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ansel adams essay The following essay was rekeyed and reprinted on July 22, 2002 with permission of the Brief Template Documents In Pdf, Word Oakland Museum of California and the author. Oakland Museum of Cover Letter California is Sample Project Documents In Pdf,, presenting the exhibition Ansel Adams: Inspiration and Influence, which will be on view through September 22, 2002. If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, please contact the Designer Letter Oakland Museum of Project Brief In Pdf, Word California directly through either the following phone number or web address: Inspiration and Influence: The Visions of Ansel Adams. by Drew Heath Johnson. Weekly Meal! T he year 2002 marks a symbolic milestone in the history of photography. A century ago, on February 20, 1902, Ansel Adams was born in San Francisco. (In an Project Brief Template Free In Pdf, Word unusually good week for Designer Cover Letter, California creativity, John Steinbeck was born exactly seven days later in Project - 7+ Free Documents Salinas).

A flurry of Tafsir Qur'an Surah tributes, from Sample Project Brief - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, books and documentary films to a record number of Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat museum exhibitions, is Sample Project - 7+ Free Documents Word, currently honoring the centennial of America's favorite photographer. For many, he is the only photographer. The vision of Adams, with broad-brimmed hat and beard, fussing with his view camera in Disciplinary Referral S Signature) Imprint some rocky Sierran landscape, is Sample Brief Template - 7+ Documents, one of the defining images of Qur'an 037.saffaat photography. Project Brief - 7+ Free Documents Word! His pictures appear among us as comforting friends on postcards, posters and Example | Resume And Free Resume Builder calendars. But Ansel Adams did not spring fully formed from some photographic half-shell. Like all artists, he was the product of complex influences and human contacts. The inspiration of Yosemite on Sample Project Template Documents, the budding photographer is obvious and often acknowledged, but the role of other artists, as well as his influence on younger photographers, is less often noticed. The Oakland Museum of California explores these connections in Ansel Adams: Inspiration and Sample Resume Medical Influence , an exhibition which places Adams in Sample Project Brief - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word the context of a century and Cover a half of Brief - 7+ Documents Word photographic art.

A restless child who had difficulty fitting in, the Infant Business young Adams nevertheless was given ample opportunity for self-expression by Sample Project Brief Template Documents, an indulgent father. At the age of Weekly | Sop 13 the elder Adams gave Ansel, in Sample Project - 7+ Word lieu of school, a year's pass to San Francisco's Panama Pacific International Exposition. Example Of Resume And Free Resume Builder! Adams later credited the Sample Brief In Pdf, Word art exhibits at the fair, which included photography, with instilling a love of art. At about this time he also began serious studies at the piano. Adams the Meal Template Example photographer would become renowned as a dedicated and fastidious (some would say obsessive) technician. He attributed this interest in technique to Project Brief Template Free Documents, the early training as a pianist, where he learned to Writing, combine long hours of Brief Free Documents In Pdf, Word practicing rudimentary skills with intuitive creativity. He was fond of Permission Letter musical metaphors when describing the act of Sample Project Brief Template Free In Pdf, making photographs. The negative, he claimed, was the score which the Resume Sample For Medical Assistant Resume Templates musician/photographer interpreted in the act of Sample - 7+ making a print. And like a score, each negative was capable of infinite variations with each performance. Referral (parent Imprint! For many years, Adams struggled with the dilemma of Sample Brief - 7+ Documents which career to pursue -- photography or music.

Over numerous trips to Sample Resume, Yosemite and the high Sierra, photography gradually won out. This gradual slide towards photography was aided by Project Brief Template Free Documents In Pdf,, an unusually colorful, if small, community of Example | Resume And Free Northern California photographers who both mentored Adams and provided a social circle. Throughout his career, from novice to Sample Brief Template, elder statesman of the camera, Ansel Adams enjoyed rewarding, if sometimes prickly and competitive relationships with his photographic peers. And what peers! Besides Adams' own work, Ansel Adams: Inspiration and Influence features images by Resume For Medical Templates, Imogen Cunningham, Dorothea Lange, Edward and Sample Project - 7+ Free In Pdf, Brett Weston, Minor White, Wynn Bullock, Willard Van Dyke, Judy Dater, Ted Orland, Jerry Uelsmann and Don Worth, all of whom knew or worked with Adams.

When Adams began his photographic career, the Care Business Card & Letterhead Template style known as Pictorialism was in vogue for photographers with artistic pretensions or, as with Adams, aspirations. Influenced by Sample - 7+ Free In Pdf,, New York photographer Alfred Steiglitz, whom Adams called the greatest photographic leader in Meal Template | Sop the world, photographers created meticulously hand-crafted prints on soft-focus, textured papers. Steiglitz taught me what became my first commandment, Adams recalled. Art is the Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents Word affirmation of life. Early in his career, Adams wholeheartedly embraced pictorialist techniques and materials. He never felt comfortable with the pictorialist's subject matter, however, preferring portrayals of unblemished nature to allegories, nudes and portraits. The most famous disciple of Pictorialism in Northern California was Anne Brigman, the Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat only West Coast photographer elevated by Sample Brief Free Documents In Pdf,, Stieglitz to Fellowship in his group, the Photo-Secession. Like Adams, Brigman drew her primary inspiration from the high Sierra, but her approach could not have been more different, as a comparison of their work reveals. Where Brigman emphasizes a spiritual connection with nature by Weekly Plan Template, placing nude figures in juxtaposition with rocks and ancient trees, Adams preferred to Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Documents, let nature speak for Permission, herself.

By the Brief Template Free Documents In Pdf, Word early 1930s, Adams was tiring of this type of imagery altogether. Increasingly, I detested the common pictorial photography that was then in vogue, he wrote, and also questioned the Example Of Resume Writing And Free more sophisticated work of Sample - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word some San Francisco photographers because it clung to Resume Assistant Templates, those pictorial skirts. There was nothing I responded to in this mannered style of photography. Sample Brief Template - 7+ Free Word! Like others on Infant Care & Babysitting Business & Letterhead, the West Coast, Adams was questing for a different form of Sample Template Free Word photography, one which eschewed retouching. Assistant Blog! He wrote: With high energy I began to explore a personal photographic direction based on Project Brief Template - 7+ Documents, the inherent qualities of the photographic process itself. Tafsir Surah! I abandoned my textured photographic papers and began using the same smooth, glossy-surfaced papers used by Paul Strand and Sample Brief Documents In Pdf, Edward Weston to reveal every possible detail of the negative. I felt liberated. Together with a small group of Tafsir 037.saffaat colleagues in 1932, Adams formed the legendary Group f.64. More a loose affiliation of like-minded friends than a formal organization, f.64 met at Willard Van Dyke's Oakland gallery and later mounted a controversial exhibition at the M.H.

De Young Memorial Museum in Sample Project In Pdf, Word San Francisco. From these humble beginnings Adams and his colleagues (Weston, Cunningham, Alma Lavenson and Van Dyke, among others) fostered a photographic vision which became, arguably, the most influential photographic movement of the Designer 20th century. Template Documents In Pdf,! The opportunities for influence and Associate Designer cross-pollination (not to mention the spur of competition) were great in such a circle. So were the opportunities for Project In Pdf, Word, philosophical disagreement. The dissident Group f.64 was itself torn by dissension as the Example Of Resume Examples Resume Builder Great Depression worsened. Members split over Project Documents In Pdf,, the question of Designer photography's social responsibility. How could an artist waste time with still-lifes and Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Word nudes, the Disciplinary Referral (parent S Signature) W/school argument went, when people were starving?

Some (Van Dyke, Lange) believed photography had a duty to Sample Template Free Documents In Pdf, Word, present the Resume For Medical Assistant Resume Medical suffering of the Sample Project Free Documents Word poor to the larger World. Infant Business Card & Letterhead! Others, such as Weston and Adams, believed the artist's responsibility was to beauty and self-expression. Adams' 1935 letter to Lange, with whom he enjoyed a long if thorny friendship, stands as a summation of his attitudes toward his art: Dear Dorothea, Photography when it tells the Sample Project Brief In Pdf, truth, is magnificent, but it can be twisted, deformed, restricted and compromised more than any other art. Because what is before the Permission lens always has the Brief illusion of reality; but what is Permission Letter, selected and Project Brief Template Documents Word put before the lens can be as false as any totalitarian lie. . . S Signature) Imprint! . The connotations of Sample Project Template Documents In Pdf, Word much of documentary photography are -- to me -- quite rigid. Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat! . - 7+ Documents In Pdf,! . . Infant Care & Babysitting Business & Letterhead Design! I resent being told that certain things have significance. Project Brief Template Free! . . . I resent being manipulated into a politico-social formula of Resume Sample For Medical Templates Medical thought and existence. I resent the implications that unless photography has a politico-social function it is not of value to people at Sample Brief - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf,, large. I resent the the very obvious dislike of Disciplinary (parent S Signature) W/school elements of Sample Project Free Documents beauty. Weekly! . Sample Free Documents In Pdf,! . . Meal Plan Template! I think it is just as important to Sample Brief Free Documents In Pdf,, bring to S Signature) W/school Imprint, people the evidence of the beauty of the Project Brief Template - 7+ Word world of nature and of man as it is to give them a document of Weekly | Sop ugliness, squalor and despair. . Sample Project Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf,! . . Cover Letter! You happen to Project Template Word, be one of the very few who has brought enough deeply human emotion into your work to make it bearable for me. I wish you would try and think of yourself as a fine artist -- which you are; that is a damn sight more important to Cover Letter Samples Blog, the world than being merely an extension of a sociological movement. Love, AnseI. Besides the Project Template - 7+ Free Word inspiration he derived from colleagues, Ansel Adams was also a student of the work of Medical Assistant Cover Letter - My Blog photographic pioneers. Project Free! He had a keen awareness of the Qur'an 037.saffaat history of photography, unusual at a time when that history was, as yet, largely unwritten.

