcpr globalization on growth and poverty can be found when institutional conditions are characterized by such features as political participation, social cohesion and management of social conflict arising directly from Resume Cleaning, globalization effects. Consequently, safety nets and 5+ Biodata For Job Application Template, appropriate social protection schemes that shelter the assets of poor households (and particularly the erosion of their human capital) during crises triggered by globalization should be given high priority. Simple institutions such as rural banks (or branches) can play an important financial intermediation role of, among others, transferring the rising flow of Ingenious Resume Resume Cleaning migrants' remittances to their rural families and channelling savings and current account deposits to urban areas. Such institutions could reduce significantly the large rent (in the form of transfer fees) presently captured by firms such as Western Union in the developed world.
3. Globalization and 400 Word Essay, Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. 3.1 Main Characteristics in the GlobalizationPoverty nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa. Following largely an inward-oriented development strategy in Ingenious Housekeeper, the early decades of the post-independence period, the majority of Travel SSA countries failed to Cleaning Sample, take advantage of the opportunities provided by dynamic growth impetus associated with globalization in the 1970s and 1980s. Instead of becoming more integrated into Free Word Receipt Template, the world economy, they were largely marginalized and experienced slow growth and stagnation. With growing recognition of their disadvantageous positions, most of the SSA countries have increasingly searched for ways to Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, accelerate their participation in the global economy over Travel Philippines Image, the past two decades. Indeed, most economies in SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment policy regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programme since the mid 1980s. In examining the aggregate economic ‘openness’ indicators and their trends over time, it is Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample worth making a few general points at the onset.
First, as documented in 5+ Biodata Sample For Job Application Plan, detail by Housekeeper Resume Cleaning Sample, Round (2007) and reproduced here in Table 1, SSA is not behind other developing regions in 4+ Writing A Goodbye Letter | Hr Cover Letter, terms of trade openness, as conventionally measured in terms of a trade intensity index (imports and exports relative to GDP in current US$). Further, as expected, average trade intensity has increased in SSA in line with the overall global increase, but not as rapidly as almost all other low and middle income regions (this trend is observed irrespective of whether the intensity index is calculated with or without country GDP weights). In spite of the increase in trade intensity, however, Africa's share of total world trade has fallen over these two decades. According to UNCTAD (2003), Africa's share of world exports fell from about 6 per cent to 1.5 per cent, and imports from 5 per Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, cent to 1.5 per cent (merchandise trade) over the period from 1980 to 2002. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculated from current US$ estimates).
b World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculations by Round, 2007). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual per cent). Many countries in SSA have also intensified their efforts to attract FDI along other developing regions with various fiscal and other incentive measures. Table 2, reproduced here from Round (2007), shows estimates of FDI flows (inflows and outflows combined) expressed relative to GDP and (net inflows) as shares of the total net FDI received by developing countries, in both cases shown at the regional level. SSA shows a marked increase in FDI relative to GDP from 0.30 in the first period to 2.74 per cent in the final five-year period.
However, FDI flows to the region so far have been largely in extraction of oil and other natural resources. Further, again, in Sample | Action Plan Template, terms of the Ingenious Cleaning, regional shares of FDI, the estimates are far less favourable to SSA, attracting only around 6 per cent of 4+ Writing A Goodbye Letter Cover total net FDI inflows to Ingenious 6 Housekeeping, developing countries throughout this period. It is worth noting that in the 1990s, when there was a marked increase in Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, the share of developing countries as a whole in Ingenious Resume Cleaning Sample, world total FDI, Africa's share fell to 4 per cent. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual ratios). b I (inflows) and O (outflows). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculation by Round, 2007). d Net inflows only: net inflows dominate net outflows in these regions. e Regional shares of total net inflows across the six regions. (These may include flows between regions.) These aggregate measures such as the trade intensity index are the Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, outcome of many factors and conditions that could affect these ratios, including low levels of per capita income, geographical location and the trade composition, and Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, as such cannot be used as an indicator of the outcome of liberalization policies (Round, 2007).
As Pritchett (1996) argues, for the latter, a ‘structure-adjusted’ trade intensity index should be used, which takes into Template, account a host of structural characteristics such as size of GDP per capita, resource endowments, location factors. Hence, it is necessary to Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, apply due caution in assessing the results of the Brochure Philippines, policy regime shift by using these aggregate measures alone. Nevertheless, SSA presents a clear case to support the arguments that the shift to the open policy regime alone cannot bring about economic growth and anticipated positive impacts from globalization on poverty reduction. As shown in the lower part of Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Cleaning Sample Table 1, the growth performance in Free Template, SSA has been poor throughout the 1980s and Ingenious 6 Housekeeping, 1990s. After the two decades' reforms dominated by Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, liberalization, privatization and Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning, deregulation, the economies in SSA have not yet come out 5+ Biodata Sample Template, from the ‘growth tragedy’ syndrome the term popularly used in characterizing the region's economic performance in Resume, the comparative growth literature. A large number of studies have emerged that have sought to explain the differences in economic performances across developing countries through theoretical modelling and cross-country regression analyses in a framework of endogenous growth theory. These have further extended the list of factors giving rise to weaker growth performances of the African economies to | Hr Cover Letter, an array of variables such as natural and institutional endowments, the quality of institutions and Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, governance and geography (Acemoglu et al ., 2001a, 2001b; Rodrik et al ., 2002; Sacks and Warner, 1995, 1997, 2001 among others). Referring to these studies and based on their analyses carried out within the AERC Growth project, O'Connell and Ndulu (2000) and 5+ Biodata Sample Application | Action Template, Ndulu (2006) provide further explanations for Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Cleaning the slow growth of the SSA economies in terms of sovereign fragmentation, ethno-linguistic fractionalization and more generally geographical disadvantages. These conditions are seen to result in 5+ Biodata For Job Application Plan, uncharacteristically high costs of development in the region and could explain in a large part the lower rates of economic growth, investment and very low productivity of investment in Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume, SSA compared with other developing countries.
They observe that both the growth rates and investment efficiency in SSA are about half of the average obtained in other developing regions. It should be worth noting that the recent upturn in economic growth recorded in many natural resource-rich economies in SSA is closely associated with the price hike of oil and mineral commodities in the world markets. The growth rate of real GDP for oil-producing countries and resource-intensive countries in SSA during the period of 20025 was 6.2 per cent and 7.0 per cent respectively, twice higher than those achieved by non-oil producing and resource-poor economies in the region (Round, 2007). 2 The sustainability of such a high growth rate is very much dependent on 400 Word Essay exogenous factors unless windfalls of commodity booms are used purposely for diversification and transformation of Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample economic and trade structures. Highly competent macroeconomic management over the commodity price cycle is required to avoid the ‘Dutch disease’ associated with the commodity boom (Nissanke, 1993). Otherwise, the foundation for long-term economic development of these natural resource-rich economies would remain fragile. Indeed, today, several decades after gaining political independence, the high primary commodity-dependence remains one of the most conspicuous characteristics of the trade linkage of countries in SSA with the rest of the world. The failure of these economies to diversify and Brochure Gallery, undergo structural transformation, and hence, to benefit from the technology-driven, highly dynamic aspects of Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Sample on-going globalization has entailed a high cost to the region not only in low economic growth but also in persistent poverty. The incidence and depth of poverty has deepened in the region.
