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argue essay paper You’ve spent quite a bit of time in Manual Template your English classes writing argumentative essays, and you’ve even gotten pretty good at Sample Rights Complaint Form | Templatezet writing on the topics your instructor assigns. Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. Cosmetology Resume Cosmetologist Hair. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is Template - Guide too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to Gantt Chart do is relax and Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps, find a topic you’re passionate about Free Invoice Templates, and, of - Guide course, one that is Cosmetology Resume Cosmetologist Example debatable. Template - Help - Steps. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics?
Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all– argumentative . Best 25+ Egg Card Only. It would be a lot easier to Template - Guide - Help - Steps write an essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the Docs point of an Employee - Guide - Steps, argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isn’t black and Resume Hair Example Hair, white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help good because that means there are a lot of Ga Custody topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to - Help help get you started. Gantt Chart. I’ve separated the topics into Employee Manual, five categories–legal, moral, social, media and Scheduler123 A : Excel-Based Production Scheduling, family–and included a helpful link for Employee Manual each topic.
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Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and Template - Help, side effects be made more clear in Cosmetology Example Job. Hair advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and Manual Template - Guide - Steps, values are abundant. That’s because every family is different.
Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to Michael Letter laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is Manual - Guide - Help - Steps different, it’s hard to generalize in Rights | Templatezet these types of essays. - Guide. However, if you look into Free Invoice, research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and Employee Manual - Guide - Steps, their children, you can get enough information to Ga Custody Plan make an argument for Manual Template - Guide any of the Civil Rights Complaint Form | Templatezet topics below (or for - Steps a topic of your own). T. Writing. Photo by Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps, Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Rights Form. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. Template. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from Part A : (way more than are on Template - Guide, this list).
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About the Author. Eden Meirow is Michael T. Writing a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and - Guide, education. Stat-Parenting Plan. You can find her on Manual - Guide - Steps, Google+. Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the Stat-Parenting topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. Manual - Guide - Help. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Letter Argumentative essay about anti immigrants. Template. I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for Gantt Chart the help. Employee - Help - Steps. Hi AbdulI#8217;m not sure *who you#8217;re proving wrong?
However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an 25+ Egg Ideas Only | Cute, emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for Employee Template - Help - Steps the help and Google Docs, the quick feedback! Please give me an Employee Manual Template, example. Is the hook on Scheduler123 Excel-Based Production Scheduling, the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the Manual - Steps first sentence of Sample Civil Rights | Templatezet your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an - Help - Steps, arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on Templates, can u help? Btw I#8217;m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the Manual - Guide - Help - Steps important thing would be to Stat-Parenting choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and Employee Template - Guide - Help, sorry if I#8217;m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the Scheduler123 Part effects of video games on - Guide - Help - Steps, young people.
Here is Civil Complaint | Templatezet a great resource to Manual - Guide help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I#8217;m still not sure. Gantt Chart. What would be a good resource for supporting the Employee Template - Guide opinion that physician-assisted suicide is Gantt Chart morally wrong? I#8217;m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on - Help - Steps, how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn#8217;t help me on Scheduler123 Excel-Based Scheduling, this and Employee Template - Guide, it was a hard topic to Scheduler123 Part A : Excel-Based Production Scheduling argue about. Can you please help. Employee Manual Template - Steps. It sounds like your teacher wants you to Card Only On Pinterest Cards, get more specific than that topic (which, to Employee Template - Guide - Steps be fair, is pretty broad).
A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for T. Writing A Business a company to Template - Guide - Help not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at laws in California and Part A : Excel-Based Scheduling, Colorado for Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps example). I need to A : Scheduling write an argumentative research paper about Manual Template - Guide - Steps, 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for Cosmetology Resume Cosmetologist Hair Hair a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. Employee Manual - Guide. My biggest piece of advice is Gantt Chart definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps struggle getting 3000 words down.
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Check out Template - Help - Steps, this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for that it really helps me. Gantt Chart. You#8217;re welcome. Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to Manual Template - Help get some advice on an argumentative essay. Form | Templatezet. My argument is Template broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only Ga Custody Plan, have 2 days to Manual Template - Guide - Help write a 6 page essay. Sample. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to Employee Manual Template - Help - Steps even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to Best Card Ideas Only | Cute Valentines write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don#8217;t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay.
I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for Employee Manual Template the comment. Hi there. Scheduler123 Excel-Based Production Scheduling. My name is Employee Manual Lisa. Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for A : Scheduling System help and I will be glad to Employee Manual Template - Help help. Ga Custody Stat-Parenting. Contact me for Employee Template - Guide - Help non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time. Thank you in advance. I have to right a research essay that will end up over Production System, the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to Employee Manual - Help - Steps be arguable#8230;. Travel. Have any idea what topic would be good?
The 50 topics in this post should lead you to Template - Guide - Help something good. The trick is to On Pinterest Valentines choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of Manual Template - Help - Steps researching and writing. Remember, an Best Card Ideas On Pinterest Valentines, arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an Manual Template - Steps, argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the same thing i#8217;m going thru for english 202. Gantt Chart. It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to Employee - Guide - Help - Steps be a argumentative research essay. 25+ Egg Card Ideas On Pinterest Cards, Valentines. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough. Don#8217;t despair.
You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. Manual - Guide - Steps. I am looking for Stat-Parenting help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for Template - Help - Steps a 3000 word research paper on Best 25+ Egg On Pinterest | Cute Valentines, the following #8221; Discuss the Template - Steps social and Child Travel Consent Letter, cognitive consequences on Employee Manual Template - Guide - Steps, bilingualism and multilingualism#8221; . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Child Consent Letter | Mytemplate.co. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the Employee Template - Steps points that you want to defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and Gantt Chart, cognitive consequences of bilingualism and - Guide, multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and Google Invoice Templates, CONSEQUENCE 3. Employee Manual Template - Steps. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and Production, argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of Employee Template - Steps bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to Plan uncover the Manual - Guide - Help consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and Cosmetologist Hair Job. Hair, aging and - Steps, how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and Scheduler123 A :, 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here.
Once you have the points you want to defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. I have started writing the Plan paper. However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Employee Manual Template - Guide - Steps. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated.
It#8217;s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. Sample Civil. While I can#8217;t do this for Employee Manual - Guide - Steps you (not enough time in Cosmetology Resume Cosmetologist Skin Hair my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to - Steps check your essay for Cosmetologist Job. organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about Manual - Guide - Steps, that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Resume Cosmetologist Example. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. Employee Manual Template - Help. but trust me, it can be worse#8230; Good luck on your writing though!I#8217;m sure you need it more than me#8230; i have to Part Excel-Based Scheduling do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an Employee - Steps, essay to 25+ Egg Only On Pinterest Cards, seem longer, highlight all the periods, and change the - Guide - Help - Steps font size from Stat-Parenting 12 to Employee - Help 14. I can promise you that most professors are on Scheduler123 A : Excel-Based Production Scheduling, to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared.
So true! If you#8217;re armed with plenty of Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it#8217;s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the Free Google Invoice Templates basic steps you need to Employee Manual - Guide - Steps take to execute an Stat-Parenting Plan, argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to start. 2) do your researchhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statementhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an Template - Help - Steps, outlinehttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paperhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Hair Skin. 7) turn it in Employee Manual Template - Steps and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on Part A : Production Scheduling System, the specific requirements and Template - Guide - Help, length of your paper). Michael T. Writing. Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on Template - Guide - Help - Steps, inspiration vs infringement and so far I#8217;ve written only Child Letter Sample, 200. Employee - Help - Steps. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like #8220;tomorrow afternoon#8221; has arrived.
I hope that you were able to Stat-Parenting Plan come up with some good points. Employee Template. This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of Civil | Templatezet his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and Manual - Guide, how later on Best 25+ Egg Card Ideas Only | Cute, (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for Employee Template - Guide - Help a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Gantt Chart. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. - Guide - Help. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on Letter, what are topic will be, based on our courses. I#8217;m studying entrepreneurship and she is - Guide - Help studying computer science. it has been 2 months and Stat-Parenting Plan, yet we cannot come up with an Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps, idea on what will be our topic. please help us for we are desperate. Scheduling. we would be so thankful if you#8217;l help us a little bit.
I#8217;m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is Template - Guide related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the question I#8217;m attempting to Ga Custody Stat-Parenting answer here. Template. What you choose will largely depend on T. Writing Letter, where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and Employee - Help - Steps, then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to Cosmetology Hair Skin Job. Hair support your project. Employee Template - Guide - Steps. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in Best 25+ Egg Card | Cute business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy?
-will emerging technologies lead to Employee Manual Template - Help a new type of Scheduler123 Part Excel-Based Production Scheduling System job market? -should computer science students be required to Employee - Guide - Help - Steps take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and Child Letter Sample | Mytemplate.co, business understanding)? Then I#8217;d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to Template - Help find out if any of Civil them have enough material to support a full research paper. Employee Template - Help. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). Stat-Parenting. I think that you may be struggling a bit because #8220;computer science#8221; and Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps, #8220;entrepreneurship#8221; or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for Best 25+ Egg Card Ideas | Cute you to Manual Template - Guide narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and also helped me a lot for my project#8230;.but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for it#8230;..would you be able to Michael Letter help. The novel is a fan-fic on Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps, the original series Percy Jackson#8230; Congrats on Scheduler123 Part Excel-Based Production, starting the rewarding project of Employee - Help writing your own novel. Cosmetology Resume Cosmetologist Job. Hair. The best advice for Employee Manual Template - Help - Steps writing a novel is | Mytemplate.co just sitting down and Employee - Guide - Help - Steps, writing it. You may be tempted to Ga Custody Plan make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it#8217;s coming out Employee Manual - Guide, as you want it to, but if you#8217;re serious about this, you#8217;ll set those excuses aside and just write.
Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it won#8217;t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. Civil Complaint Form. So you need to be okay with that fact and Manual, just get through it. Letter | Mytemplate.co. Set a word count goal for every day, and every week. A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in Manual mind! It#8217;s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and Civil Form | Templatezet, revise it#8230; again and - Guide - Steps, again until it#8217;s right. were recquired to Letter | Mytemplate.co do 1500 word essay and Employee Template - Help, i didnt know what topic I can choose. Ga Custody Plan. But thank you for this, it gave me an Employee - Guide - Steps, idea. Gantt Chart. I#8217;m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for Manual - Help - Steps reading.
Naomi help me please? i#8217;am looking for the disadvantages of Michael T. Writing A Business Letter a physical store and found only - Guide - Help, minor things. Civil Complaint | Templatezet. i wanted to Employee Manual - Guide - Steps find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at Scheduler123 A : Production Scheduling a physical store or of owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and tear on your car). There is Manual - Guide a higher risk that the store will be out of the Ga Custody item you need (or won#8217;t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. Manual - Guide. Prices may be higher due to A Business Letter overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is Employee Manual Template - Help such a big help. Civil Complaint Form | Templatezet. Happy to help! Thanks for Template - Steps reading #128578;
I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing #8212; just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in 25+ Egg Card Ideas Valentines a month so any advice on Employee, how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while. I#8217;d definitely break it down into Michael T. Writing, lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time #8212; brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Template - Guide - Help - Steps. The outlining step will save you a ton of Michael T. Writing A Business Letter work; I#8217;d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. Manual Template. You might also check out Best 25+ Egg Card Ideas Only On Pinterest | Cute Cards, Valentines, https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to Employee Manual - Help - Steps make an long af essay and Part Scheduling System, english is Manual - Guide not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of Gantt Chart essays up to Manual - Guide 2k words everything you need is imagination and Michael Letter, nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for Manual - Guide me.
The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I#8217;m need to Gantt Chart write a thesis for my uni#8217;s project this year. Template - Steps. But, I#8217;m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I#8217;m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, #8220;Students#8217; perception on Docs Invoice Templates | Smartsheet, integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.#8221; *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an Manual - Steps, effect to Card Ideas On Pinterest | Cute Cards, Valentines the students, in - Guide - Help the way of Travel Consent Letter Sample education. Employee Manual - Guide. I think you#8217;re off to Travel Letter Sample | Mytemplate.co a good start, but you still need to take a stance on Employee - Guide - Steps, your topic. Here is an Sample Complaint, example of Employee what I mean: #8220;Students#8217; perception of Only Cards, Valentines integrity, which is one of NDUM#8217;s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.#8221; In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of Employee Manual - Guide - Steps integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of Gantt Chart integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to Employee Template - Steps focus only on positive impacts, might be: #8220;Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of Child Sample | Mytemplate.co NDUM#8217;s core characteristics, tend to Template - Guide - Help - Steps be more successful in their educational endeavors.#8221; I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit!
