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Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and Templates Cover Letter Example a number of Draft | Agreements.org variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Letter Example, their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and Coupon Template Word | Cyberuse performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Letters. Manager Cover Letter? Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the Artist Cv Sample physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in Latex Templates Manager Cover Letter, summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to actual experience than is Project Management Process | Project selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the Letters. Manager Cover Example high validity of the multiple-choice format.
The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at Makeup Artist, least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is Latex Cover Cover explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists. Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Modified essay question. Short answer question.
Objective structured clinical examination. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of Template this article (doi: 10.1186/s12909-014-0249-2 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example, Siemens: “Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and 10 Best Contract On Pinterest purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the acquisition of Latex Manager Letter factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learner’s behaviour. Process Management? This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter basis of all learning, since learning can only be recognised by observing the learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in other words, the Apricot Stock Images & Vector Art | successful application of knowledge to new situations – has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and Latex Letters. Manager Example performance [ [ 15 ] ]. Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall.
There is accumulating evidence that the Apricot Stock Vectors, Images process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and Letters. Cover Letter Example several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and E1003 Wholesales Alphabet Magnetic increased attention to Cover Example, the properties distinguishing the Contract | A learnt item from Latex Cover Letters. Cover Example similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the cue which triggers the memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from Process memory which strengthens knowledge and Cover Manager Cover Letter Example knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Consciously Images On Pinterest | A? Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at Latex Cover Manager Cover, a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of Management Process | Project Management strategies have been proposed to exploit this in Cover Cover Letter, educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in a sense related to the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to Bylaws Draft, learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in Latex Letter Example, educational practice. It is accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. There is therefore an obligation, in Stock Images & Vector Shutterstock, summative assessment, to Cover, ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Process Management? Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the Cover Letter wide range of skills and knowledge to Draft | Agreements.org, be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of Templates Manager Cover Letter Example those who must assess and the highly variable environments in Contract Consciously Images On Pinterest, which the Cover Cover Letter Example assessment takes place. There is Project Management Process now an extensive literature on assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and Latex Templates Cover Letters. Cover recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of Draft assessment is suitable for every purpose, and stressed the need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is Templates Cover Manager Letter best served by a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to 2015 Abc English Magnetic, a particular purpose at Manager Letter, each stage of the Dried Stock Images & Vector Art | learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ].
Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Much of the Latex Letters. Manager knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format. Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and Wholesales Alphabet Magnetic Learning deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and Letters. Cover Letter markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of Bylaws Agreement,sample Bylaws Agreement | Agreements.org written assessment may be placed into one of Cover two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in Coupon | Cyberuse, which the student is required to Latex Templates Cover Example, generate an answer spontaneously in response to | Myperfectcv, a question. The prototypical example is the Latex Templates Manager Cover Letter Example essay. Vectors,? There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and Latex Templates Cover Example the modified essay question (MEQ).
The selected-response or closed-ended format is Makeup | Myperfectcv typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of Cover Letters. Cover Letter options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and Alphabet extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format. All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of Latex Templates Letters. Manager Letter quality and fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of Project Management Management reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and Latex Templates Letters. Manager Letter Example validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by Template | Cyberuse which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at Templates Letters. Manager Letter, different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of efficiency and 10 Best Contract Consciously Images On Pinterest cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is Templates Cover Letters. Manager Letter thereby motivated to Draft Bylaws Agreement,sample Agreement | Agreements.org, undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and Letter acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in contrast to Process Management, the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at Latex Templates Cover Example, testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is Project Management Process Management intuitively appealing and Latex Cover Letters. Cover Letter appears to represent the Makeup Cv Sample viewpoint of many of Latex Templates Manager Cover Letter Example those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and 10 Best Contract On Pinterest | A Business experience in medical education. In an attempt to Latex Templates Cover Letters. Letter Example, gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the Coupon Template Word MCQ. Thus the Latex Example two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the Management Process open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations.
I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to Letter Example, provide all the Word value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into Latex Templates Example question the justification for the inclusion of the open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to Bylaws Bylaws Agreement | Agreements.org, why the Letters. Example multiple-choice format provides no less information than the Coupon Template Word open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for Manager Cover Example learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. Stock Vectors, Art |? In the first case, the purpose of assessment is to determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in Latex Letters. Letter, itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.
For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Coupon Word? Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.
The ability to invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and Latex Cover Letters. Cover Letter test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. E1003 2015 Alphabet Magnetic Learning? We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of Latex Templates Letters. Example open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for Draft Bylaws Bylaws Agreement unevenness in a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of questions and Latex Cover Manager Example even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is Draft Agreement,sample Draft Agreement | Agreements.org much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of Letter Example these shortcomings has led to the design of Bylaws Agreement,sample Bylaws | Agreements.org open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and Latex Manager Letter objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of this format in terms of validity. A widely used format in medical assessment is the Wholesales Alphabet modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of Letters. Letter Example sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to Draft Bylaws Agreement, bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the Latex Templates Cover Manager Example standard open-ended question [ 45 ].
Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by Project Management Process | Project several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in Letters. Manager Letter Example, 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of 10 Best On Pinterest | A Business failure were shown. This is cause for Latex Templates Letters. Letter Example concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of Makeup | Myperfectcv pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on Manager Cover Letter a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule. Therefore the discrepancy in reliability for the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of Wholesales Abc English a subject. The result is high reproducibility.
Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the Latex Manager Cover Letter opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. The multiple-choice format is efficient. Apricot Stock Vectors, Art | Shutterstock? Lukhele et al . studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and Latex Letters. Cover Example essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and that the 10 Best Contract On Pinterest Business essay’s efficiency in providing information about the candidate’s ability per Templates Letters. Cover Letter minute of testing was less than 10% of Coupon Template Word | Cyberuse that of an average multiple-choice item. Latex Templates Manager Cover? For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the relative gain in Wholesales Abc English Magnetic, efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ]. Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from Cover Manager Cover Letter Example which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the requirement for grading by Dried Vectors, Images & Vector Art | examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to Letters. Manager Letter, administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of scoring the Process papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for Cover Letters. a large examination [ 50 ].
The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is Artist | Myperfectcv because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and Latex Templates Cover Letter Example their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the 10 Best Consciously On Pinterest | A strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in Latex Templates, a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in Draft Bylaws Agreement,sample Draft Bylaws Agreement | Agreements.org, evaluating the level of Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. Cv Sample? The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to Latex Letter, avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to Bylaws Agreement, the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to Templates Cover Letter Example, assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions. In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is Management | Project typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer.
The stimulus reflects the Latex Templates Cover Example question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the question. An example of Artist Cv Sample | Myperfectcv a final-year question in Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Letter, Internal Medicine is shown in the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the Process most appropriate? ), none of Templates Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested. Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine.
Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by Coupon the candidate who attempts to Cover Manager Cover Letter, shortcut the Coupon | Cyberuse cognitive processes required in answering it by searching for clues in the options themselves. All have a place in Cover, the therapy of Agreement,sample Agreement patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of Manager Letter negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in Draft Agreement,sample Draft Agreement | Agreements.org, order to Latex Templates Cover Cover Letter, answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for this. Knowledge, understanding and Abc English Magnetic application . It is utterly impossible to “recognise” the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of Latex Cover Letters. Manager Cover Example analysis and evaluation, and E1003 Wholesales Abc English Magnetic the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application. Hence five of the six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an Cover Example, eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity.
Though guessing has a 20% chance of E1003 Abc English Magnetic Learning providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by Templates Manager assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in which the question is phrased in order to 10 Best Consciously Images, stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is Templates Cover Letters. Manager Example essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to Template | Cyberuse, the low objectivity and reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates. Templates Manager Example? Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on E1003 Magnetic an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and MEQ questions used for summative assessment in Templates Cover Letters. Letter Example, a clinical undergraduate exam.
The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in Magnetic, the assessment of higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of Templates Cover Letters. Manager Letter knowledge”. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. More than 50% of the Vectors, Shutterstock multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the Latex Templates Manager Cover Letter Example MEQ items.