According to the estimates provided by Chen and Ravallion (2004), reported in Round (2007), the number of poor, measured in income poverty based on the US$1 a day international poverty line, increased in Template, SSA, almost doubling from about 164 million in 1981 to Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, 313 million in 2001 (Table 3). As the total number of poor in the world fell on 4+ Writing A Goodbye | Hr Letter account of the sharp reduction in Sample, China and other countries in Daily Planner Template, Asia for this period, the proportion of the world's poor in 6 Housekeeping, Africa rose from about 11 per cent to approximately 29 per cent during this period. In terms of the headcount ratio, the poverty incidence in SSA is 46 per cent in 2001 the highest in Template, the world. Ali and Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, Thorbecke (2000) argue that poverty in SSA is both most prevalent and severe in rural areas. a Chen and Ravallion (2004, Table 3) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). b Chen and Ravallion (2004, Table 4) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). Poverty is an essentially multi-dimensional concept that can only imperfectly be assessed by money-metric measures such as income or consumption. Sahn and Younger (2007) explore how globalization affected non-income measures of well-being health and 400 Word Essay, education in Africa over the past 1520 years. They expected to find, as they had previously in Latin America, that progress in the provision of public services and the focus of public spending in the social sector would contribute to declining poverty and inequality in health and education, even in Resume Sample, an environment of stagnant or worsening income poverty. Unfortunately, their results indicate that in the area of health, little progress is being made in terms of reducing pre-school age-stunting, a clear and Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, robust manifestation of Resume 6 Housekeeping Sample poor overall health.
Likewise, their health inequality measure revealed that there was, on balance, little evidence of success in improving equality of outcomes. Similar results were obtained in their examination of underweight women as an indicator of 400 Word Essay general current health of adults. While the story is somewhat more positive with regard to education, the overall picture gives little cause for optimism that Africa has, or will soon reap the benefits of the process of globalization, unless it scales up efforts in a number of the Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume, fronts including the provision of public services in the social sector. Furthermore, as Milanovic (2003) notes, countries in SSA have a relatively high intra-country inequality among the highest in the world. This can be seen as a puzzle: Africa should be a low-inequality continent according to the Kuznets hypothesis because ‘African countries are poor and agriculture-based, and also because the main productive asset agricultural land is relatively evenly distributed in most of SSA (except the Brochure Gallery - Hcpr, region of Southern Africa) in part thanks to the tradition of communal-land holding’ (Milanovic, 2003, p. 2). Round (2007) also notes that the degree of income inequality in Africa has increased sharply between the Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Sample, 1980s and the 1990s. There is Sample Application no doubt that sustained poverty reduction requires economic growth. However, as we note elsewhere (Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006), the 6 Housekeeping, pattern of growth does significantly affect the rate of poverty reduction. In this context, it can be argued that Africa's growth has been distinctly against the poor not only in terms of its ability to deliver the required growth rate to ensure that the Daily Planner, poor could benefit from Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, economic growth, but also in terms of its pattern.
Economic growth in SSA, where it has occurred, has not been translated much into poverty reduction. Critically, the nature and pattern of integration into the global economy in SSA as well as domestic conditions have not been conducive to generating virtuous cycles of globalization-induced growth as generally observed in 4+ Writing A Goodbye Letter, Asia (Nissanke, 2007). In most of East Asia, the structural transformation of their economies has been considerably facilitated by Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, the integration/globalization process. As we suggest in Brochure Image Gallery, Nissanke and Thorbecke (2008), the growth accompanied by a substantial reduction of abject poverty in Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, East Asia can be explained in terms of the region-wide comparative advantage recycling in production and export of labour-intensive goods. The process involves a strong demand for unskilled and semi-skilled labour, driven by 400 Word Essay, exporting labour intensive goods and Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, pro-trade FDI through effective technology and knowledge skill transfer. 3 Most of the Daily Template, East and South-East Asian economies have successfully gone through the Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, structural transformation of their production and trade structures with continuous upgrading of their human skill endowments and technology/knowledge base. Daily Planner? By relying on their dynamic comparative advantages these countries were able to maximize the benefits from dynamic externalities. Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume Sample? Specialization in sectors with large spillovers and dynamic externalities is more apt to engender a pattern of equalizing growth. Moreover, in most of East Asia, the pro-poor pattern of public expenditure in Word, favour of rural poor at Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Cleaning early stages of development produced and sustained the Travel Brochure Philippines Image Gallery - Hcpr, ‘shared’ growth for some time. There were concerted efforts on the part of governments to facilitate building primary assets of the poor through such measures as an equitable distribution of land (through appropriate land reforms); extensive public provision of Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Cleaning free and Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, universal primary education; promotion of small-scale enterprises and development of rural infrastructure roads, irrigation, schools, agricultural support outposts, health stations, and irrigation systems.
In contrast, the high susceptibility and vulnerability to exogenous shocks through its fragile trade linkage may have left SSA behind and suffering from Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, vicious cycles of globalization-induced decline (Nissanke, 2007; Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006). Many parts of Free Receipt Template SSA remain isolated from global markets and the global community as the region's access to information and technology is limited. There is some evidence to suggest that in SSA ‘globalization may be associated with increasing inequality and Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Sample, (hence) with an increase in poverty’ (Round, 2007). 3.2 Case Studies of the Impact of Globalization on Poverty within Sub-Saharan Africa. The six case studies in this issue cover the macromicro spectrum from completely aggregate focusing on 400 Word Essay the whole SSA continent to detailed village studies. They also rely on 6 Housekeeping Sample a variety of techniques such as computable general equilibrium modelling, reduced form regression equations, benefit incidence analysis, and qualitative and quantitative surveys of rural households.
Likewise, these studies employ a wide range of data sets ranging from cross-sectional data covering all SSA countries to very detailed micro surveys of villages to explore how different manifestations of globalization such as trade liberalization, FDI, migration within and between rural and Daily, urban areas, rural commercialization and institutional changes in land tenure systems affected the structure of growth and poverty. 4. Fosu and Mold analyze the gains from trade liberalization for Ingenious Resume Resume SSA estimated by previous studies on multilateral liberalization, focusing on findings from a number of computable general equilibrium models. They conclude that studies on the global implications for poverty reduction from trade liberalization are constrained by Sample | Action Plan Template, data limitations but that, in any case, the impact is likely to Housekeeper Resume Sample, be very modest with one recent estimate of only 20 million fewer poor for 400 Word Essay the whole SSA region. On the basis of simulation exercises run on the standard GTAP model the authors calculate that the welfare gains from further trade liberalization would be minuscule of the order of Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Sample one-fourth of one per cent of SSA's GDP (excluding South Africa, the Daily, welfare result is a loss for SSA). Fosu and Mold suggest that African countries reconsider the emphasis of their policies towards trade, for Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample example by pushing more aggressively the agenda on regional trade liberalization and the much higher potential pay-off of policies facilitating international migration.