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The Limits of Template - Help Modernity in Shakespeare#039;s King John - Essay. Steve Longstaffe, S. Martin's College Lancaster. Deborah Curren-Aquino, summing up fifty years of critical engagement with Shakespeare's King John, identifies a radical break with earlier views of the 25+ Egg Card Only play in the tendency in post 1940 scholarship to describe John as ambivalent, ambiguous, suspicious, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive. 1 The form and tone of John, in other words, are recognisably modern. Employee Template - Guide - Help? Few critics have gone as far as Sigurd Burckhardt, who in the 1960s asserted that the play documented Shakespeare's own modernity, defined as the recognition that order, or justice and truth at the heart of things, was of human, rather than divine, origin. 2 Burckhardt's position, though not his confidence that he could show that when he wrote King John, or quite possibly in writing it, Shakespeare became a 'modern', is echoed in Virginia Vaughan's claim of 1989 that the play like Shakespeare's other history plays depicts a crucial point in the inauguration of the Travel Consent Sample | Mytemplate.co relativism of the modern age. 3 But for Template the most part, writers on John have avoided such grand narratives of Best 25+ Egg On Pinterest | Cute Cards, Valentines epistemological shifts, and found the play's modernity to be historically produced in a much more local way: as part of Manual Template a Shakespearian negotiation with chronicle, source play, or the Sample Civil Rights history play genre. Manual - Guide? What John is sceptical about, in other words, is other historical accounts of John's reign, especially regarding their relationship to what might still be termed Tudor ideology. For many critics, Shakespeare's John is in antagonistic relation to such sources as the anonymous Queen's Men's play The Troublesome Reign of King John and the 1587 Holinshed, interrogating the Child Consent Letter Sample | Mytemplate.co writing of history of which these two texts, and the history play as a genre, were part.
Such a John appears our contemporary, teasing out aporias and contradictions in Renaissance writings of legitimacy, faith, or patriotism. Employee Template - Guide? For Phyllis Rackin, it is a 'problem history' where the Card On Pinterest Cards, audience has no sure guide through the ideological ambiguities. 4 Larry Champion identifies it as an open-ended chronicle play with historical process transformed into human process, stripped bare of Tudor providentialism and reduced to Employee Manual Template - Help, an individual self-interest that only in its best moments might be communally enlightened. 5 Guy Hamel argues that Shakespeare's assault on formulas [ . . . ] reveals itself in almost every departure from Google Docs Invoice | Smartsheet, The Troublesome Reign. 6 To situate Shakespeare's play in a sceptical relation to ideology or generic formulas is, of course, profoundly unsubversive of the continuing critical imperative to speak with the Bard. Employee Manual - Help - Steps? The modern Shakespeare, as Stephen Greenblatt has pointed out, must subvert only Child Travel Consent, that which is no longer subversive. The John worthy of modern critics' engagement is produced by a common critical strategy, which is most clearly visible in the conclusion of Manual Template - Guide - Steps one of the play's editors that it would be a crippling limitation of the Civil Complaint Form | Templatezet power of Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps King John to tie it too closely to the situation of the 1590s. 7 It is in its implication in Child Consent Sample, the religious politics of the period of the Spanish war that John is Employee Manual Template - Guide most clearly un-modern; it is part of the wartime anti-Catholic polemic, something which has been played down in order to produce a modernity which legitimates a continual critical return to the play, and to a lesser extent, to Shakespeare. It is not surprising that there has been relatively little interest in Best Card Ideas On Pinterest, John's brand of Protestant nationalism of Manual - Help - Steps late, for, as David Aers has pointed out, many influential contemporary critics of early modern writing display a marked lack of interest in Christian traditions, Christian practices and Christian institutions. 8 Mid-century critics, following E. M. W. Tillyard's characterisation of the play as but Mildly Protestant in tone, stressed the Best Only On Pinterest Cards, Valentines moderation of the play's anti-Catholic sentiments, whilst identifying an assertion of Protestant nationalism.
9 Recent critics have gone further, identifying a play-world where all religious utterances are just further examples of debased political rhetoric in a world with no consistent values, not even Protestant nationalism. 10. But how debased is this rhetoric? Specifically, did the kind of language with which John defies the Papal legate Pandulph on his first encounter with him circulate in post-Armada London as a somehow debased version of earlier, more sincere, Tudor coinages? To stretch the 1980s monetary rhetoric further, I suggest that, on the contrary, play rhetoric directed against foreign Catholics wishing to overthrow an English monarch was on the gold standard during this period of war with Spain. John's words themselves are direct as he responds to Pandulph's demands in the name of the Pope: Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name. So slight, unworthy and ridiculous, To charge me to - Steps, an answer, as the T. Writing Letter pope.
Tell him this tale; and from the mouth of England. Add thus more, that no Italian priest. Shall tithe or toll in our dominions; But as we, under God, are supreme head, So under Him that great supremacy, Where we do reign, we will alone uphold. Without th' assistance of Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps a mortal hand: So tell the pope, all reverence set apart. To him and his usurp'd authority.
11. And on Ga Custody, being accused of blasphemy by the French king, John amplifies his declaration with a piece of Foxean anti-Catholicism: Though you and Employee Manual Template all the kings of Christendom. Are led so grossly by this meddling priest, Dreading the curse that money may buy out; And by the merit of vild gold, dross, dust, Purchase corrupted pardon of a man, Who in that sale sells pardon from himself, Though you and all the rest so grossly led. This juggling witchcraft with revenue cherish,
Yet I alone, alone do me oppose. Against the pope, and Part Scheduling count his friends my foes. This speech is Employee Template - Guide - Steps immediately followed by John's excommunication, and by Child | Mytemplate.co, Pandulph encouraging both rebellion and assassination. Employee Manual - Guide - Steps? As Lily Campbell has pointed out, John is presented here as standing in the same relationship to Complaint Form, the Catholic church as Elizabeth, even appropriating her own title of supreme governor in his use of Henry VIII's formulation supreme head. The clarity of John's position here is momentary, however; he does not reach these vituperative heights again. Employee Manual Template - Guide - Steps? Indeed, he resigns his crown to Child Consent Letter Sample | Mytemplate.co, Pandulph later on. But it is important not to Manual Template - Guide - Steps, underrate the legitimating power of John's rhetoric. Such defiance, in the post-Armada period, places John firmly as a properly patriotic Englishman engaged in Rights | Templatezet, the same struggle as Elizabeth. The Protestant nationalism that supported Elizabeth's land and sea campaigns against the Spanish would thus have been engaged in John's case. Furthermore, it could have been so powerfully engaged as decisively to affect interpretation of the play. In the Employee - Help - Steps post-Armada context, John is a true English king primarily because of the 'true' rhetoric he employs; his anti-Catholicism is central to Ga Custody Stat-Parenting, the play's politics.
King John is consensually dated to Manual - Steps, the period between 1587, when the second edition of Holinshed appeared, and 1598, when Francis Meres mentioned in print a Shakespearian King John, though it is impossible to know whether that play was the one first printed in 1623. Best 25+ Egg Ideas Valentines? 13 It thus belongs within the core years of the Spanish war, and Employee Template - Steps probably to the post-Armada period. After 1588, however, the national mood was certainly not conducive to a relaxed and sceptical investigation of the 25+ Egg Card | Cute possible hypocrisy of religious nationalism. The defeat of the Armada, far from engendering a lasting sense of invulnerability to foreign Catholic invasion, fed a sometimes apocalyptic wartime paranoia. 14 Even in 1588, the official London festivities to celebrate the victory were subsumed into the queen's thirtieth anniversary shows.
Elsewhere in the country, David Cressy informs us, the Armada celebrations in 1588 were more solemn than jubilant [ . Employee Manual Template - Guide? . . Free Google? ] the festivities were conducted in a minor key. 15 London, though its strategic importance meant that it was carefully governed, had its share of hardship, and had to cope with returning soldiers threatening to loot Bartholomew Fair in Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps, 1589, and Sample Civil Form | Templatezet with royal demands for men, ships, and Employee Manual - Help - Steps money at a time when the capital was also struggling with plague and dearth. 16 Thousands were conscripted in the early 1590s, and Plan City trained bands were often mustered. 17 In southern England there were general anti-invasion musters in 1590 and 1596. In the latter year, the Spanish cannon besieging Calais could be heard in Greenwich, the capture of which prompted Sir Henry Knyvett to write his civil defence tract The Defence of the Realm. The Spanish raided Cornwall in 1595, and sent another Armada in 1597. 18.
Although English Catholics protested their loyalty, and towards the end of Elizabeth's reign did so vociferously, Cardinal Allen's assurance to Philip II that they would rise to support an invasion was impossible for the authorities to ignore. 19 The early 1590s saw the final addition to Elizabeth's anti-Catholic laws. After the legislation of 1593 obstinate recusants were not permitted to travel more than five miles from their homes without severe penalties. Employee Manual Template - Guide? New anti-Jesuit provisions were also added to the 1581 Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's subjects in Ga Custody Plan, their true obedience. Employee - Guide? 20 Though these measures were moderated in committee, and were not applied completely rigorously, they do indicate that the government were worried about Catholic invasion preparations. The church, naturally, was hardly irenic at this time. Even before the Michael A Business war, anti-Catholic rhetoric proliferated as a discourse which structured, by way of Employee Template reappropriations, most of the controversies that developed [ . . Ga Custody? . ] between contending positions in Employee Manual - Help - Steps, the English church itself, especially those between Puritan radicals and the church establishment.
21 For the Protestant divine, anti-Roman polemic was at once an Sample Civil Rights | Templatezet, expression of Template - Guide Protestant zeal and Civil Complaint Form | Templatezet an implicit gesture of loyalty to a national church, the Protestantism of whose doctrine was generally acknowledged. 22 Anti-Catholicism seems to have been one of the Manual Template media through which the English church talked to itself; it functioned at least partly to legitimate what was being said. War against a Catholic enemy, and the anti-Catholicism of the English church, both would have both provided a context for interpreting John's defiance of Child Consent Letter Pandulph. In addition, anyone familiar with recent historical accounts of John's reign would have expected to see him presented as a legitimate king undermined by circumstances and Manual - Guide - Help Catholic conspiracy. John's use in this context by anti-Catholic polemicists has been well documented.
23 Foxe's account in Part Excel-Based Production Scheduling System, the Acts and Monuments limits itself to religious matters, and places John within the perspective of the struggle between the true church and antichrist. Holinshed's account emphasises that the contemporary sources are Catholic and therefore biased, scarselle can they afoord him a good word [ . . . ] the occasion whereof [ . . . ] was, that he was no great freend to the clergie, before criticising John for his great crueltie, and unreasonable avarice. 24 But Holinshed's John, like Foxe's, is a worthy pre-Protestant religious patriot. Manual - Help - Steps? Even those not well versed in the chronicles would have heard of John, and how after his submission to Pandulph most miserable tyrannie, raveny and Sample Civil Complaint Form spoyle of the most greedie Romish wolves ensued, through the deployment of this reign in the 1571 Homily against Disobedience. 25 Anyone aware of Employee Template - Guide - Steps these versions of the historical John would have come to the play expecting to see a proleptically Protestant king subverted by the Roman church. Though Polydore Vergil and John Stow did not write within this representative tradition, their impact on public opinion was likely during the immediate post-Armada period to have been negligible. John does appear in the Huntington plays of the later 1590s as a wicked tyrant, but in these plays there is Michael A Business Letter no attempt to address the political agenda of King John. There is no indication that a Protestant nationalist audience would have taken such plays seriously as historical accounts directly addressing the political concerns of the early-to-mid 1590s. Manual Template - Guide - Help? Significantly, the Huntington plays were first performed in 1598, and thus may well have post-dated a realisation that the crucial phase of the struggle for western Europe was to all intents and purposes over. 26. The repertory in the post-Armada years was dominated by serious matters with an Scheduler123 A : Production System, immediate gut appeal to [. . . ] militarism, in the words of Andrew Gurr.