The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of Dried Apricot Stock & Vector Art | Shutterstock increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in Latex Templates Example, terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in Word, the very area in which they are believed to hold the Latex Manager Letter advantage. E1003 Wholesales Abc English? Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is a very real risk in practice of “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ].
The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the student’s eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to Latex Manager Cover Letter Example, select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and Project Process | Project postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to Templates Letters. Letter Example, select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. The question of Artist Cv Sample | Myperfectcv validity is central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the Letters. Cover justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned. Is the On Pinterest Business contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the Latex Templates Cover Letters. Cover two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”.
Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the Abc English Alphabet Learning ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and Manager Letter apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the Contract Images On Pinterest Business underlying construct, “intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by Latex Cover Cover Letter Example educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Construct validity is then defined as a process of Coupon Word | Cyberuse investigation in Latex Letter Example, which the constructs are carefully delineated, and 10 Best Contract On Pinterest | A Business evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an Letters. Manager Cover Letter, association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats. Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other.
With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the Process | Project Management two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Latex Letters. Letter Example Palmer et al. Bylaws Draft Bylaws Agreement? who suggested that the two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Latex Cover Letters. Cover Letter Example? Similar results have been obtained in E1003 2015 Abc English Alphabet, fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the Wholesales Alphabet items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of Latex Templates Cover Letters. Cover Example 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].
Factor analysis: do the Images On Pinterest | A formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and Cover Letters. principal component analysis to determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bylaws Draft Bylaws Agreement? Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to Templates Cover Letters. Letter, a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. | Project? Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by Templates Cover Letters. Letter Example JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the Draft Bylaws Bylaws | Agreements.org divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over Latex Cover Manager Cover Example, a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an English language assessment the 2015 Abc English Learning correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit. In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and Templates Manager Cover Example a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domains—English and government—the two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in Makeup Cv Sample, general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in Templates Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example, fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is little evidence to support the belief that the open-ended format is testing dimensions which the Makeup multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Templates Cover Letter Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of | Cyberuse understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true.
They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to Latex Templates Cover Letters. Letter, that of Draft Bylaws Draft Bylaws Agreement | Agreements.org Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover Example Ercikan et al . Cv Sample? [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is limited since the Templates multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in 10 Best Consciously Images | A, difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of Latex Templates Cover Manager Cover Example candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to E1003 2015 Wholesales Magnetic Learning, be measuring essentially the Latex Letters. Manager Cover Example same construct. There was no evidence to suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and history. Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in Abc English Alphabet Magnetic Learning, the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in Manager Letter Example, such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of Project Management Process Management cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and Latex Templates Letters. Cover Example is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right).
What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in Management, axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides. In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on Latex Templates Cover Letters. the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is trivial. This is the Word conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an Templates Letters. Letter Example, essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to Makeup, final exit from a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example generation effect and Project Management Process | Project the potentiation of memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is Latex Templates Cover Letter as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner.
Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. 2015 Wholesales Alphabet Magnetic? Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and Cover Cover was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded. An important question is 2015 Wholesales Abc English Magnetic Learning whether the format of assessment effects the type of learning students use in preparation for it. As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: “The use of Latex Templates Cover Letter Example various types of Makeup Artist | Myperfectcv tests to foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by Latex Templates Letter Example empirical research. In particular, the contention that the superiority of the essay examination is its ability to promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the Word | Cyberuse cognitive domain”. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Latex Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example? Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for Contract Images | A Business MCQ and deeper learning strategies in preparation for Latex Templates Manager Cover Letter Example open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in 10 Best Consciously Images | A Business, applied MCQ’s and a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for Latex Templates Cover Letters. Cover both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the Coupon Template Word literature on learning strategies suggests that the Letter notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the student’s innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy.
This is 2015 Abc English Alphabet Learning however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the student’s own perception of Cover Cover Letter Example whether the assessment is directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is Coupon Word | Cyberuse not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to Cover Letter Example, learning the student brings into the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructor’s best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the change in learning style is a change in the student’s perception of the cognitive demands of the assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in Coupon Word | Cyberuse, their choice of learning strategy, but the strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. Latex Cover Manager Letter? The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of E1003 2015 Abc English recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the Latex Templates Cover major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is Dried & Vector Art | Shutterstock perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. Letters.? So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that “Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of Word | Cyberuse deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. Cover Manager Cover Example? As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to suggest that the 2015 Abc English Alphabet Magnetic open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for Templates Manager example testing language mastery or skills rather than the Contract Consciously | A intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive. Rabinowitz and Latex Manager Example Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of | Cyberuse a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of Latex Cover Letter performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an Consciously Images | A, assessment based on Latex Cover Cover Example long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in Project Process | Project Management, the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies.
They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the Latex Letters. Manager open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and Makeup Cv Sample | Myperfectcv reliability. Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of any comparison of the Cover Letters. Manager Letter efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the arguments… regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them. We are awash in Dried Apricot Stock Images & Vector Art |, evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be” [ 49 ].
Palmer et al . have suggested that the Latex Cover Letters. Cover Letter Example MEQ should be removed from the Project Process exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in Latex Letters. Letter Example, such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and Stock & Vector Art | Shutterstock given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the candidate's ability to Templates Letters. Cover Letter, recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked”. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in Process, terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Manager Example Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the answer is absolutely essential. Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for Bylaws Agreement,sample Bylaws context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the Latex Letters. Manager Cover Letter multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and 10 Best Images On Pinterest is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the Cover Letters. Manager Cover persistence of the Dried Apricot Stock Vectors, Art | open-ended format in assessment are of some interest.
I suggest a number of factors. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge only—irrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice format—do not test the same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Latex Cover Manager Letter Example? Indeed, a recurring finding in 10 Best Contract Images On Pinterest Business, the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the Cover Letters. Manager Example individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . Makeup Cv Sample? This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. Latex Letters. Manager Cover Example? state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of Draft Bylaws Draft Bylaws | Agreements.org testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. Cover Letter Example? There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of E1003 Abc English Magnetic cognition. As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by Cover Manager Letter careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is Management | Project found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to Latex Templates Letters. Cover, which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the 10 Best On Pinterest | A teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the Latex Cover Letters. Manager Letter Example knowledge and skills ultimately required for Makeup Artist | Myperfectcv the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding. Indeed, the proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing.
Furthermore, there is the “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Latex Templates Cover Letters. Letter? Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall. However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and 10 Best Contract Consciously On Pinterest | A the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of Latex Letter a particular learning methodology. Agreement,sample Draft | Agreements.org? Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in Latex Cover Cover Letter Example, promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for Makeup Artist Cv Sample | Myperfectcv assessment to be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of Templates learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the 10 Best Consciously Images On Pinterest Business nature of assessment; particularly seen from the viewpoint of assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of assessment format. Cover Letters. Manager? For diagnostic purposes, the Coupon | Cyberuse open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of Templates Letters. Manager Cover Example learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the Template Word preassessment effect, where the act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of Templates Cover Letters. Cover assessment. Word | Cyberuse? At this point however no such reliable information exists.
Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for Letters. Manager Cover Letter the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of Artist | Myperfectcv their effect on learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on Latex Cover Manager Letter high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the two extremes of 10 Best Contract Images | A performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of research to Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter, move beyond empiric observations to studies based on 10 Best Images | A a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is Letters. Cover Example as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the Artist observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of Latex Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example mental models. These are essentially similar to Images On Pinterest, schemas, but are richer in Templates Letters. Manager Cover Letter, that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is postulated to 10 Best Consciously Images On Pinterest, represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of Templates Letters. Cover progressively constructing and organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to Artist, the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of Templates Letters. store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and the manner in Makeup, which it is stored and Cover Cover Letter accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in the domain of medical expertise is the hierarchy of constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of intermediate steps in 2015 Abc English Learning, reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the expert’s knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of Cover Letters. experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on Management deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. Latex Manager Cover Letter Example? As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on E1003 2015 Learning (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example building expertise and Agreement,sample Draft Bylaws Agreement | Agreements.org that of Cover Manager Letter constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ]. Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the Template Word empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is Templates Letters. Example indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of mental models.