Finally, the authors warn that without sufficient reforms that render labour demand more elastic, the 5+ Biodata Sample For Job | Action Plan Template, marginal expected gains from trade for SSA are most unlikely to create significantly more employment and could possibly even result in adverse effects on poverty reduction. Asiedu and Gyimah-Brempong explore the effect of capital liberalization (as a manifestation of Resume globalization) on employment and the flow of FDI in Africa. Two empirical equations are estimated on the basis of data for 400 Word Essay 33 African countries over Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, the period 19842003. The first equation regresses FDI in country i at 400 Word Essay time t on FDI policy in the same country and time-span; while the second equation regresses employment on FDI policy. Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Cleaning? Assuming that capital and labour are complementary inputs, one would expect an increase in capital inputs to lead to an increase in labour inputs hence employment. However, two qualifications need to be made: first, multinational firms investing in Africa are likely to adopt relatively modern technologies that are capital- and skill-intensive using relatively little unskilled workers and possibly shedding some; and second, when the motivation for FDI is Sample | Action Plan tariff-jumping to serve protected markets the outcome is unclear; liberalization policies could lead to Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, increased or decreased employment.
Given the relatively small sizes of African countries the tariff jumping motive may not be relevant and only of marginal importance. Based on their econometric work, the Brochure Image - Hcpr, authors found strong evidence that the liberalization of 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample investment policies is positively associated with FDI flows to Africa. In turn, capital liberalization by encouraging investment, indirectly stimulates employment by Sample | Action Template, multinational firms. Noting that FDI tends to Ingenious Resume, employ skilled labour, Asiedu and Gyimah-Brempong recommend that to ensure that some of the benefits of FDI go to the poor, countries might consider implementing policies that encourage multinational companies to utilize more unskilled labour through such incentives as tax breaks. Daniels examines how trade liberalization through price transmission affects the | Action Plan, welfare of female-headed households as opposed to male-headed households.
By focusing on three years, i.e. 1995, 2000, and 2004, Daniels is able to evaluate the impact of tariff reductions on Cleaning gender in two periods, 19952000 and 20002004. Free Word Template? The study reveals that the consumption pattern of female-headed households is Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample different from that of male-headed households ceteris paribus : women tend to allocate a larger proportion of the budget to food, child and health care than men and vice versa for alcohol and tobacco products. Hence female-headed households benefited relatively more from Receipt, tariff reductions on imported food, while men benefited relatively more from tariff reductions on alcoholic beverages and tobacco products. Another interesting finding is that the impact of the first period round of tariff reductions was strongly in favour of the wealthy and the very poor in contrast with the Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, tariff reductions in the second period which favoured the lower part of the income distribution. Most economies in SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programmes since the mid 1980s. Yet, most rural communities in the region were left relatively untouched by the globalization process, as they have remained isolated due to the poor physical infrastructure and high transaction costs as well as the rudimentary stage of other market supporting institutions hindering access to markets and information. The last three papers included in Planner, this issue examine a few mechanisms through which globalization affected rural poverty in Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon, respectively, using household survey data. Oduro and Osei-Akoto investigate the factors that influence market participation and poverty profiles by conducting a comparative analysis of four villages in Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume, Ghana. The starting point of their empirical investigation is that globalization is predicated not only on the liberalization of the external trade regime, but also on the existence of the supportive infrastructure and institutions needed to A Goodbye Letter Cover Letter, facilitate the flow of goods, services and information.
The authors chose four different rural communities for their case studies: the first is located on the coast, close to Accra, the capital city, engaging in producing and exporting a non-traditional commodity (pineapples); the second is located in Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume, the forest zone, consisting predominantly of cocoa farmers; the third, located on the border of the forest and savannah zone produces domestic food crops such as cereals and root crops for the domestic market; and the fourth is Daily Template situated in the savannah zone to the north of the country, with few links to the domestic and Resume Sample, international markets. They calculate the pattern of output commercialization ratios by crop and location and try to explain the Brochure, variation of these ratios in terms of resource endowments of individual farmers and their households as well as institutional variables such as credit, membership of cooperatives, land tenure system, access to market information and marketing arrangements. On the basis of their empirical results, they suggest that the rural economy in Housekeeper Resume Resume, Ghana is not adequately endowed with social and economic infrastructure and 4+ Writing A Goodbye, market supporting institutions to participate effectively in the globalization process. Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Sample? Their findings also confirm that access to information and institutions that are conducive to participation in domestic and global markets is very unevenly distributed within rural economies and the very poor are particularly disadvantaged in this regard. Onyeiwu, Polimeni, and Polimeni examine the distributional and poverty impact of Template globalization-induced migration on a rural community in Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, Nigeria. Using micro-level survey data from over 300 poor households in a small village of south-east Nigeria (about 30 miles from the regional capital), the paper investigates whether individuals who migrate from the village to take advantage of the urban-biased globalization process do better than non-migrant villagers. According to Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, the authors, this village is representative of a rural Nigerian village, isolated and very poorly endowed with physical infrastructure such as transport and power/water supply. Ingenious 6 Housekeeping? Food crop-based agriculture is mainly for subsistence and fragile due to the low soil quality. The villagers are extremely poor with 87 per cent of all the respondents living below US$1 per day and 94 per cent below US$2 per day.
When Port Harcourt, a big oil city, started experiencing a huge increase of FDI flow under globalization in the 1980s, about 20 per Travel Image, cent of villagers began to move to a regional capital not far from Port Harcourt to take advantage of the job opportunities opened up by the FDI-induced globalization process and diversify risks facing them as farmers. Ingenious Cleaning Sample? However, the Daily Planner, change in relative prices against urban poor and migrant workers, resulting from the Ingenious Resume, implementation of the Structural Adjustment Programmes, reduced the real incomes of migrant workers. The paper concludes that, while the migrant villagers tend to earn slightly higher incomes than the non-migrant villagers, the poverty profiles of both categories of households remain essentially the same. Hence, they argue that globalization has not succeeded in alleviating poverty amongst the poor villagers who migrated. In addition, there has been an increasing feminization of poverty because of the rising number of female-headed households left behind by Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, migrating males. Baye illustrates how the evolving land-tenure arrangements under globalization are prone to generate conflict situations over land rights in Cameroon, and then examines the implications of such conflicts on security in accessing primary assets for the poor in two villages located in different ecological zones one in the north-west highland and Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, the other in 400 Word Essay, the south-west lowland provinces in Anglophone Cameroon.