27 The growth of the English history play was due, according to David Bevington, to a need for relevant, but indirect, appeals to war fever. 28 Anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiments were common across a range of plays. John's resistance to Pandulph in Shakespeare's drama would have functioned metonymically to link him to contemporary anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, and to the Protestant histories and other polemical deployments of the historical John's reign. The ubiquity and strength of Employee Manual - Help anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, furthermore, could well have operated so as to produce a strong cathexis for these sentiments and their utterer in the play, conditioning responses to, and interpretations of, it. In other words, the intellectual or emotional reactions to John's religious nationalism would not be qualified by elements elsewhere in the play; John's words in 3.1 would themselves qualify the responses to the rest of the play, including some of its ambiguities, suspicions, scepticisms and questions. Recent critics read John's rhetoric very differently. For many, the religious nationalism of Docs Invoice Templates | Smartsheet his speeches function not to mobilise anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish sentiment, but to indicate that such a rhetoric, and such a mobilisation, is more fully present elsewhere, in the The Troublesome Reign. The fact that this play has more anti-Catholic material than King John has often been taken to mean that the latter play fails to cross some (qualitative? quantitative?) threshold whereby it might be deemed to Manual - Help, mobilise popular religious xenophobia. Thus, Phyllis Rackin sees the play compressing and marginalizing John's dispute with Rome. 29 For M. M. Reese, Shakespeare's play eliminates the crude anti-Catholic bias of the anonymous play. 30 Robert Ornstein explains that Shakespeare lacked the Invoice Templates | Smartsheet temperament to exploit religious prejudices and hysterias [ . . . ] the religious issue very nearly disappears in King John, and John completely loses his stature as a 'reformation' hero.
31 John Blanpied agrees that Shakespeare neutralises the anti-Papal material, leaving John without a polemical base from which to borrow his authority. 32. For many, the result of this compression, and consequent neutralisation and marginalization, is a play which, in the words of Virginia Vaughan, presents politics, not polemics. 33 As long ago as 1962 Geoffrey Bullough drew this distinction, stating that Shakespeare turned away from [ . . . ] sectarian propaganda to emphasise more purely political motives. 34 Such a construction of Template - Help - Steps Shakespeare's John (and, of course, John's Shakespeare) as drawing a distinction between real politics and un-sophisticated (and explicitly anti-Catholic) rabble-rousing has received much critical support, though earlier writers attribute it to a Shakespearian distaste for Free Google Invoice Templates | Smartsheet bias or rant, or a preference for Employee Manual Template - Steps complexity over simplicity, and later ones more to a textual refusal of the Child Travel Consent Sample easy closure which a more foregrounded religious element would have allowed or perhaps necessitated. 35 The dominance of Christianity in Template, Renaissance England is perhaps the most effective reminder of Renaissance difference; conveniently, Shakespeare manages to play down that difference and provide a transcendent scepticism for our age of suspicious reading. As can be seen from Blanpied and Free Invoice Ornstein, the playing down of the religious element also means a John robbed of the Manual Template - Help legitimating power of religious nationalism.
John's words to Pandulph are read as attenuated by John's compromised moral or legal status. Deborah Kehler states that in the light of his false claim, John's use of A Business divinity to Template, serve his own ends is transparent, while for Philip Edwards what seems an admirable quality of sturdy national courage is questioned by Free Google Templates | Smartsheet, the moral quality of the speaker, and by his eventual fate in the play. 36 Responses to Template - Guide - Help, John's words are conditioned not by their deployment of a powerfully cathected sentiment, but by character. A Business? Even those critics recognising the power of John's words conclude that they are an isolated and anomalous moment, occasional choric greatness, or an affect of efficiency, not magnanimity. Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help? 37 At best, for Larry Champion, the anti-Catholic John is just one of the equally persuasive views of the usurper, the wouldbe murderer, the terror-stricken capitulator, the sufferer, the Docs patriot, and the kingly defender of his nation. 38 Without a rousing crudely religious centre, the play's politics are nicely modern: for character within the play, there is no clear royal authority. Manual Template - Guide? For the audience watching it, there is no unblemished cause and Part A : Excel-Based Production System no unquestioned authority to claim their allegiance, in Phyllis Rackin's formulation. David Womersley, though he sees the play as clearly conservative in its conclusions, agrees that it confronts the question of how one lives in Employee Template - Help, a world without value.
39 Without wishing to play down the play's contradictions, I think that there is at least one value discernible. The play is clearly dialectical, with many causes and claims directly challenged. 40 Falconbridge has long been read as a sceptical outsider, who has a complex relationship to the politics of Child Consent commodity he describes, and perhaps practises. 41 More recently, readings of the play as oppositional and Manual - Guide - Steps enquiring have been strengthened by feminist revaluations of Eleanor and Constance as subversive voices. T. Writing Letter? 42 Equally clearly, John's involvement in Arthur's death may be perceived as moral weakness, just as Hubert's refusal to do the deed shows moral strength. 43 None of this, however, directly undermines John's unblemished cause of resisting Pandulph. Although he is criticised for much else within the play, the only voices raised against Employee Manual - Help - Steps, John's defiance are Pandulph's and those foreign kings' loyal to him, which is only to be expected, as they are the Best Ideas On Pinterest | Cute Valentines targets of John's ire. The main reasons for the widespread critical perception of the play as modern in its politics are mentioned by Kehler and Edwards above: that John is illegitimate, that he is lacking in moral quality, and that he later gives his crown, effectively, to Employee Manual Template - Help - Steps, the Pope. Of these, the moral argument is least persuasive.
Machiavellianism does not preclude sincerity, especially with such an affective topic. Renaissance history plays often portray monarchs as complex, and attempt to Michael T. Writing Letter, manipulate audience responses via this complexity. Holinshed recognises John's faults, but does not allow them to reflect on his status as proto-Protestant martyr. William Camden, writing in 1605 of the Tudor bugbear Richard III, recognised that albeit hee lived wickedly, yet made good laws. 44 The other two points require more detailed engagement. John's submission to Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps, the Papacy at the end of the play could well have cancelled his earlier robust anti-Papalism. Through an analysis of the 25+ Egg Only On Pinterest Valentines representative strategies used for John's cession I will argue that it may not have done so. If he is not a legitimate king, then he is Employee Template - Guide - Help employing anti-Catholic rhetoric to bolster his position. He need not be shown to believe his own words.
If this were so, John's use of religious rhetoric is on a par as a cynical manipulation of Best Only language with Richard Ill's political use of witchcraft accusations in - Help, Shakespeare's play and the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. John is T. Writing Letter not illegitimate just because his opponents say he is. The challenges of Constance or the Dauphin have no particular power on Employee Manual - Guide, their own. Yet for many critics, whether or not they engage with John's modernity, it is axiomatic that John is an illegitimate king, that he is a usurper in possession of the Sample Form crown when the right lies with Arthur (and, some have added, the true kingliness with Falconbridge). 45 There are two cruces commonly adduced to support John's illegitimacy. Employee Template - Guide - Help? Both can be read differently. The first is a critical exchange in the play's first scene, where John and Eleanor discuss the implications of the French challenge just made on Arthur's behalf. 25+ Egg Card Cards,? Eleanor reproaches John for not dealing with the question sooner, as This might have been prevented and made whole/With very easy arguments of love,/Which now the Employee Manual Template - Guide manage of two kingdoms must/With fearful-bloody issue arbitrate (1.1.35-8). John replies Our strong possession and Rights | Templatezet our right for us, to which Eleanor retorts, Your strong possession much more than your right,/Or else it must go wrong with you and me./So much my conscience whispers in your ear/Which none but heaven, and you and I, shall hear (1.1.39-43). Employee Manual Template - Steps? Most critics follow Reese's conclusion that this shows that John is king de facto and possession is his only 'right' , though Edna Zwick Boris points out that Eleanor is not denying John's right but emphasising the practical aspect of Free Docs Invoice Templates his advantage over Employee Manual - Guide Arthur. 46 Nothing in Eleanor's speech indicates that John has no right, or that he is a usurper.
Eleanor's qualification of Ga Custody John's assertion merely draws attention to Employee, the relative usefulness of T. Writing Letter possession, and Employee Template - Help the military strength it brings, in Best On Pinterest Valentines, the fighting to Employee - Help, come. Given he is up against Sample Rights Complaint Form, French and other armies, it is obvious that his right alone is insufficient. The use of conscience similarly does not have to Employee Manual Template - Steps, imply a guilty recognition of the facts. Even within Shakespearian usage, the word at Ideas Only Valentines, this time could simply mean inner knowledge. 47 Eleanor does not wish others to Manual - Help - Steps, hear because a public acknowledgement of the Stat-Parenting relative uselessness of John's right is inappropriate to Employee - Steps, the dignity of Michael his court, especially just after he has been challenged by Chatillon. Her subsequent words and actions are consistent with her holding the opinion that John's legitimate rule must be buttressed with her diplomatic sense. She refers to the will of Richard I, which in Holinshed plainly entitles John to the throne, in her confrontation with Arthur's mother: I can produce/A will that bars the title of thy son (2.1.470-1). Just as the Employee - Guide fact that The Troublesome Reign is more anti-Catholic than John seems to license the claim that John is not anti-Catholic, so Eleanor's words that John's possession is more important than his right have led to the claim that he therefore has no right. The other key moment for John's illegitimacy, and for the play's exploration of the consequent instability of Civil Rights | Templatezet political legitimacy, is Falconbridge's reaction to Arthur's corpse at the end of the fourth act. Modern editors have been so sure that he accepts Arthur's claim that they have punctuated a potentially ambiguous speech so that only one interpretation is possible.
In order to suggest an alternative reading which supports John's legitimacy, I will quote from the First Folio: Bast. Template - Steps? Go, beare him in Scheduler123 Excel-Based Scheduling System, thine armes: I am amaz'd me thinkes, and Employee - Help loose my way. Among the thornes, and dangers of this world. How easie dost thou take all England vp,
From forth this morcell of | Mytemplate.co dead Royaltie? The life, the right, and truth of all this Realme. Is fled to heauen: and England now is left. To tug and scamble, and to part by th teeth. The vn-owed interest of Employee - Help - Steps proud swelling State: Now for the bare-pickt bone of Maiesty. Doth dogged warre bristle his angry crest, And snarleth in the gentle eyes of peace: Now Powers from home, and Best 25+ Egg Card | Cute discontents at home. Meet in one line: and vast confusion waites. As doth a Rauen on a sicke-falne beast,
The iminent decay of Employee Manual - Guide - Help wrested pompe. Now happy he, whose cloake and center can. Hold out this tempest. Beare away that childe, And follow me with speed: Ile to the King: A thousand businesses are briefe in hand, And heaven it selfe doth frowne vpon the Land. 48.
Editors of the recent Penguin, Oxford and Cambridge editions concur in seeing the Child Travel Consent Letter fourth line as addressed to Manual Template - Guide, Hubert, who has now picked up Arthur as Falconbridge commanded, and in punctuating the passage so that From forth . . . begins a new sentence. Child Travel Sample | Mytemplate.co? 49 The clear interpretation is Manual Template - Guide that, ironically, Hubert can lift all England as he lifts Arthur's corpse. Arthur is referred to as England at 2.1.91 and Rights Complaint 202 by Philip of France. All the - Help life, truth and right of England, which resided in Arthur, has fled (like Astraea) to T. Writing Letter, heaven, and all that remains for the country left behind is a dogfight over the remaining in bones of power. Arthur is Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps both England, and dead royalty, and with his death dies political legitimacy. 25+ Egg Ideas | Cute Cards,? No one speaks of Arthur's right more eloquently than the Template - Help - Steps Bastard son of Michael T. Writing Coeur de Lion, according to Marie Axton. 50 For others, John's illegitimacy authorises views of the play's modernity, and Falconbridge's speech marks the point where he chooses to support a king whom he has just recognised as a usurper, making his own political meaning in a world where there is no guarantor of legitimate rule. His decision to follow John must be an Manual - Help, existential one, choosing a way despite his own awareness that whatever 'rightness' he invests it with is not inherent in Travel Consent | Mytemplate.co, it. 51. It is possible, however, to read the speech differently.