Adams possessed a collection of daguerreotypes, the first practical form of photography, which were popular in Sample Brief Template - 7+ In Pdf, the 1840s and '50s. Surah 037.saffaat! He was entranced by the subtlety and sharpness of the Template - 7+ In Pdf, silvery images. Permission! In the Free Documents daguerreotype the microscopic revelation of the | Resume Builder lens was fully expressed, he wrote. I confess that I frequently appraise my work by critical comparison with the Sample Template - 7+ Documents Word daguerreotype image; how urgently I desire to achieve that exquisite tonality and miraculous definition of light and substance in my own prints! The work of Referral (parent S Signature) 19th-century landscape photographers such as Timothy O'Sullivan and Carleton Watkins naturally appealed to Adams. We know he owned an O'Sullivan album, which he lent to Beaumont Newhall's landmark exhibition on the centenary of photography in 1937. When he came to Project Brief Template In Pdf, Word, photograph the Medical cliff dwellings at Project Brief Template - 7+ Free In Pdf,, Canyon de Chelly in Care & Babysitting & Letterhead Template Design 1942, Adams unconsciously duplicated O'Sullivan's famous view right down to the lighting. He admired Watkins and selected some of Sample Project Brief Free Documents his photographs for exhibitions he curated. Clearly appreciating the Weekly technical restrictions of these pioneers, he wrote, how the Template - 7+ Free great early photographers managed their arduous wet-plate process in Southwest heat and dust, and Medical Permission how the Project Template Free Documents Word glass plates endured months of mule-back transportation without breakage, have always been beyond my comprehension! Ansel Adams' work, a century after his birth, is & Babysitting Card & Letterhead Template, becoming as distant in Sample - 7+ Free Documents Word time as O'Sullivan's was to him. To some, his vision is nearly as quaint and historical.

And yet his popularity, his fame, has never been greater. This celebrity is Disciplinary Referral W/school, both a blessing and Sample Brief - 7+ In Pdf, Word a curse, for while, nearly 20 years after his death, he is still the best-known photographer in the world, critical opinion regarding his work is Cover - My Document Blog, divided. Adams' rigorous emphasis on technique, his devotion to Project Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf,, beauty and, most of all, the Disciplinary (parent W/school Imprint ubiquitous presence of his imagery (particularly as they appear on products), are somehow suspect. Sample Free Documents! So, too, was his reluctance to embrace social causes other than conservation. To many, his very popularity speaks against 037.saffaat him. But this is Project Template Documents Word, nothing new. As early as the Assistant Cover Letter Samples - My Blog 1930s, Adams found it necessary to defend himself against Template - 7+ Free charges of producing superior postcards.

He had many defenders willing to point out the transcendent nature of his best work. Nature never seems so grand, romantic, sensuous, and Samples Document Blog magical elsewhere, wrote Minor White, nor the buildings so architectural, nor the Sample Project Brief Template Free Word artifacts of man and details close to (parent S Signature), the ground so full of Template Documents presence. . . We find, if we gaze long enough, that behind his more literal images. | Resume Builder! . Sample Free Documents! . Designer Cover Letter! there rests a sense of Project Template - 7+ Free Documents Word awe before creation, life and & Babysitting Card Design death, man and nature. Against one particular charge Adams was utterly unapologetic: The creation of beautiful images. I am not afraid of the term 'beauty,' he wrote to his old friend, Dorothea Lange, in Project Template Free In Pdf, 1953. By it, I do not mean prettiness.

I mean intensity and clarity. I cannot see how the omission of beauty achieves anything. Of Resume Writing Examples Builder! Drew Heath Johnson is Curator of Sample Project - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Fine Art Photography at the Oakland Museum of California and the Editor of Infant Business Card Capturing Light: Masterpieces of California Photography, 1850-2000 . Read more articles and essays concerning this institutional source by Sample Brief - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf,, visiting the sub-index page for the Oakland Museum of California in Resource Library Magazine . Search for Medical Permission Letter, more articles and essays on Brief Free, American art in Resource Library . See America's Distinguished Artists for biographical information on Resume For Medical Medical, historic artists. This page was originally published in Sample 2002 in Associate Resource Library Magazine . Please see Resource Library's Overview section for more information. Copyright 2012 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. Project Free Word! , an Arizona nonprofit corporation.

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MATHEW BAKER AND THE ART OF THE SHIPWRIGHT. From the gentleman Thomas Digges, the Sample Free Documents In Pdf,, focus now turns to an older contemporary, Mathew Baker. Baker (c.1530-1613) was a royal master shipwright under Elizabeth, and thus an important figure within the small but developing naval establishment. With one and sometimes two senior colleagues, he was responsible for constructing or rebuilding many of the Meal | Sop, ships which tackled the Spanish Armada of 1588. Template Documents? In 1605, his standing at the head of the ‘Art or Mystery of building and making of Ships’ was confirmed when he was created first Master of the newly founded Company of Shipwrights.1.

At first sight, the shift from Digges to Baker is a major one, without obvious points of contact. Apparently, we here move from the histories of (parent S Signature) W/school Imprint science and mathematics, as represented by Digges’s geometry, astronomy and ballistics, to the history of technology. We also seem to make a parallel social transition from a self- [page 108:] conscious gentleman to the dockyard world of an artisan. Yet I shall suggest that these oppositions are overly stark. There are continuities between the work and identities of Digges and Baker, continuities which were established through the practice of mathematics and the creation of the mathematical practitioner. The starting point and emblem for this chapter is an image from a manuscript begun by Mathew Baker and known as Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Figure 3.1).2 The picture shows a master shipwright and an assistant at work in a drawing office, the master wielding giant-sized dividers over a ‘plat’ of a ship in plan and - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, section.

The image is extraordinarily rich and provides vital clues to Baker’s transformation of Referral S Signature) Imprint ship design into a mathematical art and his simultaneous self-fashioning as a mathematical practitioner. Baker shows the master shipwright at work with paper (or vellum) drawings and plans. We need to Project Brief - 7+ Documents In Pdf, follow his lead and Infant Card, attend closely to these material resources and their uses. Yet, though design is as important a category to the history of technology as experiment is to the history of science, the practice of paper-based design is so familiar as to be frequently taken for granted. Sample Brief Template Free In Pdf, Word? Baker transports us back to a period when the design of ships was first being worked out on paper; his Fragments undercut the air of self-evidence which too often surrounds the practice of paper design. Sample Assistant? Rather than the wood of the ships themselves, it is therefore paper that [page 109: Figure 3.1] [page 110:] stands at the central focus of this study.3.

Most importantly, it was precisely on paper that Baker could connect mathematics and ship design. By drawing and manipulating ships in the medium used to solve geometrical problems and perform arithmetical calculation, he was able to juxtapose previously unrelated domains. On paper, the problems and Sample Brief Documents Word, tasks of ship design could be posed in new terms, and techniques could be transferred, explored and adapted. Moreover, paper could circulate through and beyond the shipyard, reaching and speaking the language of those with no direct experience of Qur'an 037.saffaat shipyard life. Paper was a mobile ‘place’ where shipwright and mathematician could meet and Project Template Documents In Pdf, Word, exchange. Indeed, without paper, Baker’s mathematics and his contacts with mathematical practitioners would have been not just difficult but incomprehensible and impossible. Baker’s image of a design office shows all the appurtenances of a methodical and regularised practice, with its drawings, scales, dividers, set square, pens, and notebooks.

Yet this is Infant Care & Babysitting Card & Letterhead Template Design not a transparent window onto the past, providing us with unmediated access to Baker’s workplace and Sample In Pdf,, procedures. It is itself a representation and was carefully constructed to communicate the image and Resume Sample For Medical Templates, values of the mathematising shipwright. Take the simple perspective scheme as an example. Despite their 15th-century Italian origins, the rules for perspective drawings remained novel in 16th century England and their results still carried a vivid sense of the powers of geometry. Baker’s perspective display endorsed those geometric values, and he exercised the skill of perspective representation elsewhere in Fragments (pp. 2-3). [page 111:] However, aside from its use of perspective, the artifice of Baker’s drawing can be more radically dismantled. Figure 3.2 shows a room with two men creating a perspective image, and might seem a possible source for Baker’s general motif. A closer comparison, looking not at Sample Project Template - 7+ In Pdf, Word the human figures but at the table on which they are working, shows that the connection is much stronger: Baker’s table is a direct copy from the engraving. This exact source is the final woodcut in Infant & Babysitting Business, Albrecht Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), a heavily-illustrated treatise on practical geometry directed specifically at painters. As will become clear later, there is independent evidence elsewhere in Baker’s Fragments that he knew and borrowed from Dürer’s text.

But the point here is that Baker was deliberately and self-consciously assembling his identity as a shipwright and designer, pulling together elements from the prestigious artistry and mathematics of Dürer. Now, the Brief Template - 7+ Free In Pdf,, medium for Thomas Digges’s self-fashioning was the word. Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat? With Baker, we have a visual as much as a verbal medium for the construction of identity. The visual contrast with Digges reinforces the crucial importance of drawing and images for an understanding of Baker’s identity. Template Free In Pdf, Word? Design is the Surah 037.saffaat, primary context for Brief In Pdf, Word his mathematical work. But Baker’s representation of the drawing office points to more than just design, mathematics and paper. Example Writing And Free Resume? The implied relationship between master and Project Brief Template Free Documents In Pdf,, subordinate shows that the place of design was a social as much as a technical space. As a master shipwright in 1562 and then a royal master shipwright in 1572, Baker was [page 112: Figure 3.2] [page 113:] accustomed to Resume For Medical Resume Templates Medical the exercise of control and Project Brief Template Free Documents Word, managerial responsibility.4 Indeed, he had been brought up to Care Business & Letterhead Template Design occupy a privileged position within the trade, for his father, James Baker, had been a master shipwright to Henry VIII.5 The first surviving reference to Sample Project Brief Template Documents In Pdf, Word Mathew is in a 1544 list of shipwrights in which, rather than appearing towards the end where his youth and low pay would have otherwise consigned him, he features at the top, directly under the name of his father.6 Though the Bakers did not create a dockyard dynasty comparable to that of the Pett family throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, Mathew Baker was clearly brought up to expect leadership and a place apart from ordinary workmen.7. As an elite shipwright, Baker’s status as a craftsman needs to be carefully and explicitly weighed. Unfortunately, in the existing historiography of scholars and craftsmen there is Tafsir 037.saffaat disturbingly little precision in pinning down the identity of Project Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, artisans. Medical Cover Blog? Frequently there seems to be a tacit understanding that the craft world was made up of small workshops populated by Sample Project individual masters, with perhaps an apprentice or two, and a journeyman.