The author argues that the land laws in Ingenious Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, Cameroon are an outcome of its colonial heritage and exist alongside the communal tenure system, creating formal and informal institutions governing access to the prime productive asset of the poor. The ambiguity and inconsistency surrounding these arrangements generates and exacerbates conflict situations, which create insecurity and 4+ Writing | Hr Cover Letter, restrict productivity-enhancing investments on land. The first village, situated in a savannah grassland region with poor infrastructure, is a more homogenous community in Resume Resume, terms of ethnicity and tradition. It experiences net out-migration, but is more dynamic in synchronizing group effort. Daily Template? In comparison, the second village, situated in a fertile agricultural ecological zone, has historically attracted migrants with fairly developed farm-to-market roads and also established large plantations of banana, rubber, and oil palms. Commercialization of Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning agricultural produce is much more advanced and land markets are more buoyant in the second village. As the issue of land awareness comes to the fore, engendered by population pressure, relative price changes and the commoditization of A Goodbye Letter Cover land, conflicts have developed farmergrazer conflicts in the first village, and farmerfarmer, and indigenous peoplestate conflicts in the second village.
The rent-seeking attitude of administrative and judicial authorities, who exploit inconsistencies in the dual tenure system, tends to reduce the Housekeeper Cleaning Sample, possibility of negotiating lasting solutions to land-related conflicts in the surveyed villages. A Goodbye Letter Letter? The author also observes that land transfer in the first village characterized by a more homogenous society with strong traditional conventions, remains biased in favour of males, while the second village enjoys gender neutrality in access to land. However, the changes in relative prices between traditional cash crops and food cash crops under globalization tend to modify the division of labour by Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping, gender in both villages. In summary, while globalization has made some contribution to economic growth in SSA, it has not yet facilitated the process of structural transformation required for countries in SSA to reach the 4+ Writing Letter | Hr Cover, take-off stage and accelerate economic development and poverty reduction. Instead, it has increased intra-country inequality and done very little to reduce poverty. The case studies have illustrated clearly that the impact of globalization on poverty are extremely context-specific. In general, however, the limited scope of Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample globalization in SSA appears to be the result of a combination of poor initial conditions, such as fundamental disadvantages of location (disease-prone tropical countries with a harsh environment); inadequate political institutions; extremely under-developed physical infrastructure, and a related high risk investment climate.
5 Progress on all these fronts will be necessary if Africa is to enjoy the potential benefits of globalization. The first two sections of this introduction are based on the first two publications of this UNU-WIDER project, i.e. Nissanke and Thorbecke (2006 and 2007). The data are from the IMF Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa, September 2005. The growth rate of real GDP per capita is of course much more modest, as the population growth rates are high in most countries in SSA.
The six case studies in this issue were presented at the UNU-WIDER conference on ‘The Impact of Globalization on the Poor in Africa’, held in Johannesburg in December 2005. See Dercon (2007) for a more thorough discussion of Planner these issues. The Authors. Journal compilation African Development Bank 2008. Issue online: 12 March 2008 Version of record online: 12 March 2008. Acemoglu, D. , S. Cleaning? Johnson and J. A. Robinson ( 2001a ), ‘ Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of Modern World Income Distribution ’, NBER Working Paper 8460, Cambridge , MA . Acemoglu, D. , S. Johnson and J. A. Robinson ( 2001b ), ‘ The Colonial Origins of Cover Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation ’, NBER Working Paper 7771, Cambridge , MA . Ali, A. and E. Thorbecke ( 2000 ), ‘ The State and Resume 6 Housekeeping Sample, Path of Daily Template Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Preliminary Results ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 9 , No. 1 , Supplement, pp.
9 40 . CrossRef | Web of 6 Housekeeping Science® Times Cited: 14 Chen, S. and M. Ravallion ( 2004 ), ‘ How Have the World's Poorest Fared since the Early 1980s ?’, World Bank Research Observer , Vol. 19 , No. 2 , pp. 141 70 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 46 Dercon, S. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization and Marginalization in Africa: Poverty, Risk and Vulnerability in Rural Ethiopia ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper, 2007/73. Milanovic, B. ( 2003 ), ‘ Is Inequality in Africa Really Different ?’, Policy Research Working Paper 3169, World Bank, Washington , DC . Ndulu, B. ( 2006 ), ‘ Infrastructure, Regional Integration and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Dealing with the Disadvantages of Geography and Sovereign Fragmentation ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 15 , No. 2 , Supplement, pp. 212 44 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Nissanke, M. ( 1993 ), ‘ Stabilization-cum-Adjustment over the Commodity Price Cycle ’ in M.Nissanke and A.Hewitt (eds.), Economic Crisis in Developing Countries : New Perspectives on Commodities, Trade and Finance , Pinter, London . Free? Nissanke, M. ( 2007 ), ‘ Pro-Poor Globalisation: an Resume, Elusive Concept or a Realistic Perspective ?’, SOAS Inaugural Lecture Series, University of London. Nissanke, M. and Free Word Receipt, E. Thorbecke ( 2006 ), ‘ Channels and Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume, Policy Debate in the GlobalisationInequalityPoverty Nexus ’, World Development , Vol. 34 , No.
8 , pp. 1338 60 , in the Special Issue: The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 7 Nissanke, M. and Free Word Receipt, E. Thorbecke ( 2007 ), The Impact of Ingenious Resume Cleaning Sample Globalization on Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 the World's Poor: Transmission Mechanisms , Palgrave Macmillan for UNU-WIDER, Basingstoke . Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample? CrossRef Nissanke, M. and E. Letter? Thorbecke ( 2008 ), Globalization and the Poor in Asia: Can Shared Growth be Sustained ? Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke . CrossRef Pritchett, L. ( 1996 ), ‘ Measuring Outward Orientation in Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume, LDCs: Can it Be Done ?’, Journal of Development Economics , Vol. 49 , No. 307 35 . CrossRef | Web of 4+ Writing A Goodbye Letter | Hr Letter Science® Times Cited: 56 O'Connell, S. and B. Ndulu ( 2000 ), Africa's Growth Performance: A Focus on Sources of Growth , African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi . Ozawa, T. ( 2006 ), ‘ Asia's Labour-Driven Economic Development, Flying-Geese Style: An Unprecedented Opportunity for Ingenious Housekeeper Cleaning Sample the Poor to Rise ?’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2006/59, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki . Rodrik, D. , A. Subramanian and F. Trebbi ( 2002 ), ‘ Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Integration and Free Receipt Template, Geography in Economic Development ’, International Monetary Fund Working Paper 02/189, Washington , DC . Round, J. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization, Growth, Inequality and Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning, Poverty in Africa: A Macroeconomic Perspective ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/55. Sachs, J. D. and A. For Job Template? M. Warner ( 1995 ), ‘ Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth ’, NBER Working Paper 5398, Cambridge , MA . Sachs, J. Resume Cleaning Sample? D. and A. M. Warner ( 1997 ), ‘ Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986? 6 , No.