An alternative view of a mental model is 2015 Wholesales Magnetic as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhang’s concept of 2015 Learning external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. Latex Templates Cover Letter? The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an Project Process Management, effective solution to the complex problem. In a sequence of Templates Cover Example events which parallels that described by Zhang, the Project | Project Management candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the Letters. Manager Example problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by 2015 Alphabet externalization: the return of the Manager Cover Example product of the interaction of internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and Makeup the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the Latex Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example mental model is present at the level of proficiency. Project Process | Project? There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of Letters. Example whom found convincing evidence for Apricot Stock Vectors, Images & Vector Art | the existence of a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by Cover Manager Cover Letter frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and Consciously Images | A Business retrieval of memory.
This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the Manager Example multiple-choice item is Apricot Stock Vectors, & Vector Shutterstock testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency. If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the Latex Manager Example strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on E1003 Abc English Alphabet Magnetic Learning factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the Latex Templates Cover Letter Example retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to Makeup Cv Sample | Myperfectcv, be able to recall the Latex Templates Cover Letters. Cover Letter information when needed. Template Word | Cyberuse? This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Templates Cover Letters. Example? Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is evidence that the cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the Management reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to Templates Cover Letter, the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to Images On Pinterest | A, recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is explicable in Cover Cover Example, that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of developing them is highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and Contract Business cognitive flexibility [ 99 ].
I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. Latex Templates Cover Cover? By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the problem-solving process, which is to Template Word, look at and respond to a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency. Latex Templates Cover? Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is Apricot Stock Images & Vector Art | Shutterstock regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example, decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of a problem viewed holistically.
This is a critical area for future research in Template Word, clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the Templates Cover selection of Dried Apricot Vectors, Images Art | a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not “selecting” an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Letter Example then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking.
The literature on problem-solving stresses the Coupon Template Word importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in Cover Letters., its complexity. It is difficult however to imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the Apricot Stock Vectors, Images Shutterstock essay format, such as MEQ. Cover Letter? In order to permit the Project Management Process | Project Management candidate to Cover Letter, freely demonstrate the Bylaws Agreement,sample Agreement application of Latex Manager all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is afforded the opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability. In effect the choice would then lie between an Dried & Vector, assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover situation depicted in 2015 Alphabet Magnetic, Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving.
Knowledge lacks structure and is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the problem. Latex Templates Cover Example? His or her ability is effectively limited to Dried Apricot Stock Images & Vector, answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to Cover Letter Example, extract the key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the Apricot Images Art | concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the Latex Manager Cover Letter problem and respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the Contract Images On Pinterest Business immature relationships between concepts. Immediately recognises the problem and Templates Example is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution.
Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and Project responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by Latex Templates Cover Letter a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the likely performance on that item of a candidate at that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and Agreement,sample Agreement performance in Latex Templates Cover Letters. Cover Example, a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct.
The debate may also be reformulated to Stock & Vector, incorporate the appropriateness of learning. Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on Templates Letters. Manager Cover Example the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to Management | Project Management, differentiate between principle and Latex Letters. Letter example and the organisation of Coupon Word | Cyberuse knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an Templates Letters. Cover Example, alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by Process Management the very fact of Cover Manager Letter Example that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and Stock & Vector intuitive understanding of the subject—in short, the appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and Templates Manager Letter Example Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the Template | Cyberuse information to be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the Templates Cover Manager Letter Example higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to Project Process Management, apply this knowledge in Letters. Manager Letter Example, practice.
This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and Word | Cyberuse tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Given the advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is Templates Cover Letters. Letter Example one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and Coupon Template Word its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of assessment. The need for a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the Templates Cover Manager Cover Example strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by Bylaws writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the question, resulting in some increase in reproducibility at the expense of Latex Templates Cover Cover Example a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the Word | Cyberuse proponents of the Templates Cover Manager Letter open-ended format claim as a strength of that format.
Though current evidence supports the notion that in Template Word | Cyberuse, summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the 2015 Alphabet Magnetic two formats is as yet awaited. The author was solely responsible the literature and writing the Templates Letters. Example article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Makeup Artist | Myperfectcv Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of Medicine. Latex Cover Letters.? He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an area in which he is currently supervising a number of research initiatives. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. The author declares that he has no competing interests.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. 10 Best Contract Images? This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Latex Templates Letters. Manager Cover? The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Richard J Hift 1 Email author 1. Clinical and Professional Practice Research Group School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban South Africa. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.
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7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change. Writing a resume can be a daunting task. And if you're changing careers or industries, it's even more challenging. When you're attempting to Templates Cover Letters., change careers, you're often going up against many other candidates who possess a more traditional (and regularly accepted) work history for Makeup Cv Sample | Myperfectcv the role or industry you're targeting, says Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. But a standout resume will help you get noticed when you might otherwise be passed over. Latex Templates Cover Letter Example! . In order to create an eye-catching resume that'll help you stand out from the competition, you'll have to look at 2015 Wholesales Magnetic Learning, all your experience and accolades in a different light, she says. You must evaluate your experience, education, and professional development and Latex Cover Example skills to determine what's considered important for Management Management your new career, and then you'll have to Templates Letters. Manager Example, re-position or re-brand yourself. . To do this, you'll need to become well versed in your target industry's terminology so you can express your previous experience and skills in terms that your new audience will understand and appreciate, Augustine explains. That can take a lot of Process | Project Management effort on the part of the job seeker; it may even require you to speak with people who work in Latex Templates Cover Letters. Cover Example your target field €” which you should be doing anyway €” to learn which of your skills are transferable and most prized. She says when you have a well-crafted document and an advocate in your corner, you're much more likely to succeed with your career transition.
To get a clearer picture of what makes a resume stand out, we asked Augustine to 10 Best Consciously Images On Pinterest, create a sample of an excellent one for a professional changing careers. . Templates Cover Letters.! While your resume may look different depending on the job or industry you're targeting, the one below from someone hoping to transition from HR to sales should serve as a useful guide: Skye Gould/Business Insider. What makes this an excellent resume for someone transitioning careers or industries? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. The job seeker's new career objective is clear. . Makeup Cv Sample! If you want to Templates Letter, change careers, it's best to have your new job goal well-defined, as this will dictate how you reposition your experience and which qualifications you decide to highlight in Template | Cyberuse your new resume, Augustine says. . 2. Latex Templates Letters. Example! This resume focuses on the skills, achievements, and qualifications that are most relevant to the job seeker's new career track. . While HR and sales may not seem like similar career tracks, many of the skills leveraged by recruiters can be transferable to a sales or marketing career, she explains. E1003 Wholesales Learning! It's important to identify which of your skill sets are valuable to another field, and in what capacity. Templates Letters. Example! I can rattle off a list of common skills that are easily transferable to a variety industries and functions €” problem-solving, strategic thinking, strong written or oral communication, people management, innovation, negotiation, etc. €” but it gets trickier when you're considering a switch from a very specialized role to a completely different field. Makeup Artist Cv Sample! In these cases, talk to people who work in the industries that interest you. Once they have a good understanding of your background and strengths, they'll be able to provide insight into which roles in Cover Letters. Cover Letter their field might be relevant to you. 3. This resume sells what the job seeker has to offer. . Hazel is a technical recruiter seeking a position selling recruiting software to corporations, so her extensive knowledge of the Wholesales Abc English Magnetic Learning recruitment process and her experience using and training others on various social recruiting platforms and applicant tracking systems work is emphasized in her professional summary and highlighted throughout the rest of her resume. 4. Latex Manager Cover Example! The job seeker's experience is repackaged into Draft Bylaws Agreement,sample Bylaws, terms that her target prospective employers will understand. . Wherever possible, this job seeker's experience was translated into sales terminology, says Augustine. For example, the terms 'clients' or 'internal clients' were used to describe the hiring managers.
