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bihar flood essay A 100 years later. same story! Floods are not new to India. People living in flood-prone areas knew how to Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk turn this menace into a blessing. But then, the saga of decay of Examples Jobs, this valuable tradition began. “The East Indian Railway was constructed in 1853- 54 and opened in 1855. To protect the East Indian railroad from Burdwan onwards, a high embankment was constructed on the east bank of Damodar to stop the floods. 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. Wherever embankments were thrown up, tanks and Aasch88 We Could Pile For The V-Day, artificial lakes were choked with weeds and the crops suffered from want of Meeting Agendas, fertilising silt. Scarcity and famines have become more frequent and severe, and cases of fever increased.… The villages were full of healthy inhabitants and people prospered… All this was changed when the Damodar was embanked to Business Plan In Word Pdf. Sample stop the inundation.… there was no malaria in the villages from Calcutta to 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk Chagda. At the end of the rains there would be a few cases of fever but no malaria, as seen in the last 30 years and more… Malaria broke out Report Template - New Samples, one year after the construction of the railway, obstructing the natural drainage of the country eastward on account of inadequate and Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, insufficient waterways in Sample Cover Letter For, the railway embankment…” “The jacketing or embanking of the 6+ Staff Meeting, river systems in Maybe Pile Up Goodies For The V-Day, north Bihar must go down as among the most ill-thought out schemes in Independent India… The plan was to 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk introduce about Business Plan Cover 5 Examples Pdf. Sample, 150 kilometres of embankment on the Kosi to protect a declared ‘flood prone’ area in the state of some 25 lakh hectares. 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. Today, some 50 years later, north Bihar is a warren of over Sample Cover Letters Nursing Sample Service, 3,500 kilometres of 6+ Staff Meeting, embankments, with the declared ‘flood prone’ area having crossed a staggering 75 lakh hectares. … most expert opinion warns against 11+ Blank Meeting – Free Sample, Example Format pursuing the embankment route to tackle perennial overflowing or swing in a river’s temperament, as it would impede natural drainage… The initial embankments, eight feet high, converted the Kosi bed into 6+ Staff Agendas a catchment area for silt. Today, Kosi flows a good 25 to 30 feet above ground level… The river basin is way above ground level and water cannot flow upwards.

The inundated villages between as well as outside the embankments stay water-logged for months on end, leading to rise in Examples Jobs, soil salinity, water-borne diseases and producing hordes of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, migrant labour. Despite massive amounts of money spent on Page Stock Images, Images & Vectors, dams, embankments and canals, the Agendas, floods in Business Sample, India just keep on 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, increasing in frequency and Letters Nursing Sample Customer Service, destrucive capacity? Why? Hundred years have passed since ‘Article 1’ was published in | Warehouse-Clerk, the December 21, 1907 issue of the India Mirror. Still, ‘Article 2’ from Cover Nursing Sample Service Resume one of today’s leading newspapers Business Standard (published on September 5, 2008) expresses the | Warehouse-Clerk, same helplessness. And the Letter Resumes, same concerns. The only | Warehouse-Clerk thing that has changed is the Sample Cover Letters Resume, frequency and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, magnitude of Cover Stock Images, & Vectors | Shutterstock, floods in India.

Obviously, we have not learnt a lesson from the mistakes in the past. 6+ Staff Agendas. What went wrong? To answer this, let us go back to Article 1. India was visited by Report Template 2017 Samples floods every year. Still, the people who lived here used ingenious, home-spun techniques to Agendas manage the floodwaters. Housekeeping Housekeeping. Like in 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, Bengal. Resume Examples For Retail. Bengal once had an extraordinary system of inundation canals. Floodwater entered the fields through these canals, and 6+ Staff Meeting, irrigated the fields.

The water carried rich silt, which fertilised the fields, and fish, which swam through these canals into the lakes and tanks to feed on the larva of mosquitoes. Report Template - New. This helped to check malaria in this region. Clever, isn’t it? But, unlike Bengal, there are some regions that do not have a tradition to battle floods. Like North Bihar. 6+ Staff. Wondering why? The reason is not that it was not capable of controlling floods; it did not want to.

The local cultivators welcomed the Page Royalty-Free Images & Vectors | Shutterstock, floods. 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. Floods in the North Bihar plains date back to antiquity. However, they were never considered as a bad phenomenon, rather they were deemed as nature’s bounty. Farmers extensively used floodwaters for 11+ Blank Agenda Templates Sample, irrigation. The waters refilled the tanks and Meeting, wells, and the silt deposits of inundating rivers replenished the natural fertility of the soil and ensured a good winter harvest. Aasch88 Up Goodies For The. Eklavya Prasad of Megh Pyne Abhiyan explains, “The floodwater used to spread across a large area. Thus, its height was low.

It would also recede quickly, as there were no obstructions. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. And there was no need for flood control because floods were never as devastating as today.” India is the Sample Letter, second-most flood-prone country in the world, after Bangladesh. Nearly 40 million hectares of its land is flood-prone, of which about eight million hectares are flooded annually. The average annual total damage to Agendas crops, houses, and Great Lakes Forms, public utilities during 1953-1995 was about Rs. 9,720 million. Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. The price of human death is Aasch88 How Cute! Maybe Up Goodies For The V-Day incalculable. Source : Central Water Commission (FMP Directorate) Note : Figures from Meeting 2003-2004 are tentative. However, with growing population the Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping For, British rulers began to pressurise the | Warehouse-Clerk, locals to - New 2017 Resume Format move into the fertile areas around the rivers – the floodplains – to occupy and cultivate these rich tracts.

As they settled closer and closer to the rivers, the Agendas, floodwaters that could earlier spread across a larger area, now exploded on human habitat, causing havoc. This changed the entire perception about floods. Floods now became a destructive force for the people living in the floodplains. Report Template - New Resume Format Samples. Post-independence, the Agendas, government decided to control this menace by constructing dams and embankments. Did that help?

Let’s delve into the history of embankments and dams and find out. 11+ Blank Meeting Agenda – Free Example. Hey! But aren’t we talking about 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, floods in this issue? Yes we are. So, we must begin here… History: Prophet of the future. During the British raj, the colonial rulers did not pay enough attention to Cover Page Images, Royalty-Free flood control measures besides constructing embankments. When they left, there were some 5,280 km of embankments along different rivers, of 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, which 3,500 km were in the Sundarbans in West Bengal and Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images, 1,209 km along the | Warehouse-Clerk, Mahanadi in Orissa. In independent India, the First Five Year Plan, which began in Template Resume And Cv Samples, 1951, decided to 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk shift from embankments and Cover Page Royalty-Free | Shutterstock, focus on building dams. 6+ Staff Agendas. Dams were deemed as the ‘most effective way of preventing flood damage’ (the Plan document).

Because embankments contain or restrict floodwater within rivers, but dams hold floodwater in the rivers’ upstream and Cover Page Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images, later release it slowly to 6+ Staff Agendas prevent any flooding downstream. But before the country could begin any of these plans, there came a spate of Sample Cover Nursing Sample Customer Cover, severe floods in Meeting Agendas, 1954. All northern rivers flooded simultaneously and caused enormous devastation across Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam. The floods attracted public attention to Forms the inadequacy of control measures. To counter this, the government immediately claimed that it was possible to Meeting Agendas get rid of Great, this menace. How? It started a massive upsurge to construct structural measures like embankments and Meeting Agendas, dams.

So, embankments changed the Templates Sample, Example, character of floods in Bihar for 6+ Staff the worse. But how is Agenda Templates – Free Sample, Example that possible when embankments are supposed to protect people from floods? Here’s how. Embankments act like walls and limit the 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, river’s natural flood plains, the Plan Cover Letter Sample In Word Pdf. Sample, lands adjacent to 6+ Staff Meeting rivers. So, a dangerous amount of Page & Vectors | Shutterstock, water builds-up within the embanked area. They cut off the 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, natural drainage of water from floodprotected areas into the rivers. “The idea that nature can be conquered carries within it the Great Lakes - Service Forms, seed of human destruction Embankments often dig up their own graves. Agendas. The silt that gets deposited in the embanked area puts pressure on 11+ Blank Templates – Free Format, the embankments and erodes them. Meeting Agendas. If the bed of a river rises rapidly after embanking, say due to excessive silt deposition, the Letter 5 Examples In Word, water level may reach a point where it would always remain higher than the Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, surrounding area.

Thus, the flood-protected area will get waterlogged. The sediments, which would have earlier deposited over Letter Resumes, a wider area of the flood plains, get deposited within the embanked area. This raises the floodwater levels. | Warehouse-Clerk. To stop this, the height of embankments is constantly increased. Embankments also deprive the floodplains of the Cover Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors, rich silt deposits left behind by receding floodwaters. 6+ Staff Agendas. Shifting rivers can erode embankments. Business Sample 5 Examples Pdf.. The main problem is that embankments encourage human occupation of flood plains by 6+ Staff installing a false sense of Business Cover Sample In Word Pdf., security. Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. So when they break, the Business Letter Sample 5 Examples Pdf. Sample, floodwaters literally cascade upon 6+ Staff Agendas the surrounding area. What makes these “protectors” tumble down? DAMS, which are expected to cause flood moderation, are often the cause of massive floods because of badly managed operations.

According to Professor Vishwanath of National Institute of Sample Nursing Customer Cover, Disaster Management, Ministry of Home Affairs, “Too much water often forces rivers to | Warehouse-Clerk change their course, as in the case of Resume Examples For Retail, River Kosi. The water hits the embankments directly. If there is 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk even a slight fault in their engineering, they break.” This is not all. Embankments often dig up their own graves. The silt that gets deposited in the embanked area puts pressure on the structure and erodes it. The Rashtriya Barh Ayog, Ministry of – Free Format, Water Resources, 1980 report states, “embankments are not a feasible measure of flood protection in Meeting, cases where the country runoff draining into the river is so large as to inundate appreciatively the area protected by Agenda Templates – Free Sample, the embankments from Meeting Agendas river spills. Sample Cover Nursing Sample Customer. ” The Report of the 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, Government of India’s National Commission on Floods (NCF) mentions that “…construction of embankments in 11+ Blank Meeting Agenda Templates Sample, Format, certain areas can lead to increase in flood levels upstream and downstream.” Even dams, which are expected to provide flood moderation, are often the Meeting Agendas, cause of massive floods. Before monsoon, huge quantities of Examples, water are stored in 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, them. When they are nearly full, a lot of water is suddenly released into the river to lower the Cover Letters Nursing Service Resume, water levels. If the water is more than the Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, river can take, it overflows in the downstream. – Free Sample,. “Dams are actually the Meeting Agendas, cause of Report Template 2017 Format And Cv Samples, many of the floods that visited India in July-August 2006, particularly those in Mahi, Sabarmati, Narmada Tapi, Chambal, Krishna and Godavari basins”, writes Himanshu Thakkar of South Asian Network of Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP) in ‘A Dammade Disaster’.

Many of these disasters could have been avoided if the Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, dams had been operated properly. For instance, the 2006 Gujarat floods. The catastrophe, which killed more than 120 people and rendered 25,000 people homeless, occurred because of the Business Cover Letter, mismanagement of the Ukai Dam on Tapi River. First, the “dam managers” allowed the reservoir to fill past the allotted ‘flood storage’ point, and then they delayed the | Warehouse-Clerk, release of water. Not only Resume Jobs was Tapi River’s carrying capacity not taken into account, it’s reduced storage capacity due to siltation was also overlooked. All these factors led to the destructive floods in the cities located downstream. Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. This was not a unique case. For Retail Jobs. Dams, including the Bhakhra, Hirakud, Tawa-Bargi, and Damodar, have led to 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk major flood disasters.

Apart from embankments and dams, snowmelt, tropical storms, hurricanes, tsunamis, and Report Template Resume, undersea earthquakes are the other common causes of floods in India. But the main culprit is, of course, the monsoons. 6+ Staff Meeting. India gets an annual rainfall of 400 million hectare metres. Seventy-five per cent of this is received during the four monsoon months of 11+ Blank Agenda – Free Sample, Example Format, June to September. As a result, almost all the rivers swell up with water and Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, flood due to: • Inadequate capacity within the Housekeeping Letter Housekeeping Resumes For, banks of the 6+ Staff Agendas, rivers to Cover Stock Images, Royalty-Free | Shutterstock contain high flows. • River bank erosion and 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, silting of Great Lakes - Service Forms, riverbeds. • Landslides leading to Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk obstruction of flow and Great - Service, change in the river course. • Simultaneous flooding in 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, all tributary rivers. • Poor natural drainage. • Cyclone and heavy rainfall. Floodplains are an integral part of the Business Cover Letter 5 Examples Sample, flood regime and natural drainage. 6+ Staff. They give the floodwaters the Page Stock Images, Royalty-Free & Vectors, room to spread across a large area, which diminishes their damage. But, people are encroaching these lands and building upon 6+ Staff them. Constructing houses, roads, railways, canals, urban and 11+ Blank Meeting Agenda Templates, industrial centres on these lands block the natural drainage system. 6+ Staff Meeting. No wonder, therefore, the force of Report Template 2017 Resume And Cv Samples, floods has not diminished.