3 , pp. 335 76 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 141 Sachs, J. D. and Ingenious Resume Sample, A. M. Warner ( 2001 ), ‘ The Curse of Natural Resources ’, European Economic Review , Vol. 45 , pp. 827 38 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 159 Sahn, D. and S. Younger ( 2007 ), ‘ Inequality and Poverty in Africa in an Era of Globalization: Looking beyond Income to Health and Education ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/74. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Eric Akobeng , Growth and Institutions: A Potential Medicine for Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 the Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa, African Development Review , 2016 , 28 , 1, 1 Wiley Online Library 2 Mawdudur Rahman , Mostaq Hussain , Social business, accountability, and performance reporting, Humanomics , 2012 , 28 , 2, 118 CrossRef 3 Maktoba Omar , Collins Osei , Ayantunji Gbadamosi , Re-branding Africa, Marketing Intelligence Planning , 2011 , 29 , 3, 284 CrossRef.
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essay topics You’ve spent quite a bit of time in Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, your English classes writing argumentative essays, and 400 Word Essay, you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986? Chances are, all you need to do is relax and find a topic you’re passionate about and, of course, one that is debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics?
Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all– argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an Resume 6 Housekeeping essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of 4+ Writing A Goodbye Letter | Hr Letter, gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Sample, topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to Word Template help get you started. I’ve separated the topics into five categories–legal, moral, social, media and family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to use the topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic.
10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about Housekeeper Resume Resume legal matters are a popular choice. Gallery - Hcpr? These types of topics can include laws that you would want to Resume Cleaning create, change or completely abolish. Receipt Template? They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You don’t have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Sample? After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the Travel Brochure Philippines Image Gallery - Hcpr, benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)?
Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of moral dilemmas, from animal testing to the death penalty. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for those opinions–on what they think is right or wrong. If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over.
While it’s good to Resume Cleaning Sample be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an Free Word Receipt Template outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide?
Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to Ingenious Resume Resume Cleaning Sample the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for 5+ Biodata For Job Application | Action, people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of speech give people the right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of Ingenious Resume Sample, people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and even more that you could create on your own.
If you get stuck on 400 Word Essay, which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample? This should make writing about 400 Word Essay that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Cleaning rely on facts and 5+ Biodata For Job Template, not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in Ingenious Cleaning Sample, the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants?
Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of 4+ Writing Letter | Hr Letter, anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume, order to curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to 5+ Biodata Sample For Job Application | Action Plan Template vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and Cleaning, Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and Letter | Hr Letter, the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to Resume 6 Housekeeping Sample find.
Just turn on a television and don’t change the channel when the commercials come on. Pay close attention to all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to find something debatable about what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to A Goodbye | Hr Letter be portrayed on Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume, prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for A Goodbye Cover Letter, violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in Ingenious Resume Resume Sample, schools?
In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and A Goodbye, tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. That’s because every family is Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Cleaning different. Rules in Brochure Image, families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume different, it’s hard to generalize in Receipt, these types of essays.
However, if you look into research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample, any of the Planner Template, topics below (or for a topic of your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of 6 Housekeeping Sample, debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started.
Once you’re ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that it’s much easier to write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about 4+ Writing A Goodbye Cover it. Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Sample what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to Word Receipt Template the Kibin editors. They’ll help give you the winning edge in whatever you’re debating. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over Ingenious Resume Resume, 500,000 example essays. About the Author.
Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. Letter Cover? You can find her on Google+. Thank you for Housekeeper, these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. 4+ Writing Letter Cover? #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about Ingenious Cleaning anti immigrants. 5+ Biodata Sample For Job Application | Action? I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, the help. Hi Abdul–I’m not sure *who you’re proving wrong?
However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. Word Receipt? A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for the help and Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Is the hook on the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of Travel Philippines Image - Hcpr, your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to Free Template do it on Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Cleaning, can u help? Btw I’m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya– so I think the important thing would be to choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and sorry if I’m stereotyping you due to Philippines your age, perhaps a good argument would be to Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning discuss the effects of video games on Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, young people.
Here is Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I’m still not sure. What would be a good resource for Word Receipt Template, supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is Housekeeper Resume morally wrong? I’m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. 5+ Biodata Sample For Job Application | Action Template? I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn’t help me on Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, this and it was a hard topic to argue about.
Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for Ingenious Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, a company to Philippines Image Gallery not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume laws in California and Colorado for Letter, example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about Resume Cleaning 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down.
Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day life–maybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, here’s a good post on making an 4+ Writing Letter | Hr Cover essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I’m sorry to hear that. Maybe you’ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that. I need to write 3 essays and I 5 days to Resume Resume Cleaning do it need HELP and I’m 15. Hi Dyson–eep that’s a lot of essays in a short amount of 400 Word Essay, time.
You’re going to want to stay organized. Ingenious Housekeeper Resume? Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for that it really helps me. You’re welcome. Thanks for reading!
Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. Free Receipt Template? My argument is Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to Sample For Job Application Plan write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don’t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay.
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I have to right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, a topic it has to be arguable…. Housekeeper Resume Resume Cleaning? Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in - Hcpr, this post should lead you to something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of Ingenious Resume Cleaning Sample, researching and writing. Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). Free Receipt? This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the same thing i’m going thru for english 202. It has to Housekeeper Resume Cleaning Sample end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough.
Don’t despair. You can do it. 400 Word Essay? #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following ” Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample, bilingualism and multilingualism” . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, points that you want to Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to Free Word Receipt take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and Ingenious Housekeeper Sample, BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the Brochure Image Gallery - Hcpr, consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning discuss research related to Plan Template multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here.
Once you have the points you want to defend in 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample, place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. I have started writing the paper. 400 Word Essay? However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It’s fantastic that you understand the value of 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, having someone proofread your essay. Brochure Gallery - Hcpr? While I can’t do this for you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to Ingenious Sample check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and 400 Word Essay, more.
You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and Ingenious Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, I loose my nerve a lot. Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986? but trust me, it can be worse… Good luck on your writing though!–I’m sure you need it more than me… i have to Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the periods, and change the font size from Sample For Job Application | Action 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If you’re armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it’s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to Ingenious 6 Housekeeping take to execute an argumentative essay:
1) pick your topic–this post is a good place to start. 2) do your research–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statement–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outline–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paper–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/
6) edit your paper –https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in Travel Image Gallery, and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and so far I’ve written only 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like “tomorrow afternoon” has arrived.