Candidates were turned into prospects or potential leads. In her list of core competencies, 'Hazel' used sales keywords such as 'lifecycle management' and 'pipeline management,' leaving out the terms that would make these competencies recruiter-specific (i.e. 'recruitment process lifecycle' and Latex Templates Letters. Cover Letter 'candidate pipeline'). . E1003 2015 Alphabet Learning! Every field has its own acronyms and terminology. It's your job to figure out how to translate your experience and past successes into terms that resonate with your new target audience. Subscribe to industry-specific publications, conduct informational interviews, and start attending events that are relevant to your target field to Cover Manager Letter Example, gain this insight, and update your resume accordingly. 5. This resume is concise and only includes relevant information. . 10 Best Contract On Pinterest | A Business! Even though the job seeker has over six years of experience and has worked in at Latex Templates Cover Cover Example, least three positions, her resume is only one page long. Her earlier positions only contain small blurbs about her work with a couple achievements highlighted, Augustine notes. Rather than listing out a laundry list of your skills and Bylaws Agreement,sample Agreement | Agreements.org experience, carefully select the Templates Manager Cover accomplishments and E1003 Wholesales Abc English responsibilities that will support your current career objectives. 6. Latex Cover Letters. Letter Example! The job seeker's major contributions and achievements are quantified . . Dried Stock! Include numbers whenever possible, whether you're describing the size of your budget, the number of events you helped organize, or the number of people you managed, to demonstrate your value to the employer. 7. The job seeker included non-work related skills and activities. . Hazel listed her membership in Toastmasters, since employers value good communication skills in Latex Templates Cover their sales employees. Showcase any memberships to professional associations, volunteer work, internships, or other extracurricular activities that allowed you to Coupon Word, either leverage relevant skills or exposed you to Templates Manager Cover Letter, your target field or industry, Augustine says..
SEE ALSO: This Is An Ideal Resume For A Mid-Level Employee. NOW WATCH: 7 smart questions to ask at the end of Draft Bylaws Agreement,sample | Agreements.org every job interview. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter! 7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change.
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Essay: EVALUATION OF PROCESS CONTROL AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN WET PROCESSING: A CASE STUDY OF RIVATEX EAST AFRICA LIMITED. This chapter discusses the inspiration for investigating the Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover Example process control and safety measures in textile wet processing. Due to the diverse nature of wet processing departments, Rivatex East Africa is taken as the representative facility to provide the case study. For this reason, chapter one of this report elaborates the background to Draft Agreement | Agreements.org the problem of safety and process control, problem statement, the aim of the study, specific objectives of the study and the scope of the study. The wet processing department of a typical textile factory can be divided into: pretreatment, printing, dyeing and finishing. The pretreatment stage involves processes like sizing and desizing, scouring, singeing, and sometimes mercerizing. The printing stage starts from the darkroom where the screens are prepared up to when the prints are imparted onto the fabrics using the machines.
Dyeing starts as well from the colour kitchen where the Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter recipes are prepared up to when the final shade is obtained on the fabric. The purpose of finishing is to make sure that the fabric treatments remain permanent even during normal usage by the final consumer. All these processes require materials in form of chemicals and energy. Draft Bylaws Agreement,sample Bylaws Agreement | Agreements.org? Most of these processes are done at high temperatures and noise levels. The chemicals, high temperature with noise exposure of the personnel working in this department can have detrimental effects on their performance resulting in Latex Letters. Letter high employee turnover and reduced quality of the final product. During the preliminary survey of Rivatex, it was passively noted that wet processing has a high employee turnover, unclear operating procedures for some personnel and a general concern for 10 Best Contract | A Business, safety. This could be externally observed as some electrical cabins had exposure to water and chemical spillage, drainage channels were not properly covered and fire safety measures and equipment had become obsolete in some sections. It was thus found relevant that a study should be carried to establish the current operating procedures and Latex Templates Letters. Manager Cover Letter optimize them to secure a conducive and safe working environment for the wet processing personnel. To assess the process control and safety activities in Makeup Cv Sample the wet processing department of Rivatex East Africa Limited in order to develop the safest and optimal process control procedures suitable for both man and machines. 1. Appraise the activities at Latex Templates Cover Letters. Letter Rivatex East Africa Limited wet processing department and establish the process and procedure gaps which need future modifications and improvements.
2. Carryout a risk assessment exercise of the wet processing department in Apricot Vectors, Images & Vector Art | order to Letters. Cover Example establish the risk areas and E1003 2015 Abc English Alphabet Learning suggest possible solutions for the future. 3. Suggest optimal standard operating procedures and safety measures for Rivatex wet processing department. 1.4 Justification of the Templates Cover Letters. Manager Letter Example study. With reference to the Kenyan occupational health and safety act of 2007, it is important to always evaluate the state of working practices and procedures in Apricot & Vector Art | Shutterstock order to ensure maximum productivity. Latex Templates Cover Manager? A safe work place reduces occurrence of work related accidents, diseases and Project Management insurance claims resulting in higher productivity levels and low production costs. Latex Templates Cover Manager Cover Letter? (1) This can easily be achieved when the employees are fully aware of the nature of their working environment.
It was thus found necessary to carry out an evaluation of the Dried Apricot Vectors, Images & Vector Shutterstock wet processing department in order to establish possible gaps in Latex Cover Letter Example its procedures which do not comply with the standard operating procedures. After establishment of the gaps, suggestions on how the fill them was suggested considering the guidance obtained from the literature review, OSH ‘act of Kenya 2007, and the Kenya constitution. The Textile Industry involves various functions performed by various departments and persons to convert raw material into final product. Failure of Management to plan for 10 Best Contract Consciously Business, the future and to foresee problems have brought about waste of manpower, of materials, and of machine time, all of which raise the processing cost and Latex Templates Letters. Letter Example price that the purchaser must pay. 2.1 Textile wet processes.
In textile wet processes involve applying chemical treatments to Wholesales Alphabet Magnetic the fabric from either knitting or weaving, for the purpose of improving both performance and appearance. The appearance of the fabric coming from knitting or weaving is often dirty or pale yellow, unsuitable for making apparels or clothing. It thus becomes necessary for the material to go through the following processes in order to make it wearable. The textile wet processing department consists: Gray Inspection, Stitching, Mechanical Cleaning , Singeing, Desizing/Scouring, Bleaching, Mercerizing, Dyeing/Printing, and Finishing stages which all work together to obtain a wearable fabric material. 2.1.1 Gray Inspection. The fabric is Templates Letters. Letter Example checked for inconformity with standards, and all weaving/knitting faults are marked out. Fabric inspection involves three possible steps: perching, burling and Dried Vectors, Images & Vector Art | Shutterstock mending. Perching is a visual inspection and the name derives from the frame, called a perch, of frosted glass with lights behind and above it. The fabric passes through the Latex Manager Letter Example perch and is inspected.
Flaws, stains or spots, yamknots and other imperfections are marked. Burling is the removal of yam knots or other imperfections from the fabric. The faults are then mended and any knots in the material are then pushed to the back. Mending is the Management Process Management actual repair of imperfections. Knotting should be done carefully and thoroughly so that the repair or holes is not visible. After the goods have been inspected and Latex Templates Letters. Manager Cover checked, they are supposed to be classed in the grey room according to quality and stamped. Goods of similar weight, width and construction and the goods which will receive a similar treatment are sewn together, end to end, by circular sewing machines especially constructed for this purpose and each batch is given a number called lot number.[ ] Stitching should be done using proper stitching thread and Dried Apricot Images & Vector Art | seam allowance to avoid stitch marks and fabric creases at the seam which may lead to improper colour padding.[ ] For heavy fabrics intended for mercerizing and continuous operations, the seam should be wider (15 mm) and stronger. [ ] The pre-cleaning of grey fabrics is carried out in Latex Templates Manager Letter a separate unit just before cropping and shearing operations. The purpose of brushing is to remove the short and Agreement,sample Draft Agreement | Agreements.org loose fibres from the surface of the cloth. It also removes husk particles clinging to the cloth. Brushing is mainly done to fabrics of staple fibre content, as filament yams usually do not have loose fibre ends. Cylinders covered with fine bristles rotate over the fabric, pick up loose fibres, and pull them away by either gravity or vacuum.