It has only Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk increased. Add to this the dangerous mix of Resume Examples, climate change, which experts say, is Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk likely to cause heavier monsoons and Great Lakes - Service Forms, more devastating storms. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas. So, floodwaters rampage these lands and Aasch88 How Cute! Maybe Pile Up Goodies For The, the lives and livelihoods of the 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, people living on them. Relief measures in flood-struck regions come too late and are too little. Sample Letter Housekeeping For. The crisis has deepened also because the natural flood managers, forests and wetlands, are being destroyed systematically. Massive deforestation has aggravated the 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, flashiness of the - New 2017 Resume Format, rivers and their silt load due to 6+ Staff Agendas higher erosion. Destruction of Samples, wetlands, which act as water sponges and | Warehouse-Clerk, are natural flood moderators, is another spin-off of overexploitation of land. For example, more than a third of the area comprising of Business Cover Sample 5 Examples In Word, lakes, ponds, marshes and Meeting Agendas, watercourses between the Ghaghra and Cover Letters Nursing Customer Resume Cover, Ganga, which form the wetlands of 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, eastern UP, have already been lost. The story is the same in the wetlands of Bihar, Bengal and Assam. Cover Page Royalty-Free Images | Shutterstock. “Degradation of catchment areas and 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, loss of flood plains to urban development and Aasch88 Maybe Pile For The, agriculture have accentuated the Agendas, intensity of Business Cover Letter Sample 5 Examples Pdf., floods”, states India’s Planning Commission’s Eleventh Five Year Plan document. Kosi River is an epitome of Meeting, how mismanagement causes devastation.

The river is Resume Examples For Retail Jobs one of the | Warehouse-Clerk, largest tributaries of Ganga. It has a steep gradient in its upper Himalayan reaches, but after Chatra, it faces abrupt flattening in the plains. - New Format. This makes the Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, river shift its course quite regularly. Another key characteristic is its high sediment load. The silt yield of the river is one of the highest in the world. Excessive soil erosion in its upper region caused by Plan Letter Sample 5 Examples Pdf. Sample both natural and human factors has increased the silt load of the 6+ Staff Meeting, river.

It floods in the monsoon due to Cover Resumes extreme rainfall, deposits coarse silt on agricultural lands, and shifts its course causing more damage. The high density of population on the river’s floodplains makes each of its move even more deadly. Human interventions have only worsened the situation for the people of North Bihar. The measures to control the inundating river have, instead, spelt doom for them. The recent floods are a stark example of 6+ Staff Meeting, this. Kosi’s curse finds expression in all the Great - Service Forms, rivers of 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, India, and Sample Housekeeping, North Bihar’s saga is true of every flood-prone region in the country – from Assam, Bengal, Orissa to UP and Meeting, Rajasthan. At present, there are 4525 large and small dams in the country, and more than 15,675km of Business Plan Letter In Word Pdf., embankments. As per the Eleventh Five Year Plan, the total area ‘reasonably protected against Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk flood’ by end of the Great Lakes - Service, Tenth Plan is about 18.22 million hectares. Meeting. And we are spending stupendous amounts of money on 11+ Blank Meeting Templates – Free Format, constructing these structures.

During the 6+ Staff Meeting, beginning of the Tenth Plan, the Lakes Forms, Planning Commission outlaid Rs.4619 crores for State sector to protect 1.93 MH of land against flood. What difference has it made? None. Meeting. The flooding rivers still claim lakhs of human lives, damage crores of property and infrastructure, destroy agricultural lands and kill livestock… This will continue. Great - Service Forms. Because people will continue to live on the “disaster-prone” floodplains. Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. Because there is no space left in – Free Example Format, the hinterlands to allow them to Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk move back. So if we cannot move away from floods, what can we do? One solution is, of course, alerting and warning people before the catastrophe actually hit them. This means, developing efficient and Cover Page Royalty-Free & Vectors | Shutterstock, accurate flood forecasting and early warning systems in the country. 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk. Many people consider these services as one of the most cost-effective measures available today. They help alert people in the flood risk area, give time to the disaster management agencies to Great - Service move in and prepare for the impending disaster and thus, reduce the damages.

In India, Central Water Commission of Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, Government of India is responsible for Cover Nursing Service Resume issuing flood forecasts at 172 stations – 145 for water level forecast and 6+ Staff Meeting, 27 for inflow forecast. Business Cover Pdf.. These stations are located in 14 flood prone states, in a Union Territory and in Delhi. The Indian Meteorological Department monitors the catchment area of various rivers, and under flood-like circumstances, informs the Meeting Agendas, flood-forecasting centres. The centres send the Letters Sample Service Resume Cover, ‘daily water level and flood forecast bulletins’ to concerned civil and engineering authorities. Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk. The warnings are then sent to the central control room at state and district headquarters of the “in danger” State Government. Aasch88 How Cute! Maybe We Could For The V-Day. From there, the warning is sent to the affected areas.

Rescue and relief operations are also organised. Agendas. National broadcasting agencies like All India Radio, and Report - New 2017 Resume Format And Cv, Doordarshan are informed for 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas wider reach. Revised forecasts are sent as new information comes in. The effectiveness of forecasts depends on Aasch88 How Cute! We Could Pile For The, two aspects – accuracy and timeliness. These make sure that there is enough time to disseminate the 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, forecast, and warn people. But in practice, the time lag between flood warning and actual steps taken is huge. 11+ Blank Agenda Templates Sample, Example Format. In some cases, the 6+ Staff Agendas, warnings are not even considered seriously. Take the case of the How Cute! Maybe Up Goodies For The, recent Bihar flood disaster. According to E Satyanarayan, the chief state engineer stationed at Birpur near the 6+ Staff Agendas, Nepalese border where the Kosi River breached its embankments, flood management officials had sent four desperate warnings between August 9 and 16. But, the - New 2017 Format, messages went unanswered because the 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, relevant officer was on leave and there was no one else to substitute for Plan Letter 5 Examples Sample him.

Eventually on August 16, warning telegrams were sent to 11 senior officials associated with flood water management in Patna, Bihar. But these, too, were ignored. 6+ Staff Agendas. Two days later the inevitable disaster occurred in Bihar. So, what is the - Service, future? “Flood forecasting methods are being improved in the country”, said Professor Vishwanath of NIDM. “The government is working with bodies like United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United States Agency for 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk International Development (USAID) to Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes make flood forecast more reliable and timely”, he added. This includes installing automatic data collection system by sensors, transmission of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, data by Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping latest techniques of communication, and formulation of forecasts using computer-based comprehensive models. Flood preparedness and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, awareness among the people have a key role to play. Sample Housekeeping Cover Resumes For. All these developments will take time, and will still depend on how smoothly the system functions. As for the structural measures, the government still plans to 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk increase the For Retail Jobs, embankments and the number of dams in the country. 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk. It plans to Examples effectively monitor the functioning of these structures, and carry out pre- and post-monsoon checks and special repairs. 6+ Staff Meeting. But, there is Page Images, Royalty-Free Images | Shutterstock just one real solution to the problem of floods – people must re-learn to live with floods. We had this wisdom, and we lost it somewhere along the way.

But now, we must revive our past lessons. Agendas. Real action needs to be taken in the floodplains. Managing these fragile lands adeptly and cleverly is the key to salvation. Disciplined land-use and settlement policies can emerge only if a determined government can undertake land reforms and Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes, involve the poor who live in 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, these areas in the management of Cover Sample Customer Service Resume, their natural resources. The most crucial step would be to ‘flood zone’ the Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, various states of the country. It includes demarcation of flood-prone areas and prescribing strict guidelines and landuse policies. However, this is not going to Template And Cv be an 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk easy task. Agenda Templates Sample, Example. The plains are densely populated and there is extreme shortage of Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, land. So each step will be fiercely opposed. Meanwhile, we can only Stock Images | Shutterstock pray for a calmer Kosi in the coming years. “The vast plains can still have the capacity to support millions of people and there are few signs of irreparable damage… but only if they (people) are disciplined, only if they learn to live in harmony with the 6+ Staff Meeting, natural surroundings they have inherited, and only if their management systems are equitable and sustainable. We know very little about how to Great Forms do this but a beginning has to be made…” (the 3rd Report on State of India’s Environment, CSE).

Kosi River's breached embankment. The river changed its course and 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, flooded the surrounding areas, causing total devastation.

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An international journal on sexual and reproductive health and rights. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Although Shanghai has good maternal health indicators, it also has a large in-migrating population, which has made control of maternal mortality a major challenge. This study analyzed maternal mortality and causes of death in Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, pregnant women in Shanghai in the ten years from 2000 to 2009, comparing resident and migrant women. All live births were registered and every maternal death audited. The number of live births rose from Resume For Retail, 84,898 in 2000 to 187,335 in 2009. The number of migrants increased 4.6 times, while the proportion of live births to 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk migrant women increased from 27% to Aasch88 How Cute! Pile Up Goodies V-Day 55%. There were 262 maternal deaths, 55 in Shanghai residents and 207 in migrant women (78.9% of the total). Most deaths in migrant women were due to 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk illegal delivery. Three policy changes focusing on maternal health greatly reduced deaths: low-cost delivery services were established for migrant women in maternity hospitals, five obstetric emergency care and referral centres were created in Meeting Templates Format, general hospitals, and training for health professionals and health education for women were instituted.

Maternal mortality in Shanghai decreased steadily from 2000 to 6+ Staff 2009, reaching 10 per 100,000 live births in 2009. Great? Among Shanghai permanent residents the ratio was below ten in most of those years, while among migrant women it declined sharply from 58 to Agendas 12 per 100,000 live births. Bien que Shanghai possede de bons indicateurs de sante maternelle, la ville abrite aussi une vaste population immigrante, et la lutte contre la mortalite maternelle y represente donc un enjeu majeur. Meeting Sample,? Cette etude a analyse la mortalite maternelle et les causes de deces chez les femmes enceintes a Shanghai pendant 10 ans, de 2000 a 2009, en comparant les residentes et les migrantes. Toutes les naissances vivantes ont ete enregistrees et chaque deces maternel a ete examine. Le nombre de naissances vivantes est passe de 84 898 en 2000 a 187 335 en 2009. Le nombre de migrants a augmente de 4,6 fois, alors que la proportion de naissances vivantes chez les migrantes passait de 27% a 55%. On a enregistre 262 deces maternels, 55 residentes de Shanghai et 207 migrantes (78,9% du total). La plupart des deces de migrantes etaient dus a des accouchements clandestins. Trois changements politiques centres sur ont sensiblement reduit la mortalite : l'etablissement de services obstetricaux a faible cout pour les migrantes dans les maternites, la creation de cinq centres de soins obstetricaux d'urgence et de reference dans les hopitaux generaux, et l'institution d'une formation des professionnels de sante et de l'education sanitaire des femmes. 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? La mortalite maternelle a Shanghai a diminue regulierement depuis 2000, atteignant un taux de 10 pour 100 000 naissances vivantes en 2009.

Parmi les residentes permanentes de Shanghai, le taux etait inferieur a dix pendant la plupart de ces annees, alors que chez les migrantes, il a recule rapidement de 58 a 12 pour 100 000 naissances vivantes. Aunque en Shanghai existen buenos indicadores de salud materna, tambien hay un gran numero de inmigrantes, por lo cual es muy dificil controlar la mortalidad materna. En este estudio se analizo la mortalidad materna y las causas de muerte de mujeres embarazadas en Shanghai durante un plazo de diez anos, del 2000 al 2009, y se compararon las mujeres residentes con migrantes. Todos los nacimientos vivos fueron registrados y cada muerte materna auditada. El numero de nacimientos vivos aumento de 84,898 en 2000 a 187,335 en 2009. El numero de migrantes aumento 4.6 veces, mientras que la proporcion de nacimientos vivos a mujeres migrantes aumento del 27% al 55%. Hubo 262 muertes maternas, 55 entre residentes de Shanghai y 207 entre mujeres migrantes (78.9% del total). La mayoria de las muertes entre mujeres migrantes fueron causadas por partos ilegales. Tres cambios a las politicas centrados en disminuyeron en gran medida las tasas de muertes: se establecieron servicios de bajo costo para mujeres migrantes en maternidades, se crearon cinco centros de cuidados obstetricos de emergencia y referencia en hospitales generales, y se instituyeron programas de capacitacion para profesionales de la salud y de educacion sobre la salud para las mujeres. Las tasas de mortalidad materna en Shanghai disminuyeron a un ritmo constante entre 2000 y 2009, alcanzando 10 por cada 100,000 nacimientos vivos en 2009. Entre las residentes permanentes de Shanghai la proporcion fue menos de diez en la mayoria de esos anos, mientras que entre las mujeres migrantes aumento bruscamente de 58 a 12 por cada 100,000 nacimientos vivos.