I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. This makes me think of Walt Disney and Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, how all of his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws. 400 Word Essay? That would be one case study I would use for Ingenious Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses. I’m studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and Free Receipt, yet we cannot come up with an idea on what will be our topic. Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume? please help us for For Job Application Plan, we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you’l help us a little bit.
I’m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for Ingenious Resume Sample, a research paper that is related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the A Goodbye Letter Cover, question I’m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and Ingenious Housekeeper Sample, then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to For Job | Action support your project.
For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to 6 Housekeeping Sample take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I’d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out if any of them have enough material to 5+ Biodata Application support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because “computer science” and “entrepreneurship” or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, also helped me a lot for my project….but i am currently writing a novel and 4+ Writing Letter Cover, i need some pointers for it…..would you be able to Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping help.
The novel is a fan-fic on 400 Word Essay, the original series Percy Jackson… Congrats on starting the rewarding project of 6 Housekeeping, writing your own novel. Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986? The best advice for writing a novel is Resume Cleaning just sitting down and Template, writing it. You may be tempted to Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it’s coming out as you want it to, but if you’re serious about this, you’ll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it won’t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and every week.
A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in Travel Brochure Philippines Gallery, mind! It’s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it… again and again until it’s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I’m so glad you found it helpful!
Thanks for Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Resume, reading. Naomi help me please? i’am looking for the disadvantages of Free Receipt, a physical store and found only Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Sample minor things. i wanted to Travel Brochure Gallery - Hcpr find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping, disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, top of my head: – Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and tear on your car). – There is Free Word Template a higher risk that the store will be out of the Housekeeper Resume Resume Cleaning, item you need (or won’t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to Daily Planner Template limited inventory. – Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing — just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons.
Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, a month so any advice on Ingenious Housekeeper Resume, how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while. I’d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time — brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I’d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP.
Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I’m need to Ingenious Resume Cleaning write a thesis for Daily Planner, my uni’s project this year. But, I’m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I’m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, “Students’ perception on Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping, integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.” *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an effect to Free Word Receipt the students, in the way of education.
I think you’re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Cleaning? Here is an example of what I mean: “Students’ perception of integrity, which is one of NDUM’s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.” In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: “Students who have a strong perception of Brochure Philippines Image Gallery - Hcpr, integrity, one of NDUM’s core characteristics, tend to be more successful in their educational endeavors.” I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an online tutor. 6 Housekeeping Resume? I do a wider array of assignments from A Goodbye Cover essays, projects and research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the assignments are done in 12-24 hours. Be free to inquire more.
Email: [emailprotected] . I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don’t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning? Can someone give ma an advice on 400 Word Essay, this? I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don’t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad.
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I started my essay on government should increse the fundings. Brochure Image Gallery - Hcpr? Now I’m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That’s a long one, but you can totally do it. Ingenious Resume Cleaning? Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. Receipt Template? You might want to check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you’re making and how much evidence you use to back them up.
Much respect for Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Sample, your decision to go back to school! What an Travel Philippines Image awesome example you’re setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. Resume Resume Cleaning? I’m obviously biased, but they’re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for Word Receipt Template, this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism. Off the top of my head: 1. Ingenious Housekeeper Sample? Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it’s simply a type of neurodiversity and Travel Philippines Image Gallery - Hcpr, should not be treated as something “wrong,” just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors.
The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too. 3. Argue that Asperger’s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.
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con law essays In 2012, at the urging both of religious conservatives and women’s groups concerned with sexual exploitation, Congress passed and the President signed “The Prevention of Sexual Exploitation Act (PSEA).” The Act described the sex trade as “a multi-billion dollar industry that has deleterious effects on our social fabric.” Congress identified women as “overwhelmingly the victims of the sex trade” and so targeted its enforcement provisions against “johns” (the solicitors of Resume Cleaning, acts of Free Word Template, prostitution). The Act made it a federal crime, punishable by a fine of up to $5000 and Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning a year in prison, for any male to offer money, goods, or services in exchange for various described sex acts, including sexual intercourse and sodomy. Under the Act, a prostitute is not guilty of any crime. (Sweden, incidentally, enforces a similar law aimed at Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 preventing prostitution.) The Prevention of Sexual Exploitation Act will go into effect on January 1, 2013. Jimmy Bates, the owner of the Wild Burros Ranch, a popular brothel located in Pahrump, Nevada, is concerned about the Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample effects the 4+ Writing A Goodbye Letter | Hr Cover Letter new federal law will have on Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, his business. Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986! Although brothels are legal in many Nevada counties, including the county in which the Wild Burros Ranch is located, he expects the fear of federal enforcement of Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume, PSEA will discourage men from patronizing his place of business. Of the 20 prostitutes working at Wild Burros, nineteen are female and one is a male (available only by special appointment). Please discuss whether Jimmy Bates can bring an action seeking to enjoin enforcement of the new federal law. Also discuss what constitutional claims Bates can make and For Job Plan how the Supreme Court, if his case got that far, would likely resolve the various constitutional issues.
Please limit your answer to the space provided below or, if you are typing, to a maximum of 800 words . Vermont is known both for its abundance of birds and Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume abundance of birdwatchers. In recent years, birdwatchers have descended on the state capitol in Montpelier to lobby for legislation to protect the state’s bird population from 400 Word Essay, its most significant predator, the house cat. Each year, cats attack nesting sites and kill several million Vermont birds. Cats also threaten the state’s substantial investment in efforts to increase bird populations, such as by Ingenious Resume Sample placing bird houses in state parks and planting trees and other vegetation that provide suitable bird habitat. This year, the Vermont legislature, responding to the pleas of bird lovers, passed the Bird Protection Act of 2011, which addresses the threat presented by cats to Sample Plan, the state’s birds. Among its provisions are: Section 6: It shall be a crime punishable by up to Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample, six months in jail or a fine not to Daily Template, exceed $5000 to transport into the State, for purposes of sale or delivery within the State, any cat that has not been spayed or neutered. Section 8: Any cat, unaccompanied by its owner or another person over the age of 12, found outside a building on public or private land, including the land of the Ingenious Sample owner, is subject to seizure and euthanizing. If the owner of the cat can be determined, said owner shall be responsible for Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 the costs of the euthanizing his or her cat, up to a charge of Ingenious 6 Housekeeping, $50. The owner of any euthanized cat, if he or she is known, shall be notified within 48 hours after the euthanizing. Various persons and organizations would like to challenge one or more provisions of Vermont’s Bird Protection Act.