If the thou of the - Guide fourth line is not Hubert, but the heaven to which Arthur's soul has presumably fled, Arthur need not be acknowledged as rightful monarch at all. Arthur's soul is imagined both as actively fleeing and Free Google Docs passively being taken up. Arthur's body, in a familiar metaphor, is a realme from Employee Manual Template - Help, which the ruler (England, as Arthur is English) has gone. Alternatively, the Sample Civil Form England that has left the body just suggests life, in conjunction with Englishness. Either way, Arthur's right is to the realm of his own body. - Guide - Help? Falconbridge then shifts to Scheduler123 Part Production System, the larger realm, also lacking a ruler, but for the different reason that powers from home, and Manual - Help - Steps discontents at home are in conflict. The crucial point is whether this realm refers both to Arthur's body and to England. A simple gesture could make clear that the reference is to Arthur's body alone. Falconbridge is critical of John, but this need not impugn his legitimacy, as the Ideas On Pinterest | Cute Valentines terms he uses recall those used by the nobles disapproving of John's recrowning in Manual - Help - Steps, 4.2. Each reference to John can be read as critical of the sumptuousness of the ceremony, and of the new clothing associated with it, much remarked on by the nobles at Stat-Parenting Plan, the time. His first reference ironically situates John's majesty as bare-pickt rather than clothed with flesh.
Proud swelling state refers back critically to the wasteful excess of the recrowning, as does wrested pomp (that is, pomp employed in the improper context of John's ceremony, rather than wrested from Arthur). The final reference ironically characterises John's clothing as simple (cloak and center) and unlikely to last the tempest of disorder in the realm. Thus, although the whole speech is clearly critical of John, and registers Arthur's loss, Falconbridge is not necessarily affirming Arthur's right to the crown. Falconbridge's words are difficult to understand, but an audience accepting John's legitimacy need not have understood him to challenge this right, and it is Manual - Guide - Steps possible to imagine a performance which makes clear that John is legitimate King. His legitimacy is further buttressed by the qualifications of Arthur's right implicit in the words and actions of those supporting it. A claim supported by a man who carries on his back the spoils of a dead Richard I is not likely to have impressed an Google Docs Invoice Templates, Elizabethan audience, even if they responded positively to Template - Help, the bemused and Ga Custody Plan passive boy who at one point states I would that I were laid low in my grave./I am not worth this coil that's made for Employee - Help me (2.1.164-5). John's legitimacy, however, raises the Card Ideas Only Valentines question of his cession of the crown to Pandulph, which happens just after the Falconbridge speech quoted above. Template - Guide - Help? If John is not legitimate king, then his act is robbed of political or constitutional authority, and is unlikely to bind his successors.
In the 1960s John Sibly pointed out that papal claims for supremacy in England utilised historical as well as spiritual arguments, and suggests that John's illegitimacy was introduced precisely to counter these arguments. He begins from the premise that technically, John was not a usurper until Arthur's death, as he could still have resigned the crown when Arthur reached his majority, and sees Falconbridge's words before the recrowning as recognising that John is now a usurper: it is Best 25+ Egg Ideas On Pinterest | Cute immediately after the 'flight to heaven' of any 'right' John may have had in Employee Template, the realm, that he 'surrenders' his crown. To an Elizabethan audience, this must very forcibly have demonstrated that John had just given up what he no right to give at all; and Pandulph had 'restored' what he had no right to Consent Letter | Mytemplate.co, receive in the first place. 52. The cession of the crown is merely an index of the current balance of power, and for Employee a Protestant audience devalues a morally bankrupt and/or illegitimate John still further. 53 If a legitimate John is Child Travel posited, the status of Manual - Help this humiliating submission, to the very man John had so strongly defied earlier, needs to Michael A Business, be addressed. The mere representation of Manual Template - Guide - Steps John's submission need not have functioned simply to condemn him, despite the commonsense appeal of A : Excel-Based Scheduling this position. The Homily Against Rebellion draws different conclusions. Here John's submission to Employee Template - Guide - Steps, Pandulph is the clearest example, in its awfulness, of the chaos into Scheduler123 Part Excel-Based System which rebellion throws the country.
The details of John's contract with the Papacy are spelt out to indicate the extremity of the situation when Englishmen [ . . . ] brought their soveraigne lorde and naturall countrey into this thraldome and subjection to a false forraigne usurper. 54 John's legitimacy emphasises the Employee Manual - Help indignity of his submission. Holinshed reproduces John's charter of submission and his words of fealtie, but does not criticise him, as he does on other matters. Part A : Excel-Based Production Scheduling System? Foxe is slightly more difficult to interpret. A paragraph of the Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps 1563 edition, omitted from the 1583 second edition, explains John's reasons for submitting as fear of the French king, and the perception that nothing else could be found to avoid the present destruction both of T. Writing Letter his person and the realm also. As a sorry subject of the sinful seat of Rome he was sure, not without shame, that being under his protection, no foreign potentate throughout the whole empire was able to subdue him.
55 The negativity of shame here may be Foxe's judgement on Manual Template - Help - Steps, John, or John's own opinion of himself. But the 1583 edition reproduces John's Letter Obligatory to the Pope, and is unequivocal in its identification of Scheduler123 A : Production Scheduling John as a hapless victim of that execrable monster and antichrist of Rome. - Help - Steps? Thus, though an audience may well have simply cathected John's earlier anti-Papalism, the reverse is not necessarily true when considering responses to his submission. The signification of John's cession of the Stat-Parenting Plan crown depended on its context, so that within a Foxean narrative it might simply indicate the Employee - Guide effectiveness of the Papacy in Card Ideas | Cute Cards, Valentines, persecuting and humbling its opponents. Manual - Steps? It is also important to recognise that John's cession of the crown in Shakespeare's play employs different dramatic strategies to his earlier confrontation, and Rights Form | Templatezet that these strategies may well have directed an audience towards a response the final result of which would be to confirm John as legitimate. The representation of English kings losing crowns on the London stage of the 1590s shows signs of having been subject to careful and subtle theatrical negotiations. Though recent critics have retreated from the once-commonplace conclusion that because the Manual - Guide 1608 quarto of Shakespeare's Richard II was the first to feature his deposition it must have been censored, there is still the possibility that the first quarto of 1597, or the play as performed, was cut, or that Richard's abdication/deposition was somehow 'unwritable' at this period. 56 This 'unrepresented' 1590s deposition can be compared to T. Writing, those represented in Shakespeare's Richard III and 3 Henry VI. The 1595 quarto of the latter presents Henry's resignation of his throne to the joint protectors Warwick and Clarence in a scene half the length of its 1623 First Folio equivalent, in which Henry accepts the arrangement so that the people of this blessed land/May not be punished with my thwarting stars (4.6.21-2).
The 1590s quarto underrepresents, rather than omits, Henry's deposition In Richard III deposition is Manual Template directly represented only in 25+ Egg Card Ideas Only Cards, Valentines, a stage direction in which Richard fights Richmond and is slain. Although the visitations Richard receives in his sleep before the battle can be argued to be a displaced representation of a deposing tribunal, to whose conclusions Richard involuntarily assents, the Employee Manual - Help death of the Form king in Manual Template - Help, this instance is underrepresented in Sample Form | Templatezet, that it is a fait accompli. 'Underrepresentation' was not the only strategy used in the history plays of the 1590s. The 1591 quarto of The Troublesome Reign of King John, which covers much of the same ground as Shakespeare's play, follows Foxe and the Homily in representing John's recrowning at Pandulph's hands. As with the two earlier texts, its principal strategy is to attempt to limit interpretation by presenting the deposition/abdication as primarily signifying John's helplessness in the face of Popish prelates' persecutions, the final wrong turning in a Troublesome Reign.
The preface identifies John as a kind of English Tamburlaine, a warlike Christian and your Countreyman; For Christs true faith indur'd he many a storme,/And set himselfe against the Man of Rome. 57 This John, as in Shakespeare's play, defies Pandulph on Manual - Help, their first meeting, and orders Falconbridge to ransack the abbeys, though The Troublesome Reign shows the action where Shakespeare only alludes to it. John recrowns himself in front of his nobles, explaining that he does this not because he has been deposed, but because he is checking the assured witnes of your loves in a ceremony to bind the nobles to him, (Troublesome Reign, 1555). The play deals with such potentially difficult moments by providing a clear cause for events, and this applies also to John's recrowning by Part A : Excel-Based Scheduling System, Pandulph. He prepares to Template - Steps, meet the legate by assessing his situation under the Papal interdict, recognising that his sins are too great for him successfully to banish Popery (though he looks forward to it happening), and resolving to finely dissemble with the Pope (2 Troublesome Reign, 275) as the realm's chaos is Civil Rights Complaint Form | Templatezet caused by Papal interference.
He ends by resolving equivocation: Dissemble thou, and whatsoere thou saist,/Yet with thy heart wish their confusion (283-4). On meeting Pandulph, John offers submission, penance, and crusade, and is rejected. His first impulse is to kill Pandulph, but he again submits, to - Guide - Help, be informed that surrendering his crown is the only acceptable course. John resolves to fight rather than do so. At that moment a messenger enters, telling that a large French fleet has put the country into mutiny. On hearing this, John's resistance collapses. He later receives his crown back as tenaunt to the Pope (637), berates himself (Shame be my share for yeelding to the Priest), and in his last speech traces this act as increasing his troubles: Since John did yeeld unto the Priest of Rome/Nor he nor his have prospred on the earth (707, 1075-6). The dramatic strategy of The Troublesome Reign is to try to 25+ Egg Card Only Valentines, contain the implications of John's submission to Manual - Help, the Pope by Child Travel Consent Sample | Mytemplate.co, inserting it into a master narrative, the course of the ancient struggle between Roman and native Christianity (Protestantism). It provides a full account of how and why John yielded, and what John perceived the consequences to have been. By this strategy, the play attempts to contain the Employee implications of John's act for posterity.
Because the Google Templates | Smartsheet causes of the deposition easily fit into the Foxean picture of the embattled proto-Protestant subverted by Papal wiles, to represent the deposition itself is Employee Template - Help - Steps not necessarily to provide a subversive undoing of John's status as proto-Protestant hero. This strategy might be called directive representation: the deposition is shown, but attempts are made to limit an audience's perception of its meaning. A third strategy is at T. Writing A Business Letter, work in Marlowe's Edward II, which was published twice during the 1590s also with a deposition/abdication scene. This third strategy might be characterised as overrepresentation, here defined as the representation of an action or event so that a conclusive meaning is difficult to draw from it. It is not clear, for example, from Edward's abdication/deposition scene why he has given up the crown, whether he has a choice, or whether he is in a fit state to Employee Manual Template - Help - Steps, understand what he is Michael doing. This ambiguity is foregrounded when Edward begins by comparing himself to a shadow now regiment is gone. 58 He then asks if he must resign his crown as Mortimer will take it, is told that it will rather pass to his son, denies this, is asked again whether he will resign, gives his crown to Leicester, takes it back just until night, is asked again for it, refuses, gives it back to protect his son's right on a reminder from Leicester, calls upon another to take it from him, hands it over, and sends a handkerchief wet with his tears to queen Isabel. The switches of intent, and the complexity of Edward's emotional state make a mockery of Winchester's bland comment in the next scene that The king hath willingly resigned his crown (5.2.28). Moreover, Edward remains alive to Employee - Steps, worry at the contradiction of his status as king without a crown or regiment. Edward's abdication/deposition is shown, but what it signifies, other than that Edward no longer has the military or emotional resources to resist, is unclear.
The deposition scene in the later quartos of Richard II works in a similar fashion. King John clearly underrepresents John's sensitive submission to Michael T. Writing A Business, the church. Where The Troublesome Reign attempts to Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps, direct attention from the Scheduler123 A : constitutional consequences by focusing on John's reasons for, and reactions to, his swearing fealty, King John takes only 65 lines (during which John also hears of the Employee Manual Template - Steps effects of Arthur's death upon the rebels) to cover the period between the first mention of the idea and Ga Custody Plan Falconbridge's rejection of it as an inglorious league. John is not shown reflecting upon his tactics before he meets Pandulph, or on the submission's consequences. Employee Manual - Guide - Steps? Although the play underrepresents this episode in comparison to Templates | Smartsheet, The Troublesome Reign, what happens is Employee Template - Guide - Steps still clear.
John states he has yielded his crown, and Pandulph gives it back, as holding of the pope/Your sovereign greatness and authority (5.1.3-4). Underrepresentation is not, however, non-representation, though Barbara Hodgdon has recently pointed out A : Production, that the play seeks to suppress precisely those events that might divide or fracture audience response. Employee Template - Guide - Help? 59 But the play can be read as recognising the Best 25+ Egg | Cute Cards, Valentines problems even in underrepresenting John's submission, and that it attempts to Manual Template - Steps, contain the negative implications of this via overrepresentation. It does not follow the Foxean strategy of presenting the recrowning with minimal comment and Child leaving the reader to - Help, point the Scheduler123 Part Excel-Based Production Scheduling System moral; rather, it makes it difficult to Employee - Steps, understand, and Letter thus subject to recuperative qualification by John's easily intelligible speeches in 3.1. Overrepresenting sensitive events and topics was common in Tudor histories.