Maternal mortality remains a major challenge to health systems worldwide, even though a sharpened focus on reduction of maternal mortality became a defining part of Millennium Development Goal 5. 1 C Ronsmans , WJ Graham , on Resume For Retail behalf of Lancet Maternal Survival Series steering group. Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why . Lancet. 368: 2006 ; 1189 – 1200 . [Google Scholar] However, the reduction in maternal mortality over the past decade has been modest overall, with a yearly rate of decline in the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR) since 1990 of 1.3%. 2 MC Hogan , KJ Foreman , M Naghavi . Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980–2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 . Lancet. 375(9726): 2010 ; 1609 – 1623 . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60518-1 . [Google Scholar] To achieve the MDG goal of reducing its 1990 MMR by 6+ Staff Agendas three-quarters by 2015, China is on track. Between 2000 and 2005, the Examples Jobs, Chinese vital registration system recorded 64,780,153 live births and 6+ Staff Agendas 30,672 maternal deaths, resulting in an overall MMR of 47 deaths per 100 000 live births. 3 G Yanqiu , C Ronsmans , A Lin . Time trends and regional differences in maternal mortality in China from 2000 to 2005 . Bulletin of World Health Organization. 87: 2009 ; 913 – 920 . Doi: 10.2471/BLT.08.060426 . How Cute! Up Goodies? [Google Scholar] As a metropolitan city, Shanghai has a higher level of maternal health care than most other provinces and the lowest MMR in China.

4 J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of mortality of pregnant and lying-in women from 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? [in Chinese]. Cover Letter Sample In Word Pdf. Sample? [Google Scholar] In 2000, the 6+ Staff Agendas, MMR of Cover Housekeeping For Shanghai permanent residents was below 10 per 100,000 live births, comparable to the level of many developed countries. 3,4 G Yanqiu , C Ronsmans , A Lin . Time trends and regional differences in maternal mortality in China from 2000 to 2005 . Bulletin of World Health Organization. 87: 2009 ; 913 – 920 . Doi: 10.2471/BLT.08.060426 . J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? Analysis of mortality of pregnant and lying-in women from 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of Resume For Retail Jobs Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . 6+ Staff? [in Chinese]. Since the 1990s, however, China has experienced major internal population migration, with millions of people moving from central and western China to the east coast and large cities. Housekeeping Resumes? In Shanghai, the population of 16.4 million in 2000 had increased by Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk 35% in 2010, according to census data. Migrants now account for about 36.4% of Shanghai's population, an increase from 19.4% in 2000. 5 Current Demographic Profiles of Shanghai, 2001–2011. Shanghai Municipal Population and Family Planning Commission . At: [Google Scholar] The number of Sample Cover Letter For live births among the migrant population exceeded that of Shanghai's permanent residents in 2005 and migrant women became the majority maternity population.

This has created a great challenge for Shanghai's health system, especially since insurance for maternity care covers fewer than 20% of women in China. Maternity insurance is Meeting Agendas provided to women who are regularly employed and those who have urban household registration, so migrant women are not eligible. Most migrant women have no regular job or income, and Aasch88 We Could Pile V-Day their level of education is Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk also lower than that of Shanghai permanent residents. They are and have been at higher risk for maternal death than Shanghai residents, and indeed, most maternal deaths since 1997 in Shanghai have been among the migrant population. Housekeeping Housekeeping? This situation was described up to 2005 in a previous study, 4 J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of mortality of pregnant and lying-in women from 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] but it continues to be true today. This paper provides an update of the situation and describes the interventions that have been initiated by the government and the maternity services to Great Lakes - Service Forms reduce the number of deaths, as a result of which MMR in Shanghai has been falling in Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, recent years. Migrant women usually could not afford antenatal check-ups, and they received no reimbursement for delivery in Lakes - Service, hospital. Hence, they did not go into hospital until they were in labour; some delivered in illegal clinics and others at home. In order to encourage migrant women to have antenatal check-ups and hospital delivery in 2004 and 2007 the 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, government released two policy documents entitled “Creation of low-cost maternity care in hospitals” and “Enhancement of the management of maternal health in migrant women”. 6,7 Shanghai Bureau of Health.

Creation of low-cost maternity care in hospitals . - Service? At: [in Chinese]. Shanghai Bureau of Health. Enhancement of the management of maternal health in migrant women . At: [in Chinese]. These established low-cost delivery care for the migrant population in existing maternity hospitals, so that they could have timely antenatal care and hospital delivery for safe childbirth. Shanghai has 17 counties. The city centre consists of eight counties; most migrants live in the surrounding nine other counties. Hospitals that provide low-cost care are mostly located in the areas where the migrant population is concentrated. Migrant women can receive maternity services at a much lower cost, 150 yuan RMB for antenatal check-ups and | Warehouse-Clerk 800 yuan RMB for spontaneous delivery, compared to 2000–3000 yuan RMB for antenatal check-ups and 3000–4000 yuan RMB for Plan Sample Sample spontaneous delivery for residents. In addition, in order to improve the level of health knowledge and awareness of migrant women, the Shanghai government established a maternal and child health institute in every county. Every year since the low-cost delivery care was established, community-based maternal and child health workers carry out lecture tours that highlight the availability of low-cost delivery in designated maternity hospitals and the importance of early pregnancy registration, and provide information and education on pregnancy and childbirth.

Emergency obstetric care is also important for reducing maternal deaths. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas? Because skilled obstetric care has been developed so fast in Shanghai, the direct causes of maternal death have declined and indirect causes increased proportionally. In 2007, the Shanghai government opened five emergency care and referral centres in tertiary general hospitals to provide timely, professional emergency obstetric care. The referral network covers all maternity hospitals in Shanghai, including those for Meeting Templates – Free Example migrant women, and previous difficulties in referral and consultation, especially for women from rural areas, have been resolved. The object of the research reported here was to analyze the causes of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas maternal deaths and the MMR in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009 and summarize the experiences and problems of Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes For maternity care management. Every pregnant woman is supposed to register at a community health centre when she becomes pregnant. If she does not, community maternal and child health workers will remind or persuade her to 6+ Staff Meeting do so. After she delivers, obstetric information from the hospital is collected by maternal health institutions. All cases of maternal deaths must be audited by the Maternal Death Review Committee, organized by the Shanghai Women's Health Institute. The Committee consists of experts in maternal and perinatal health from the Meeting Agenda – Free, primary, regional and 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk tertiary levels of maternity care.

This study was carried out in Shanghai from 2000 to Sample Cover Letters Customer 2009. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas? The data on live births came from Shanghai Maternal and Child Health Report Forms. All relevant documents, including medical charts, expert audit documents, and Shanghai Maternal and Child Health Report Forms, were assembled for 11+ Blank Meeting Agenda Templates Example Format reviewing. 6+ Staff Agendas? Final diagnosis of Letters Sample Customer Resume each maternal death was made by consensus of the 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, committee members. At the end of every year, every case of maternal death was checked with the Public Security Bureau and Centre for Disease Control and Prevention to Lakes ensure that every case had been audited. If any maternal deaths were missed, an audit of the case would be held. The definition of maternal death used was the Meeting, International Classification of Examples For Retail Jobs Diseases 1992 definition: the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of pregnancy termination, irrespective of pregnancy duration or method of termination, excluding deaths from intentional and unintentional injuries.

8 International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. 10th Revision. Geneva: World Health Organization, Geneva. [Google Scholar] We analyzed live births and overall MMR in migrant women and permanent residents in Shanghai, and then looked at the causes of 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk maternal deaths and the results of the maternal death audits. The number of live births in Shanghai rose from How Cute! We Could Pile Up Goodies For The V-Day, 84,898 in 2000 to 187,335 in 2009, an increase of 120%. The number of births rose rapidly from 2004 and had doubled by 2007 compared to Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk 2000, mainly because of the increased number of live births in 11+ Blank Templates Example Format, the migrant population, which rose 4.6 times during the ten years (accounting for 25.5% of the total in 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, 2000 and 54.8% of the total in Great Forms, 2009). There were 262 maternal deaths in Meeting Agendas, the ten years with an average MMR of 20.5 per 100,000 live births. Sample Housekeeping Housekeeping? The number of deaths in migrant women was 207 and in Shanghai residents it was 55. The MMR was 8 per Meeting Agendas, 100,000 live births in Shanghai residents and 35 per 100,000 live births in 11+ Blank Meeting Agenda – Free, migrant women. In 2005, only 6+ Staff Meeting, one Shanghai resident died and Resume the migrant population accounted for 96.9% of the total deaths. MMR declined from 21 per 100,000 live births in Agendas, 2000 to 10 per 100,000 live births in 2009.

Except in 2003 and 2004, the MMR of Shanghai residents was below 10 per 100,000 live births. Among migrant women, MMR declined dramatically from Sample Letters Nursing Customer Service Resume, 58 per 6+ Staff Meeting, 100,000 live births in 2000 to Resume Jobs 12 per 100,000 live births in 2009, a decrease of 79.8% (Table 1). Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in 6+ Staff, Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Table 2 shows the five main causes of Great Lakes Forms maternal deaths in Shanghai residents and 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk migrants. Obstetric haemorrhage caused the largest number of deaths in both populations. The other four main causes of maternal death were heart disease, liver diseases, ectopic pregnancy, amniotic fluid embolism and pregnancy-induced hypertension, though in a different order among resident vs. migrant women. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. How Cute! Maybe We Could Up Goodies For The? migrant women in 6+ Staff Meeting, Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. In the years 2000–2004 compared to 2005–2009, the main causes of Housekeeping Housekeeping Resumes maternal death changed in both sub-populations. In Shanghai residents, the proportion of deaths from ectopic pregnancy declined, while deaths from pregnancy-induced hypertension and liver diseases rose. In migrants, the proportion of 6+ Staff Meeting deaths from obstetric haemorrhage, ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension declined dramatically. Overall, the Housekeeping Housekeeping Resumes For, MMR related to obstetric haemorrhage declined from 22 per 100,000 live births to 5.5 per 100,000 live births (a decline of 74.9%).

Especially in the migrant population, MMR related to obstetric haemorrhage declined from 36 per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 1 per 100,000 live births in 2009, a decline of 97.3% (Figure 1). Ectopic pregnancy declined from 4 per 100,000 to 0.7 per 100,000 (a decline of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk 84.4%), and pregnancy-induced hypertension from Forms, 7 per 100,000 live births to Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk 3 per 100,000 live births (declined by half) (Figures 2 and Business Plan Cover Sample Pdf. Sample 3). Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Of the total 262 maternal deaths from 2000 to 2009, 141 were due to direct obstetric causes and 121 to indirect obstetric causes. The proportion of indirect causes of death increased each year, from 38.9% in 2000 to 72.2% in 2009 (Figure 4). Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. In sum, the MMR in Shanghai decreased steadily over the ten years of the study, and reached 10 per 11+ Blank – Free Example, 100,000 live births in 6+ Staff Meeting, 2009, a developed country level.

9,10 LP Zhu , M Qin , WL Jia . Analysis of MMR of migrating population in Shanghai in recent 10 years . Journal of Letters Customer Service Resume Cover Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 22(20): 2007 ; 2751 – 2752 . [in Chinese]. WHO UNICEF UNFPA World Bank. Maternal mortality in 2005 . 2007 ; World Health Organization : Geneva . Among Shanghai permanent residents MMR was below 10 in 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, most of those years, while among migrant women it declined from 58 in 2000 to 12 per 100,000 live births in 2009. In the least developed regions of the world, trends in maternal mortality suggest that pregnancy is not getting safer for poor women. To change this, the focus must be on interventions that will reach poor women. 11 N Prata , M Graff , A Graves . Avoidable maternal deaths: three ways to help now . Global Public Health. 4(6): 2009 ; 575 – 587 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] In Shanghai, most migrant women are from rural areas of China, have a lower socioeconomic status and are not well educated. Great? Unlike Shanghai permanent residents, they do not have maternity insurance. We believe the insurance system in China today cannot cover such a large population.

Without any help, however, some of the poorest women would not be able to afford the cost of antenatal care and delivery in a hospital, which was the main reason why the MMR among migrant women was much higher than that of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas permanent residents. 12 L Zhu , M Qin , L Du . Comparison of maternal mortality between migrating population and permanent residents in Shanghai, China, 1996–2005 . BJOG. 116: 2009 ; 401 – 407 . [Google Scholar] The establishment of Sample Sample low-cost delivery in maternity hospitals for the migrant population contributed’greatly to reducing maternal deaths among them. 13 L Zhu , M Qin , W Jia . Whole coverage of maternal health management and effect in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(10): 2008 ; 1321 – 1323 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] However, this is not a long-term solution.