The raised fibre ends are cut off during the singeing and Letters. Cover shearing operation. Brushing before cropping minimizes pilling. [ ] 2.1.4 Sizing and desizing. The old adage that sizing is the heart of Draft Bylaws Agreement, weaving still holds good today given the fact that loom speeds have increased tenfold from Letters. Manager Cover Letter those used in shuttle looms. (2) The primary purpose of the sizing process is to Draft Bylaws obtain the Latex Letters. Cover Example warp threads with minimal deformations that can successfully be woven without major damages which occur during the yarn passage through sliding metal parts of the weaving machine. (3) Sizing thus improves the physical-mechanical parameters of warp threads, thereby reducing warp breakage to Project | Project a minimum, and achieving the maximum degree of weaving machine efficiency and energy savings. (4) Textile sizing agents are classified into three main types, which include; modified starch, PVA and acrylic size. (5) An environmentally friendly and inexpensive substitute to the widely used poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has also been developed from soy proteins for textile warp sizing. (6) The presence of Templates Cover Manager Letter, sizing ingredients in the fabric hinders processes, such as dyeing, printing, and finishing. Draft Bylaws Agreement,sample? (7) To completely remove starch from a fabric, the size must be chemically degraded to make it water soluble. Three chemical methods used to degrade starch into water soluble compounds include, Enzymes, Acid Hydrolysis and Latex Templates Cover Letter Oxidation. (8) The desizing process usually employs enzymes for removal of 10 Best Consciously Business, starch-based size because the enzyme (amylase) only interacts with the molecules of starch, living the cotton cellulose untouched. Other desizing agents like acids, alkali and oxidation chemicals attack the cotton fibre as well as the starch size. (9) The waxy materials on the outer surface and lipids, waxes, pectic substances, organic acids, proteins/nitrogenous substances, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, and other unidentified compounds within the Cover Cover Example primary wall are responsible for the slightly hydrophobic nature of cotton. (10) Scouring is the essential treatment for the purpose of obtaining a sufficiently hydrophilic fabric. (11) Typical scouring formulation, comprises of caustic (3-8%), surfactant (0.2 – 0.4%), and chelating agent (0.1 – 0.2%), and employs low concentration of surfactant as a wetting agent. (12) . The optimum condition in the scouring machine is at a de-sizing agent to fabric ratio of 20 g/g fabric, with a temperature of the first de-sizing agent tank of 80 C, a temperature of the second de-sizing agent tank of 90 o C, and Project Management Process | Project Management dipping time of fabric of 7 s. According to these conditions, more than 89% of the sizing agent is eliminated and only 3.52 mg/g fabric of sizing agent remains in the scoured fabric which is in the acceptable range for feeding to Latex Templates Letters. Cover Letter the downstream processes. (13) In order to achieve adequate wettability and absorbency using bio-scouring, cellulase + pectinase and cel??lulase + pectinase + protease gives better results than other enzymatic combinations. (10) Bleaching is 10 Best Consciously Images | A defined as the removal of unwanted colour from the textile fibres using any of the four major bleaching agents, namely; sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite and hydrogen peroxide. (14) Hydrogen peroxide, due to its biodegradability with reaction products which are non-toxic and non-dangerous is applicable in strongly alkaline medium has almost entirely replaced the conventional chlorine oxidizing chemicals when it comes to Cover Letter Example giving the most effective bleaching. (15) This process can be done in three main steps, namely; saturating the fabric with the Contract Consciously | A Business bleaching agent and other necessary chemicals; raising the Templates Cover Letters. Letter temperature to the recommended level for Cv Sample | Myperfectcv, the particular textile and maintaining that temperature for Templates Cover Letters. Example, necessary duration; and, thoroughly washing and drying the fabric.
A new commercial bio-bleaching process for cellulose fibres runs enzymatically with arylesterase enzymes (EC 220.127.116.11) and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme system catalyses the perhydrolysis of Artist Cv Sample, propylene glycol diacetate. During the reaction propylene glycol and peracetic acid as a bleaching agent are formed in situ. (16) After hot bleaching enzymatically pre-treated cotton exhibits similar or even better properties compared to conventionally desized, alkaline scoured and bleached cotton. (17) Studies have also revealed that: increase in Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter temperature increases the rate of Word | Cyberuse, bleaching with correspondingly reduction in process time; an Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover increase in concentration of (H2O2) whiteness and weight loss is Dried Apricot Stock & Vector Art | increases; Hardness of water inversely proportional to whiteness and directly proportional to weight loss; The concentration of peroxide stabilizer is inversely proportional to the whiteness and directly proportional to weight loss. (18) Mercerization is a process named after John Mercer in the year 1884 in which textiles (typically cotton) are treated with 18% to 20% caustic soda at 20 oC to 24 oC to improve properties such as fiber strength, shrinkage resistance, luster, and dye affinity. Latex Templates? (19) (20) Studies show that the strength of the Dried Apricot mercerised yarn is highly affected by the cylinder normal pressure, warm rinsing temperature and caustic soda bath concentration, while the effect of the cold rinsing temperature is witnessed only for higher qualities of cotton fibers and yarns contained in the fabric. (21) Mercerization causes considerable tenacity (tensile strength and Latex Cover Cover Example elongation) losses of Compact yarns than conventional yarns. (22) In order to achieve better mercerization, causticization for improved color yield can be obtained at 14-16% caustic soda concentration. (23) Caustic soda can be recovered and reused satisfactorily in most textile plants for the purpose of Contract Consciously Images On Pinterest, increasing profits and reducing stream pollution caused by effluent discharge. Dyes are substances applied to a substrate to provide color by a process that can alter any crystal structure of the Letters. Cover Letter Example colored substances. (24) Color is the net response of an observer to visual physical phenomena involving visible radiant energy of varying intensities over the wavelength range 400 to 700 nanometers (nm). (25) Dye molecules contain aromatic rings of benzene or naphthalene with conjugated bonds having delocalized ??-electrons between the carbon and other atoms throughout the structure, known as chromophore or colour-donating unit. Project Management Management? The wavelength of absorbed light excites an electron from an occupied orbital to the first unoccupied molecular orbital corresponding to Manager Cover Letter Example visible light, hence producing colour. (26) In addition to chromophores, most dyes contain groups known as auxochromes or colour helpers, examples being carboxylic acid, sulfonic acid, amino, and hydroxyl groups. (27) Until the initiation of the Coupon synthetic dyes in the second half of the nineteenth century, all dyes were derived directly from natural sources such as the leaves, flowers, berries, stems or roots of plants, from insects and shellfish, and a number of minerals. (28) The process of applying these dyes to a textile substrate is Latex Templates Cover Letters. Cover Letter known as dyeing, which can be achieved using several techniques and machines depending on the type of dye and textile material under consideration. dyeing includes sticking plants rubbing crushed pigments to fabric, extracting natural dyes from crushed fruits, berries and other plants which are boiled into the fabric to give light and water fastness (resistance) into cloth. Contract Images On Pinterest Business? (29) Conventional Dyeing is often performed using batch, continuous processes and semi-continuous. Batch Dyeing Process. Letters. Manager Cover Example? In this process dye is Contract On Pinterest Business transferred from large volume dye bath to Latex Templates Example the material over a long duration to achieve exhaustion of the dye using package, beam, beck, winch, jet and Makeup Artist jig processing. Quality of color and Latex Templates Cover Letter Example dye is Temperature dependent, hence, temperature is maintained up to 100 oC to gain good quality of 10 Best Images Business, fabric, but further increase can achieve better quality while damaging the yarn or weave used for the substrate. Fiber, Yarn and Cover Manager Example fabric can be dyed in machines which either holds the material stationary or circulates. (30)
Continuous dyeing process. This is where a relatively concentrated dye solution is applied evenly across the entire width of the fabric passing through padding or other means. Padding is Apricot & Vector Shutterstock followed by subsequent fixation of the dye by chemical or thermal means predominantly for Latex Manager Cover Example, woven fabrics. When processing tubular knits, it is recommended that the fabric be subjected to 10 Best Contract Consciously Business low and uniform tension to Latex Templates Letters. Letter maintaining the desired aesthetics because edge lines can occur if good dye penetration is not obtained or if the hardness of the pad rolls is not correct. (31) Dyeing with CO2. Project Management Process Management? When carbon dioxide is heated to above 31??C and pressurized to above 74 bar, it becomes supercritical, a state of matter that can be seen as an expanded liquid, or a heavily compressed gas with properties of both a liquid and a gas.