A. Manual Template - Help - Steps? R. Braunmuller has identified dramatist and Best Card Only chronicler as sharing the - Guide - Help - Steps problem of avoiding both censorship and charges of partisanship, and as having two choices: leave out Ga Custody, causal explanations as Fabyan did, or include too many causes (Hall's 'double grace') and Employee - Guide - Help avoid choosing among them. Shakespeare and Holinshed wrote confusing texts because each believed that confusion was not sedition. 60 Braunmuller's useful formulation of the available strategies is confirmed in Holinshed's preface to the reader: I have in things doubtfull rather chosen to shew the diversitie of Letter their writings, than by over-ruling them, and using a peremptory censure, to Employee - Guide - Help - Steps, frame them to Travel Sample, agree to my liking: leaving it nevertheless to each mans judgement, to controll them as he seeth cause. 61. It is perhaps misleading to characterise historical writing as primarily concerned with avoiding sedition, rather than as attempting to Employee Manual - Guide - Help, make orthodox sense out of unpromising material. A Business Letter? Shakespeare may have attempted a different, though still orthodox, treatment of John's reign as compared to that in his sources, rather than avoided or covered up heterodoxy. In the present context, Holinshed's crucial point centres on the notion of controlling the interpretation of things doubtful. Where two straightforwardly represented events contradict one another such controll would be likely to depend heavily on extra-textual factors such as previous expectations. Employee Manual - Guide - Steps? Thus, in the case of John, an Card On Pinterest Cards,, audience might compare his submission with his defiance, and conclude that no conclusion was possible.
But if the Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps defiance was straightforward, and the submission confusing, an audience is less likely to have seen the defiance as cancelled or invalidated by the submission. Google Docs Invoice | Smartsheet? The defiance would be central to - Help - Steps, a response to the play, and the submission marginal. Though John underrepresents John's submission in comparison with other texts, the issues upon which an Child | Mytemplate.co, interpretation depend are overrepresented: the validity of a recrowning, whether John can give away his crown, and what significance such an Manual Template - Help, action has. A parallel to this dramatic strategy can be seen in another text dealing peripherally with John. Thomas Wilson, writing in 1600 of the state of Civil England, states that it is an absolute Imperiall Monarchy held neither of Pope, Emperor, nor any but of God alone, and Manual so hath bene ever since the year of the World 2855, which was 1108 years before Christ. 62 Wilson then engages with the supposed donation of Britain to the Papacy by Letter, the emperor Constantine, which he rebuts by pointing out that subsequent conquests extinguished Rome's right. The only other threat to - Help, this independent England is Free Docs Invoice | Smartsheet John's submission: after this, K John did resign the Crowne to Manual Template - Guide - Steps, Pandolphus, the Pope's legate, and did receive it againe from him, to 25+ Egg Card Only On Pinterest Valentines, hold it of the Pope, paying yearly a certain Tribute; but then is easily answered (though it be the Pops strongest clayme) that King John was but an usurper, and being distressed besides with the Barons' Warres, he was forced to do yt to have the Pope's help, but his act was never confirmed by the States of the Country and therefore frivolous.
63. This passage, written for Manual Template - Steps private circulation and not printed until 1936, stresses the constitutional importance of an engagement with John's submission, though this is not a question Holinshed, Foxe or the Homily addressed. Wilson overrepresents the Invoice Templates arguments against Papal sovereignty; John is not merely a usurper, but a distressed, enforced and - Help - Steps frivolous usurper. Google Docs Templates | Smartsheet? The tactic here is not to provide one conclusive refutation, but to produce the Manual Template - Guide impression that the cumulative force of all explanations is strong enough to show John's submission as irrelevant to the current situation. A similar process is at work in Form | Templatezet, John, whereby a variety of qualifications are introduced to make a simple interpretation of the recrowning difficult to arrive at. In the play John does not explicitly challenge Pandulph's commentary on the submission's significance, but after Pandulph has left he introduces an - Guide, odd qualification.
Remembering the prophecy that he would this day give off his crown, he comments I did suppose it should be made on constraint;/Heaven be thanked, it is but voluntary (5.1.28-9). Michael T. Writing A Business Letter? Given that one of the foci of The Homily's treatment of John's recrowning is on the indignity of the Employee Manual Template - Steps English king being forced to submit, this statement can be seen as an Free Google Invoice, attempt by John to reiterate his independence of Pandulph, so that the recrowning is a tactic, a piece of equivocation meaning nothing to John. At the least, the distinction between voluntary and involuntary uncrowning implies that this kind of Employee Template - Help - Steps recrowning is not as bad as its alternative. This muddle can be read as either denoting John's personal muddle (he has lost the crown but tries to persuade himself he hasn't) or as a piece of Michael Letter obliquity for Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps which there is Stat-Parenting Plan no clear interpretation (though the implication is that the recrowning is Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps not what Pandulph thinks it is). Falconbridge's prompt criticism of John's inglorious league (5.1.65) further confuses matters, suggesting John has made a military bargain.
In the following scene, Pandulph is shown to be unable to honour his contract with John. Lewis, whom Pandulph has encouraged to Scheduler123 Part Production Scheduling System, invade, is one of the threats John fears. Employee Manual - Help - Steps? His first words after the truncated recrowning ceremony are to Michael T. Writing A Business, enjoin Pandulph to go to meet the French/And from his holiness use all your power/To stop their marches 'fore we are inflamed (5.1.5-7). Not only is Pandulph unable to Employee - Guide - Steps, provide what John needs; he is also met with a forceful declaration of Letter Sample royal independence of the Papacy: I am too highborn to Template, be propertied,/To be a secondary at control,/Or useful serving-man and instrument/To any sovereign state throughout the world/[ . . . ] must I back/Because that John hath made his peace with Rome?/Am I Rome's slave? (5.2.79-82, 95-7). Thus, although Pandulph clearly presents the recrowning as signifying John's subservience to Sample Civil Complaint Form, the Pope, it is followed by Manual - Steps, an obscure distinction drawn by John, Falconbridge's perception that a purely political league has been made, and Lewis' declaration that he (and by implication, John) is royal and thus nobody's slave. Later, in braving Lewis, Falconbridge stresses that John's submission was voluntary, referring to Pandulph as this halting legate here/Whom he hath us'd rather for sport than need (5.2.174-5). King John can thus be seen to use the same tactics as Wilson's State, presenting several arguments against the seriousness of John's recrowning, which have a cumulative as well as an individual effect. It might even be said that much of the last third of the play is constructed to contradict Pandulph's claims of the significance of the recrowning, for only two scenes before John receives the crown back from Pandulph, he recrowns himself, and is criticised for so doing. In Act 4 John enters once again crowned (4.2.1). Though his nobles defer to John's right to do as he likes, the ceremony is presented, in the words of Child Travel Consent | Mytemplate.co Pembroke as superfluous: you were crowned before/And that high royalty was ne'er plucked off,/The faiths of men ne'er stained with revolt/Fresh expectation troubled not the land/With any longed-for change or better state (4.2.4-8). Salisbury is more blunt, stating Therefore, to be possessed with double pomp,/To guard a title that was rich before,/To gild refined gold, to paint the Employee Manual Template - Help - Steps lily/[ . . . ] or with taper-light/To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish,/Is wasteful and ridiculous excess (4.2.9-11, 14-16).
The nobles' criticisms emphasise John's sumptuous excess, as well as his political overcompensating: In this the antique and well-noted face/Of plain old form is disfigured, so new a fashion'd robe startles and frights consideration (4.2.21-22, 27, 25). The physical excess of John's coronation will later be criticised in the Bastard's soliloquy over Arthur's corpse. But just as prominent are the Scheduler123 Scheduling political arguments. John's new coronation cannot strengthen his title, as that was already refined gold. He is trying to Template - Steps, increase the light of the Stat-Parenting Plan sun (himself) with a candle. Employee Template - Guide? Pembroke implies that the ceremony of recrowning might have some point in the context of Only On Pinterest Valentines a domestic rebellion as a reassertion of the proper relationship between king and nobles, but this does not validate the later recrowning, as no nobles are present.
The overall impression is that as John is legitimate, he cannot make himself more or less legitimate with ceremonies; that a recrowning can be a political miscalculation; and Employee Template that such a ceremony does not materially alter John's supremacy. Ideas Only Cards, Valentines? The five lines exchanged between Pandulph and John two scenes later must be read in this context. The play's overrepresentation of the issues surrounding John's recrowning works in tandem with the actual recrowning's underrepresentation. The play gives little space to this traumatic event, but contextualises it so as to suggest that, whatever it is, is not a cession of sovereignty to the Pope by the Moses of the Reformation. A post-Armada audience interpreting King John would undoubtedly have had to controll and reconcile the anti-Papal John with the submissive John, and to negotiate the play's contestations of his authority. Employee Manual - Steps? However, the Child Sample | Mytemplate.co text does allow a construction of Employee - Guide - Help - Steps John as legitimate monarch, and thus sincere in his anti-Catholicism.
This presentation of Ideas Only John would also have accorded with those in Holinshed, Foxe, the Employee Manual Homily and Scheduler123 Part Production The Troublesome Reign, and would not have offended contemporary anti-Spanish or anti-Catholic nationalism. The model offered by critics identifying the Manual play as modern, in contrast, situates the play as against the grain of most influential historical accounts, the predominant war fever of the theatrical repertory, and the likely mood of wartime London. At such a time, a play's religious politics are likely to be powerfully inflected towards orthodoxy in at least the most uncontroversial of areas: John's legitimacy as an opponent of the Civil Form | Templatezet Papacy. To recognise this historical reading as possible, perhaps even likely, goes against the grain of post-Tillyard approaches to the history plays, which David Womersley characterises by critics' unwillingness to Employee Template - Guide - Steps, believe that Shakespeare might have written in Part Excel-Based Production Scheduling, support of Template - Help doctrines they find repugnant or risible and a consequent locating of a remarkable dramatic complexity 64 in the plays. The reinvention of the history plays described from a different perspective by Womersley and Curren-Aquino has helped to continue Shakespeare's dominance of the Renaissance canon as continually relevant politically, something which happens surprisingly frequently by the traditional critical/polemical tactic of Michael T. Writing A Business Letter presenting Shakespeare, or his texts, as rising above the simplicity and polemic of Employee Template contemporary sources. Complaint | Templatezet? I have attempted to Employee Manual Template - Steps, show how it is possible to read King John as irrelevant to modern political concerns, and that in at Best Card, least one important respect Shakespeare is not our ambivalent, ambiguous, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive contemporary. 1 Deborah Curren-Aquino, King John: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Garland, 1994), p. xxvi.
2 Sigurd Burckhardt, King John: The Ordering of this Present Time, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. 133. 3 Burckhardt, 134; Virginia Vaughan, King John: A Study in Subversion and Containment, in Employee Manual, King John; New Perspectives, ed. Deborah Curren-Aquino (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1989), p. 62. 4 Phyllis Rackin, Stages of History: Shakespeare's English Chronicles (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 66. 5 Larry Champion, The Noise of Threatening Drum: Dramatic Strategy and Political Ideology in Shakespeare and the English Chronicle Plays (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1990), p. 98.
6 Guy Hamel, King John and The Troublesome Reign: A Reexamination, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 54. 7 Stephen Greenblatt, Invisible Bullets, in Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism, ed. Jonathan Dollimore and Free Google Docs Invoice Alan Sinfield (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1985), p. 29; King John, ed. Robert Smallwood (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 12. 8 David Aers, A Whisper in the Ear of Early Modernists, Culture and Manual - Steps History 1350-1600: Essays on Card Ideas Valentines, English Communities, Identities and Writing, ed.
David Aers (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), pp. 195-6. 9 E.M.W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London, 1944; repr. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), p. 220; see also M.M. Reese, The Cease of Majesty (London: Arnold, 1961), p. 270; Irving Ribner, The English History Play in Manual Template - Help - Steps, the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957: rev. edn, London: Methuen, 1965), pp.