We believe the government should consider covering maternal health insurance for migrant women step by step, which would be an essential resolution of the 6+ Staff Agendas, problem. Post-partum haemorrhage accounts for nearly one-quarter of Resume Examples For Retail maternal deaths worldwide. 14 World Health Organization. WHO recommendations for Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk the prevention of post-partum haemorrhage . Letters Sample Customer Resume? 2006 ; WHO : Geneva . [Google Scholar] In Shanghai, it was the most common cause of 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk maternal deaths among migrant women. 4,15 J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Great Lakes - Service? Analysis of mortality of pregnant and Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk lying-in women from 2000 to Lakes - Service Forms 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . [in Chinese]. L Du , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of maternal deaths due to post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) from 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, 1997 to 2006 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Meeting Agenda Templates Children's Healthcare. 23(34): 2008 ; 4879 – 4882 . [in Chinese].

Most of these deaths were due to illegal delivery. After low-cost delivery services for 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk migrant women in maternity hospitals were established, the Jobs, rate of delivery of migrant women in 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, hospital increased, 16 LP Zhu , J Tan , WL Jia . The effectiveness of 11+ Blank Sample, Format low-cost pregnancy care for Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk women from migrant populations at Sample Cover Housekeeping, delivery hospitals in Shanghai . Chinese Health Resources. 10(2): 2007 ; 89 – 91 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] and mortality from obstetric haemorrhage decreased by 97.3% from 2000 to 2009. This alone made the 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, MMR of migrant women decline by 78.9%. The construction of emergency care and referral centres for Resume Examples For Retail Jobs pregnant women was another important measure for reducing maternal deaths due to 6+ Staff direct obstetric causes among both resident and migrant women. Emergency obstetric care requires not only the Great Lakes - Service, involvement of Meeting Agendas obstetric departments, but also the collaboration of Great - Service Forms other departments. 17 LP Zhu , LP He , M Qin . Construction and effectiveness of emergency aid network in Shanghai . Journal of Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 25(2): 2010 ; 150 – 152 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] The decrease in the mortality rate from heart disease and liver disease also showed the effectiveness of these centres.

Finally, strengthening professional training and health education to improve the awareness and capability of obstetricians and physicians, and increasing the awareness and Cover Letters Nursing Service Cover ability of self-help health care among pregnant women were another guarantee of safer motherhood. With ectopic pregnancy, for example, Shanghai Women's Health Institute conducted various trainings and simulated performances to Agendas improve the alertness and skills of V-Day obstetricians and related physicians to ensure every maternity hospital attaches importance to acute abdominal pain in women and has the ability to 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas deal with it. On the other hand, maternal and child health centres in every county have provided maternal health education to the target population to improve their knowledge and prevent delays in seeking treatment. 18 M Qin , LP Zhu , L Zhang . Plan Cover Sample 5 Examples In Word? Analysis of deaths due to ectopic pregnancy from 1979 to 2008 in 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, Shanghai . Sample Letters? Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 25(17): 2010 ; 2330 – 2333 . [in Chinese]. Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? [Google Scholar] The fall in Lakes - Service Forms, mortality from 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, ectopic pregnancy in 2005–2009 from 2.4 to only 0.5 per 100,000 live births shows the importance and necessity of professional training for health workers and For Retail health education for pregnant women. Preventing maternal deaths in a resource-poor population is 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk possible, but requires the right kind of information on which to base programmes. 19 G Lewis . Beyond the Resume For Retail, numbers: reviewing maternal deaths and Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk complications to make pregnancy safer . British Medical Bulletin. 67: 2003 ; 27 – 37 . [Google Scholar] The analysis of maternal mortality ratios and causes of Housekeeping Cover Letter For death can help to find underlying factors and provide evidence for effective interventions. Comprehensive measures, including policies focusing on the target population, health education and obstetric emergency care, are needed to achieve effectiveness in reducing MMR.

The World Health Organization defined four priorities for making motherhood and childhood safe: reduce unsafe abortions, improve maternal health care, enhance the 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, capacity of service utilization and 11+ Blank Meeting Sample, timely treatment of obstetric emergencies. 20 World Health Organization. Reduction of maternal mortality. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas? A Joint WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF/World Bank statement . Aasch88 How Cute! Maybe Pile Up Goodies? 1999 ; WHO : Geneva . [Google Scholar] Health education for pregnant women to understand why and when to seek treatment is also important, and community-based lecture tours by maternal and children's health centres may also be an effect intervention. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? These comprehensive interventions to reduce maternal deaths in Shanghai have shown great success in one decade. Now, we must share these experiences with the rest of Great Forms China, especially in the central and western areas. Trends in maternal mortality in 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis.

Pregnant woman, Dajing Lu market, Shanghai, China, 2007. Pregnant woman, Dajing Lu market, Shanghai, China, 2007. Registered in Examples For Retail Jobs, England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.

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There Is No Homework In Finland [Infographic] It’s likely that most students would agree that homework is one of the Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, biggest downfalls to Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter, going to school. When coming home from school, the last thing school students want to do is get out their books and do more work and 6+ Staff Meeting it seems that they’re not the only ones who have that exact thought. It seems that Finland have jumped on board the same wavelength as students around the Service Cover, world as there is actually no homework in Finland and it’s actually having a surprising knock-on effect to | Warehouse-Clerk, their students. In Canada, the high school graduation rate is around 78 per Maybe We Could Pile, cent and in America it comes in at around 75 per 6+ Staff, cent. Now, consider the fact that the graduation rate for students in 11+ Blank Meeting – Free Sample, Example, Finland comes in at 93 per 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, cent – showing a massive comparison between the countries. Finland also happens to have the Lakes - Service, highest rate in Europe for students going to college (two out of three). So, how does it so happen that Finland can claim such a high percentage of 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, graduating students – is it all purely down to the fact that they don’t have homework? Not necessarily. There are a few other things to factor in, which will also help manage to make Finland sound like the Business Plan Cover Sample Pdf., best place ever to send your children to school. Students in Finland manage to get plenty of teacher interaction as their classes are capped at only twelve students per teacher and they also don’t tend to 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, have as many standardized tests as other countries.

For example, students in New York will take around ten standardized tests before he or she reaches high school whilst students in Finland would only Lakes have one standardized test at the age of 16. Take a look at Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk the infographic below to see just how impressive the Finnish school system actually is and how it can compare to the rest of the world. So, does this manage to convince you that moving to Finland may be a really great idea? This infographic was made on behalf of OnlineStudents, the popular online resource of informative articles. Check out our portfolio for more infographics here. 13 Equally Engaging Alternatives To Infographics. The 3 Reasons Why We Don't Offer Infographic Design Services. How To Be A Gmail Power User [Infographic]

5 Content Mistakes From Creating Over 1000 Infographics. As a Finnish person I can tell that we do have homework in Finland, even on the first grade and forward. Actually we have homeworks like “Jonne” said, but usually wehave time to do those when we are in school. Maybe that is the reason why they are made. Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes For. Another thing is that we have (or we had) discipline in schools and’ve been brought up to respect parents and authority, so everyone really does something in class. lucky you don’t get homework. nice your so lucky that you don’t get any at all. Yes, if YOU did some work in Meeting, class and at home you might realise that you should have said “you’re” not “your”.

Realise works too. It depends on where you live, idiot. This is excellent information. The US has been going in the WRONG DIRECTION for so long. I graduated from Sample Housekeeping Letter Housekeeping college in 1999 and I was reading textbooks written by Finland and New Zealand authors. Why is it taking so long for our country to figure education out. Yes. It sure is an excellent myth. I’m finnish myself. Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. I’m in middle school. I have homework.

I have lived in Finland all my life and Lakes I can tell you something for a fact: We DO have homework, and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk a lot of it. I wonder why this has been published? Has the writer been in Finland? Or even talked to a finn? Of course we have homework! From first grade in elementary school on. Meeting Agenda – Free Sample, Example Format. The student teacher ratio is about 1 to 25. There are standard tests on Meeting all levels. 11+ Blank Templates – Free. Our teachers work long days and do not have a high salary. Beside all this our kids have to learn good English, and 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk usually some other European language to do well in university.

Please, get your facts right before you publish! Very late reply, but: By standardized tests, the US refers to tests that are the same everywhere in the country, and Finland very much does not have these. We have one, the matriculation exam at Sample Letter Housekeeping Resumes age 18 (not 16), and that’s it. Otherwise, teachers are given freedom to prepare their own tests, and nothing is standardized there. The reason the US and 6+ Staff Canadian numbers are so low is because of mass immigration. If you break things down by race you’ll find that our numbers are essentially equivalent. The numbers are in Examples, (PISA) and it is sadly not true. American “millenials” defined as 16-34 years old have scored abysmally against other first world countries both in general and in particular demographics specifically, including, quite surprisingly, the graduate degrees holders. Finland and Japan took the first in all categories. I sat in on a workshop by a Finnish professor who teaches in the US.

Her take was that Finland is much more homogenous and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk has fewer non- Finnish speakers and immigrants and that is why your schools do better. Apples to oranges. This is an excellent case study in Aasch88 Maybe We Could Up Goodies For The, “how to lie with charts”. The circle-pie-chart puts the 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, smaller values in the middle, where they are shorter in addition to Sample Cover Sample, having a smaller angular slice. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. The bar graph axis goes from Sample Cover Nursing 520 to 570, and uses cute pencil graphics that are hard to read.

2 of the 6 references are broken links. One of them ( is simply a list of factoids taken out of context (like this infographic itself), and cites a article but itself doesn’t seem to know the Meeting, difference between “percent higher” and “percentage points higher”. - Service. It’s kind of 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, impressive that this page got the number right, since the direct source did not. I couldn’t find any of your sources that support the “PISA” chart you have here. I did look up the PISA 2006 results on their own webpage ( and found that not only is Sample Housekeeping Cover Housekeeping Resumes For, your chart misleading, it’s using incorrect numbers. In 2006, Finland had a science score of 6+ Staff, 563, a reading score of 547, and a math score of Sample Cover Housekeeping Resumes For, 548. These average to 552.7, not the 560 value (it’s hard to 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, tell exactly where the “pencil” graph is supposed to end) that is Jobs, claimed here. Even the Wikipedia article on PISA has the 2006 numbers correct, so it’s easy to Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, verify, if you don’t want to dig through the OECD’s spreadsheets.

The obvious question to ask is: why is a 2013 infographic using old 2006 test data? The answer seems to be: because that is the year in which Finland did the best, with the #1 score in 2 of the Great Lakes - Service Forms, 3 categories. 6+ Staff Agendas. Back in 2000, Japan and South Korea both beat Finland overall (with each of the 3 countries taking the top score in one category). For Retail Jobs. In 2009, several non-OECD countries were included in PISA for the first time, and 6+ Staff Meeting China tested far ahead of everyone, 39 points ahead of Finland in math, 21 points ahead in science, and 20 points ahead in reading. The rest of the world could learn a lot from 11+ Blank Agenda – Free Sample, you, China. Hopefully, that includes how to 6+ Staff Meeting, make an accurate infographic! Right ON!

Tufteman. I see people lie with charts everyday!”‘ The article should emphasis that Finland have plenty of good teachers that are highly qualified (Masters degree) and very well paid (last point is my assumption based on the doctor/lawyer comparison). The counter argument then is how can we in other countries to afford that? with people having better education the countries make more money. One major point is that in Finland the education is free. There are no first, second, and other class of education according to what the parents can pay either directly (private schools) or by relocating in rich locations where better schools are.

To the same school goes the kids of the prime minister and the ones of a plumber. This equality makes the decision makers (goverment) to Sample Housekeeping Letter Housekeeping, take care of the 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, education system. If the decision makers are separated from the effects of the Letter Sample In Word Pdf., education system they decide upon, by letting them their kids go to 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, other, private schools, then the they would be careless. This is in my opinion the major reason that they have a good education system, because they care about it, because all the kids are on the same system. And because they care, the care to have the best for Resume Examples For Retail Jobs teachers (and pay them accordingly), show respect to 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, those that breed the next generation, invest to better education, and - Service it shows. I know we may have a good school system, but a lot of this is just not factual. Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk. There certainly is homework, the 1:12 ratio sounds like a wild pie in the sky dream when class sizes are probably around 25… during elementary school the Plan In Word Pdf., only standardized test is at 16, but this is to Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, get statistical data to ensure that the non-standardized tests are in line with what is Sample Housekeeping Housekeeping Resumes, generally expected.

And then of Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, course then there is the end of high school matriculation examination, which once again is a big standardized test. Greetings from Finland! There IS indeed homework, starting first grade. Better info on the Finnish education system is for example here (it says “minimal” homework, but I do not think that is Examples For Retail, quite true either) Sources please?

I must say that when I went to school in 6+ Staff Agendas, Finland there was homework every day since day 1 at school. I have no clue what is this standardized test at 16, never heard of it. There is the high school final exams but those are taken at 18. Also, the breaks between lessons used to be 8 minutes, except lunch hours that was 30-40 but that included the time to eat the food. Also, the Great - Service, school days are 4-6 hours so not likely that 1/3 of the school day would have been turned into break time.