This stereotype is entirely inadequate for Baker. Baker’s role and responsibilities can be gauged from the quarterly account books drawn up by the Navy Treasurer. Unfortunately, these detailed accounts survive for only a few years of the Elizabethan reign. Care Card Design? However, the review of Project Brief even a single year provides a good sense of Baker’s official status. [page 114:] By 1578 Baker was well-established as a royal master shipwright. He began the year directing routine maintenance on the fleet stationed in Gillingham Water (Chatham) and was responsible for surveying the condition of the ships there.8 Probably as a result of this survey, substantial repairs were later carried out on four ships. Resume For Medical Resume? Prior to Project Brief - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, the arrival of these decayed ships at Cover Samples Blog Deptford, Baker supervised the construction and fitting of wooden ways in the dry dock, and Template - 7+ Free Word, it was probably also at this time that he and Peter Pett installed a new pair of floodgates at Infant Care Business Card Template the head of the great dock there, ‘for the Speedier Receiving in and taking out of her graces ship Dry Docked and Repaired there.’ For the ship repairs themselves, Baker headed a workforce of shipwrights and caulkers at Deptford which runs to nine pages in the accounts. After several months’ work, when his last ship was almost completed, and the others had already been relaunched and had their masts reset, Baker moved on.

An additional decayed ship arrived at Deptford for dismasting and was then taken to Woolwich to Sample Project Brief - 7+ Free In Pdf, be dry-docked; Baker directed both the repair of the hull at Woolwich and the refashioning of the mast at Deptford. Weekly Template | Sop? With this work over, he ended the year on Project Template a smaller-scale project at Woolwich, where he led a team of Imprint six shipwrights who broke down an old ship and Sample - 7+ In Pdf,, then used the timber to Tafsir Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat frame a lighter for the transport of artillery. Baker evidently had wide-ranging technical expertise and the habit of management. Moreover, he was not restricted to the royal shipyards. When a new [page 115:] ship was to Sample Template Free In Pdf, be built it was common practice for the master shipwrights to go into the woods and mark the Weekly Meal Plan Example, trees whose shapes and sizes were most appropriate for the projected vessel.9 Nor was Baker exclusively concerned with the building and Brief - 7+ Free, maintenance of naval ships and dockyard structures. Beyond his official navy duties he also built for private customers ( Fragments , p. 22 refers to the Edward of a ‘Mr Willames’). Resume Sample For Medical Templates Medical? Baker’s entrepreneurial activity extended in other directions too. In 1578 he was paid for supplying materials to the navy and he also provided victuals and Project Template Documents In Pdf, Word, lodgings for shipwrights prested into royal service at Plan Template | Sop both Woolwich and Deptford. From this schematic and extremely compressed review of his responsibilities, Baker’s relatively high status is clear. Although the division of labour among the Brief, few permanent and many temporary naval workers was strongly developed, the masters had to Tafsir display competence in diverse fields, and they were rewarded with position and pay at the top of the dockyard hierarchy.

They cannot be thought of as ‘rude mechanicals’, humble artisans in a severely circumscribed sphere of activity.10 Rather, they were versatile figures who, with increasing seniority, were expected to manage resources and workers as well as direct the construction and repair of ships. Though of a lower social status than an esquire such as Thomas Digges, Mathew Baker was thus of some standing. Master by name and rank, he was marked out from junior colleagues and occupied a level comparable with (if not identical to) [page 116:] that of a gentleman. Baker confounds the Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Word, traditional category of the craftsman or artisan: he was working as a manager and technical leader, exercising responsibility in a strategic industry. Nor was shipping a static technology. All aspects of the industry were undergoing rapid development throughout Europe in Tafsir Surah, the 15th and Sample Template Free Documents, 16th centuries. Commercially, there were the For Medical Assistant Templates Medical, early voyages of discovery and the subsequent development of long-distance trade. Organisationally, there was the establishment of the first permanent, ocean-going navies.

Technically, there were challenges such as the adoption of Mediterranean carvel construction techniques in Project - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word, Northern Europe and the development of 3- and 4-masted full-rigged ships. And militarily, there was the introduction of heavy artillery firing from lower decks. Resume Sample For Medical Assistant Templates? The elevated role of the master shipwright needs to be understood in terms of these economic, administrative, technological and military changes.11. With its division of labour and stratification of management and control, the naval dockyard was already on its way to becoming a - if not the - major industrial site of the early modern world. Baker was at the heart of this capital-intensive industry.

Moreover, his expertise was sufficient to give him wider credibility beyond the realm of the shipyard: Baker’s service at Dover in the 1570s and ’80s precisely confirms his perceived position as a trusted agent for a range of complex tasks. Baker thus has an exemplary significance not just for shipbuilding and ship design but for larger questions in the history of technology and design. Sample - 7+? Traditionally, the study of technological design in the Renaissance has been devoted to civil and military architecture and the design of machines, with shipbuilding kept separate in (parent S Signature), the [page 117:] distinct domain of maritime history.12 Yet, in many respects, the rapid development of ships and maritime institutions posed larger design challenges than in those other mechanical and architectural technologies. The Venetian Vettor Fausto commented in 1530 that. if knowledge of the architecture of buildings on land is Project Brief Template In Pdf, Word so thoroughly difficult, what should I say about Meal Plan Example that of the sea, where everything is drawn out not by straight lines (which is an almost easy method) but by curves and variations repeatedly made to Brief - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word them?13. Baker’s Fragments provide some of the most valuable archival evidence for these complex procedures of ship design. Imprint? Moreover, they not only signal the Project - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, extension of design into paper practice, but witness the new identity of the elite mechanician as mathematical practitioner. Mathew Baker’s manuscript was christened Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry when it was acquired and preserved by Samuel Pepys. Pepys’s choice of title was deliberate and appropriate.

Fragments is not a coherent volume; its pages display an enormous variety of Letter - My Document Blog format and Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, style. Some parts are finely executed, perhaps for a planned presentation volume, while other sections are no more than notebook pages. There are coloured draughts of ships with their full decoration; [page 118:] historical and mythological sketches; a map; plans, elevations and sections of ships; and practical mathematical devices for scaling and Medical Assistant Cover Letter Document Blog, generating proportions. Interspersed amongst this profusion of different representations are various jottings, calculations and explanations - even a poem. The diversity of material in Fragments complicates the question of its dating. Though the volume illustrates and records details of ships built by Baker between the early 1570s and the mid-1580s, it is possible that the surviving text and images were drawn up in later years. Project Documents In Pdf,? Nor is there any guarantee that all the material was created at the same time. There is thus no secure way of linking Fragments to a particular stage of Tafsir Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat Baker’s long career.

Unfortunately, aside from administrative records, which do not speak with Baker’s own voice, there are no other substantial sources for his design practice. Thus, in contrast to the case of Thomas Digges, it is not possible to reconstruct the development of Baker’s career and to investigate changes in his commitments, values and self-presentation. The technical and social innovations implicit in Project Brief Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word, Fragments therefore need to be teased out Meal, through comparison with sources from elsewhere. Though Fragments is one of the first and most important texts on Project Brief Documents Word shipbuilding, it is not the Disciplinary Referral (parent S Signature) Imprint, earliest to Project Brief Template - 7+ Documents Word survive. From in and around the Medical Assistant Samples Document, Venetian Arsenal, there exists a series of Sample Template manuscripts which reach back as far as the early 15th century. These texts are cryptic in Plan, the extreme, using obscure local terminology to Template - 7+ Documents record the proportions of vessels, and Referral (parent, accompanying their recipe-style instructions with rough sketches.14 Contemporary with Baker are the Sample Project Brief Free, first surviving texts from [page 119:] the Iberian tradition (itself closely related to Italian practices). The most important texts were compiled by observers of Tafsir Qur'an Surah shipbuilding rather than shipwrights and contrast markedly with the earlier Venetian documents. As educated outsiders, these Spanish and Portuguese authors brought the resources of literate culture to bear on Sample Project Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, their new subject. Drawing on classical precedents and literary forms, they produced discursive and systematic treatments of shipbuilding accessible to an audience unfamiliar with dockyard culture.15. Baker’s Fragments is distinct from both the Venetian and Iberian documents: his volume is not only the work of a practising shipwright but it incorporates innovative uses of paper such as his production of detailed and finely finished scale drawings. Indeed, the Cover Letter Blog, other European sources are, paradoxically, often more indicative of the design practice that preceded paper techniques.

So how were ships designed without paper? By the Project Brief - 7+ Free Word, 16th century an apparatus of simple though powerful rules and techniques had been developed for large vessels. Ship design was memorised in proportional rules, and its complex [page 120:] curves generated and recorded by full-size wooden moulds or templates. Technically advanced shipwrights employed a sophisticated constructive geometry which used wood rather than paper and Templates, took place not in a design office but out in the shipyard itself.16. In the later 16th century, English naval vessels, like earlier Mediterranean and Sample Project Brief - 7+ Documents Word, Iberian ships, were carvel or skeleton-built; that is, the keel was laid down, the stem and sternposts erected, and Infant Card Template, then the Brief - 7+ Free In Pdf,, frames or ribs set up along the Infant Care Business & Letterhead Template Design, length of the keel, before the planking was applied.

The shape of skeleton-built frames thus determined the form of the hull.17. However, carvel was (and is) a broad category, encompassing numerous solutions to the problem of moulding the timbers.18 In the Project Brief Documents Word, simplest form, one or two identical master frames were placed midships and flexible battens or ribbands run [page 121:] round them from stem to sternpost. The shapes of all the other frames were then taken from the ribbands. The only frame actually to be specified in Example Of Resume Writing And Free, advance was the master frame, for the ribbands were adjusted during framing to give a fair form. More advanced techniques for large vessels reduced the reliance on ribbands, by pre-specifying the frames in the central section of the hull and reserving the use of Sample Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, ribbands to the ends of the ship, where the curves become sharper.

The sophisticated techniques for deriving these pre-determined frames show the Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat, Renaissance shipwrights’ constructive geometry at work. The shipwrights’ first step was to Project Free Documents In Pdf, determine the form of the midship frame, since it was from this frame that the others in the central section of a ship were shaped. Proportional rules of thumb defined its dimensions and arcs, and its shape was recorded in the form of full-size templates (or moulds). Several templates were needed because the large frames were assembled from several pieces of timber, each of which was cut out and shaped by following the appropriate template pattern. The shipwrights used the same templates for all the other pre-determined central frames.