121-2; David Bevington, Tudor Drama and Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1968), p. 200. 10 This argument is Travel Consent Letter | Mytemplate.co developed thoroughly in Deborah Kehler, 'So Jest With Heaven': Deity in King John, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 101. 11 King John ed E.A.J. Honigmann (London: Methuen, 1954), 3.1.75-86. Unless otherwise specified all references to Shakespeare's plays are from the Template - Help - Steps Arden editions. 12 Lily Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Publications, 1947;3rd edn, London: Methuen, 1964), p. 154. 13 C.W.
Heiatt, Dating King John, NQ, xxxv (1988), p. 463 dates the T. Writing play to 1593/4; Roslyn Knutson, The Repertory of Shakespeare's Company 1594-1613 (Fayetteville: Arkansas UP, 1991), p. 75 suggests 1596-97; L.A. Employee Manual - Help? Beaurline's edition of Child Sample | Mytemplate.co King John (Cambridge UP, 1990), p. 210 plumps for 1590; A.R. Braunmuller's edition (Oxford UP, 1989), p. 15 chooses 1595-96; Smallwood, p. 10 also supports 1593/4, and Honigmann, p. lviii 1590/1. 14 Carol Wiener, The Beleagured Isle: A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism, Past Present, LV (1971), pp. 52-3; R.B. Wernham, After the Armada (Oxford: OUP, 1984), pp. 453-60. 15 David Cressy, Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and Employee - Steps the Protestant Calendar in Elizabethan and Stuart England (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1989), p. 119. 16 Peter Clark, A Crisis Contained? The Condition of English Towns in the 1590s, in The European Crisis of the Stat-Parenting Plan 1590s ed. Peter Clark (London: Allen Unwin, 1985), p. 55.
18 R.B. Outhwaite, Dearth, the English Crown and the 'Crisis of the 1590s', in Clark (1985), p. 25; Henry Knyvett, The Defence of the Realm (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906). 19 A. Pritchard, Catholic Loyalism in Elizabethan England (London: Scolar Press, 1979), pp. 6-8, 12. 20 T.E. Hartley, Elizabeth's Parliaments: Queen, Lords and Commons 1559-1601 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1992), pp. Template - Guide? 98-101.
21 Donna Hamilton, Shakespeare and the Poetics of Protestant England (Lexington: Kentucky UP, 1992), p. 4. 22 Peter Lake, Moderate Puritans and Form the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982), p. Manual - Help - Steps? 6. 23 See Carole Levin, Propaganda in the English Reformation: Heroic and Villainous Images of King John (Lewiston/Queenston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988). 24 Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, Vol. II (London, 1807; repr.
New York: AMS Press, 1965), pp. 339, 319. 25 Certain Sermons or Homilies (1547) and A Homily Against Disobedience And Wilful Rebellion (1570): A Critical Edition, ed. Ronald Bond (Toronto and Card | Cute Cards, London: Toronto UP, 1987), p. Employee? 243. 26 Wernham, p. 555. 27 Andrew Gurr, Play going in Child Consent Letter | Mytemplate.co, Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), p. 135. 28 Bevington, p. 195.
29 Rackin, p. 187. 31 Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1972), p. 88. 32 John Blanpied, Time and the Artist in - Guide - Help, Shakespeare's English Histories (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1983), pp. 100-101. See also William Hawley, Critical Hermeneutics and Shakespeare's History Plays (New York and Civil Form | Templatezet Bern: Lang, 1992), p. 70. 33 Vaughan, 1989, p. 70; see also James Bryant's odd conclusion that John's antipapal remarks can be seen [ . . . Manual - Guide - Steps? ] not as being derogatory to Sample Civil Form | Templatezet, the Roman Catholic Church but as an expression of the Reformation position, Tudor Drama and Religious Controversy (Macon, GA: Mercer UP, 1984), p. 133. 34 Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, ed. Geoffrey Bullough (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1962), Vol.
IV, p. 22. 35 For the former stance, in addition to Bullough, Reece and Ornstein cited above, see Marie Axton, The Queen's Two Bodies: Drama and the Elizabethan Succession (London: Royal Historical Society, 1977), p. 108; Philip Edwards, Threshold of a Nation (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979), p. 115, and Bevington, p. 198. For the latter position, see Hawley, p. Employee Manual - Guide? 70; Champion, p. 96; Hamel, p. 55. 36 Kehler, p. 103; see also Edward Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's English Histories (Charlottesville: Virginia UP, 1975), p. 115. 37 Reese, p. Scheduler123 A : Production System? 275; Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), p. 239. 38 Champion, p. 96. 39 Rackin, p. 184; David Womersley, The Politics of Shakespeare's King John, RES, XI (1989), p. 502. See also Robert Jones, Those Valiant Dead: Renewing the Past in Shakespeare's Histories (Iowa City: Iowa UP, 1991), p. 60 and Beaurline, p. 51. 40 Douglas Wixson, 'Calm words folded up in smoke': Propaganda and Employee Spectator Response in Shakespeare's King John, Shakespeare Studies, 14 (1981), pp. 111-27 and Michael Manheim, The Weak King Dilemma in the Shakespearian History Play (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1973), pp. 116-60.
41 Since at least James Calderwood's Commodity and Honour in King John, UTQ, XXIX (1960), pp. 341-56. 42 Juliet Dusinberre, King John and embarrassing women, Shakespeare Survey, 43 (1989), pp. 37-52; Carole Levin, 'I trust I may not trust thee': Women's Visions of the World in Shakespeare's King John, in Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. Carole Levin and J. Sample Civil Rights Complaint Form | Templatezet? Watson (Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1987), pp. 219-34; Rackin, pp.
146-200. 43 A topic of interest since at least Adrien Bonjour's The Road to Swinstead Abbey: A Study of the Sense and Manual Template - Steps Structure of King John, ELH, XVIII (1951), pp. 253-74. 44 William Camden, Remains Concerning Britain, ed. R. Free Docs Invoice | Smartsheet? Dunn (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1984), p. 246. 45 See John Elliott, Shakespeare and the Double Image of King John, Shakespeare Studies, I (1965), p. Employee Manual Template? 72; R Burkhart, Obedience and Rebellion in Shakespeare's Early History Plays, English Studies, LV (1971); Kristian Smidt, Unconformities in Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Macmillan, 1982), p. Ga Custody? 73; John Loftis, Renaissance Drama in Employee, England and Spain (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987), p. Stat-Parenting Plan? 74; Bonjour, p. 257; Reese, p. 263; Manheim, p. 131; Edwards, p. 115, Levin, 1987, p. 221; Hamilton, p. 43; Berry, p. 115; Bevington, p. 243; Honigmann, p. xxvii; Beaurline, p. 47; Hawley, p. 64; Hodgdon, p. 27; Robert Jones, p. 48; Rackin, p. 162; Kehler, p. Manual Template - Guide - Help? 103; Dusinberre, p. 44. 46 Reese, p. Ga Custody Stat-Parenting Plan? 272; Edna Zwick Boris, Shakespeare's English Kings, the Manual People and the Law (London: Associated Press, 1978), p. 133.
48 Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies, facsimile prepared by Michael T. Writing, H. Kokeritz (New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1954), pp. 17-18. 49 Honigmann's Arden edition is closest to the First Folio, substituting an exclamation mark for its question mark; his notes indicate that the 'England' of the fourth line refers to both Arthur and the country. 51 Robert Jones, p. Template - Guide - Help - Steps? 60; see also Womersley, p. Part Excel-Based Production System? 502 and Smallwood, p. 38. 52 John Sibly, The Anomalous case of King John, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. 421. 53 Emrys Jones, p. 256; Robert Jones, p. Manual - Guide? 57; Calderwood, p. 97; Bonjour, p. Part A : Excel-Based? 264; Champion, p. 92. 55 Acts and Monuments, Vol. II (London: Seeley Burnside Seeley, 1843), p. 332.
I have checked that this passage is not present in the 1583 edition. 56 J. Leeds Barroll, A New History for Shakespeare and Template - Help - Steps His Time, SQ, XXIX (1988), pp. 441-64. 57 The Troublesome Reign of Free Invoice Templates | Smartsheet King John, ed. Bullough, To the Gentlemen Readers, p. 72.
All quotations from The Troublesome Reign are from this edition. 58 Edward the Second, ed. W Moelwyn Merchant (London: Benn, 1967), 5.1.26. 59 Hodgdon, p. 30. 60 A.R. Braunmuller, King John and Historiography, ELH, LV (1988), p. 318. 61 Holinshed, Preface to the Reader. [Chronicles, Vol. Employee Manual - Steps? II]. 62 Thomas Wilson, The State of England Anno Dom 1600, ed. F. Fisher, Camden Miscellany, XVI (London, 1936), p. Civil | Templatezet? 1.
64 Womersley, p. - Guide - Help - Steps? 499. Source: The Limits of Plan Modernity in Shakespeare's King John, in Shakespeare and History, edited by Holger Klein and Rowland Wymer, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996, pp. 91-118.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to Employee Template highlight only the accomplishments and Michael T. Writing A Business skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of - Guide, your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about Stat-Parenting what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.
Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help! Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of Michael, this as your brag file . 3. Manual Template - Guide! Put the Civil Rights Form | Templatezet, Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the Template, fold” refers to what you see on the front half of Sample Civil Form | Templatezet, a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of Employee Manual, a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for Travel Letter Sample, someone to keep on reading.
So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to Employee Manual - Guide get your resume noticed . Ga Custody Stat-Parenting Plan! According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. Employee Manual! In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the Card Ideas, rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of Employee Manual Template, different ways to Sample Civil Complaint Form organize the information on your resume, but the Template, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding.
The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and Ga Custody Stat-Parenting Plan credentials to showcase on Employee Manual Template more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the Part Excel-Based Scheduling System, same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to Employee Manual - Help see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Civil Rights | Templatezet! Can’t figure out Template - Help - Steps, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the Ideas Only On Pinterest | Cute Valentines, most important details on Employee Template - Guide that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into Best 25+ Egg Card Ideas Only | Cute Cards, what makes you the ideal candidate. Employee - Guide - Steps! We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute.
But the most basic principle of Michael T. Writing A Business Letter, good resume formatting and Employee - Help - Steps design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on Stat-Parenting Plan the page. Manual - Steps! You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and Sample Rights | Templatezet the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent.
Your main focus here should be on readability for Manual Template, the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out Rights Complaint Form | Templatezet, from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and Manual Template - Help - Steps whistles so the Best Card Ideas Cards,, computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to Employee Template - Steps put in the time, creativity, and Michael T. Writing A Business design work to Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps make it awesome.
10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in Free Google Templates | Smartsheet, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant.
As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into Manual - Help - Steps more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). Child Travel Consent Sample | Mytemplate.co! 14. Employee - Guide! No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the Plan, bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on Manual - Steps your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to Sample Rights Complaint pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for - Guide - Help, the job.
No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the Ga Custody Plan, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in Manual Template - Help - Steps, tons of Plan, industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to Employee Template - Help be understandable to the average person. Remember that the Child Consent Letter Sample | Mytemplate.co, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps be sure that it is Stat-Parenting Plan, readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points.
How many people were impacted by Employee - Guide - Help, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to Stat-Parenting Plan picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the Employee Manual, benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only Scheduler123 Production Scheduling System, what you’re capable of, but also the Manual - Guide - Help - Steps, direct benefit the Letter | Mytemplate.co, employer will receive by Manual - Steps, hiring you. 25+ Egg Ideas On Pinterest Cards, Valentines! If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for Employee - Steps, turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in 25+ Egg Card Ideas Only | Cute Cards,, your bullet points without actually saying them.
Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps, same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the Michael A Business Letter, result you’re going for! 20. Manual - Help! Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in Ga Custody, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly.
Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is - Guide - Help, this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to Child Travel include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are.
24. Experience First, Education Second. Manual - Guide - Help - Steps! Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of Invoice Templates | Smartsheet, jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.
But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28.
Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in Employee Manual - Guide - Steps, them can actually show your determination and motivation to Consent Letter Sample | Mytemplate.co get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out Employee - Guide, all the relevant skills you have for Scheduler123, a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.
If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and Employee Template - Guide - Help leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Letter Sample! Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Template - Guide! Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an Child Travel Consent, “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company?
Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on Employee Template the reg. Stat-Parenting Plan! Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.
Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the Manual - Help, cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to A Business include them or not. Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps! Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Sample Civil Complaint Form! Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for - Help, having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the Best Card On Pinterest | Cute Cards,, proper ways to include them. - Help! Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for Michael T. Writing A Business Letter, only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume.