First, the National Cat Breeders Association of 4+ Writing A Goodbye | Hr Letter, America (NCBAA) wishes to challenge the constitutionality of Section 6. Second, Cathy Felinda, a Vermont cat owner who likes to let her two pet cats (Stalker and Mauler) roam freely around her suburban neighborhood, would like to challenge Section 8 . Please discuss the constitutional issues that might be raised by suits filed by the NCBAA and Felinda seeking to enjoin enforcement of the Act. ESSAY PROBLEM (1) The State of Maine has a contract with Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) to operate its state prison. In return for staffing and Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Sample maintaining the state-built prison facility, CCA receives compensation from the Sample For Job Application | Action Plan Template State. In 2008, CCA received $2 million from Maine under the prison contract. CCA has developed a unique way of Resume Sample, dealing with discipline problems among inmates at the Maine State Prison. Inmates who are identified as having violated prison regulations or orders from guards are moved to The Freezer for 4+ Writing A Goodbye a specified period of time.
The Freezer is an underground floor within the prison consisting of ten cells and maintained at a constant temperature of 50 degrees. Inmates being temporarily housed in The Freezer are not given extra blankets or warmer clothing. Burt Wayne, CCA's Director of Maine Prison Operations, says the threat of lock-up in Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample The Freezer has reduced discipline problems. Wayne also contends that the cool temperatures tend to make the inmates kept there lethargic and less dangerous to guards and other inmates. Statistics show that a disproportionate number of French-Canadian inmates have been locked up in The Freezer. French-speaking inmates make up only 10% of the Maine prison population, but constitute 50% of the inmates sent to The Freezer. (The French-Canadian inmates are, for the most part, residents of Canada who were lawfully in Maine working for American timber companies with logging contracts in Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 the northern part of the state.) CCA officials attribute the Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning high rates of confinement in The Freezer among French-Canadians (Canucks as they are generally called within the prison) to 400 Word Essay, their arrogant attitudes and penchants for starting fights with American-born inmates. French-Canadian inmates, on the other hand, say they have been singled out for discriminatory treatment by guards who are quick to accuse them of violations of regulations when they excuse the same behavior in the case of American inmates. Housekeeper Resume Sample! The French-Canadians say they are often called derogatory names such as Puckhead or Mooseturd by Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 guards. They also say that sometimes their slow responses in conforming to the orders of guards is due to their poor understanding of English. The ACLU in Portland has been contacted by two French-Canadian inmates, Par LeVoux and Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Francis Francais, who complain that they were locked-up in the Freezer for nothing more than complaining about prison food. Travel Brochure Image Gallery! They say that guards accused them of Ingenious Resume Resume Cleaning Sample, intentionally dropping their food on the floor.
LaVoux and Francais contend that as they were carrying their trays to their table, grumbling about the dinner of spam and lime jello as they did so, the trays slipped, spilling the food. 400 Word Essay! They say that they were given no opportunity by prison officials to Ingenious Housekeeper Sample, explain their actions before being sent to The Freezer. Please write a memo identifying what constitutional arguments may be used to Travel Brochure Philippines Gallery, challenge the 6 Housekeeping Cleaning use of The Freezer within the Maine prison system. Your memo should evaluate the strengths of possible challenges. ESSAY PROBLEMS (Set 2) Bee Backlater suffers from an 4+ Writing A Goodbye Letter | Hr Letter, incurable brain disease. Doctors estimate that she has less than six months to live. Bee has made arrangements with Cyrogenic Coordinators of America (CCA) to have her body preserved in a liquid nitrogen tank in the hope that science will one day discover a cure for her disease, and Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample that she could then be thawed and Brochure Image Gallery restored to Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Sample, life. Bee has also taken out a whole-body insurance policy with CCA, which could provide her with a sizeable bankroll when she is revived. For her plans of a life in the future to 4+ Writing Cover Letter, have any chance of success, it is critical that Bee Backlater be quick-frozen soon, before the disease does more damage to her brain tissue.
Bee has gone to court seeking an injunction that would allow a trained professional from Cyrogenic Coordinators of Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume, America to Template, assist with her suicide. She and CCA seek to Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, enjoin enforcement of a state law that make it a criminal offense to assist with a suicide and a law that requires bodies to be disposed of after death in a manner consistent with regulations prescribed by Free the Department of Health. Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume! Department of Health regulations. allow for 5+ Biodata Sample For Job Plan Template bodies to be cremated, buried, or donated for 6 Housekeeping Cleaning scientific research, but do not permit cryogenic preservation. What constitutional arguments is Bee Backlater likely to advance? What arguments is likely to 5+ Biodata Sample Application | Action, make in response? What is the likely outcome of this litigation? As part of its festivities for Resume 6 Housekeeping Martin Luther King Day, the City of Atlanta sponsored a play about Travel Brochure Philippines Image Gallery - Hcpr, Dr. Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample! King's life called I Have a Dream. The play depicted Dr.
King as he led marches, wrote a letter from the Birmingham jail, gave his famous speech at the Washington Memorial, and was assassinated in Memphis. The costs of producing the play were paid for out of general city funds. Among those who auditioned for the role of Dr. King, four actors were clearly superior to the others in acting ability. Brochure Philippines! All four were determined to be of Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume, equivalent acting ability.
The four superior actors included a black man who looks like Martin Luther King, a black man who does not look like King, a white man, and a black woman. May the city's casting director consider the race, gender, and physical appearance of the four actors in Daily Planner making the Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume choice of the Free Receipt Template actor who will play Dr. King in I Have a Dream? Would your analysis be any different if it were assumed that the white man was slightly better actor than the other three? What analysis should a court adopt if the casting director's choice of the black male who looked like Dr. King were to be challenged by the other actors under the Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample equal protection clause? ESSAY PROBLEM (Set 3)
(A) After discovering five dandelions in their Johnson County background, George and Ira Glenn contacted Yardmasters, Inc. to arrange for a chemical treatment of their lawn. The treatment proved successful in eliminating the unsightly weeds but also, unfortunately, eliminated Argus, the Glenns' cocker spaniel and dearest possession. It had always been the Glenn's wish to be buried next to Argus, who they both thought of as a family member. The Glenns visited with the manager of Pleasant View Cemetery in the hopes of purchasing a burial plot which might be used for Argus and which, at some future date, would accommodate Ira and George. However, the Glenns were told by Pleasant View's manager that Kansas law prohibited the commingling of animal and Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 human remains. Resume Sample! The manager told them that the Brochure Philippines Image Gallery - Hcpr law was meant to address the concerns of people who felt that the presence of buried animals would detract from the dignity of Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, a cemetery. If not for Sample For Job | Action Template this silly law, the 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample manager said we'd be proud to bury Angus here with you at Travel Brochure Philippines Image Gallery Pleasant View. The manager referred the Glenns to K.S.A.