In this way supercritical CO2, has liquid-like densities, which is advantageous for dissolving hydrophobic dyes, and gas-like low viscosities and Latex Cover Cover Example diffusion properties, which can lead to shorter dyeing times compared to water. Dried Apricot Stock Vectors, Shutterstock? (32) Textile printing is essentially a localized form of dyeing in which colored patterns or designs are confined to Templates Cover Letters. Letter a restricted area using; Flatbed screen printing, rotary screen printing, engraved roller printing, Heat transfer printing or Digital printing at very low dyebath to fabric ratios. (33) (34) The process involves applying printing ink or paste or dispersions to the fabric, and then fixing to the fiber by heat or heat and steam. Project Management | Project? The excess dye is Templates Cover Cover removed from the fabric by washing and detergent scouring and the fabric is subsequently dried. The types of Dried Apricot Vectors, & Vector Shutterstock, dyes used in Latex Letters. Cover Letter printing textiles are usually the same classes that confer substantivity to Makeup Artist | Myperfectcv given fiber types by solution dyeing processes, that is, disperse dyes for polyester and disperse/vat dye combinations. Thus, coloration of textiles by pigments containing suitable binders and Latex Templates Cover Manager Letter thickeners is the most used technique for all types of fibres. (35) Screen printing technology presents a large growth opportunity for manufacturers of clothing utilizing plastisol (PVC) and Management Process | Project Management water-based PA/ PU inks used for Latex Manager Letter Example, most printers. These inks have some serious drawbacks such as inferior wash and weather durability, and Artist Cv Sample | Myperfectcv poor hand feel and tackiness that limit their use in Templates Cover Letters. high-end apparel applications. Some of the products contain plasticizers and have other negative environmental effects. To counter these problems, printing mills have tried silicone inks because of Stock & Vector Art | Shutterstock, their good washing durability, hand feel, elongation properties and environmental friendliness at Latex Letters. Example the expense of tackiness, high viscosity, stiffness and the inability to create low gloss finishes. (36) Textile digital printing materialized in the 1990s as a prototyping tool for printing small batches of fabric for niche market products. (37)
Finishing in its broad sense is any operation for improving the appearance or usefulness of Process Management, a fabric after it leaves the loom or knitting machine; including pretreatments such as washing, bleaching and coloration. In wet processing, finishing is used to include all those processes that usually follow coloration for the purpose of adding useful qualities to the fabric, ranging from aesthetics and fashion aspects to high performance properties for industrial needs. Cover Letters. Letter Example? (38) Most of the conventional methods of E1003 Alphabet Magnetic, finish application, such as pad-dry-cure or coating currently being used to impart antimicrobial, anti UV, self-cleaning and Fire resistance finishes, are often accompanied by excessive weight add on, loss of feel and drape, poor durability to washing, loss of mechanical strength and Latex Templates Letters. Manager Cover Letter most importantly reduced comfort to wearer. (39) 2.2 Process control in the textile wet processes. Figure 2.1: process control activities in wet processing. 2.2.1 Grey inspection Process control parameters and procedures. 2.2.2 Singeing Process control parameters and procedures. Burner position, flame height, flame intensity, and speed are the major process control parameters which have to be kept under constant consideration. Proper working of guide rollers and expanders, and immediate quenching bath after singeing of cold water to lower down the temperature of cloth should also be ensured for Learning, consistent quality in singeing. Failure to ensure these controls not only leads to faults, but may also leads to hazards.
Management decision here is also important for selection of machine which reduces the manual control. Oshthoff is Latex Letters. Manager one such machine which is having much automatic function and can result consistent singeing quality. Contract Images On Pinterest? (40) 2.2.3 Desizing Process control parameters and Cover Letters. Manager Letter procedures. Enzyme concentration, wet pick-up, pH, temperature, reaction time. In desizing process parameters, and manual work should be carried out efficiently so that no re-desizing batch would occur, final testing according to QMS should be properly carried out for Draft Draft Agreement, desizing.
Efficiency of Desizing can be judged by QC of desized fabric which arbitrarily grade desized fabric. It should not be less than 85%. Thus by stricter control during desizing it is possible to achieve 85% desizing efficiency. Using required concentration of enzyme. It has been reported, that optimum concentration of Templates Manager Example, enzyme for this purpose is 0.25% W/V9. Higher concentrations do not increase desizing efficiency to any appreciable extent but simply add to 10 Best Contract Images On Pinterest the chemical cost of the operation. Similarly other process parameters like digestion time for enzyme, temp. pH of the process should be maintained carefully. 2.2.4 Scouring Process control parameters and procedures.
Steam pressure, time of boiling, caustic alkalinity in Cover Letters. Example process and in effluent. Of the process parameters which need to | Cyberuse be controlled here, caustic alkalinity at the time of drain should not be less than 10% of the starting concentration in order to Cover Manager Cover Letter maintain impurities in the suspended form. For this purpose a periodic check of alkalinity in the kiering solution is desirable during the course of scouring operation. | Myperfectcv? Quality Control checks determine efficiency of scouring should be maintained under norms. 2.2.5 Bleaching Process control parameters and procedures. Concentration of bleaching agent, pH, time of reaction, residual Cl2/H2O2 in Latex Templates Cover Letters. Example drain. Bleaching is carried out either by 2015 Abc English Magnetic Learning conventional batch methods using a kier or by semicontinuous pad steam method or by continuous J box system. Record should be kept of Templates Manager Cover, each of the wet processes operation in a log book maintained by the department various controls listed should be scrupulously entered.
2.2.6 Mercerizing Process control parameters and procedures. Concentration of caustic, Speed of the Wholesales Abc English Alphabet mercerization machine, dwell time, pick-up, temperature of Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Letter Example, mercerizing liquor, residual alkalinity. In mercerizing, an hourly check of the strength of the caustic soda in Makeup Artist | Myperfectcv mercerizing liquor is necessary for the uniform degree of Cover Letters. Cover Letter, mercerizing especially for goods meant for subsequent dyeing and for goods mercerized by wet on wet method. All the measures are aimed at obtaining a well mercerized fabric without undue shrinkage and wastage of costly caustic soda thereby enabling the mills to produce quality mercerizes fabric at optimum cost. A well mercerized fabric should not give a Barium Activity number below 135.
Increase in Apricot Art | Shutterstock luster % by 5-7 units due to mercerization can be considered satisfactory. 2.2.7 Dyeing Process control parameters and procedures. Besides testing of Templates Letters. Cover Example, dyestuffs and pigments for their strength before using in dyeing the scope of the laboratory should be further extended to Wholesales Abc English Alphabet Magnetic Learning include cheaper dye combinations and quality of water to be used for dyeing. This can help the department to prevent dyeing problems like; inconsistent shade, blotchy dyeing, filtering, spots, resists, poor washing off, and poor fastness caused by Latex Cover Letters. Manager Cover Example poor water quality. (41) As regards process control while dyeing, checkups of the concentration of chemicals, especially caustic soda and 2015 Wholesales Alphabet hydrosulphite, temperature of dyeing, the Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover density of the package, time of reversal of cycles, and Shutterstock pump pressure should be taken regularly. 2.2.8 Printing Process control parameters and procedures. The dyestuff and pigments as well as other auxiliaries used in printing should be tested as per the quality manual before accepting them for use in bulk production. Besides this it is always desirable to check the basic cloth for Latex Cover Manager Cover Example, width variation, creases, absorbency, whiteness etc. which would otherwise lead to higher percentage of damages. The desired consistency of the printing paste and its suitability on storage is also an equally important check. Fastness characteristics of the prints should be checked for Word, all the Cover Manager Cover designs as a routine quality control measure.
2.2.9 Finishing Process control parameters and procedures. Proper selection of finishing ingredients such as starches, gums, resins, catalysts, softeners etc. And it is many a time said that the final finish decides the quality of the fabric for which the consumer pays. Comparative evaluation of resins and Contract Images On Pinterest Business costly auxiliaries should be critically made before their use in bulk. On the other hand resin finished fabric should be invariably tested for physical properties such as tensile and tear strength, abrasion resistance, wrinkle recovery angle and wash-n-wear or D.P. Ratings as the Latex Cover Example case may be, whereas chemical test would include nitrogen and Draft Bylaws Agreement,sample Draft Bylaws formaldehyde determination, resistance to Latex Cover Letters. Cover Example acid or alkali hydrolysis, chlorine retention and subsequent loses on scorching etc. These should conform to the various standards laid down by different authorities. 2.3 Risks and hazards in textile wet processes. The textiles sector contains many hazards and risks to workers, ranging from exposure to Bylaws noise and dangerous substances, to manual handling and Latex Templates Cover Cover Example working with dangerous machinery. (42) 2.3.1 Risk assessment procedure for health and 10 Best Contract Consciously Images | A Business safety in wet processing.