To generate the smoothly varying shape of the Cover Samples, hull, the trick was to manipulate and reconfigure the Project Brief Template - 7+, relative orientations of these templates. Starting from the form of the Of Resume And Free Builder, midship frame, the templates were slightly adjusted for each of the other frames in Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Documents Word, the central section of the hull, in Disciplinary Referral Imprint, order to create the rising and narrowing of the ship’s lines towards bow and stern. These slight changes were controlled not by paper drawings or calculations but by full-scale graduations marked directly on the templates themselves, or on boards. The case of narrowing provides a convenient example of this full-scale [page 122:] constructive geometry. Brief - 7+ Free Documents? Though mentioned in Venetian sources, the narrowing procedure was most clearly spelled out in the 16th century by one of the educated observers of the shipwright’s art, the Portuguese Fernando Oliveira.19. The shipwright used a proportional rule of thumb to Disciplinary Referral (parent W/school calculate by how much the ship’s side should narrow between the midship frame and the tail-frame, the last frame fore or aft in the hull’s central section. The question of Project Brief Template In Pdf, narrowing then resolved into the problem of subdividing this dimension so as to smoothly pull in the frames between midship and tail-frame. The narrowing dimension was first taken as a radius and used to produce a semicircle. On each quadrant the shipwright stepped out with dividers the same number of equal arcs as there were narrowing frames. Qur'an? Joining up the matching points gave a series of chords (Figure 3.3). The intersections of chord and radius produced a graduated scale that would then be used to Sample Project - 7+ Free Documents smoothly narrow the hull (Figure 3.4).

Each mark on the scale indicated the incremental amount by which successive frames were to be pulled in to narrow the hull: initially a small amount, but gradually more and more (Figure 3.5). Oliveira’s account shows how the shipwright solved the problem of narrowing given only the overall narrowing dimension and the number of frames. However, while he usefully indicates the steps in the procedure, it needs to be emphasised that Oliveira’s text and Referral (parent W/school Imprint, drawings are in one sense fundamentally misleading. Their appearance in manuscript form intrudes paper into a procedure depending on wood. In practice, the narrowing was worked out full-scale with string [page 123: Figure 3.3] [page 124: Figure 3.4] [page 125: Figure 3.5] [page 126:] and board rather than as a miniaturised representation on paper.20. In the pre-paper world of the Project Brief Template - 7+ In Pdf,, shipyard, design was thus not the same as construction, for frames were specified in advance by constructive geometry. But design and construction were not, and Imprint, could not be, sharply distinguished. With its full-scale wooden templates and tools, design shared the same material medium as construction.

It also shared the same workplace, since both were performed out in - 7+, the shipyard. Moreover, all the evidence suggests that apprentices learnt the craft by observing and Tafsir Qur'an 037.saffaat, copying these operations in the workplace. Instruction was delivered informally, as directions and advice to be followed on Template Documents In Pdf, the job.21 Oral and material culture were seamlessly joined. From the wooden world of the shipyard, we can now return to Mathew Baker’s image of shipwrights in a drawing office (Figure 3.1; above, p. Medical Assistant - My Blog? 109). I began by displaying some of the elements from which the image was artfully assembled. But now the Sample - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word, wooden work of the Tafsir Surah 037.saffaat, shipyards demonstrates the extent to which the very practice of design on paper itself had to be constructed. Far from being a natural or inevitable activity, the radical character of paper work should now be evident. Not only does it not represent the only way to design a ship, but it contrasts markedly with the templates and graduated boards of pre-plan practice. With Baker, we are now [page 127:] removed from the busy world of the wooden shipyard: design is portrayed as inhabiting a space quite different from the work of actual construction. Brief Template - 7+ Word? Moreover, not just the location, but the very medium of design has been transformed.

The master works with dividers on the plan and section of Weekly | Sop a ship, translating the complex geometry of narrowing into Sample Free Documents Word miniaturised form through the Meal Template Example, technique of Free Documents scaled drawing. Baker’s image shows us design inhabiting a distinctive new space, with new materials and implements, and the suggestion of new social relationships. If it is clear that ships could be built without plans and drawings, how did ‘plats’ become successful?22 Baker’s Fragments provide unrivalled access to this crucial question. Paper became a key feature of Baker’s practice because he made it serve a whole series of related functions. Baker’s manuscript pages became a site on Care Template Design which technique, control, teaching, administration and the navy could be juxtaposed and combined. Fragments shows how Baker not only Sample Brief - 7+ Documents In Pdf,, served his own interests through the use of graphic design and paper work, but enrolled the interests of others. By examining the didactic possibilities of Meal Plan Example Fragments and Brief Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word, the integration of paper practice into the hierarchy of Medical Assistant Letter Samples - My navy administration, I will indicate how ‘plats’ could help to Sample - 7+ Free In Pdf, redefine relationships and recruit allies.

But first I investigate the Weekly, more personal and private benefits which Baker derived from design on Sample Project Word paper. Paper could provide a medium of Resume Sample Assistant Templates record and reference. Baker vigorously exploited this capacity. On his pages are juxtaposed geographically and temporally diverse creations, from Noah’s ark and the first fleets of the ancient world (pp. 1-3), [page 128:] to contemporary ships whose details he knew at first hand. Close to home, Baker included evidence of Sample Brief Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word his own father’s ships.23 But he also ranged much more widely.

Amongst the contemporary materials, Baker drew the midship mould of Infant & Babysitting & Letterhead Template Design a Greek merchant ship (p. 12); his knowledge of its form probably dates back to a Mediterranean voyage of 1551.24. Baker also documented Venetian midship mould procedures, providing unique evidence of historical changes in their techniques (p. 11). The likely source for Baker’s awareness of Venetian practice is Sample Brief In Pdf, pointedly suggested by the navy quarterly accounts, where Baker’s name appears directly above that of a certain Augustino Levello.25 Levello was a Venetian shipwright who had originally been brought over to build galleys for Henry VIII but who then remained in Meal Template | Sop, English service for over 40 years.26 Baker learnt and adapted not just Venetian graphic techniques, but even adopted their terminology.27 In Fragments , Baker was able to compare diverse designs and techniques which would never previously have been juxtaposed. Paper also provided a medium in which experimentation was relatively [page 129:] cheap. As well as recording the midship moulds of others’ ships, Fragments also shows Baker at work on new possibilities of his own. The rationale for his focus on these midship main frames is very explicit: ‘forasmuch as the goodness of every ship doth consist in the perfectness of the midship mould it is requisite [that] the same be perfectly made’ (p. 34). Typically, Baker’s midship moulds were drawn over proportional grids and made up of touching arcs of circles. But they did not conform to only one pattern: the grid was changed, as were the number of centres and the way in which they were found.

Baker used the Brief - 7+ Free Documents, pages of Fragments as a medium in which to test new measures and ratios, varying parameters in Care Business Card & Letterhead Template, order to assess their influence on the form of the hull. His most systematic exploitation of the possibilities opened up by design on paper appears in two numbered sequences of midship moulds. With no text explaining the variations, he drew a total of 16 moulds, each differing a little from the others (pp. 36-9, 42-3, 46-7). Even when he came closest to prescribing a canonical form for Sample Project midship moulds his trials did not stop; despite giving explicit and seemingly definitive instructions for the draught of Surah 037.saffaat a midship mould on one page, the accompanying drawing actually departed slightly from them. When drawing the upper futtock (topmost section of the mould) he carefully scribed the lines laid down in his text, but he did not ink them in. Instead, he scribed an alternative orientation and then finally settled for a third choice (pp.

34-5; see Figure 3.6). Baker was seeking to achieve a new level of control over more than just the form of the midship mould. Whereas the most sophisticated template techniques worked with only the central section of the hull, Baker aspired to Project Brief Word more: his rising and Example Of Resume Writing | Resume Examples And Free Builder, narrowing lines cover the whole length of the ship (p. 21, see Figure 3.7). Baker was [page 130: Figure 3.6] [page 131: Figure 3.7] [page 132:] attempting the Sample Project Brief Free In Pdf,, complete specification of the Disciplinary S Signature) Imprint, form of the Sample Project Brief - 7+ In Pdf,, hull on paper. But Fragments did not have an audience of only one.

It was not a purely personal document. Assistant Letter Samples Blog? Despite the Project Template Free Documents In Pdf, Word, master shipwrights’ reputation for Qur'an 037.saffaat guarding the Brief Template Free Documents In Pdf, Word, secrets of Weekly Plan Template Example their craft, there are indications that Fragments was written for others too, and that the design practices that it reveals were embedded in wider relationships.28. One segment of the additional audience for Baker’s texts and draughts was the Project Free Documents, group of Disciplinary (parent S Signature) W/school his pupils and apprentices. Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free In Pdf,? Fragments represents a new departure in the teaching considered appropriate to a shipwright. The didactic dimension of Fragments is suggested by Baker’s language: ‘in this division observe all the rules before taught’ (p.

40); ‘Now that I have showed how to Qur'an 037.saffaat know the Sample Project - 7+ Documents Word, tonnage of a ship . ’ (p. 154). Moreover, we know that he had apprentices. Even in his eighties, when he prepared his will, Baker still had two ‘servants’ to whom he bequeathed various ‘books and Assistant Cover Letter Document Blog, instruments of the art of shipping and moulds belonging to the same.’29 In 1626, Phineas Pett certified that one John May had been ‘bred as an apprentice and servant’ to Baker.30. The same Phineas Pett, himself a master shipwright to James I and Charles I, provides vital evidence of the character of Baker’s teaching. Despite much enmity between the two men in subsequent years, Pett was to recall in his autobiography that in Sample Template - 7+ Free Word, the winter of Tafsir Surah 1595/6, in the evenings, commonly I spent my time to Project Brief Template Documents Word good purposes, as [page 133:] in cyphering, drawing and practising to attain the knowledge of my profession, and Weekly Template | Sop Example, I then found Mr Baker sometime forward to give me instructions, from whose help I must acknowledge I received my greatest lights.31. Pett’s testimony is of exceptional interest.

Firstly, it specifies the area in Sample Template - 7+ Free, which he supposed knowledge of his profession to lie: ‘cyphering, drawing and practising’. Cyphering - calculation using Arabic numerals - and drawing are central features of Fragments : Pett’s perception of the shipwright’s art mirrors the character of Baker’s paper work. In addition, primary responsibility for fostering this perception is ascribed to Baker, who was evidently encouraging and open with his knowledge, even though Pett was never his apprentice; in an (admittedly flattering) letter to Baker of 1603, Pett remarked that ‘although I served no years in your service, yet I must ever acknowledge whatever I have of any art (if I have any) it came only from you’.32. Pett’s casual comment that Baker’s instruction was given in Medical Cover Samples - My Document, the evenings also suggests a deeper point. Sample Project - 7+ Word? Shipwrights traditionally learnt their trade by Qur'an the observation and imitation of a master out in the shipyard. The art was passed on during the hours of the working day and the process did not demand literacy or formal numeracy. But Baker was sponsoring an alternative approach to teaching, carried out when work was over.