According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. Manual Template - Guide - Help! If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to Child Travel Letter each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the - Guide, reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for A Business Letter, a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for Manual Template - Guide - Help, killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously.
39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is Consent | Mytemplate.co, free and - Guide clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and Free Google Templates | Smartsheet grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at Employee - Help - Steps, it for Civil Form, you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to Manual always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on Part Excel-Based his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Manual Template Word, and Michael T. Writing A Business then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take.
Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and Employee Manual Template - Steps make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.
And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of T. Writing A Business, good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Manual - Guide! Erin Greenawald is Complaint | Templatezet, a freelance writer, editor, and Template - Guide - Steps content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. 25+ Egg Only | Cute! If you’re an individual or company looking for Employee Manual - Guide - Steps, help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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covention law essay The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms is a treaty signed in 1950 by the then members of the Council of Europe. In this way, it predates the Euopean Communities and Union and arises from a quite different organisation. The two are linked, however, in Manual Template - Steps that adherence to the Convention is now effectively a condition of membership of the EU. Additionally, the European Court of Justice refers to the Convention which influences its decisions, even though the EU is not a member of the Convention. Note that the European Court of Human Rights (described below) is Free Google Docs, not the Template - Guide - Help, same as the European Court of Justice. The judges are different and one sits in Starsbourg, the other on Luxembourg. Click here to Civil Complaint Form | Templatezet see the full text of the European Convention on Employee Manual Template - Guide - Steps, Human Rights. The UK was a founding member of the Convention and was very influential in its design. Sample Civil Rights Complaint Form | Templatezet? It was amongst the first states to ratify the treaty. It has allowed individuals to make complaints to the European Commission on Human Rights since 1966.
The influence of the Employee Template - Help, Convention has been growing in the UK in the past decade or so. This is partly because the European Court of Human Rights has become a more energetic body. But, more funadamentally, there has been a strong lobby within the UK for a written bill (statement) of rights, and the Convention is seen as a ready made document for these purpose. This idea has been adopted as the policy of the Labour Government in 1997. Its ideas are set out in a White Paper issued in October 1997, Rights Brought Home: The Human Rights Bill , (CM 3782, London: HMSO) and Ga Custody Stat-Parenting, then the Human Rights Bill (as introduced in Manual Template - Help - Steps the House of Lords on 23 October 1997) now passing through Parliament and which is Ga Custody Stat-Parenting, likely to come into force sometime in 1999 or perhaps 2000. The idea of citizens having rights in UK law did not begin with the Human Rights Bill. The recognition of rights in Employee - Guide - Help - Steps English law does have an ancient history going back to T. Writing A Business statements such as Magna Carta 1215-95 and Manual Template, Bill of A : System, Rights of 1689. See the full text of Magna Carta 1215-95 in Employee Manual Template - Help the following web sites: The judges have also recognised various broad common law principles, such as the Scheduler123 Part A : Excel-Based Scheduling, right to liberty as recognised in Christie v Leachinsky  AC 573. (This case will be available in full soon). However, these pages will concentrate on the future rather than the past as represented by Employee Manual Template the Human Rights Bill and the Convention on which it is A Business Letter, based.
Convention history and rationale The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms is the most important instrument of international law to emanate from the Council of Manual - Help - Steps, Europe. Both the Council and the Convention itself were developments in reaction to the past horrific experiences of the Second World War and were an attempt to avert any future spectre of totalitarianism in Western Europe. The Council convened in 1948, and the Convention was drafted in 1949. A major precursor was the United Nation#146;s United Declaration of Human Rights which had been adopted in 1948, but English civil servants, reflecting English common law perceptions of rights, were also highly influential (reflected in rue Ernest Bevin). The Convention was finalised in 1950, with the UK as an original signatory and ratifying state in 1951.
It came into force in 1953. Ga Custody Plan? The rights contained in the Convention are civil and political rights, though there is a separate Social and Economic Charter of 1961. Since 1953, the Employee Manual - Guide - Steps, Convention has experienced phenomenal growth in its stature in at least three respects. First, the T. Writing Letter, substantive rights have been augmented by a number of Protocols. Second, the number of states adhering to the Convention has grown, especially in recent years with the Employee - Guide - Help, accession of many Eastern European states (23 in 1989 to 25+ Egg Only On Pinterest 40 in 1997). Thirdly, the amount of business has increased enormously because of gradual increase in the recognition and reliance upon the exceptional right of Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps, individual petition - the fact that individual persons and not just governments can bring complaints. This was granted to British citizens in 1966. The rights and freedoms contained in the Convention The Convention contains both substantive and procedural rights. It has been argued that the Convention bodies have been more sure-footed when dealing with procedure, and it is Invoice Templates | Smartsheet, certainly true that matters of substantive decision are often avoided by reference to the concept of - Guide - Help, margin of appreciation by Ga Custody Stat-Parenting which the Convention adjudicators defer to the greater knowledge and experience of Template - Guide - Help, domestic decision-makers arising from their direct and continuous contact with the Civil Rights, vital forces of their countries.
It is the national authorities who are expected to Manual - Guide - Help be the prime protectors and overseers of human rights, and it has been emphasised by the Court of Human Rights that the appropriate standard by which to judge compliance with the Convention is akin to that in English law judicial review. In other words, the Convention does not act as a de novo appeal but assesses legality. Other reasons why one can exaggerate both the actual and potential impact of the Convention on English law include the following reasons. The Convention was drafted as a lowest common denominator of rights observance within Western Europe, and so its standards were set at a deliberately modest level so as to encourage compliance and avoidance of clashes with Contracting States jealous of their sovereignty. Part A : Excel-Based Scheduling? In addition, the substantive rights in the Convention are for the most part akin to, or even expressly based on, rights recognised impliedly or expressly in English common law. Those mainly relevant to criminal justice matters are Article 5 (liberty), Article 6 (procedural fairness), Article 8 (Privacy) and Manual - Guide - Help, Article 10 (free expression). At the same time, the Stat-Parenting Plan, potential for invocation of the Convention is tremendous, especially as the adjudicative agencies adopt a teleological and Manual - Help - Steps, dynamic approach in order to realise the fundamental objects and purposes of the Google Invoice, Convention in a changing world, namely the protection of individual human rights and the promotion of pluralistic democracy. Accordingly, the Court will demand that national laws be in line with, and proportionate to, these objects, and it has adopted an autonomous jurisprudence as to the interpretation of the Convention which does not simply borrow from Manual - Help - Steps national viewpoints. Convention applicants It is a requirement of Article 1 of the Convention that Contracting Parties shall secure enjoyment of the rights and freedoms.
Where deficiencies are perceived, there are two sources of petitions of complaint under the European Convention. The first source is inter-state applications. Governments are the traditional parties in international human rights law, and the idea of an inter-state application under Article 24 is to raise repeated and widespread, almost endemic, state-sponsored abuses of rights. One such was brought by the Irish Republic against the UK in respect of the treatment of detainees in Northern Ireland in 1971. The second, innovative source, petitions by individual persons under Article 25, has produced a far greater volume of relevant case-law and has achieved for the Convention a degree of immediacy and relevance not rivalled by the vast bulk of other international laws. As far as the UK is Rights Complaint, concerned, individual petition has been recognised since 1966 and is renewed every five years (the current recognition period commenced in January 1996).
Applicants may be natural persons (whether citizens or not), corporations or organisations or interest groups, but in all cases the applicant must be a victim, so actions cannot be brought in abstracto or on behalf of others. Convention respondents The application must be brought against a Contracting Party, in other words, a national government. Employee Manual? It is clear that state responsibility will extend to agencies, bodies or persons acting with the authority of the state (such as the police). It is more difficult to determine precisely how far state liability may extend for the infringements of rights by other private persons. By reference to Rights Form Articles 1 and Employee - Guide - Help, 13 (which requires Contracting Parties to T. Writing A Business Letter provide an effective remedy under national law for claims under the Convention), it is established that the national state must provide a satisfactory legal framework, in other words, one which allows Convention rights to be secured but in a way which is proportionate and Manual - Guide - Steps, consistent with other Convention rights. For example, states have been held to be in breach where laws did not allow for Plan the prosecution of a sexual assault on a mental patient, or where in practice the free speech of Employee Manual - Guide - Help, demonstrators and policing action against disruptive and | Cute Cards,, violent counter-demonstrators were inadequate.
PROCEDURES UNDER THE CONVENTION. (subject to reform in November 1998) Convention procedures - the Commission Any petition is first considered by the Commission of Employee - Guide - Help - Steps, Human Rights, consisting of one member for Free Templates each Contracting Party, elected by the Committee of Employee Manual Template - Help, Ministers. It may sit in Child Travel Consent plenary session, in chambers or in smaller committees. The first stage of the process is to consider admissibility under Articles 26 and 27.
Most cases fail to pass these filters on the grounds of. non-exhaustion of - Help, domestic remedies, delay (involving more than six months since the final domestic decision), anonymityof the complainant, repetition of issues already ruled upon, incompatibility with the terms of the Convention or being manifestly ill-founded. There is no form of appeal to the Court against Scheduling rejection on any of these grounds. Template - Guide? For the relatively few cases found to be admissible (about 20%), the Commission next seeks to ascertain the facts, and consideration is then given to whether a friendly settlement can be arranged between the parties (Article 28). Sample Complaint Form? If not arranged, the Manual - Guide - Help - Steps, Commission draws up a report to Letter the Committee of Manual, Ministers which delineates the facts and states its opinion as to the application of the Scheduler123 System, (Convention) law (Article 31). The Commission can further decide to refer the matter to Manual Template the Court; the state against Travel Sample whom the complaint was made, or whose citizen has made a complaint or which has made itself an inter-state complaint can also choose to refer the matter to the Court (Article 44). But individual applicants from the UK cannot directly demand a Court hearing, and cases involving sensitive political issues may not always be referred but go instead to Template - Guide the Committee of Ministers. Convention procedures - the Court The judges of the Court, which commenced work in 1959, may sit in a plenary Grand Chamber or, more usually now, in chambers of Child Consent Letter, nine judges (Article 43). Proceedings involve both the submission of written memorials (including possibly amicus curiae briefs) as well as oral submissions by both applicant and Employee Manual - Help, government, as well as a delegate from the Commission. The final judgement under Article 51 is given often after a considerable period of delay for consideration.
The Court is not bound by its own precedents, though it has stated that it will usually follow them in the interests of Plan, certainty and so judgements do invariably refer to the considerable body of previous decisions, both of the Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps, Court itself and of the Commission. The body of a judgement cannot be divided into ratio decidendi and obiter dicta; all statements, whether general or specific, are significant both for the instant case and for future litigation. Stat-Parenting? The Court can demand the Manual - Guide - Steps, payment of just compensation to the applicant - anywhere up to about ?50,000 (Article 50). It is also common for a successful applicant to be awarded costs and expenses. However, enforcement and Google Invoice Templates | Smartsheet, wider reforms to bring domestic law into line with Convention requirements as interpreted by the Court (or the Commission) are concerns for the Committee of Ministers to which the judgement is transmitted (Article 53). Convention procedures - the Committee of Ministers The Committee supervises judgements of the Court (Article 54). In addition, admissible cases which are not referred to the Court are adjudicated upon by the Committee itself (Article 32). Template - Help? In this way, the ultimate enforcement of the Convention resides with the traditional arena of high diplomacy, which can lead to disappointment for the individual applicant whose cause may be lost in Ga Custody the generality of political horse-trading. Convention procedures - remedies As far as the United Kingdom is Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help, concerned, the judgements and decisions of the Convention bodies are essentially declaratory of international law. They cannot directly affect the domestic status of municipal laws or decisions under them. However, the United Kingdom Government, as a Contracting State wishing to Civil Complaint Form | Templatezet remain a party to the Convention, has invariably responded to Manual - Guide - Help adverse decisions and awards, though not always as expected or with alacrity.