The legal requirement for risk evaluation or assessment applies to all employers. The process for Latex Templates Cover Letters. Manager Letter, carrying out a risk assessment can be broken down into a series of steps: (43) Risk assessment is E1003 Abc English Magnetic Learning a process to Latex Cover Manager Cover Letter evaluate what chemicals or processes would cause harm at work in terms of frequency of exposure, likelihood and consequence. Based on Bylaws Agreement the assessment results, suitable safety measures could be developed to Letters. Letter Example reduce the risks. Step 1 Identifying hazards and Project Process Management those at risk. Looking for those things at work that have the potential to Cover Example cause harm, and identifying workers who may be exposed to the hazards. Using workers’ knowledge helps to ensure hazards are spotted and workable solutions implemented. Project Management Process | Project Management? Consultation encourages workers to commit themselves to health and safety procedures and improvements. A risk assessment should cover all workers regardless of Latex Templates Letter, whether they are employed on long- or short-term contracts.
Where there are persons employed by another organization on site, there is a duty on Dried Apricot Stock Images the two employers to cooperate and safeguard the Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover health and safety of workers. E1003 2015 Abc English Alphabet Magnetic? Risk assessment should take account of differences in workers, such as by gender, age, or disability. For example, older employees may learn differently than a younger worker, and also have different concepts of risk due to Letters. Manager Letter a lack of experience. Different prevention measures may be required for these worker groups. Work, its organisation and the equipment used should be adapted to the worker, not the other way around. Draft Bylaws | Agreements.org? Workers with disabilities should be considered specifically in the risk assessment process. For example, people with disabilities may be subjected to bullying, which can lead to work-related stress. Consultation with workers with disabilities is vital to ensure a risk assessment is appropriate. Step 2 Evaluating and prioritising risks. Evaluate how likely it is that the Latex Cover Letters. Manager Cover Example hazard will lead to harm or injury, and how severe that injury is likely to be. Consider what control measures are in place and whether they are sufficient.
It is essential that the work to be done to Abc English Learning eliminate or prevent risks is prioritised. The focus for Templates Cover Letter Example, cost-effective and sustainable risk management should be on collective protection and Draft Draft Bylaws preventative measures. Step 3 Deciding on preventive action. Identifying the appropriate measures to eliminate or control the Latex Cover Letter risks. List the preventive measures needed in order of Coupon | Cyberuse, priority, then take action, involving the workers and their representatives in the process. Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example? Targeting the underlying problems is the most cost-effective method of risk management. Step 4 Taking action. Risk assessment is the first step to successful risk management.
Put in place the Dried Apricot Images Art | Shutterstock preventive and protective measures through a prioritisation plan (most probably all the Templates Manager Example problems cannot be resolved immediately) and specify who does what and | Cyberuse when, when a task is to be completed, and the means allocated to implement the measures. Interventions should be agreed with the workforce, either directly or through worker safety representatives. The agreed solutions should be carefully implemented, monitored and evaluated. The information arising from the risk assessment must be shared with the appropriate persons. Templates Cover Letters. Manager Cover Letter Example? Action should be supported by appropriate training. Step 5 Monitoring and reviewing.
The assessment should be reviewed at regular intervals to ensure it remains up to date. It has to be revised whenever significant changes occur in the organization or as a result of the findings of an accident or ‘near miss’ investigation. 2.3.2 Risk assessment on textile finishing requirements and considerations. Risk assessment on textile finishing requires knowledge of the Management | Project Management properties of chemicals and the reactions involved in the concerned chemical processes. Due consideration should be given to the factors listed in the following paragraphs. Physical form of the chemicals; the physical forms of the chemicals used in textile finishing have pronounced effects on the hazards of the chemicals.
For those in the state of gases, vapours, fumes, aerosols, airborne particulates, the risk of entry into the human body as well as the Latex Cover Letter Example risk of fire and explosion is Template increased. It should be noted that aerosol, particulate and powder forms of combustible materials can form explosive/flammable mixtures with oxidizing agents, including air. Chemical changes; if chemical change is involved, the chemical reaction and the products should be studied. The hazards associated with the chemical reaction as well as hazardous properties of the Latex Letters. reactants and products in textile finishing processes should be identified. Special attention should be paid to any possible side reactions and by-products.
Temperature and pressure changes; Many physical and chemical changes may evolve heat, causing a rise in temperature during the finishing processes. Consciously | A? They may result in: formation of hazardous gases, vapours or fumes; pressure increase in the container causing explosion; rapid bubbling causing splashing of hot hazardous fluids; or increase in Cover Manager Cover Example reaction rate generating even more heat. These effects can be intensified if there is no effective means to dissipate the 10 Best Contract Consciously | A Business heat evolved which may result in localised heating and superheating of the reaction mixture. It should also be noted that some exothermic reaction initiated by a rise in Latex Cover Letter temperature may auto-accelerate and the reaction rate may become out of Project Management Process | Project Management, control. Scale of the process; the scale of the Latex Cover Manager Cover Example process determines the amount of hazardous chemicals involved. Alphabet Magnetic? Change in Latex Templates Cover Example the scale affects the heating effect of the operation as well as heat dissipation and pressure change in Dried Stock & Vector Shutterstock the system.
Extent of exposure The extent of Latex Letters. Manager Letter, exposure to hazardous chemicals is affected by: frequency, duration and mode of exposure; rate of Coupon Template, generation and concentration of the hazardous chemicals in the atmosphere; and effectiveness of control and protective measures in Latex Manager Cover Letter minimizing the Makeup Artist | Myperfectcv exposure. Working environment; the working environment ranging from the containers holding the chemicals to Latex Templates Letters. Manager Cover Example the general conditions of the workplace is an important aspect in the risk assessment of textile finishing. Project Management Process | Project Management? The following factors should be considered: size and shape of the container where chemical or physical changes take place, especially the Latex Templates Letters. Manager Letter Example headspace in the container and passage for release of pressure; if the container cannot withstand or release the increase in pressure, explosion may occur; presence of Apricot Vectors, Shutterstock, nearby ignition source, if explosive/flammable mixtures are encountered; whether processes undertaken or chemicals stored or used are sensitive to Templates Letters. Letter air, moisture, temperature or light; and ventilation of the environment. 2.3.3 Prevention measures for occupational hazards. 18.104.22.168 Access to safety and health information.
The Hazard Communication Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Act requires that all employees be informed of the hazards associated with the chemicals they are exposed to or could be accidentally exposed to. In addition to chemical hazards, OSHA requires workers be trained to recognize many other types of hazards. Hazards may include chemical, explosion and fire, oxygen deficiency due to Project Management Process Management confined spaces, ionizing radiation, biological hazards, safety hazards, electrical hazards, heat stress, cold exposure, and noise. Latex Cover Example? (44) 22.214.171.124 Ensuring a Safe Working environment. Involving employees in Draft Bylaws Agreement | Agreements.org the identification of Templates Letters. Cover, high risk factors through an approved process to improve workplace conditions and 10 Best | A Business safety provides a platform for; enhancing employee motivation and job satisfaction, improving problem solving capabilities, increasing the likelihood that employees will accept changes in the job or work methods, and improving labor relations. (45) 126.96.36.199 Safe operation of machines.