High school graduation rate is high, but where is the mention that not everyone gets to go to high school – so only the 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, best kids will qualify and I think at Resume Examples Jobs least 50% have to choose a different educational route, such as vocational training. And then this 2/3 goes to college – the definition must be quite vague. When I studied in Finland (and I am no dinosaur) there was about 10 universities in the whole country and you could only 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk go for master’s degree. Sample Housekeeping Cover Housekeeping Resumes. There are now other schools that offer bachelors, but those would normally have the 6+ Staff Meeting, criteria of passing the high school, so if everyone got in, it could still only be 50%… Also the larger class sizes has always been a problem: mine had 32 except the first year when I lived in a tiny village and the whole place only Forms had 15 other kids of my age… check your sources?? I am definitely checking with friends who are teachers in Finland and Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk those with kids at school, but this story sounds a bit weird to me. Agreed.

I have been around there and there was homework everyday. This post needs to be updated or re editited. Cover Sample Service Resume. This article doesn’t seem very reliable. There must be another Finland out there, as the Finland I’m living in has homework. When the parents ask from their kids “Did you get any homework today?”, answer is 6+ Staff, always no. Please fix your blog post.

Let’s get to the point: I give homework. Now get back to Sample Letters Resume Cover, work Jarmo, Annoj and Jani. People are saying that this IS homework and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk it’s a lot. Do you get 8 hours a night? Don’t think so. If comparing Finland to the US, keep in mind that Finland is a much more homogeneous population that urban centers in the US. Many big city schools have 30-40% of Sample Housekeeping Letter For, their students learning English as a second language. In the City of Minneapolis, over Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk 120 languages are spoken in homes (including Finnish!). But clearly we can learn a lot from Finnish educational systems. Having spent quite a bit of time there maybe Finland should do their ‘homework’ and ban alcohol……….it’s out of control ! You guys are so lucky.

i want to move to Finland and Sample Letters Sample you guys are lieing about having homework. I will move there so i have no homework to. Maybe they have homework but never Finnish it? I am in 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, favor of homework. Not just any busywork, but homework. Much of Great - Service, this is skewed by perception. That is, if you view hw as a negative it is 6+ Staff Agendas, a negative. If you view it as a positive it is a positive. Even poorly designed HW has benefits many of which are missing in America. I would be all for cutting back if we were one of the Sample Letter Resumes, the top 10, or even 20, educational leaders in the world. But the fact is we are not.

In fact, the top students from our top schools were just above average against all nations. If our best are average then what are our average schools like? In a global economy where our children will have to fight for jobs against the smartest in the wold is this a wise move? Don’t get me wrong. Play, with a purpose, can be homework. Meeting Agendas. Since no two children are the same any study will be skewed in both HW outcomes as well as in testing.

Just look at reading speed. A student who reads 100 wpm verse one who reads 50 wpp. The 100 wpm student virtually has half the homework and twice as much time to take a test compared to the 50 wpm student. Children to Housekeeping Housekeeping For, third grade have the greatest ability to grow synapses (those connections that make life long learning the easiest and build the foundation for 6+ Staff Agendas all other learning) at 11+ Blank Meeting Sample, Format the fastest rate throughout their lifetime. It is the best time to 6+ Staff Agendas, introduce words, creative thinking, critical thinking, motor skill development, reasoning skills, exploration and life long learners. Business Plan Cover Letter Sample 5 Examples In Word Sample. If you sell chemistry homework as a bad thing or something you hate you are doing a disservice to Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, the child and their future. Give them homework with a purpose, challenge them to figure things out, don’t give them the answers but rather guide them to the answer with questions and urge them to explore their own Hypotheses and - Service Forms develop both a love of learning and for 6+ Staff Agendas finding the fun in Great Lakes - Service, what seems boring. Finland has homework, and student teacher ratios were often higher than my high school classes in the US. There were also tests in every course and report cards as well as the very real possibility of failing courses (although it is true that the Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, leaving exams at 18 were vital to placement at university and other training courses).

The valuable thing about Finland’s education system is that all students are tested before high school, so that those who are not interested in attending university have an opportunity to 11+ Blank Agenda – Free Sample,, go to a vocational school instead of high school. Some of my friends were already working in their chosen vocations while I was still sitting in high school classes. That is the Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, reason for Finland’s high scores for success, not the deceptive graphics. Only someone who has attended Finnish schools or been familiar with the Sample 5 Examples Pdf., country and culture would know this, although there have been many more recent articles about testing and Finland that the author should have taken into 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk consideration. There’s a bunch of people on here arguing that Finland does in fact have homework, although nobody has said how much homework or how long it takes to – Free Sample, Format, finish said homework. If someone, preferably someone from Finland, could clarify so that I can compare to the amount of homework that I have, I’d appreciate that. From your infographic, it seems like Finnish people don’t do homework at all.

Glad that teachers from Finland are well paid, cuz it is a very hard job. Greetings! There is indeed homework, starting first grade. Better info on the math. and Agendas it is for example here (it says “minimal” homework, Check for yourself) I think you don’t even know what homework is.


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1984 Ap History Dbq - Roosevelt a Liberal and Hoover a Conservative. 6+ Staff. By: Victor • Book/Movie Report • 1,056 Words • April 23, 2010 • 3,952 Views. 1984 Ap History Dbq - Roosevelt a Liberal and Hoover a Conservative. Roosevelt a Liberal and Hoover a Conservative. Thesis: Because the Business Plan Cover Sample In Word Sample Great Depression quickly changed America's view of liberalism, Roosevelt can be considered a liberal and Hoover a conservative, despite occasionally supporting similar policies. Written for the Advanced Placement U.S. History Document Based Question from the Meeting Agendas A.P. test.

The political shifts in American history during the last two centuries are often explained by Arthur Schlesinger's cyclical explanation of eras of public purpose followed by Aasch88 How Cute! Pile Up Goodies For The private interest. What is considered liberal versus what is considered conservative shifts in a similar pattern. While laissez-faire policies are considered liberal in the Roaring 20's, the onset of the Great Depression in 1929 quickly changed America's view of liberalism. Suddenly, the small government politics of Hoover were conservative and the progressive politics of Roosevelt were considered liberal. 6+ Staff Meeting. Thus, because the Great Depression quickly changed America's view of liberalism, Roosevelt can be considered a liberal and Hoover a conservative, despite occasionally supporting similar policies. Because the 11+ Blank Templates Sample, Great Depression occurred during Hoover's term as president, in the public's mind, Hoover started his presidency as a liberal and ended it as a conservative. 6+ Staff Meeting. With the Great - Service end of the Progressive Age in 1910, big business flourished because Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover kept government from intervening in the economy.

Compared to the public purpose policies of Teddy Roosevelt, the laissez-faire policies of 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, these presidents seemed extremely liberal. The invention of the production line which spurred on the Second Industrial Revolution, allowed businessmen such as Henry Ford to prosper, while automobiles and Meeting Agenda – Free Format electrical appliances became available to the masses. America's success and optimism caused people to support the 6+ Staff liberal policies of the 1920's. However, even before the Sample Housekeeping Depression, there were signs that Hoover was becoming more conservative. As Document A suggests, Hoover did not want to be considered completely laissez-faire. He seemed less determined to preserve the extremely capitalistic society of the 1920's which was run, often corruptly, by political machines, such as Tweed. Meeting. However, the success of the American economy under the private interest beliefs of Harding and Coolidge required him to Aasch88 Maybe We Could For The V-Day ensure that the lack of Agendas, intervention in the economy would be maintained, but he also sensed the transformation of the views of the working masses who looked favorably on restriction of unfair business practices. This lack of complete dedication to private interest or public purpose is further displayed in Documents B and C where Hoover stresses the importance of the individual in - Service Forms, ending the Depression while also assuring government support for job production if the 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk situation required it. Hoover's speeches are remarkably similar to Roosevelt's speech in Document E. Here, even during the Depression, Roosevelt stressed the importance of balancing the budget unless unemployment required the government to spend money stimulating the Aasch88 How Cute! Maybe We Could Pile Up Goodies V-Day economy. Instead of Hoover's desire to | Warehouse-Clerk continue restricting government, Roosevelt wanted to balance the Sample Cover Service Resume budget. The Depression created the need for government intervention and an unbalanced budget as shown in Document F. However, despite a few efforts by Hoover to create jobs, he still seemed much different than Roosevelt who insisted in 1936 that America must not go back to supporting Conservatives who protected private interest unjustly. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas. (Document G) Hoover started creating jobs when the Depression caused Americans to Templates – Free demand public purpose reform, but the public still quickly characterized him as a conservative despite passing some, now considered, liberal legislation.

At first Hoover stubbornly held to his belief that government could not and 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas should not try to 11+ Blank Meeting Agenda Templates – Free end the Depression as shown in Document B. Meeting. In 1930, Hoover remained conservative. He rarely intervened in the economy and thus was considered a conservative despite being a liberal while supporting the same policies a few years before. Even by Great Lakes Forms 1931, Roosevelt's liberal New Deal sharply contrasted Hoover's belief that the private individual can do more than the government to end the Depression as shown in Document. Roosevelt a Liberal and Hoover a Conservative. 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk. Roosevelt a Liberal and Hoover a Conservative Thesis: Because the Great Depression quickly changed America's view of Sample Cover Letters Sample Resume, liberalism , Roosevelt can be considered a liberal and. DBQ , AP US HISTORY “Throughout the colonial period, economic concerns had more to do with the settlement of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, British North America than did religious concerns.”.

Roosevelt a Liberal and Hoover a Conservative. Roosevelt a Liberal and Sample Nursing Service Hoover a Conservative Thesis: Because the Great Depression quickly changed America's view of liberalism , Roosevelt can be considered a liberal and. Ap American History - Dbq Divine Authority. During colonial period, religion provided the primary rationale for the authority of the king Evaluate Religion was a primary factor in day to day life. Get Access to 87,000+ Essays and Term Papers Join 179,000+ Other Students High Quality Essays and Documents.

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essay on 6+ Staff poets and Ann Woodlief, 2002, Virginia Commonwealth University. Pursued the game with joyful eyes, Which chose, like meteors, their way, And rived the dark with private ray: They overleapt the horizon's edge, Searched with Apollo's privilege; Through man, and woman, and Agenda Templates Example, sea, and star,

Saw the dance of nature forward far; Through worlds, and 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, races, and terms, and times, Olympian bards who sung. Divine ideas below, Which always find us young, And always keep us so. Those who are esteemed umpires of taste, are often persons who have acquired some knowledge of admired pictures or sculptures, and have an inclination for whatever is Examples Jobs elegant; but if you inquire whether they are beautiful souls, and whether their own acts are like fair pictures, you learn that they are selfish and Meeting, sensual. Their cultivation is local, as if you should rub a log of dry wood in one spot to produce fire, all the rest remaining cold. Their knowledge of the fine arts is some study of rules and particulars, or some limited judgment of color or form which is Sample Housekeeping Cover Housekeeping For exercised for amusement or for show. It is a proof of the shallowness of the doctrine of beauty, as it lies in the minds of our amateurs, that men seem to have lost the perception of the instant dependence of form upon soul.

There is no doctrine of Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk forms in our philosophy. We were put into our bodies, as fire is put into a pan, to be carried about; but there is no accurate adjustment between the Business Cover Sample 5 Examples Pdf. Sample, spirit and the organ, much less is the latter the germination of the former. Meeting Agendas? So in regard to Letter For other forms, the intellectual men do not believe in any essential dependence of the material world on thought and volition. Theologians think it a pretty air-castle to Meeting talk of the spiritual meaning of Great Lakes - Service Forms a ship or a cloud, of a city or a contract, but they prefer to come again to the solid ground of historical evidence; and even the 6+ Staff Meeting, poets are contented with a civil and conformed manner of living, and to write poems from the fancy, at a safe distance from their own experience. But the highest minds of the world have never ceased to Resume Examples For Retail explore the double meaning, or, shall I say, the 6+ Staff, quadruple, or the centuple, or much more manifold meaning, of every sensuous fact : Orpheus, Empedocles, Heraclitus, Plato, Plutarch, Dante, Swedenborg, and Sample Nursing Sample Service Resume, the masters of sculpture, picture, and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, poetry.

For we are not pans and Resume Examples Jobs, barrows, nor even porters of the fire and torch-bearers, but children of the fire, made of it, and only the same divinity transmuted, and at two or three removes, when we know least about it. And this hidden truth, that the fountains whence all this river of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas Time, and its creatures, floweth, are intrinsically ideal and beautiful, draws us to 11+ Blank Meeting Agenda – Free Sample, the consideration of the nature and functions of the Poet, or the 6+ Staff, man of Lakes - Service Beauty, to the means and 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, materials he uses, and to the general aspect of the art in Resume, the present time. The breadth of the problem is great, for the poet is 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk representative. He stands among partial men for the complete man, and Cover Letters Service Resume Cover, apprises us not of his wealth, but of the commonwealth. The young man reveres men of genius, because, to speak truly, they are more himself than he is. They receive of the soul as he also receives, but they more. Nature enhances her beauty to the eye of loving men, from their belief that the poet is beholding her shows at the same time. He is isolated among his contemporaries, by truth and by his art, but with this consolation in 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, his pursuits, that they will draw all men sooner or later.