Facility in Project Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, calculation and draughting techniques was developed and literacy probably assumed. Baker was promoting a form of Example Of Resume Writing Resume training separate from the exercise of the craft at the workplace. So not only design, but craft teaching too, was removed from the wooden world of the shipyard and transferred to Sample Project Brief Template Documents In Pdf, Word a new space like that of [page 134:] Baker’s drawing office (Figure 3.1).33. The implications of this shift in the place of design and teaching are best exemplified not by the evidence of a shipwright but by Sir Robert Dudley (1574-1649), the illegitimate son of the Earl of Leicester. Dudley spent much of his life in Italy, where he published his lavish magnum opus Dell’Arcano del Mare (1646-7), a multi-volume work which expounds and illustrates shipbuilding amongst many other nautical and navigational subjects. But Dudley’s shipbuilding interests originated before he fled England in 1605, for he was referred to in 1607 as Baker’s pupil (‘scolare’).34 That Dudley should have had a shipwright as a ‘master’ is Resume Sample Resume Templates remarkable for, though illegitimate, he had been brought up in the ranks of the nobility. The relationship between master and pupil was surely only conceivable because Baker had rendered both teaching and design as paper practices, separated from the shipyard where common workmen exercised their trade. Robert Dudley was not the only shipyard outsider to benefit from the work embodied in Fragments . In addition to its didactic context, Baker’s work also had an administrative significance, for Sample Brief - 7+ Free In Pdf, design on paper was integrated into the navy’s decision-making process. An important audience for finely finished draughts such as [page 135:] those in Fragments was the Navy Board and, beyond it, the Privy Council. Indeed, shipwrights’ plats on Example Of Resume Resume Builder occasion went to the highest authority in the land. In a letter of 1588, addressed to the three royal masters (Peter Pett, Richard Chapman and Baker), the principal officers of the navy requested that.

the Plats of the Ships, Galleasses and Crompsters that were lately determined to be built should be set out Project Template In Pdf,, fair in Example Examples Resume Builder, Plats and brought to my Lord Admiral that her Majesty may see them.35. Navy expenditure was a major drain on the national coffers. Yet those ultimately responsible for the military security and solvency of the realm were unlikely to have either experience or understanding of the Sample Project Brief Template, dockyards and their products. Baker later recalled how Lord Treasurer Burghley had opened his house to the meetings of master shipwrights and Meal Plan Template Example, Lords of the Council at which plats were displayed and resolved upon.36 By bringing proposed ships into the administrative chambers of state, plats made complex issues of performance and price directly visible to the Lords of the Council as well as the Sample Documents Word, Navy Officers. As a tangible focus for the hard bargaining and Meal Plan | Sop Example, negotiation which preceded the approval of new naval construction, the miniature representations of scaled drawings extended the financial and technical control available to Sample - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word both the Medical Samples Blog, naval and Project Documents In Pdf, Word, civil authorities.

At the same time as he used plans to serve the Meal Example, interests of his superiors, Baker was also promoting his own interests as an indispensable servant of the crown. Sample Project Brief - 7+ Free Documents? Nor was this a game of merely nominal status; the stakes were high. Especially during the 1570s and 1580s there was almost continuous administrative upheaval and in-fighting, with a corresponding uncertainty over the exact distribution of naval [page 136:] responsibility and Sample Assistant Resume, power. There were serious disputes and constantly shifting alliances between the different players. Insecurity and distrust were rife: ‘before, the master shipwrights did direct, but now they are to be directed; and Project Template Free Word, being but hirelings were glad to please their master’.37 Paper design helped to bolster the role of the Infant & Letterhead Template Design, master shipwrights in this unstable environment, and to fend off threats to their position and prestige. Yet as Baker and his senior colleagues became accustomed to conference with the Privy Council, they became correspondingly detached from the temporary workforce of ordinary shipwrights. There were probably therefore losers as well as winners in the shift towards paper practice. Large dockyards such as the Venetian Arsenal already possessed a hierarchy of expertise and authority, but Baker’s new skills consolidated the existing division of Sample labour and elevated the master further above the ranks of his humbler colleagues.38 The master was now a more remote figure who could direct work from a distance; Baker is, for (parent S Signature) W/school Imprint example, reported to have ‘moulded’ a ship, which was then framed by Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Documents a close colleague.39 [page 137:] Baker inserted his paper design work within the vertical hierarchy of apprentices, masters and governing authorities who practised and regulated naval shipbuilding. Referral (parent S Signature) Imprint? In doing so he was shaping a new place for Sample Project Brief Word design: a new physical location, a new position within the technical practices of the craft, a new set of materials, and a new social and administrative setting.

But paper practice also created novel links outside the naval establishment. In Fragments , Baker’s most important new investment was in Assistant Letter Samples - My Document Blog, the contemporary world of practical mathematics. I therefore now turn to Sample Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, his horizontal integration of ship design with the mathematical arts. We have seen that Mathew Baker’s Fragments was a multi-purpose document. It was used as a repository for constructed ships, experimental designs and international comparisons; it consolidated technical control in the hands of the For Medical Resume, master shipwright; it embodied new materials for the teaching of the craft; and it included finely finished draughts suitable both for presentation and as a formal record of contractual accountability. However, Fragments also had another use, as a site for calculation. Many pages record the arithmetical determination of such quantities as tonnages and the areas of specific midship moulds. But Baker’s most characteristic mathematics was graphical rather than arithmetical. There is a 20 page section of the manuscript which is especially striking, for it uses thick pasteboard rather than ordinary paper as a medium for proportional scales and graphical devices (p.

57ff.). Among these various ‘paper instruments’ were scales based on graduated series of concentric semicircles [page 138:] (Figure 3.8), as well as others depending on the principle of similar triangles (Figure 3.9). Both types embodied rules of proportions for dimensions such as moulded breadths or the lengths of masts and Project Template - 7+ In Pdf,, yards; a number still have index threads attached, while some show signs of extensive usage. Amongst its other benefits for Baker, Fragments was thus also intended as a mathematical compendium. But Baker’s paper scales and instruments were more than just working tools. These devices were vital to his self-conception: mathematics was a primary resource in Baker’s reconstruction of his identity as a master shipwright. For, rather than the skill of manual craftsmanship with wood, Baker adopted a rhetoric of arithmetic and geometry. He rejected the work of older masters and Assistant Cover Letter - My Blog, charged that they had proceeded by mere rule of Sample Project Brief Template Free Documents Word thumb.

Lacking mathematical knowledge, they had been unable to provide a rationale for Writing | Resume And Free Resume Builder their technical decisions. Before plots and demonstration were used the master workmen in Project - 7+ Documents, those days had certain rules of proportion, but not such as agreed with art, for that they wanted the use of Arithmetic and Geometry for For Medical Assistant Resume Templates Medical the searching out of Project Template Free Documents those things that otherwise is impossible to be found (p. 28). Even contemporaries who did use plans were open to criticism. Although at this day there be many that use plots yet the best understandeth not the true making thereof, neither the truth of Qur'an any circular line therein contained (p. 16).

For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were the ‘two supporting sciences’ (p. 33). Mathematics acted as the primary point of reference in bolstering his self-conscious disdain for traditional methods. Brief Template - 7+ Free Word? However, Baker construed arithmetic and geometry in highly specific ways. They were not the sciences of abstract number and magnitude; rather, they were characterised in concrete, even manual, terms. [page 139: Figure 3.8] [page 140: Figure 3.9] [page 141:] Arithmetic and Tafsir Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat, its calculations were pre-eminently to be done ‘with the pen’.

Baker’s pen-reckoning implicitly rejected the arithmetic of many contemporaries. Calculating ‘with the pen’ (or cyphering) meant using Arabic numerals. The alternative practice was to work ‘with the counters’, requiring a counting board and casting counters, and normally recording the sums in Roman numerals.40 Baker’s preference for cyphering over casting did not stem from unfamiliarity with the latter method. Sample Brief - 7+ Free Word? The shipyard clerks with whom he was in regular contact evidently reckoned with board and counters: the Navy accounts use Roman numerals to detail many payments to stationers for ‘casting compters’.41 But Baker learnt his arithmetic from books rather than the administrative practices of the shipyard. When he extracted roots and worked with the symbols of algebra he was drawing on texts such as Robert Recorde’s Whetstone of Infant Care Design Witte (1557), which went well beyond the elementary calculations required for accounting.42. If the arithmetic of Project Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Fragments was done ‘with the Example | Resume, pen’, the Project Brief - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word, archetypical operation of Weekly Plan | Sop Example geometry was the use of dividers and straight edge to Project - 7+ Word produce midship moulds, plans and elevations. For Baker, each of these drawings was a ‘geometrical demonstration’ (pp. 34, 73).

However, such ‘demonstrations’ were a ‘showing forth’; the term carried no connotation of proof. Baker’s conception of demonstration as graphic display rather than rigorous proof contrasts with more learned treatments of [page 142:] geometry.43 Yet his drawings were not casual sketches. Part of the apparatus of the ‘geometrical demonstration’ was the linear scale, which related the miniature ship on paper to the intended full size in Resume For Medical Resume Templates, wood. Working by the scale rendered Baker’s plats as exact depictions.44. Despite his graphical emphasis, Baker was not unaware of the Euclidean tradition. Indeed he twice makes explicit reference to Euclid’s Elements , both times to the Pythagorean theorem (I, 47). He first uses ‘the 47 proposition’ to find the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle in the grid of a midship mould (p. 34).

On the second occasion he cites not the theorem itself but a corollary added by the French mathematician and poet Jacques Peletier: ‘the first 47 proposition added by pelitarus’.45 Yet, characteristically, this latter invocation of Euclidean authority sanctioned a purely graphical procedure using dividers and measured magnitudes. Moreover, as well as adapting Euclidean material, Baker also translated several standard problems of practical geometry into the form of paper instruments. Textbook chestnuts such as the relations between squares and circles or cubes and spheres were converted into graphical format (pp. 66-7), while Baker also discussed the Brief Template Free Word, volumes of cylinders and prisms (p. 32). For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were characterised by the operations of pen, dividers, scale and Tafsir Qur'an 037.saffaat, straight edge. Arithmetic and Sample Brief Free Documents In Pdf, Word, geometry complemented each [page 143:] other but were independent; together they served as the ‘two supporting pillars of every art’ (p. 34). Hence, in resolving a question one could work with or without number (p.

40). The geometrical answer to a problem could be checked against the arithmetical: after answering by the scale Baker would try by the pen, reaching a figure ‘agreeing with the geometrical demonstration’ (p. 73). The pen and Tafsir Qur'an Surah, the demonstration had their respective advantages and disadvantages. Proportional scales embodying the principle of Brief Word similar triangles (such as that in Figure 3.9) could be used with only a few proportions whereas arithmetic met the same problem with a ‘rule [which] is both certain and general’ (p. Assistant Letter - My? 65). There were thus restrictions on proportional scales and their range of application.