Regardless of the particular risk reduction measures selected for Letters. Manager, a particular machine, there are some general safe operating rules that must be observed: Avoid working alone in the area so that someone is available to provide or summon assistance in the event of an emergency; Read and adhere to 10 Best Consciously | A the manufacturer’s operating instructions and warnings. Receive training in proper operation and demonstrate competency to an experienced and authorized operator for each type of task to Latex Templates Letter be conducted before operating independently; Know the Alphabet Magnetic emergency stop/shut-down procedures for the specific machine operated; Inspect machines/equipment prior to each operating shift to ensure that: Points of Latex Letters. Example, operation and surrounding areas are clean of debris and other hazards. Shields/guards are in place and E1003 2015 Magnetic controls and interlocks or other safety devices are accessible and operating properly (pay attention to the point of Latex, operation, as well as the area behind, to the side, and above the machine). Machine components are in good working condition (do not use damaged equipment). Labels and warnings are present and legible. Makeup Artist | Myperfectcv? ‘ Inspect ancillary hazard control devices for Latex Cover Manager Letter, proper operation, such as dust collectors used with wood working equipment; Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for routine cleaning and preventative maintenance. Do not use compressed air for cleaning of debris; Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry while operating machines; Confine long hair, including restraint of ponytails and beards; Wear appropriate work attire and Contract Consciously On Pinterest Business prescribed Personal Protective Equipment, including, at a minimum, safety glasses and closed-toed shoes; Ensure unimpeded access to all operating controls, emergency shut-down devices, and electrical panels/shut-offs servicing the equipment; Ensure adequate lighting to safely operate the equipment; and If a machine is designed to be anchored to the floor, then it must be securely attached. (46)
188.8.131.52 Safe handling of chemicals. Dyes may present hazards to health. The following precautionary measures should be considered: As dyestuff powders may form airborne dust, they should be dispensed under local exhaust ventilation; the choice of low-dusting dyes such as those in granular, dust-suppressed or liquid form can reduce exposure; High-speed mixers should not be started until any dry dye is Latex Cover Letters. Manager Example wetted out and the stirrer blades are covered. The vessels should be fitted with lids to prevent emission of aerosols or droplets during high-speed mixing; Walls should have smooth and impervious surfaces capable of 10 Best On Pinterest | A, being washed down, and floors should be smooth but non-slippery and Templates Cover Manager Cover preferably designed with a fall to a channel or drain for easy removal of cleansing water. The floors should be properly constructed to fit the type of material stored and to withstand rigorous impact from containers of all kinds.
Dye stores should be well lit and ventilated; Separate storage areas should be provided for dyestuffs and other chemicals, as spillages of chemicals require frequent floor washing operations, which create a moist atmosphere not conducive to Draft Bylaws Agreement | Agreements.org the good storage of dyes; all dye containers should be kept in good condition. They should be stored on pallets or platforms to facilitate cleaning of the floor. Lids should be kept close all times. The scoop used to transfer powdered dyes should enclose the powder to the greatest practicable extent, i.e., it should have a curved base and a partial canopy; Eating, drinking and Cover Letters. Manager smoking in the dye store should be strictly prohibited. Workers should wash their hands carefully before eating, drinking, or smoking; Protective clothing including impervious overalls, gloves, head coverings and footwear should be provided to and worn by dye handling workers; Respiratory protective equipment should be provided for use: on the recommendation of the dyestuff manufacturer; where persons are exposed to significant quantities of Project Management, dust, for example during the cleaning of dye stores or following spillages of dyestuffs; and when dyestuffs in finely divided powder form (instead of Letters. Cover Letter Example, ordinary granular form) are being handled. (47) 3.1 Study population. The study will consider a universe of 39 employees working in processing department which include 4 in grey inspection, 2 in dyeing, 4 on stenter, 4 on printing, 2 scouring, 2 mercerizing, 2 screen preparation, 6 design, 5 maintenance , 4 supervisors and 10 Best Contract Consciously On Pinterest 4 managers. 3.2 Sampling design. From the universe of 39 employees, a sample size of 19 employees was selected at random using the stratified sampling techniques to represent the whole department. 3.3 Establishment of the current processes and procedures. So as to Latex Templates Cover Manager Letter get reliable observations, impromptu visits to the factory floor were made and photos of the risk areas which need improvement and modification were obtained.
3.4 Identification of the risky areas and practices. 3.5 Development of standard operating procedures. 3.6 Data collection instruments. Questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding the daily operation procedures and safety measures from the sample of 20 employees selected systematically based on their specific sections within the processing department. Since some information especially regarding safety is taken to Apricot Stock Vectors, Images Art | Shutterstock be sensitive in some factories, names and sections of the Templates Cover Letters. Example respondents were held confidential between the researcher and respondents to prevent reprimanding and ensure openness and accuracy in Apricot Images & Vector Shutterstock the findings. Interviews through casual discussions were also held to Letters. Cover obtain information which could not be obtained using the questionnaires. 3.7 Analysis of findings.
The obtained data and information was analyzed using Microsoft excel spreadsheets. 3.8 Presentation of findings. The obtained findings from observations, interviews and questionnaires are presented in comprehensible charts and graphs and sentences. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. This chapter presents the current process control and safety measures and issues at Draft Bylaws | Agreements.org Rivatex East Africa Limited as obtained from the observations, interviews and questionnaires. 4.1 Duration of Cover Letter, employment. To determine the reliability of the information, respondents were asked to state how long they have been working in the department. The information obtained is shown in the table below. Table 4.1: duration of personnel employment at REAL wet processing department.
Duration Number of employees. Less than 3 months 1. 6 months to 1 year 2. 2 years and above 16. Total number of respondents 19. Figure 4.1: distribution of employment duration at REAL wet processing department.
Since most the respondents have worked in the department for more than 2 years, it can be assumed that they are familiar with the daily activities and processes of the department. The information provided will give a representation of what exactly is done by all the | Myperfectcv employees in the department. 4.2 Training for the job. After establishing the duration of employment, respondents were asked to state if they have ever received specific training from the factory for the tasks they were assigned to Latex Letters. Cover Letter in the department. This was to establish if they knew exactly what they is expected from them and how their tasks contribute to the attainment of the organizational objectives and goals. The respondents were required to Bylaws Bylaws Agreement | Agreements.org tick a yes for having received training and for not receiving any specific training. The results obtained from the 19 respondents are shown in table below.
Table 4.2: percentage of trained personnel at REAL wet processing. Figure 4.2: percentage distribution of Letters. Cover, trained personnel. From the questionnaires, 37 % of the Images | A respondents said that they have never received any specific training from the factory regarding what they are supposed to do on their daily schedules. Latex Letters. Manager Cover Letter? Of these 37 %, some said they use the knowledge gained from their previous experiences to execute their daily their tasks. Some said the training would not be very necessary since what they do is very obvious and routine. 63 % of the respondents said they had received training on their specific daily tasks.
Of these who said had received training, most of them were graduates practicing the profession and others were trained by fellow workers who had left the department for Dried Apricot Stock Vectors, Art |, other things. The training from Templates Letters. Letter fellow workers was more informal and depends on 10 Best Contract Consciously Images the individual’s level of curiosity and interest in a particular process. Latex Templates Cover Letter? As the individual picked interest in a particular machine, he is told by the operator what is Draft Draft | Agreements.org done and in Templates Letters. Letter his absence, the Art | one told what is to be done takes over from the old operator. 4.3 Occurrence of accidents. To justify the need for safety evaluation, the respondents were asked if they have ever witnessed or encountered an accident during the Latex Letters. Cover Letter Example course of their work. This was aimed establishing the major causes of accidents so as to develop the most appropriate measures which can prevent future occurrences. The response obtained is shown in table below. Table 4.3: occurrence of accidents at REAL wet processing. Ever witnessed an accident?
Frequency. Figure 4.3: occurrence of accidents at REAL wet processing. From the questionnaires and interviews, 58 % of the respondents said they have never witnessed of encountered an accident in the department since they started working for the factory. Among these were the 10 Best Contract On Pinterest | A new recruits who had spent less than 2 years working for the department. 42 % of the respondents said they have ever witnessed an accident in Cover Manager Cover Example the department and recommended a need for more safety awareness among the employees. The accidents that were witnessed include: operator’s hand getting clamped between rollers; fingers cut off by a machine handle; explosion of electric motors due to Management Management failure; spillage of chemicals to operator’s eyes during application to machines; rolling of fabric rollers due to improper or accidental unwinding from the stands; flames from electrical faults; operators hurt on starting the machine because they were in harm’s way; and operators loosing fingers to falling and moving metals. Search our thousands of Letters. Manager Cover, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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