For all men live by truth, and stand in need of expression. In love, in art, in avarice, in politics, in labor, in 11+ Blank Meeting Agenda Templates – Free Sample, Example, games, we study to utter our painful secret. The man is only half himself, the other half is his expression. Notwithstanding this necessity to 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas be published, adequate expression is rare. I know not how it is Aasch88 Maybe Pile Up Goodies For The V-Day that we need an interpreter; but the great majority of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk men seem to be minors, who have not yet come into possession of their own, or mutes, who cannot report the conversation they have had with nature.

There is no man who does not anticipate a supersensual utility in the sun, and stars, earth, and water. These stand and wait to render him a peculiar service. But there is some obstruction, or some excess of phlegm in our constitution, which does not suffer them to yield the due effect. Too feeble fall the impressions of nature on us to make us artists. Every touch should thrill. Every man should be so much an artist, that he could report in Great - Service Forms, conversation what had befallen him. Yet, in our experience, the rays or appulses have sufficient force to | Warehouse-Clerk arrive at the senses, but not enough to reach the Cover Letter Sample 5 Examples Pdf., quick, and compel the 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, reproduction of themselves in speech. The poet is the person in For Retail Jobs, whom these powers are in balance, the 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, man without impediment, who sees and Cover Nursing Cover, handles that which others dream of, traverses the whole scale of experience, and is representative of man, in Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, virtue of being the largest power to receive and to impart. For the Universe has three children, born at one time, which reappear, under different names, in every system of Examples For Retail thought, whether they be called cause, operation, and effect; or, more poetically, Jove, Pluto, Neptune; or, theologically, the Father, the Spirit. and Meeting, the Son; but which we will call here, the Knower, the Doer, and the Sayer.

These stand respectively for the love of truth, for the love of good, and for the love of Housekeeping Cover Resumes beauty. These three are equal. 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk? Each is that which he is essentially, so that he cannot be surmounted or analyzed, and each of these three has the power of the others latent in Housekeeping Letter Housekeeping Resumes, him, and his own patent. The poet is the sayer, the namer, and represents beauty. He is a sovereign, and stands on the centre. For the world is not painted, or adorned, but is from the beginning beautiful; and God has not made some beautiful things, but Beauty is the 6+ Staff Agendas, creator of the universe.

Therefore the poet is Cover Housekeeping not any permissive potentate, but is emperor in his own right. Agendas? Criticism is infested with a cant of materialism, which assumes that manual skill and activity is the first merit of all men, and disparages such as say and do not, overlooking the fact, that some men, namely, poets, are natural sayers, sent into the world to the end of expression, and confounds them with those whose province is action, but who quit it to imitate the Cover Letters Nursing Service, sayers. But Homer's words are as costly and admirable to Homer, as Agamemnon's victories are to Agamemnon. Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk? The poet does not wait for the hero or the sage, but, as they act and think primarily, so he writes primarily what will and Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping, must be spoken, reckoning the others, though primaries also, yet, in respect to him, secondaries and servants; as sitters or models in the studio of a painter, or as assistants who bring building materials to an architect. For poetry was all written before time was, and whenever we are so finely organized that we can penetrate into that region where the air is music, we hear those primal warblings, and attempt to write them down, but we lose ever and anon a word, or a verse, and substitute something of our own, and thus miswrite the poem. The men of more delicate ear write down these cadences more faithfully, and Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, these transcripts, though imperfect, become the songs of the nations. Lakes? For nature is as truly beautiful as it is good, or as it is reasonable, and must as much appear, as it must be done, or be known. Words and deeds are quite indifferent modes of the divine energy. Words are also actions, and 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, actions are a kind of Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping For words. The sign and credentials of the poet are, that he announces that which no man foretold.

He is the true and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, only doctor; he knows and tells; he is the only teller of news, for he was present and privy to the appearance which he describes. He is a beholder of ideas, and utterer of the necessary and casual. For we do not speak now of men of poetical talents, or of industry and skill in metre, but of the true poet. I took part in a conversation the Sample Cover Housekeeping Resumes, other day, concerning a recent writer of lyrics, a man of subtle mind, whose head appeared to be a music-box of delicate tunes and rhythms, and whose skill, and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, command of language, we could not sufficiently praise. But when the Letters Nursing Resume, question arose, whether he was not only a Iyrist, but a poet, we were obliged to confess that he is Meeting Agendas plainly a contemporary, not an eternal man. He does not stand out of our low limitations, like a Chimborazo under the Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes For, line, running up from the torrid base through all the climates of the globe, with belts of the herbage of every latitude on Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk its high and mottled sides; but this genius is the landscape-garden of a modern house, adorned with fountains and statues, with well-bred men and women standing and Cover Letter Resumes, sitting in the walks and | Warehouse-Clerk, terraces. We hear, through all the varied music, the ground-tone of conventional life.

Our poets are men of talents who sing, and not the children of music. The argument is secondary, the finish of the Business Plan In Word, verses is primary. For it is not metres, but a metre-making argument, that makes a poem,--a thought so passionate and alive, that, like the spirit of a plant or an animal, it has architecture of 6+ Staff Agendas its own, and adorns nature with a new thing. The thought and the form are equal in Examples For Retail, the order of time, but in the order of genesis the thought is prior to the form. The poet has a new thought: he has a whole new experience to unfold; he will tell us how it was with him, and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, all men will be the richer in his fortune. For, the experience of each new age requires a new confession, and the world seems always waiting for its poet.

I remember, when I was young, how much I was moved one morning by tidings that genius had appeared in a youth who sat near me at table. He had left his work, and gone rambling none knew whither, and - Service Forms, had written hundreds of lines, but could not tell whether that which was in him was therein told: he could tell nothing but that all was changed,--man, beast, heaven, earth, and Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, sea. How gladly we listened! how credulous! Society seemed to be compromised. We sat in Templates Sample, Example, the aurora of a sunrise which was to put out all the 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, stars. Boston seemed to be at Cover Letter Sample, twice the distance it had the night before, or was much farther than that. Rome,--what was Rome? Plutarch and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, Shakspeare were in the yellow leaf, and Examples For Retail Jobs, Homer no more should be heard of. It is much to know that poetry has been written this very day, under this very roof, by your side. What! that wonderful spirit has not expired! these stony moments are still sparkling and animated! I had fancied that the oracles were all silent, and nature had spent her fires, and 6+ Staff Meeting, behold! all night, from every pore, these fine auroras have been streaming.

Every one has some interest in the advent of the poet, and no one knows how much it may concern him. We know that the secret of the world is profound, but who or what shall be our interpreter, we know not. A mountain ramble, a new style of face, a new person, may put the key into our hands. Of course, the value of genius to us is in the veracity of its report. Talent may frolic and juggle; genius realizes and adds. Mankind, in good earnest, have arrived so far in understanding themselves and their work, that the foremost watchman on the peak announces his news. It is the truest word ever spoken and the phrase will be the fittest, most musical, and the unerring voice of the Cover Housekeeping, world for that time. All that we call sacred history attests that the birth of a poet is the principal even in chronology. Man, never so often deceived, still watches for the arrival of a brother who can hold him steady to a truth, until he has made it his own.

With what joy I begin to read a poem, which I confide in as an inspiration! And now my chains are to be broken; I shall mount about 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, these clouds and Examples For Retail Jobs, opaque airs in which I live,--opaque, though they seem transparent,--and from the Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, heaven of truth I shall see and comprehend my relations. That will reconcile me to life, and renovate nature, to see trifles animated by a tendency, and to know what I am doing. Cover Letters Resume? Life will no more be a noise; now I shall see men and women, and know the signs by which they may be discerned from fools and 6+ Staff Meeting, satans. This day shall be better than my birthday; then I became an animal: now I am invited into the science of the real. Such is the hope, but the fruition is postponed. Oftener it falls, that this winged man, who will carry me into the heaven, whirls me into mists, then leaps and frisks about with me as it were from cloud to cloud, still affirming that he is Nursing Customer Service bound heavenward; and I being myself a novice, am slow in perceiving that he does not know the way into the heavens, and is merely bent that I should admire his skill to rise, like a fowl or a flying fish, a little way from the ground or the 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, water; but the all-piercing, all-feeding, and ocular air of heaven, that man shall never inhabit. I tumble down again soon into my old nooks, and lead the life of exaggerations as before, and have lost some faith in the possibility of any guide who can lead me thither where I would be. But leaving these victims of vanity, let us, with new hope, observe how nature, by Aasch88 How Cute! Maybe We Could V-Day, worthier impulses, has ensured the poet's fidelity to his office of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas announcement and affirming, namely, by the beauty of 11+ Blank Meeting Templates – Free Sample, Example Format things, which becomes a new, and higher beauty, when expressed.

Nature offers all her creatures to him as a picture-language. Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk? Being used as a type, a second wonderful value appears in the object, far better than its old value, as the carpenter' s stretched cord, if you hold your ear close enough, is musical in the breeze. Things more excellent than every image, says Jamblichus, are expressed through images. Things admit of being used as symbols, because nature is a symbol, in the whole, and in every part. Every line we can draw in the sand, has expression; and there is no body without its spirit or genius. All form is an 11+ Blank Meeting Agenda, effect of character; all condition, of the 6+ Staff Agendas, quality of the life; all harmony, of 11+ Blank – Free Example Format health; (and, for this reason, a perception of beauty should be sympathetic, or proper only to the good.) The beautiful rests on the foundations of the necessary. The soul makes the body, as the wise Spenser teaches:-- So every spirit, as it is most pure, And hath in it the more of heavenly light, So it the fairer body doth procure. To habit in, and it more fairly dight,

With cheerful grace and amiable sight. For, of the soul, the | Warehouse-Clerk, body form doth take. For soul is Nursing Service Resume Cover form, and doth the body make.' Here we find ourselves, suddenly, not in a critical speculation, but in a holy place, and should go very warily and Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, reverently. We stand before the secret of the world, there where Being passes into Appearance, and Aasch88 How Cute! Maybe We Could Pile Up Goodies V-Day, Unity into Variety. The Universe is the externization of the soul. Wherever the life is, that bursts into appearance around it. Meeting Agendas? Our science is sensual, and therefore superficial. The earth, and Aasch88 How Cute! Maybe We Could Pile Up Goodies For The, the heavenly bodies, physics, and chemistry, we sensually treat, as if they were self-existent; but these are the retinue of that Being we have. The mighty heaven, said Proclus,exhibits, in its transfigurations, clear images of the splendor of intellectual perceptions; being moved in 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, conjunction with the un- apparent periods of intellectual natures. Therefore, science always goes abreast with the just elevation of the man, keeping step with religion and metaphysics; or, the state of science is an index of our self-knowledge.

Since everything in Cover For, nature answers to a moral power, if any phenomenon remains brute and dark, it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk not yet active. No wonder, then, if these waters be so deep, that we hover over them with a religious regard. The beauty of the fable proves the importance of the sense; to the poet, and to all others; or, if you please, every man is so far a poet as to be susceptible of these enchantments of nature; for all men have the Sample Cover Customer, thoughts whereof the 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, universe is the celebration. I find that the We Could, fascination resides in the symbol. Who loves nature? Who does not? Is it only poets, and | Warehouse-Clerk, men of Aasch88 How Cute! We Could Pile Up Goodies For The V-Day leisure and cultivation, who live with her? No; but also hunters, farmers, grooms, and 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk, butchers, though they express their affection in their choice of life, and not in Meeting Templates – Free Sample,, their choice of words. The writer wonders what the coachman or the hunter values in riding, in horses, and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, dogs. It is not superficial qualities.

When you talk with him, he holds these at as slight a rate as you. His worship is sympathetic; he has no definitions, but he is commanded in nature, by Great Lakes, the living power which he feels to be there present. No imitation, or playing of these things, would content him; he loves the Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, earnest of the north wind, of rain, of stone, and wood, and Great - Service Forms, iron. A beauty not explicable, is dearer than a beauty which we can see to the end of. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas? It is nature the symbol, nature certifying the supernatural, body overflowed by life, which he worships, with coarse, but sincere rites.

The inwardness, and Business Letter Sample 5 Examples In Word Pdf. Sample, mystery, of this attachment, drive men of every class to the use of emblems. The schools of poets, and Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, philosophers, are not more intoxicated with their symbols, than the populace with theirs. In our political parties, compute the power of badges and Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes For, emblems. See the huge wooden ball rolled by successive ardent crowds from Baltimore to 6+ Staff Agendas Bunker hill! In the political processions, Lowell goes in a loom, and Lynn in a shoe, and Sample, Salem in Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, a ship.' Witness the cider-barrel, the log-cabin, the hickory-stick, the palmetto, and all the cognizances of party. See the power of national emblems.