But they were often more appropriate to Baker’s design practice than the pen: although this scale doth not give so precise the fraction as the pen doth, yet it doth give the true proportion of the lines which in the drawing of plats is better than to have it given in number (p. Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ In Pdf,? 68). Moreover, the Plan Example, achievement of precision in cyphering could require calculations which Baker was happy to avoid. The rules he devised for tonnage frequently called for the extraction of cube roots. Rather than carry out the complete calculation, Baker preferred to indicate that it was indeed possible, but that an Sample Project - 7+ Word easier approximation was permissible.

At the Care Business & Letterhead Design, end of a series of calculations peppered with arithmetical errors, he remarked that. although these [roots] are not extracted so near as they might be yet is it within one tenth. My desire is rather to show the rule reason to do the same than the Template Documents, preciseness thereof . To those that hath been brought up in the trade of a Carpenter that hath the S Signature) Imprint, knowledge of extracting of roots this may suffice (p. 153). There cannot have been many shipwrights ‘brought up in the trade of Sample Brief Template Free a carpenter’ who were able to extract square and cubic roots. Through the Examples Resume Builder, rhetoric of arithmetic and [page 144:] geometry as well as the adoption of specific mathematical techniques, Baker was prescribing a new identity for the shipwright. Combining experience of the Word, craft with imported mathematical knowledge and values, the shipwright was now to be identified as a mathematical mechanician.

Baker’s own route to this new identity came not only via familiarity with mathematical texts but through personal contacts. The material in Fragments suggests successful collaboration within the naval and Weekly Plan Template | Sop Example, mathematical community, as well as at least one instance of creative discord. Examining these instances highlights Baker’s personal as well as intellectual integration with the Sample Brief Free, small group of contemporary mathematical practitioners. Baker’s measuring scales provide a first, indirect, hint of Disciplinary Referral W/school Imprint his affiliations. Brief Documents In Pdf,? Linear scales are a repeated feature of Fragments , but Baker occasionally used a transversal scale for greater accuracy. These square scales, with diagonal lines running across horizontals, were graduated into Medical Cover Letter - My Document Blog divisions corresponding to one inch (Figure 3.10). Sample - 7+? Just as ordinary linear scales had been only recently introduced into English map and Example Of Resume Writing Examples And Free Builder, chart making, so transversals were considered a novelty in Brief Documents Word, astronomical instrumentation.

Thomas Digges recommended their use in 1573 for his astronomical cross staff, attributing this improved method of graduation to Of Resume Writing And Free Builder the navigator and instrument maker Richard Chancellor (d. 1556), ‘peritissimus ingeniosissimus Artifex Mathematicus’.46 It therefore seems scarcely coincidental that when Baker voyaged to the Mediterranean in 1551, Richard Chancellor was also [page 145: Figure 3.10] [page 146:] among the crew.47. On the Project Template - 7+, same page as one of Baker’s diagonal scales is a condensed ship draught which gives further clues to his mathematical associates. This abbreviated plat shows the stem, stern and midship mould of a small ship labelled the ‘Judeth - Borowgh’ (p. 6, see Figure 3.10). In 1573, the navigators Stephen and William Borough received a government bounty for the building of the Judith ; evidently it was commissioned from Baker.48 William Borough later became a permanent officer of the navy and was an ally of Baker both in the internal politics of navy administration as well as during other projects such as Dover harbour.49 The evidence of the Judith indicates that, prior to their navy collaboration in the 1580s, William Borough was already an admirer of Resume Medical Baker’s skill. One small remnant of contact between Borough and Baker is Sample Project Brief Template Free Word their use of the same form of decorated linear scale, by Baker in his ship draughts, by Example Of Resume Writing | Resume Builder Borough in his sea charts.50 But they shared more substantial interests. Aside from his concerns with mathematical navigation and Project Documents In Pdf,, magnetism, Borough also dealt with questions of shipbuilding. In particular, he compiled a memorandum which not only laid down proportions for various types of merchant and naval ship but also offered a method for [page 147:] tackling the thorny question of tonnage determination.51 Less surprisingly, Baker also treated the qualities required in different classes of 037.saffaat ship (eg p. 40). Sample Project Brief - 7+ Documents Word? Moreover, Fragments records his efforts to grapple with tonnage in a way which matches the arithmetical techniques propounded by Borough (pp.

65, 153-4). Beyond these overlapping professional interests, Baker and Borough espoused the same mathematical agenda. Baker’s emphasis on | Resume Resume the primary role of arithmetic and geometry is also found in Borough’s Discours of the Variation of the Cumpas (1581). In the Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf,, preface to that text Borough portrayed arithmetic and geometry as ‘the grounds of all Science and 037.saffaat, certain arts’, and he paused to commend those mechanical practitioners who. by the studious practice and exercise in these arts have attained to rare and singular knowledge: In Architecture, Vitruvius the Roman: In painting that famous German Albertus Durerus: And in building of Ships, Mathew Baker our countryman.52. To be bracketed in Sample Free, such elevated company was high praise indeed. The clear implication is that Baker and Borough worked closely together, exchanging ideas and sharing techniques. Baker was in contact with Chancellor (d. 1556) during his early career.

Borough (d. 1598) was a principal ally of Baker’s maturity. But even Baker’s latter years witnessed fruitful contact with a new generation of mathematicians. Example Writing Builder? Most remarkable is the evidence of his connection with Thomas Harriot, probably the most expert English practitioner of the Sample Project Brief Free In Pdf,, mathematical sciences in the early 17th century. [page 148:] Amongst Harriot’s copious manuscript remains there is a short but significant series of papers on the design of ships.53 His contributions relied on mastery of relatively advanced mathematics.

He raided the repertoire of conic sections for ellipses to represent the arcs of frames and employed cubic and Assistant Samples Blog, quartic curves to capture the Sample Project Brief Template Free In Pdf,, subtle risings and narrowings of a ship’s lines. In mustering such mathematical resources, Harriot was working at the limits of late 16th and early 17th century English mathematics. Yet he was not working in isolation. Alongside his exposition of a new hyperbolic technique to generate mast dimensions for ships built in proportion, Harriot jotted down a note for his own reference: ‘Invented this February 28 1608 and Infant Business Template, gave it to Sample Project Brief Documents E Marlow for Mr Baker the Tafsir 037.saffaat, shipwright’. While providing Baker with new material, the Sample Documents, transfer of Of Resume Examples And Free Resume results was not in one direction only. In return, Harriot learnt of the master shipwright’s rules for tonnage and narrowing. The prerequisite for this cooperation between mathematician and shipwright was the creation of design as a paper activity. Only after ships were available for study as miniaturised portable representations could the armoury of advanced mathematics be brought to bear on the work of the Sample Brief Template - 7+ Documents, shipwright. Harriot’s 1608 memorandum nicely suggests the role of paper in his exchanges with Baker.

While Harriot and Baker had presumably met, personal contact was not essential to their continued relationship: communication was possible at a distance and it was expected that new results could successfully be sent on through an intermediary. But Baker’s alignment with figures such as Chancellor, Borough and Harriot [page 149:] did not put him in accord with all such contemporaries. Fragments records Baker’s vocal disagreement with at least one English mathematical practitioner. The arguments and criticisms are as richly suggestive of Baker’s mathematical values as his more positive collaborations. On the first of his pasteboard pages of proportional scales, Baker composed a poem of doggerel verse (p. Resume Sample For Medical Assistant Medical? 57). The final lines targeted a certain ‘patching bourne’, who ‘hath patched together the works of other men, and now to Sample Free In Pdf, sale he paints it out with his unlearned pen’. The ‘bourne’ in question was the author William Bourne (c.1535-1582) who, among his various mathematical and practical texts of the 1570s and 80s, had published some material on shipbuilding in his Treasure for Travellers (1578).54.

Baker’s implied accusation of Disciplinary Referral S Signature) W/school plagiarism may have been aggravated by personal friction. There was certainly ample opportunity for contact: in 1574 Bourne appeared on the navy payroll when he was installed as master gunner at Upnor, a castle built to Project - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word protect the fleet at anchor in Gillingham Water.55 Whatever the now unrecoverable details of their day-to-day interaction, Baker’s distrust extended beyond personal animosity. He rejected the mathematical procedures that Bourne offered the shipwright and took issue with the very image of the art that Bourne’s writings seemed to imply. In the Treasure for Travellers , Bourne sought to show how ships could be [page 150:] built in proportion.56 The aim of this process, which was rapidly becoming a standard contemporary topic, was to replicate the qualities of a successful ship.57 Given one ship of burthen b1, the task was to build another of burthen b2 = kb1. In summary form, Bourne’s rule for each dimension d2 of the second ship was.

where d2 corresponds to dimension d1 of the first ship. Hence, if a ship of 100 tons has a breadth of 20ft, a ship of 125 tons built in Disciplinary (parent, proportion should have a breadth of. But Bourne knew that ‘the most part of men cannot extract the Sample Project Brief Template Free, cubic root, for that kind of Arithmetic is very hard, and not easy to be learned’.58 So he gave a series of approximations for standard proportions. For example, in building a second ship one quarter larger than a first, every relevant dimension of the first should be measured, divided into 4 equal parts and Medical Blog, the corresponding dimension of the second ship found as 4? parts. Amounting to the same process was Bourne’s alternative recommendation that, for every 12 inches of the first ship, the Brief - 7+ Free In Pdf,, second ship’s corresponding dimension should be 13 inches. Similar, ‘reasonable exact enough’ [page 151:] approximations were given for ships up to 8 times larger than a given ship.59. Baker offered a graphical counterblast to Bourne’s arithmetical working with the pen.

Like Bourne, Baker provided approximations for building ships in proportion. But he did so through the medium of proportional scales. 037.saffaat? On one of his pasteboard pages, Baker drew up a scale to ‘show the proportion that one ship doth bear to another’ (p. 65; see Figure 3.11). This used an index to read off dimensions from 5 vertical columns spaced in accordance with the cube root of common proportional factors. In this scale, Baker’s range of - 7+ Documents proportions was more modest than Bourne’s; it was equipped to deliver corresponding dimensions for ships up to twice the 037.saffaat, burthen of a given ship.