Section 6765.3 which states: No animal shall be buried within the Housekeeper Cleaning grounds of any cemetery unless that cemetery is 4+ Writing A Goodbye Letter | Hr Letter exclusively open to animal burials. In no case shall any animal be buried within 100 feet of any human burial plot. The Glenns assessed their options. Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume! They could (1) bury Argus in Happy Hollow Pet Cemetery in Lenexa or in their own backyard, (2) purchase a family burial plot for Argus and 400 Word Essay themselves in Missouri (which has no law similar to K.S.A. Section 6765.3) or (3) store Argus in a meat locker while they sought a court order enjoining the Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Sample enforcement of K.S.A. Section 6765.3. The Glenns have chosen option three. Free Word Receipt Template! They can't bear the thought of Housekeeper Resume Cleaning, spending eternity miles away from their beloved Argus, nor can they stomach their own burial in Missouri, having both graduated from KU. Pleasant View Cemetery has expressed a willingness to join the Glenns in 5+ Biodata Sample | Action a lawsuit challenging the constitutional issues raised by Section 6765.3.
Is the lawsuit likely to be successful? (B) Assume that Texas, as an Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume, additional deterrent to murder, enacts a law that requires all Texas inmates executed for first-degree murder to be buried in a newly-established cemetery at the State Penitentiary. The cemetery is visible from the windows of inmates sitting on Texas' death row. The airplane crash in 400 Word Essay Wyoming that took the Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping life of 5+ Biodata Sample For Job Application Plan Template, Jessica Dubroff, the seven-year old who was attempting to become the youngest person ever to pilot a cross-country air trip, prompted widespread outrage. The decision to allow Jessica to pilot an aircraft, especially during takeoff and in a thunderstorm, was called irresponsible at best and murder at worst. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certifies pilots and regulates aircraft operating procedures. The FAA requires that pilots in Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping command be at least 17 years of age and pass a series of written tests, oral tests and flight maneuver tests (14 CFR § 61.
96). Free Word Template! FAA regulations stipulate that no person may operate an Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping, aircraft unless the pilot in command is certified under this chapter (14 CFR § 91. 5). The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of an aircraft (14 CFR § 91.3). Philippines - Hcpr! Although FAA regulations make it clear that each aircraft must have a certified pilot in command of the aircraft, no regulation directly prohibits a pilot in command from letting another person operate an aircraft, including during takeoffs or landings. FAA regulations do stipulate, however, that no person may operate an aircraft in a careless or reckless manner so as to endanger the life or property of another (14 CFR § 91.13). Responding to Housekeeper Resume Sample, public concern about airplanes operated by children, the state of Michigan enacted a law, Mich. statute § 1996, prohibiting persons under 15 years of age from controlling or operating any aircraft during any landing or takeoff from any airport in the state. The Act created an exception for emergency situations when the pilot in command becomes incapacitated or unable to operate the aircraft in a safe manner. Any licensed pilot or guardian who allows a child under age 15 to operate an aircraft (except in an emergency) during takeoffs and landings is subject to imprisonment of Letter | Hr Cover Letter, up to one year and fines of up to $10,000. The Attorney General of Michigan has also expressed the opinion that such actions by parents or licensed pilots might be prosecutable under Michigan's general child endangerment statutes. Ima Moran, the mother of six-year old Jesse Moran, plans to Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, sue in federal court for, a declaration that Michigan has no authority to Daily, prosecute parents or licensed pilots for allowing child pilots to land or takeoff at Michigan airports.
Ima Moran, a resident of Full Moon Bay, New Hampshire, alleges that she plans to take a cross-country air trip with her son Jesse and a FAA-certified pilot, that they intend to land their aircraft in Saginaw, Michigan, and Housekeeper Resume Sample that she intends to have Jesse at 4+ Writing Letter Cover the controls of- the aircraft during that and all other scheduled landings and Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Sample takeoffs. Ima Moran argues that Mich. 4+ Writing Letter | Hr Cover! statute § 1996 violates the Supremacy and Commerce Clauses of the U.S. Constitution. Please discuss the constitutional issues presented by Moran's lawsuit. On December 1, 2006, the following story appeared in the Los Angeles Tribune: DOD Plans Chimp Experiments. The Los Angeles Tribune has learned that the Department of 6 Housekeeping Cleaning, Defense plans to Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, begin experiments on chimpanzees early next year at its Fort Ketrick facility north of San Diego.
The Department hopes to learn from the experiments how fighter pilots will react in combat when exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. In the 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Fort Ketrick experiments, some 40 chimpanzees will be trained to Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986, perform on flight simulation machines. After the chimpanzees have achieved a certain level of proficiency on Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Sample, the simulator, they will be placed in a flight simulator in a sealed radiation chamber and exposed to lethal doses of radiation. 400 Word Essay! Various monitoring devices will be strapped to the chimps and their reactions will be videotaped for later observation and analysis. The experiment, which has received the personal approval of the President, will cost taxpayers about $240 million. The Tribune story shocked Sue Goodall, President of Friends of Animals, a public interest organization promoting the humane treatment of animals. Goodall is certain that her organization's membership, totally 20,000 nationwide, would support any legal action that might be taken to block the proposed experiments at Fort Ketrick. Goodall has asked you to represent her organization in a suit to enjoin the Department of Defense's experiments. Ingenious Housekeeper Resume! Your research has turned up a law that might be the basis for a legal challenge, California Primate Experimentation Act.
Relevant sections from the law appear below: California Primate Experimentation Act. § 121 No experiment using non-human primates may be conducted in the state of California without a permit issued by Free Word Template the state Director of Agriculture. § 124(b) No permit shall be issued for Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume an experiment which subject non-human primates to unreasonable pain or distress. (c) No permit shall issued for an experiment which will cause, or is likely to 4+ Writing Letter, cause, the death of non-human primates unless the benefits of the experiment to human health are clear and substantial. § 166 It shall be unlawful to transport into the state of California non-human primates for purposes of Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume, experimentation, except in compliance with the provisions of this Act. § 301 Any citizen may be bring suit in the courts of this state to enforce any provision of this Act. You have discovered that some fifty chimpanzees were air shipped from Virginia for participation in the experiment. They arrived at Fort Ketrick on December 5. The Secretary of Defense has not applied to the California Department of Agriculture for an experimental permit, and Word Template has stated his clear intention not to do so. Please answer each of the following questions in the order given. Limit your answer to one bluebook.
A. Housekeeper Resume Sample! Will the court consider the merits of the Friends of Animal's case? What are the Psychologistcoverletter-Doc-120124032330-Phpapp01-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1327377986 principal issues that need to be resolved before the merits are reached? B. Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample! The Department of Daily Planner Template, Defense will probably argue that the California Humane Experimentation Act cannot lawfully be applied against its proposed experiment. What are the bases for the contention, and how will the court likely resolve the issues, assuming it reaches the merits? C. Ingenious Resume! Wally Cox, a California Congressman, has introduced legislation in the House that would specifically prohibit the DOD from using its appropriations to fund experiments using chimpanzees. The President has indicated that he considers the proposed legislation an unconstitutional limitation of Philippines - Hcpr, his inherent powers and powers as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
Does the President have a strong argument? Why or why not?