Convention procedures - comment As should already be evident from the foregoing description, the Best 25+ Egg Card Only, working of Convention procedures are often cumbersome and politically influenced and consequently slow and liable to take unexpected turns. For a case to pass from application to Court judgement, a time lag of five years is common, the early part of which will barely be covered by legal aid. Employee Manual - Help - Steps? In addition, there is the added considerable inconvenience that the proceedings take place in Strasbourg. Some of these problems will be alleviated later in 1998 when Protocol 11 comes into Travel Consent Sample, force. This drops the Commission and Committee of Ministers from the process and allows access direct to the Court, though with the same two levels of decisions as to admissibility (3 judges and final decisions (7 or 17 judges) but with possible appeal to the latter Grand Chamber. Convention impact in the UK Despite these difficulties, there have been about Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps, two dozen cases from the UK to the European Court of Human Rights and adverse judgments have prompted some profound changes in law. Here are some recent examples through the European Court of Human Rights and these include the full list of cases before the European Court of Human Rights starting from 1996 up until now: [The cases in bold are the most interesting ones so far and it may help the readers to choose which of these cases to examine!] Overall Britain has had quite a large number of applications and adverse decisions. But contrary to some rumours, the rate of violation found by the Court is not wildly out of line with other countries of a similar population size (slightly better than France, much better than Italy, much worse than Germany). And account must also be taken of the fact that almost all the other countries - France, Germany, Italy - have constitutional courts which can often avoid the washing of dirty linen in Strasbourg. Applications in 1994 to.
References to E Ct HR 1960-97. Adverse judgments of E Ct HR. English law and the European Convention. Relationships with UK law up to present As an T. Writing A Business instrument of international law, the Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help, Convention was not per se directly part of UK law. It had not been enacted by the UK Parliament in Best Ideas On Pinterest Cards, the same way as, say, the Treaty of - Help, Rome 1957 was reflected in the European Communities Act 1972. Part A : Scheduling? Nevertheless, even before the Human Rights Bill, the Convention has affected UK law in a number of Manual - Help, ways. First it provides a spur to Part A : Excel-Based Production Scheduling System legislation. In order to comply with its international obligations, the UK government must attempt to secure legislative reform whenever it is found to be in breach or a potential breach is looming. Legislation prompted by the European Convention, at least in part, includes, for example, the Employee Template - Guide - Steps, Contempt of Court Act 1981.
Next, the Convention is considered by the courts. With regard to Rights Form | Templatezet statutes, the English courts, adopting the rule of construction that Parliament does not intend to legislate contrary to UK international law, have stated that the requirements of the Convention ought to Manual - Help be considered by Part A : Production System them, though this applies only where English statute law is unsettled or ambiguous or is directly seeking to implement Convention requirements. The position in regard to common law is perhaps more difficult to predict and may depend to some extent on judicial taste. In Derbyshire County Council v Times Newspapers , the House of Lords concluded that the Convention had no relevance to the interpretation of the common law libel rules as to Employee Template - Guide whether local corporations could bring an action, in contrast to the reverse stance taken in the same case in the Court of Appeal. It is more widely accepted that clear and settled common law should not be overturned on the basis of the Convention. Another path for infiltration is that the Convention is an Michael Letter accepted principle of European Community law, so it must be considered in all cases where Community law is being interpreted or applied. Relationships with UK law in the future The Labour Government#146;s election manifesto for the May 1997 campaign gave a firm commitment to Manual Template incorporate by statute the Ga Custody Stat-Parenting Plan, European Convention into UK law.
This commitment reflects a party consultation paper, Bringing Rights Home , which had been issued in December 1996. We now have the details of these proposals in Template - Guide the White Paper, Rights Brought Home , and in the Human Rights Bill 1997-98. The following are the main features of the proposed legislation with some comments and analysis on what is said and what is not said. (See also the House of Commons, Library Research Papers, The Human Rights Bill [HL], Bill 119 of 1997/98, No: 98/24, February 1998.) (a) The central feature is the indirect incorporation of the | Cute Valentines, European Convention into UK law. But this immediately raises questions as to what parts of the Convention are incorporated and who they apply to. The parts of the Convention covered are (by clause 1 and Schedule 1) Articles 1 to 12, and the Bill also requires regard to the decisions of the Court, Commission and Council on Employee Manual - Steps, these provisions (clause 2). However, Article 13 is not included and this may be a significant omission. It requires states to provide effective remedies for Convention rights in their national laws. Its exclusion suggests that it is not intended that the Bill should be used by the judges as the basis for major legal surgery; they are to be confined to Part Scheduling cl.8 remedies but not the Manual - Guide - Help - Steps, invention of wholly new causes of action or legal doctrines. Conversely, Article 15 is included. This allows a state to derogate from its obligations to respect rights.
This is Michael A Business Letter, currently in use in Northern Ireland to allow the detention of terrorist suspects for 7 days without any judicial authorisation as authorised by the Prevention of Terrorism Act. This will continue, and the existing derogation is recognised (under clause 14 and Template - Steps, Schedule 2) for Civil Complaint 5 years. (b) The Bill is to apply to public authorities and it becomes unlawful for them to act in Manual - Help - Steps a way which is incompatible with the Convention (clause 6). There is a wide definition of public authority - it includes local and central government, authorities exercising public functions (this could include utilities companies) and Travel, also the Employee Template - Steps, courts. An amendment in the House of Lords excludes bodies or courts acting in accord with religious doctrines (unless they contravene the criminal law) eg cl.2(4), 6(5), 7(8).
There has also been a lot of debate about the Press Complaints Commission but it is in, subject to a proposed clause emphasising freedom of speech. Parliament (except the Appellate Committee of the Ga Custody Stat-Parenting, House of Template - Steps, Lords) is expressly not part of the definition of public authority. Parliament can choose to Part Excel-Based Production System override or disregard rights as it so wishes. And the Employee Manual, public authority is excused if it could not act any other way because of clear primary legislation. (c) As for Plan the courts, the Employee Manual - Help, Bill means that the interpretation and development of common law and the interpretation of statutes especially must take the Convention into account according to clause 2. It becomes a relevant consideration even in Plan litigation between purely private parties, though by its vague nature will rarely determine per Employee, se any result. So, the courts must interpret the laws (past, present and future) as far as possible in | Templatezet a manner which is consistent with what they interpret as the requirements of the Convention. In practical terms, this will extend the Employee - Guide, indirect impact of the Convention in English law by ensuring it can come into play in all cases, including (unlike at Michael, present) where a statute is clear within its own terms or where common law is settled. Convention arguments are also more likely to be raised in - Guide - Help UK courts in order to ensure the exhaustion of domestic remedies so as to permit a subsequent application to Strasbourg. But this is not direct incorporation in the view of the Lord Chancellor - the Convention is not decisive - it is a shaper not a mover. (d) The Convention can be raised as an argument in any court at any stage of a normal case or it can be used as the foundation for an action in which case the process is to be by way of judicial review or appeal (clauses 7, 9).
So, the Convention right may be used as an Ideas Only On Pinterest Cards, argument in two ways. In most cases, it will be part of an argument about interpretation - asking for Employee one meaning to be adopted rather than another. Ga Custody Plan? This could arise in a magistrates#146; court, though the prospect of extensive and complex submissions about - Guide - Steps, Convention law may be a reason to decline jurisdiction in an either way case - is that right? In a small number of cases, there might be a direct challenge to the compatibility of the UK statute with the Convention right. Here the Convention right is the sole argument and challenges not the meaning but compatibility. Such a challenge can only be made in a higher court - not a magistrates#146; court or a Crown Court - the process has a similar status to judicial review, so I think the idea is Letter | Mytemplate.co, that a magistrate would adjourn the case pending such a challenge. And the Employee - Help, claim can only be raised by a victim (clause 7) which seems a narrower rule of Child Travel Consent Sample, standing than for judicial review and one which should rule out actions by pressure groups. If a higher court accepts the argument of incompatibility, then it can issue a formal declaration of Manual - Guide - Steps, incompatibility - clause 4. In the case of a statute under challenge, the declaration does not invalidate the law, since courts are not given the Civil Form, power to invalidate legislation out of respect to parliamentary sovereignty and its democratic mandate - see clause 3. The position is rather less clear on what happens in relation to incompatible common law, since clause 4 only applies to Template - Steps incompatible statutes.
Total incompatibility is less likely because of the greater flexibility of Civil Form | Templatezet, common law but has already arisen in the case of Employee - Steps, Malone in relation to the lack of a right to privacy. Given the omission of Article 13, I doubt that the Bill requires the A Business Letter, judges now to do any more - there is no direct incorporation of Convention rights. In summary, the Manual Template, courts are not to be given a strong form of judicial review. In other words, they may interpret legislation in a way which seeks to achieve compliance with, or minimal detriment to, rights, but they will not be able to invalidate inconsistent legislation and certainly must accept without question later inconsistent legislation which expressly states that it is to prevail notwithstanding the Bill of Rights. This has disappointed some human rights champions. Scheduler123 Part A : Production Scheduling System? However, it reflects a traditional Labour Party distrust of the higher judiciary and also a more positive belief in the supremacy of Parliament (especially when your party has a majority of about 150). (e) Though the courts cannot strike down Acts of Paliament, they can award any existing remedy (such as a declaration) and can also award compensation for a breach of Convention rights, whether the challenge arises from interpretation or incompatibility (clause 8). But no criminal offence is created (clause 7). And it is not possible to be awarded damages in respect of the good faith failure of a court to recognise or enforce rights (clause 9) but courts can be liable for compensation - to be paid by the Crown - cl.9(3). Manual Template - Help? Nor presumably can there be an injunction against the enforcement of an Complaint Form | Templatezet incompatible law (unlike under EU law).
(f) If a declaration of incompatibility has been issued by a British court (or when there is an adverse judgment from the Manual - Steps, European Court of Human Rights), there is to be a fast track procedure to provide quick reform of the law. The Bill allows a Minister to amend any legislation by Order in Council (clauses 10, 11), subject to affirmation in Parliament (clause 12). So, there is no need for Sample Rights Form | Templatezet an amending Act. This is itself a very worrying denial of Manual - Steps, democracy, and so there has been an Sample Civil Complaint Form amendment to the Bill requiring the order to be issued in draft and giving 60 days for consideration. It is notable that responses to deep inconsistencies at this level are to be for - Steps Parliament not the courts. But don#146;t imagine that Parliament is the great advocate of rights in Best Card Valentines comparison to the judiciary. In fact, its record in protecting vulnerable individuals or minorities is often poor - after all, many of the cases I have cited arose out of the application of legislation, such as the Prevention of Terrorism Act, rather than out of common law rules.
(g) To try to ensure such problems do not arise, in future, Ministers proposing new legislation in the future will be required to make a statement about compatibility with the Convention (clause 19). If the Minister indicates any doubt, then this should lead to questioning and debate. In addition, the government suggests a Joint Select Committee on Human Rights which could consider both pending Bills and wider issues. (h) The Government has now come out against the idea of a rights quango - a Human Rights Commission (except in Northern Ireland). It might be useful in order to conduct investigations and to help litigants. Employee Manual - Steps? But it would cost money and it might simply tread on Docs Invoice | Smartsheet, the toes of the CRE and EOC. The plans do not include a constitutional court (which could include persons from wider backgrounds and stronger political antennae than judges are supposed to posses). It would be wrong to over-estimate the immediate substantive impact of the Convention on Employee - Help - Steps, UK law. You now know.
it was drafted with English law models in mind, it is Part A : Excel-Based Production System, a rather reticent and conservative statement of rights. and has been applied by the European Court of Human Rights with a great deal of respect for national foibles. Furthermore, the White Paper and - Guide, the Bill are modest and 25+ Egg Ideas Only, pragmatic, and also expreslly respectful of UK constitutional traditions. Employee Template - Guide - Help - Steps? The main reason given in the White Paper for these reforms is simply to avoid the cost and delay of taking a case to Strasbourg, and only further into the Paper does one learn of the idealistic aim of ensuring that the law should better reflect the Scheduler123 Part Production Scheduling, importance of rights. On the Employee Manual - Guide - Help - Steps, other hand, the incorportaion is a major part of a major new constitutional setlement which is emerging (it also includes devolution, reforms in Child Travel Sample Northern Ireland) changes to the House of Lords, and electoral reform). That we should view the Employee Manual Template - Guide - Help - Steps, impact as being more at a level of principle is a view shared by the Lord Chancellor, Lord Irvine of Lairg who said in 6 December 1997:
This Bill will therefore create a more explicitly moral approach to decisions and decision making; will promote both a culture where positive rights and liberties become the focus and concern of legislators, administrators and judges alike; and a culture in judicial decision making where there will be a greater concentration on substance rather than form. See the full speech of Lord Irvine of Lairg, The Lord Chancellor at THE TOM SARGANT MEMORIAL LECTURE, entitled The Development of Human Rights in Britain Under an Incorporated Convention on Human Rights , 6:45pm Tuesday, 16 December 1997, Law Society Hall, London.