However, Baker did not eschew scales which operated over a broader range. On another pasteboard page he drew a scale of the same type but which was intended to cover ships differing in Sample Template Free Documents In Pdf, Word, proportion by a factor of Sample Assistant Resume Templates 10: ‘These are cubic scales of proportions serving from 10 tons to Project Template Documents Word a 100 from Example Writing | Resume Resume Builder, a 100 to a 1000.’ Baker’s enthusiasm is evident from a later note, added in a different ink: ‘marvellous is the use of this scale serving to great purpose. Infinite are the questions that may be answered by this scale’ (p. 77). Similar advantages could be obtained from semicircular scales; commenting on one intended for the proportions of ropes and Sample Project Brief Word, squares, Baker noted that. this scale is not like the brabble that Bourne makes about in the proportion of ropes, the which is tedious and yet not general and serveth but to a few numbers by him limited (p. 76). As well as replacing Bourne’s arithmetical approximations by various proportional scales, Baker quite explicitly tackled Bourne’s more exact and general method of finding dimensions in proportion. Bourne required that the shipwright raise every [page 152: Figure 3.11] [page 153:] relevant dimension to Medical Cover Letter the third power, multiply each cube by Project Brief - 7+ Free Documents the proportional factor and then extract the cube root of the product. Baker protested that to do so ‘would make me weary for I must make more than a thousand and a thousand multiplications as many extractions’ (p.

26). Such an amount of cyphering did not make an appealing prospect - especially when Baker’s ‘geometrical demonstrations’ offered an arithmetically more economical route. Baker’s scaled plats of ships in Disciplinary Referral S Signature) W/school Imprint, plan, section and elevation portrayed the major elements of the hull. Hence, to design a ship proportional to one already set down in plat, ‘it is sufficient to alter the scale only and no more’ (p. 21). With a new scale marked on the plat the dimensions could be measured off without calculation. Sample - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word? The rescaling itself involved only one multiplication and one extraction and Resume Assistant Resume Templates, so ‘to him that hath the extracting of Project Brief Free In Pdf, roots the matter is very easy to be done with the pen’ (p. 26). Yet even without the knowledge of cube roots the process could still be accomplished. For the Assistant Samples - My Blog, benefit of the ‘mechanical workman’ lacking arithmetic, Baker applied ‘a certain rule that I found demonstrated in Albartus Dureri in his book of Geometry’ (p. 26).

Baker had made use of Dürer when constructing his image of shipwrights at work in a drawing office and he had been placed on an equal par with Dürer by William Borough. Project Brief Template - 7+ In Pdf, Word? But here, Baker was going beyond the realm of visual and Template Example, textual rhetoric to borrow in detail from Dürer’s geometric techniques. Baker’s source was Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), one of Sample Brief Template - 7+ Free whose topics was the Infant & Babysitting Template Design, classical problem of Brief - 7+ Free Word how, given one cube, to construct another of twice the volume. Dürer presented a generalised solution to the problem of [page 154:] doubling the cube, providing a means of constructing cubes in any desired proportion. In other words, given the side of one cube, Dürer found the side of Resume For Medical Templates Medical another cube either twice as large or whose volume was in any other proportion. Sample Brief Free Documents In Pdf, Word? Although it cannot be carried out in proper Euclidean fashion, with straight edge and compasses alone, the construction is exact.60. Baker adapted Dürer’s method to his own end of Tafsir Qur'an rescaling the draught of a ship. Rather than using the Project Brief, sides of Tafsir 037.saffaat cubes, he worked with ship dimensions. Starting with, for instance, a line representing the depth of an already drawn ship, Baker arrived at Project Brief Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word a second line representing the depth of the corresponding proportional ship. The length of the second line gave the number of parts into which the first ship’s line was to be divided.

After redivision, the first line served as a scale from which any depicted dimension of the second ship could be read off (see Figure 3.12). For Baker, Dürer’s geometric technique provided a graphic resource with which to combat Bourne’s wearisome multiplications and extractions. But it also exposed the larger inadequacies of - My Blog Bourne’s treatment of shipbuilding. Bourne was charged with setting forth his Treasure for Travellers. to the discredit of workmen how having a little understanding in the extracting of a root would make the world believe that all the knowledge of Sample Brief Template - 7+ Free Word ship making did consist only in the same (p. 26). Baker was able to show that not only did the art of the shipwright consist of more than [page 155: Figure 3.12] [page 156:] the arithmetical extraction of roots, but that it could be conducted without the need for that ability. Since he himself was able to work ‘with the pen’, Baker was not restricted to the graphic method adapted from Dürer.

His principal point in adducing Dürer was thus to circumvent and rebut the illegitimate claims he discerned in Bourne’s pronouncements. Yet the disagreement with Bourne serves to Medical Letter Samples - My Document Blog underline rather than undermine Baker’s engagement with contemporary mathematical practice, for Sample Project Template In Pdf, both were tackling the same questions of building ships in proportion. Disagreement sprang not from their command of Qur'an Surah arithmetic but from Baker’s conception of geometry as the necessary complement of arithmetical work. Both arithmetic and Documents Word, geometry were essential as the ‘two supporting sciences’ of Baker’s paper work of plats and scales. Mathematics was thus a crucial point of reference in Baker’s reconstruction of Infant Care & Letterhead Design ship design and the role of the master shipwright. As a rhetorical resource, he used it to Sample Project Template - 7+ Free Documents differentiate himself from earlier shipwrights; geometry was identified with the preparation of draughts, while arithmetic was used to calculate lengths, areas and capacities. Instruments, the emblem of the contemporary mathematical practitioner, appeared as all-pervasive paper devices embodying proportions certified by both reason and experience. Moreover, in placing his design work under the banner of mathematics, Baker drew on the expertise of mathematical practitioners to Example | Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder gather persuasive power and practical assistance from Sample Free Documents, beyond the traditional confines of the shipwright’s craft. A final illustration of the extent to which the culture of mathematics was crucial to Baker’s self-understanding is provided by his only Of Resume | Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder, major foray into Template - 7+ Word the [page 157:] traditional full-scale work of the Card & Letterhead Design, shipwright.

Baker had developed a new way of prescribing and Project Brief Template Free Documents Word, varying the curves of narrowing and rising, not on paper but out in the shipyard, by means of Referral (parent S Signature) Imprint ropes and boards. His technique was an alternative to Project Brief Word the determination of radii by either arithmetical cyphering or the use of compasses on a plat. It was announced as. a mechanical demonstration devised or first invented by Mathew Baker for the carpenter unlearned in arithmetic geometry, by which is found all circular divisions needful to the making of ship, galleon, galley or whatsoever (p.33; see Figure 3.13). Baker’s flexible and Example Of Resume | Resume And Free Resume Builder, general-purpose device was similar to some of the mechanically generated and Brief Template, varied curves proposed by Dürer.61 The specific advantage of Baker’s technique was that it allowed the workman to determine dimensions ‘without the drawing of any plot or any calculation of arithmetic’. Baker cast himself here in the role of the mathematician ministering to the needs of the merely ‘mechanical workman’.

In shaping this mathematical role for himself, he drew on the tradition of classical geometry to elevate his own achievements. When recording the invention of his new ‘mechanical demonstration’, Baker quarried the anecdotal lore of the Euclidean corpus as a source of materials for his own self-interpretation: If Pythagoras did so much joy for Referral (parent S Signature) the finding out of the doubling of a square by Sample Brief Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, the line diagonal that he offered to Medical Assistant Cover Letter - My Blog his unknown gods an ox in Project Brief - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf,, sacrifice, I say I have good cause to give our living and Infant Business Card, known god thanks for this invention so necessary for my unlearned countrymen in the two supporting sciences (p. Brief Template Free Documents Word? 33). Baker could have found the familiar story of Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat Pythagoras’ celebration not only in classical sources such as Vitruvius but as part of the editorial embroidering of recent [page 158: Figure 3.13] [page 159:] editions of Euclid.62 With Pythagoras as a role model, Baker was differentiating himself from his ordinary colleagues. Mathematics was mobilised not just to redefine Baker’s design practice but his very identity as a master shipwright. 4. MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. Mathew Baker’s paper design was directed towards the advance specification of the ship’s hull and his mathematical reconstruction of shipbuilding embedded new priorities and values within the practice of the art. In this transformation, the geometrical determination of shapes and the arithmetical calculation of dimensions emerged as principal tasks of the master shipwright. Yet, if we inspect a surviving ship of the period, such as the English Mary Rose or the Swedish Vasa , the frames of the Sample Project - 7+ Free In Pdf,, vessel are almost invisible.63 From the outside, we see the skin of Plan external planking, while inside there is Project Brief - 7+ additional planking as well as the strengthening structures of keelson, riders, knee timbers and S Signature), internal wales. Ships were much more than just carefully defined shapes; they had to be strong enough to serve as sailing platforms for men, stores and Sample Documents In Pdf,, increasingly heavy guns.

Fragments contains almost nothing on the ship as a structural and & Babysitting & Letterhead Design, functional artefact. Only occasionally does Baker show the timbers and columns which ensured the integrity of a vessel (for example, p. 19). [page 160:] Fragments is thus a partial document. It represents not a systematic presentation of the craft of shipbuilding in wood but an exploration of the possibilities opened up by mathematics and design on paper. Through geometry and arithmetic, questions of Project Template - 7+ In Pdf, Word shapes and proportions were separated out from the Tafsir Qur'an, rest of the Project - 7+ Free Word, art. The very particular direction of development which Fragments embodies is Referral (parent S Signature) Imprint strikingly evident by contrast with sources from Sample Project Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, other traditions. One of the most articulate contemporary presentations of Disciplinary Referral shipbuilding was that offered by Sample Project Documents In Pdf, the Portuguese author João Baptista Lavanha in his incomplete Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval .64 During a career spanning many disciplines, Lavanha taught cosmography, geography, topography and Resume Sample For Medical Assistant Medical, mathematics, and was an Sample Brief - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word author of Meal Template | Sop Example nautical treatises and chronicles. He also held important state offices; he was, for example, appointed Engineer to the King of Portugal in 1587. Contact with contemporary shipbuilding was thus just one aspect of a larger cycle of Word learned, didactic and technical activities.

Lavanha’s identification of shipbuilding as naval architecture provided a classically sanctioned model for the treatment of the craft. Weekly | Sop Example? The opening chapters of his Livro Primeiro draw directly on book I of Sample Brief - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word Vitruvius’s De Architectura for Tafsir Qur'an a definition of architecture and its six parts or principles. But though he quoted, paraphrased and elaborated on Vitruvius, Lavanha was not a slavish imitator. His stress on design and the mathematical arts in the formation of the Template - 7+ Documents, (naval) architect, and on the importance of models as a check on building proposals, is closer to the [page 161:] recommendations of Alberti than Vitruvius.65 Moreover, Lavanha’s elevation of shipbuilding to the status of architecture compromised Vitruvius’ division of public building into defensive, religious and utilitarian departments ( De Architectura , I, iii). Taking a different tripartite distinction, Lavanha reworked architecture into the classes of military, civil and naval.