Some stars, lilies, leopards, a crescent, a lion, an How Cute! We Could Pile Up Goodies For The, eagle, or other figure, which came into Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, credit God knows how, on an old rag of bunting, blowing in the wind, on Sample Cover Letters Nursing Customer Service a fort, at the ends of the earth, shall make the blood tingle under the rudest, or the most conventional exterior. The people fancy they hate poetry, and they are all poets and | Warehouse-Clerk, mystics! Beyond this universality of the symbolic language, we are apprised of the divineness of this superior use of things, whereby the world is a temple, whose walls are covered with emblems, pictures, and commandments of the Deity, in this, that there is no fact in nature which does not carry the whole sense of 11+ Blank Templates – Free Sample, nature; and the distinctions which we make in events, and in affairs, of low and high, honest and base, disappear when nature is used as a symbol. Thought makes everything fit for use. The vocabulary of an omniscient man would embrace words and images excluded from polite conversation. What would be base, or even obscene, to the obscene, becomes illustrious, spoken in a new connexion of thought.

The piety of the Hebrew prophets purges their grossness. The circumcision is an example of the Meeting, power of poetry to raise the low and Agenda – Free Format, offensive. Small and mean things serve as well as great symbols. The meaner the | Warehouse-Clerk, type by which a law is expressed, the more pungent it is, and the more lasting in the memories of men: just as we choose the smallest box, or case, in which any needful utensil can be carried. Bare lists of words are found suggestive, to an imaginative and excited mind; as it is related of Lord Chatham, that he was accustomed to read in Bailey's Dictionary, when he was preparing to speak in Parliament.

The poorest experience is Housekeeping Letter Resumes For rich enough for all the purposes of expressing thought. Why covet knowledge of new facts? Day and night, house and Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, garden, a few books, a few actions, serve us as well as would all trades and Aasch88 Maybe Pile For The, all spectacles. Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? We are far from Sample Cover Letters Nursing Customer Service Resume Cover having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. We can come to use them yet with a terrible simplicity. It does not need that a poem should be long. Every word was once a poem. Every new relation is a new word.

Also, we use defects and 6+ Staff, deformities to a sacred purpose, so expressing our sense that the evils of the world are such only to the evil eye. In the Lakes Forms, old mythology, mythologists observe, defects are ascribed to divine natures, as lameness to Vulcan, blindness to Cupid, and the like, to signify exuberances. For, as it is dislocation and detachment from the life of God, that makes things ugly, the poet, who re-attaches things to nature and the Whole,--and re-attaching even artificial things, and Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, violations of nature, to nature, by a deeper insight,-- disposes very easily of the most disagreeable facts. Readers of Lakes poetry see the factory-village, and the railway, and fancy that the poetry of the landscape is broken up by these. for these works of Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk art are not yet consecrated in their reading; but the poet sees them fall within the great Order not less than the bee-hive, or the Sample Letters Nursing Service Cover, spider's geometrical web. Meeting? Nature adopts them very fast into How Cute! We Could Pile For The, her vital circles, and the gliding train of cars she loves like her own. 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? Besides, in a centred mind, it signifies nothing how many mechanical inventions you exhibit. Though you add millions, and never so surprising, the fact of mechanics has not gained a grain's weight. The spiritual fact remains unalterable, by many or by few particulars; as no mountain is of any appreciable height to break the curve of the sphere. Great Lakes - Service? A shrewd country-boy goes to the city for the first time, and the complacent citizen is not satisfied with his little wonder. It is not that he does not see all the fine houses, and know that he never saw such before, but he disposes of them as easily as the | Warehouse-Clerk, poet finds place for the railway. The chief value of the new fact, is to enhance the 11+ Blank Sample,, great and constant fact of Life, which can dwarf any and every circumstance, and to which the belt of wampum, and the commerce of America, are alike.

The world being thus put under the mind for verb and noun, the poet is he who can articulate it. For, though life is great, and fascinates, and absorbs,--and though all men are intelligent of the symbols through which it is Meeting named,--yet they cannot originally use them. We are symbols, and inhabit symbols; workmen, work, and tools, words and things, birth and death, all are emblems, but we sympathize with the symbols, and, being infatuated with the economical uses of things, we do not know that they are thoughts. The poet, by an ulterior intellectual perception, gives them power which makes their old use forgotten, and puts eyes, and a tongue, into Cover, every dumb and inanimate object. He perceives the thought's independence of the 6+ Staff Agendas, symbol, the stability of the thought, the accidency and Plan Letter Sample In Word Pdf., fugacity of the symbol. As the eyes of Lyncaeus were said to see through the earth, so the poet turns the world to glass, and shows us all things in 6+ Staff Meeting, their right series and Great Lakes Forms, procession. For, through that better perception, he stands one step nearer to things, and sees the flowing or metamorphosis; perceives that thought is multiform- that within the form of Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk every creature is a force impelling it to ascend into a higher form; and, following with his eyes the life, uses the Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes, forms which express that life, and so his speech flows with the flowing of nature. All the facts of the animal economy,--sex, nutriment, gestation, birth, growth--are symbols of the passage of the world into the soul of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas man, to suffer there a change, and reappear a new and higher fact.

He uses forms according to the life, and not according to the form. This is true science. The poet alone knows astronomy, chemistry, vegetation, and animation, for he does not stop at these facts, but employs them as signs. He knows why the plain, or meadow of space, was strown with these flowers we call suns, and moons, and stars; why the great deep is adorned with animals, with men, and gods; for, in every word he speaks he rides on them as the horses of thought. By virtue of this science the poet is the Namer, or Language-maker, naming things sometimes after their appearance, sometimes after their essence, and giving to every one its own name and not another's, thereby rejoicing the intellect, which delights in Sample Housekeeping Resumes, detachment or boundary.

The poets made all the words, and therefore language is the archives of history, and, if we must say it, a sort of 6+ Staff Agendas tomb of the muses For, though the origin of most of our words is forgotten, each word was at a stroke of genius, and obtained currency, because for the moment it symbolizes the world to 11+ Blank Agenda – Free Format the first speaker and to the hearer. The etymologist finds the deadest word to have been once a brilliant picture. Language is fossil poetry. As the limestone of the continent consists of infinite masses of the 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, shells of Cover Letters Nursing Sample Cover animalcules, so language is made up of images, or tropes, which now, in their secondary use, have long ceased to remind us of their poetic origin. 6+ Staff Agendas? But the poet names the thing because he sees it, or comes one step nearer to it than any other.

This expression, or naming, is not art, but a second nature, grown out of the first, as a leaf out of a tree. What we call nature, is a certain self-regulated motion, or change; and nature does all things by 11+ Blank Meeting Templates – Free Sample, Example, her own hands, and does not leave another to baptise her, but baptises herself; and this through the 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, metamorphosis again. I remember that a certain poet described it to me thus: Genius is the activity which repairs the decay of things, whether wholly or partly of a material and finite kind. Nature, through all her kingdoms, insures herself. Nobody cares for planting the Lakes - Service Forms, poor fungus: so she shakes down from the gills of one agaric countless spores, any one of which, being preserved, transmits new billions of spores to-morrow or next day. The new agaric of this hour has a chance which the old one had not. 6+ Staff? This atom of seed is thrown into a new place, not subject to Meeting Example the accidents which destroyed its parent two rods off. She makes a man; and having brought him to ripe age, she will no longer run the risk of losing this wonder at a blow, but she detaches from him a new self, that the Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, kind may be safe from accidents to which the individual is exposed.

So when the soul of the poet has come to ripeness of thought, she detaches and sends away from Sample Cover Letters Customer Resume Cover it its poems or songs, -- a fearless, sleepless, deathless progeny, which is not exposed to Meeting the accidents of the weary kingdom of time: a fearless, vivacious offspring, clad with wings (such was the virtue of the soul out of which they came), which carry them fast and far, and infix them irrecoverably into the hearts of Cover Letters Sample Resume men. These wings are the Meeting Agendas, beauty of the Cover Resumes For, poet's soul. The songs, thus flying immortal from their mortal parent, are pursued by 6+ Staff Meeting, clamorous flights of censures, which swarm in Jobs, far greater numbers, and threaten to devour them; but these last are not winged. At the end of a very short leap they fall plump down, and rot, having received from the souls out of which they came no beautiful wings. But the melodies of the poet ascend, and leap, and pierce into the deeps of infinite time. So far the bard taught me, using his freer speech. But nature has a higher end, in the production of new individuals, than security, namely, ascension, or, the passage of the soul into Meeting, higher forms. Lakes Forms? I knew, in my younger days, the sculptor who made the statue of the youth which stands in 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, the public garden. He was, as I remember, unable to tell directly, what made him happy, or unhappy, but by wonderful indirections he could tell. He rose one day, according to his habit, before the dawn, and saw the Plan 5 Examples In Word Pdf. Sample, morning break, grand as the eternity out of which it came, and, for many days after, he strove to express this tranquillity, and, lo! his chisel had fashioned out of marble the form of a beautiful youth, Phosphorus, whose aspect is such, that, it is said, all persons who look on it become silent.

The poet also resigns himself to his mood, and that thought which agitated him is 6+ Staff expressed, but alter idem, in Business Plan Sample 5 Examples In Word Pdf. Sample, a manner totally new. The expression is organic, or, the new type which things themselves take when liberated. As, in the sun, objects paint their images on the retina of the eye, so they, sharing the aspiration of the whole universe, tend to paint a far more delicate copy of their essence in 6+ Staff Agendas, his mind. Like the metamorphosis of things into higher organic forms, is their change into melodies. Over everything stands its daemon, or soul, and, as the Letters Nursing Sample Service, form of the thing is reflected by the eye, so the soul of the thing is reflected by a melody. 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? The sea, the mountain-ridge, Niagara, and every flower-bed, pre-exist, or super-exist, in pre-cantations, which sail like odors in the air, and when any man goes by with an ear sufficiently fine, he overhears them, and endeavors to write down the notes, without diluting or depraving them. And herein is the legitimation of criticism, in the mind's faith, that the poems are a corrupt version of some text in nature, with which they ought to be made to tally.

A rhyme in one of our sonnets should not be less pleasing than the iterated nodes of a sea-shell, or the resembling difference of a group of flowers. The pairing of the birds is an idyl, not tedious as our idyls are; a tempest is a rough ode, without falsehood or rant: a summer, with its harvest sown, reaped, and stored, is an epic song, subordinating how many admirably executed parts. Why should not the symmetry and Sample Cover Nursing Customer Resume, truth that modulate these, glide into our spirits, and we participate the invention of nature? This insight, which expresses itself by Meeting Agendas, what is Business Sample Pdf. called Imagination, is a very high sort of seeing, which does not come by study, but by the intellect being where and what it sees, by sharing the path, or circuit of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk things through forms, and so making them translucid to others. The path of things is silent. Will they suffer a speaker to go with them? A spy they will not suffer; a lover, a poet, is the transcendency of Aasch88 How Cute! We Could Up Goodies For The their own nature, -- him they will suffer. The condition of true naming, on the poet's part, is his resigning himself to the divine aura which breathes through forms, and accompanying that.

It is a secret which every intellectual man quickly learns, that, beyond the energy of his possessed and conscious intellect, he is capable of a new energy (as of an intellect doubled on itself), by abandonment to the nature of things; that, beside his privacy of Agendas power as an individual man, there is Great Lakes - Service Forms a great public power, on which he can draw, by unlocking, at all risks, his human doors, and suffering the ethereal tides to roll and circulate through him: then he is caught up into the life of the Universe, his speech is thunder, his thought is law, and his words are universally intelligible as the plants and animals. The poet knows that he speaks adequately, then, only when he speaks somewhat wildly, or, with the flower of the mind; not with the intellect, used as an organ, but with the intellect released from all service, and suffered to take its direction from its celestial life; or, as the ancients were wont to express themselves, not with intellect alone, but with the intellect inebriated by nectar. As the traveller who has lost his way, throws his reins on his horse's neck, and trusts to 6+ Staff Meeting the instinct of the animal to find his road, so must we do with the Aasch88 Maybe Pile For The, divine animal who carries us through this world. For if in any manner we can stimulate this instinct, new passages are opened for us into nature, the mind flows into 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, and through things hardest and Business Plan Cover Letter In Word Pdf., highest, and the metamorphosis is possible. This is the reason why bards love wine, mead, narcotics, coffee, tea, opium, the fumes of sandal-wood and tobacco, or whatever other species of animal exhilaration. Meeting? All men avail themselves of such means as they can, to add this extraordinary power to their normal powers; and to this end they prize conversation, music, pictures, sculpture, dancing, theatres, travelling, war, mobs, fires, gaming, politics, or love, or science, or animal intoxication, which are several coarser or finer quasi-mechanical substitutes for the true nectar, which is the ravishment of the intellect by coming nearer to Great - Service Forms the fact. These are auxiliaries to 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk the centrifugal tendency of a man, to his passage out into free space, and they help him to escape the custody of that body in Sample Cover Letters Nursing Sample Service, which he is pent up, and of that jail-yard of individual relations in which he is enclosed. Hence a great number of such as were professionally expressors of Beauty, as painters, poets, musicians, and actors, have been more than others wont to lead a life of 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk pleasure and indulgence; all but the few who received the Sample Nursing Customer Service Resume, true nectar; and, as it was a spurious mode of attaining freedom, as it was an emancipation not into the heavens, but into the freedom of Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk baser places, they were punished for that advantage they won, by a dissipation and deterioration. But never can any advantage be taken of nature by a trick. The spirit of the Housekeeping Letter, world, the great calm presence of the creator, comes not forth to the sorceries of opium or of wine. Meeting Agendas? The sublime vision comes to the pure and simple soul in a clean and chaste body.

That is Resume For Retail Jobs not an inspiration which we owe to narcotics, but some counterfeit excitement and fury. Milton says, that the lyric poet may drink wine and live generously, but the epic poet, he who shall sing of the gods, and their descent unto men, must drink water out of a wooden bowl. For poetry is not 'Devil's wine,' but God's wine. It is with this as it is with toys. We fill the hands and nurseries of our children with all manner of dolls, drums, and 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas, horses, withdrawing their eyes from the - Service, plain face and sufficing objects of Agendas nature, the sun, and moon, the animals, the water, and Sample Pdf., stones, which should be their toys. So the poet's habit of living should be set on a key so low and plain, that the common influences should delight him. 6+ Staff | Warehouse-Clerk? His cheerfulness should be the gift of the sunlight; the Meeting – Free Format, air should suffice for his inspiration, and he should be tipsy with water. That spirit which suffices quiet hearts, which seems to 6+ Staff Meeting come forth to such from every dry knoll of sere grass, from every pine-stump, and half-imbedded stone, on which the Sample Service Resume, dull March sun shines, comes forth to the poor and hungry, and such as are of simple taste.

If thou fill thy brain with Boston and New York, with fashion and covetousness, and wilt stimulate thy jaded senses with wine and French coffee, thou shalt find no radiance of Agendas wisdom in the lonely waste of the pinewoods. If the imagination intoxicates the poet, it is not inactive in other men. The metamorphosis excites in the beholder an emotion of joy. The use of symbols has a certain power of emancipation and exhilaration for all men. We seem to be touched by Business Plan Cover Letter In Word, a wand, which makes us dance and run about happily, like children. We are like persons who come out of a cave or cellar into the open air. This is the effect on Meeting Agendas us of tropes, fables, oracles, and all poetic forms. For The? Poets are thus liberating gods. Men have really got a new sense, and found within their world, another world, or nest of worlds; for, the metamorphosis once seen, we divine that it does not stop. I will not now consider how much this makes the charm of algebra and the mathematics, which also have their tropes, but it is Meeting Agendas felt in every definition; as, when Aristotle defines space to be an immovable vessel, in which things are contained; -- or, when Plato defines a line to be a flowing point; or, figure to be a bound of solid; and many the like. What a joyful sense of freedom we have, when Vitruvius announces the old opinion of artists, that no architect can build any house well, who does not know something of anatomy.

When Socrates, in Charmides, tells us that the soul is Resume Jobs cured of its maladies by certain incantations, and that these incantations are beautiful reasons, from which temperance is generated in 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, souls; when Plato calls the world an animal; and Timaeus affirms that the plants also are animals; or affirms a man to be a heavenly tree, growing with his root, which is his head, upward; and, as George Chapman, following him, writes, -- So in our tree of man, whose nervie root. Springs in his top; when Orpheus speaks of hoariness as that white flower which marks extreme old age; when Proclus calls the universe the Business Plan Sample Pdf., statue of the intellect; when Chaucer, in his praise of 'Gentilesse,' compares good blood in mean condition to fire, which, though carried to the darkest house betwixt this and the mount of Caucasus, will yet hold its natural office, and burn as bright as if twenty thousand men did it behold; when John saw, in the apocalypse, the 6+ Staff, ruin of the world through evil, and Letters Sample Customer Service Resume Cover, the stars fall from heaven, as the figtree casteth her untimely fruit; when Aesop reports the whole catalogue of common daily relations through the masquerade of birds and beasts; -- we take the cheerful hint of the immortality of our essence, and its versatile habit and escapes, as when the gypsies say, it is in vain to hang them, they cannot die. The poets are thus liberating gods. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? The ancient British bards had for the title of Aasch88 How Cute! For The their order, Those who are free throughout the 6+ Staff Meeting, world. They are free, and Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes, they make free. An imaginative book renders us much more service at first, by stimulating us through its tropes, than afterward, when we arrive at the precise sense of the Meeting, author. I think nothing is of any value in books, excepting the transcendental and extraordinary. If a man is inflamed and carried away by his thought, to 11+ Blank Meeting Templates Format that degree that he forgets the authors and Agendas, the public, and heeds only this one dream, which holds him like an insanity, let me read his paper, and Resume Examples For Retail Jobs, you may have all the arguments and histories and criticism. All the value which attaches to Pythagoras, Paracelsus, Cornelius Agrippa, Cardan, Kepler, Swedenborg, Schelling, Oken, or any other who introduces questionable facts into his cosmogony, as angels, devils, magic, astrology, palmistry, mesmerism, and so on, is the certificate we have of departure from routine, and that here is a new witness. That also is the best success in conversation, the magic of liberty, which puts the world, like a ball, in our hands.

How cheap even the liberty then seems; how mean to study, when an emotion communicates to the intellect the power to sap and 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, upheave nature: how great the perspective! nations, times, systems, enter and disappear, like threads in tapestry of large figure and many colors; dream delivers us to dream, and, while the drunkenness lasts, we will sell our bed, our philosophy, our religion, in Plan Cover Sample 5 Examples In Word Pdf., our opulence. This emancipation is 6+ Staff dear to all men, and the power to impart it, as it must come from greater depth and We Could V-Day, scope of thought, is 6+ Staff a measure of intellect. Therefore all books of the imagination endure, all which ascend to that truth, that the writer sees nature beneath him, and uses it as his exponent. Every verse or sentence, possessing this virtue, will take care of Aasch88 Maybe We Could Pile Up Goodies its own immortality. The religions of the world are the ejaculations of a few imaginative men. But the quality of the imagination is to flow, and not to freeze. The poet did not stop at the color, or the form, but read their meaning; neither may he rest in this meaning, but he makes the same objects exponents of 6+ Staff his new thought. Here is the Business Letter, difference betwixt the poet and the mystic, that the last nails a symbol to one sense, which was a true sense for a moment, but soon becomes old and false. For all symbols are fluxional; all language is vehicular and transitive, and is good, as ferries and horses are, for conveyance, not as farms and houses are, for homestead. Mysticism consists in the mistake of an accidental and individual symbol for an universal one. The morning-redness happens to be the favorite meteor to the eyes of Jacob Behmen, and Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, comes to stand to Examples For Retail him for truth and faith; and he believes should stand for the same realities to every reader.

But the Meeting, first reader prefers as naturally the Plan Cover In Word Pdf. Sample, symbol of a mother and child, or a gardener and his bulb, or a jeweller polishing a gem. 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? Either of these, or of Cover a myriad more, are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. Only they must be held lightly, and be very willingly translated into the equivalent terms which others use. And the mystic must be steadily told, -- All that you say is just as true without the tedious use of that symbol as with it. Let us have a little algebra, instead of this trite rhetoric, -- universal signs, instead of these village symbols, -- and we shall both be gainers. The history of hierarchies seems to show, that all religious error consisted in making the symbol too stark and solid, and, at last, nothing but an excess of the organ of language. Swedenborg, of all men in Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk, the recent ages, stands eminently for the translator of nature into thought. I do not know the man in history to whom things stood so uniformly for Business Pdf. words.

Before him the metamorphosis continually plays. Everything on which his eye rests, obeys the impulses of moral nature. The figs become grapes whilst he eats them. When some of his angels affirmed a truth, the laurel twig which they held blossomed in their hands. The noise which, at a distance, appeared like gnashing and thumping, on coming nearer was found to be the voice of disputants. The men, in one of his visions, seen in heavenly light, appeared like dragons, and seemed in darkness: but, to each other, they appeared as men, and, when the light from heaven shone into their cabin, they complained of the darkness, and were compelled to shut the window that they might see. There was this perception in him, which makes the 6+ Staff, poet or seer, an object of awe and Resume, terror, namely, that the same man, or society of men, may wear one aspect to themselves and their companions, and a different aspect to higher intelligences.

Certain priests, whom he describes as conversing very learnedly together, appeared to 6+ Staff Meeting the children, who were at some distance, like dead horses: and many the like misappearances. Sample Letters Nursing Customer Resume? And instantly the mind inquires, whether these fishes under the bridge, yonder oxen in the pasture, those dogs in the yard, are immutably fishes, oxen, and dogs, or only so appear to me, and perchance to themselves appear upright men; and whether I appear as a man to all eyes. Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? The Bramins and Pythagoras propounded the same question, and if any poet has witnessed the Plan 5 Examples In Word, transformation, he doubtless found it in 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, harmony with various experiences. We have all seen changes as considerable in wheat and Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes, caterpillars. He is the | Warehouse-Clerk, poet, and shall draw us with love and terror, who sees, through the flowing vest, the firm nature, and can declare it. I look in vain for the poet whom I describe. We do not, with sufficient plainness, or sufficient profoundness, address ourselves to life, nor dare we chaunt our own times and social circumstance. If we filled the day with bravery, we should not shrink from celebrating it.

Time and nature yield us many gifts, but not yet the timely man, the new religion, the reconciler, whom all things await. Dante's praise is, that he dared to write his autobiography in colossal cipher, or into universality. We have yet had no genius in America, with tyrannous eye, which knew the value of our incomparable materials, and saw, in the barbarism and materialism of the times, another carnival of the same gods whose picture he so much admires in Homer; then in the middle age; then in Calvinism. Banks and tariffs, the newspaper and caucus, methodism and unitarianism, are flat and dull to dull people, but rest on Sample Cover Letter the same foundations of wonder as the town of Meeting Troy, and the temple of Business Letter Sample 5 Examples Sample Delphos, and are as swiftly passing away. Our logrolling, our stumps and their politics, our fisheries, our Negroes, and 6+ Staff, Indians, our boasts, and - Service Forms, our repudiations, the Meeting, wrath of rogues, and the pusillanimity of honest men, the northern trade, the southern planting, the western clearing, Oregon, and Texas, are yet unsung. Yet America is 11+ Blank Meeting Templates – Free Sample, a poem in our eyes; its ample geography dazzles the 6+ Staff Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk, imagination, and it will not wait long for metres. If I have not found that excellent combination of gifts in my countrymen which I seek, neither could I aid myself to fix the idea of the poet by reading now and Lakes Forms, then in Chalmers's collection of five centuries of English poets.

These are wits, more than poets, though there have been poets among them. But when we adhere to the ideal of the poet, we have our difficulties even with Milton and Homer. 6+ Staff Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk? Milton is too literary, and Homer too literal and historical. But I am not wise enough for a national criticism, and must use the old largeness a little longer, to discharge my errand from the muse to the poet concerning his art. Art is the path of the - Service, creator to his work. The paths, or methods, are ideal and eternal, though few men ever see them, not the artist himself for years, or for Meeting Agendas | Warehouse-Clerk a lifetime, unless he come into the conditions. The painter, the sculptor, the composer, the epic rhapsodist, the orator, all partake one desire, namely, to express themselves symmetrically and abundantly, not dwarfishly and fragmentarily. They found or put themselves in certain conditions, as, the painter and sculptor before some impressive human figures; the orator, into For Retail, the assembly of the people; and the others, in such scenes as each has found exciting to his intellect; and each presently feels the new desire. He hears a voice, he sees a beckoning. Meeting Agendas? Then he is apprised, with wonder, what herds of daemons hem him in. He can no more rest; he says, with the old painter, By God, it is in Lakes - Service, me, and must go forth of me.

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Hence the necessity of speech and song; hence these throbs and heart-beatings in the orator, at the door of the assembly, to the end, namely, that thought may be ejaculated as Logos, or Word. Doubt not, O poet, but persist. Say, 'It is in me, and shall out.' Stand there, baulked and dumb, stuttering and stammering, hissed and hooted, stand and strive, until, at last, rage draw out of thee that dream-power which every night shows thee is thine own; a power transcending all limit and privacy, and by virtue of which a man is the conductor of the whole river of electricity. Nothing walks, or creeps, or grows, or exists, which must not in turn arise and walk before him as exponent of his meaning. Comes he to that power, his genius is Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk no longer exhaustible. All the creatures, by Letters Nursing Customer Resume, pairs and by tribes, pour into his mind as into a Noah's ark, to 6+ Staff Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk come forth again to people a new world. This is like the Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping For, stock of air for Meeting | Warehouse-Clerk our respiration, or for the combustion of our fireplace, not a measure of gallons, but the entire atmosphere if wanted. And therefore the rich poets, as Homer, Chaucer, Shakspeare, and Raphael, have obviously no limits to their works, except the limits of their lifetime, and Sample Cover Letter Resumes, resemble a mirror carried through the street, ready to render an image of every created thing. O poet! a new nobility is conferred in groves and Agendas, pastures, and not in castles, or by the sword-blade, any longer. The conditions are hard, but equal.

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