But while there were authors both ancient and Assistant Resume, modern in the first two categories, Lavanha could find neither Greek, Latin nor vernacular sources to fill the third. He was simultaneously creating the Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word, space and the justification for his own work.66. By integrating shipbuilding with architecture, Lavanha committed himself to following the well-established practices and precedents of the Medical Assistant Cover Samples Document, parent art. As with Vitruvius and Alberti on architecture, Lavanha devoted sustained attention to the materials of shipbuilding. He discussed the different varieties of timber and their respective qualities and uses; he considered the appropriate seasons for Sample Project - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word cutting and preserving timber; he reviewed the other materials such as iron, linen, tar, pitch and Tafsir Qur'an, lead; and he even offered a brief disquisition on the destructive effects of the notorious teredo ship-worm.67. In England, by contrast, connections between architecture and shipbuilding [page 162:] were noted in passing, but not intensively developed. Under the title of ‘naupegie’, John Dee found a place for shipbuilding in his Mathematicall Praeface to the first English Euclid (1570). Dee subsumed naupegie (along with housing and fortification) as one of the three branches of architecture, just as Lavanha was later to do.68 Thomas Digges later made the same identification with his unredeemed promise to publish a ‘brief Treatise of Architecture Nautical’.69. Though Dee’s discussion of Sample Brief - 7+ In Pdf, architecture gave prominence to Vitruvius and particularly Alberti, there is no evidence that his references had any affect on Fragments . Baker presented nothing comparable to Weekly Meal Plan Lavanha’s treatment of the Sample Free Documents Word, materials of shipbuilding. Indeed, aside from a short complaint about the quality of For Medical Medical wood brought to Sample Template Free Documents In Pdf, Word the shipyards by navy purveyors (p.

155), timber and Resume Sample, its physical handling are remarkably absent from Baker’s volume. The other materials of the trade are not even mentioned. For Baker, shipbuilding was directly answerable to arithmetic and geometry; Fragments was therefore concerned principally with paper work. Template? The content of Baker’s manuscript was determined by the agenda of mathematical practice rather than the textual conventions already established for architecture. Baker’s Fragments set the pattern for an English tradition of shipbuilding texts which dealt primarily with the arithmetic and geometry of hull form. While we know little about how Baker’s work was used within the naval dockyards themselves, it is clear that shipbuilding became firmly established as one of the mathematical arts [page 163:] in England. One stage of that process is revealed by Fragments itself. Although mostly by Baker, there are sections in another hand. These additions, which range from dialling and mathematical instruments to magnetism and shipbuilding, were supplied by John Wells, to whom Baker bequeathed Fragments and other volumes.70 Wells was a navy storekeeper at Deptford, a mathematical practitioner who published on sundials, and & Babysitting Business Card & Letterhead, an associate of Sample Project Free Documents such London mathematical professors as Henry Briggs and Weekly Meal Plan, Henry Gellibrand.71.

Amongst his other mathematical activities, Wells assisted Briggs in Project Brief Template Documents In Pdf,, the construction of logarithmic tables in the years after Napier’s first publication in 1614.72 Wells’ perception of the mathematical character of ship design and its place in Weekly Plan Template | Sop Example, the scheme of mathematical arts is suggested by his assimilation of logarithms to shipping questions (e.g. p. 91). Logarithms had been seen principally as an aid for the long calculations required in astronomy. But Wells began to apply them in his notes on ship design, since they enabled greater numerical accuracy but without added computational fatigue. For Wells, mathematics and naval technology were firmly bound together as mathematical practice by the early 17th century. Beyond Wells’ continuation of Fragments there are further manuscripts which show that shipbuilding was a subject of very active interest in the community of early 17th century mathematical practitioners. Thomas Harriot’s shipbuilding papers have already been noted and their level of Documents In Pdf, sophistication was matched by several other [page 164:] surviving texts.73. Baker’s work thus embodied a programme which was pursued by his mathematical colleagues and successors. Materials and structures were given less prominence than the mathematics of Medical Assistant Cover Letter Samples - My Document Blog hull design.

Logarithms and higher order curves supplemented the resources which Baker had himself been able to muster, and Sample Template Documents, these increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques were presented in Referral (parent S Signature), more systematic treatises. Sample Brief Template - 7+ In Pdf,? The development of the paper geometry and arithmetic of Fragments rapidly made English shipbuilding the most mathematically advanced of & Babysitting Card & Letterhead Template any country in Europe. The creation of Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Word ship design as a mathematical art offered benefits both to Baker and Medical Assistant Letter - My Blog, also to Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents the mathematical practitioners who tackled shipbuilding questions. Baker’s success in adopting explicitly mathematical techniques reflected back on Weekly Example the practitioners and Sample Project Template Free In Pdf, Word, supported their claims to & Babysitting Business utility and status. They benefited from the apparent efficacy of mathematical practice in this strategically significant industry. But, as an elite mechanician, Baker also stood to gain. His status as a mathematical mechanician placed him above the ranks of ordinary shipwrights and labourers, and beyond the past practices of the trade. Baker’s reputation transcended the local realm of the shipyards and was transferred out into the wider world of print culture. William Borough had praised Baker in 1581 as a worthy peer of Sample Project Template Word Vitruvius and Dürer, while the navigator John Davis pressed further accolades on Baker in his [page 165:] Seaman’s Secrets of 1595. Davis mentioned ‘the mechanical practices drawn from the Arts of Mathematick, [in which] our Country doth yield men of principal excellency’:

As M. Emery Molyneux for the exquisite making of Care Card & Letterhead Globes bodies, and M. Nicholas Hilliard for the singularity of portraiture have the praise of Europe, [so] M. Baker for his skill and surpassing grounded knowledge for the building of ships advantageable to all purpose, hath not in any nation his equal.74. Davis very likely knew Baker, and Borough certainly did. Project Brief - 7+ Documents Word? But once his name was in the public domain Baker became a point of Resume For Medical Assistant Resume reference for commentators who had probably never met him. - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word? Gabriel Harvey’s often-quoted passage in Pierces Supererogation (1593), which asks ‘what profound Mathematician, like Digges, Harriot, or Dee esteemeth not the Meal Plan, pregnant Mechanician?’, bracketed Baker with such other ‘expert artisans’ as. Humphrey Cole, a Mathematical Mechanician, . John Shute an Architect, Robert Norman a Navigator, William Bourne a Gunner [and] John Hester a Chemist.75. What did this miscellaneous group have in common? John Hester’s presence punctures any attempt to link them through an adherence to the programme of the mathematical arts. Indeed, nothing in the character of their work as mechanicians marks them out as a united group. Rather, they were linked together by Sample Project Brief Template In Pdf, their appearance in print: all of these six mechanicians had either published books themselves or been referred to in the texts of others. Harvey was using these mechanicians to attack narrowly academic scholarship.

Paradoxically, he did so through the bookish practice of collecting and collating printed references. Cut loose from the paper work of mathematical design by the approving references of friends, Baker’s fame was available for circulation in Meal | Sop, the public paper worlds of Sample Project Brief Free Documents Word others. 1. W.G. Perrin, The Autobiography of Phineas Pett , Navy Records Society, 51 (London, 1918), p. 178. 2. Weekly Meal Template? Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, PL 2820, p. 8. - 7+ Free Documents Word? The manuscript title came from Samuel Pepys; henceforth I cite the volume simply as Fragments . My in-text references to the volume are to page numbers.

For a discussion of Fragments , R.A. Barker, ‘Fragments from the Pepysian Library’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 32 (1986), 161-78. 3. On the general significance of paper as a medium, see Bruno Latour, ‘Visualization and cognition: thinking with eyes and hands’, Knowledge and For Medical Assistant Resume Templates, Society: Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present , 6 (1986), 1-40. Many of Brief Template Free Documents my subsequent specific comments on the uses of paper develop points in Latour’s suggestive account. 4. For Baker’s 1562 mastership: Bodleian Library, Rawlinson MS. (hereafter Bodl. Rawl.) A 200, f. Assistant Samples Document Blog? 17r-v (cf. Sample Project Template Free Documents? f. 10r where Baker is not described as master). Qur'an 037.saffaat? For his appointment as a royal master in 1572: Calendar of Patent Rolls, Elizabeth , V (1569-72), p. 466 (no. 3303).

5. Perrin (footnote 1), pp. xx-xxi. 6. BL Add. MS. Free Documents In Pdf,? 7968, ff. 43r, 52r. 7. For the Pett family, see Perrin (footnote 1). 8. Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 203.

As these and the following details can be found under the ordinary and extraordinary accounts for Woolwich, Deptford and Gillingham I give no specific references below. The same archive holds quarterly accounts for four other years: Bodl. Rawl. Tafsir Qur'an 037.saffaat? A 200 (1562 and 1563); A 201 (1570); and A 202 (1574). 9. Sample Template Documents In Pdf, Word? A.P. McGowan, The Jacobean Commissions of Enquiry of 1608 and 1618 , Navy Records Society, 116 (London, 1971), pp.

71 and Medical, 231 for Baker’s depositions to Sample Brief Free Word the 1608 Commission of Enquiry. Note too the evidence given by Edward Stevens (ibid. pp. 51 and 53). Baker went on a trip of Example Examples And Free Resume Builder this kind in 1562, taking two shipwrights to work on ‘the hewing and squaring of ix great Elms at Beddingtun for Brief - 7+ Free In Pdf, keels for Disciplinary Referral her highness’s Ships’ (Bodl. Rawl. Sample Template Free Documents In Pdf, Word? MS. Infant Care Business Card? A 200, f. 19r). 10. Sample Project Brief Template Documents In Pdf, Word? For a comparison with the Venetian example, P. Burke, Tradition and Innovation in Renaissance Italy (London, 1974), p. 291, where an attempt is made to rank various Italian occupations by income. Out of a total of 26 occupations, the Venetian master shipwright comes seventh equal.

11. For a review of these late medieval and Renaissance developments, Richard W. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy 600-1600 (London, 1980). 12. For example, the almost total absence of shipping in influential accounts such as those of E.S. Ferguson is Resume For Medical Assistant Templates very striking: ‘The mind’s eye: nonverbal thought in technology’, Science , 197 (1977), 827-836; ‘La fondation des machines modernes: des dessins’, Culture et Technique , 14 (1985), 183-208; and Engineering and Sample Project Template, the Mind’s Eye (Cambridge, Mass., 1992). 13. Fausto to Giovanni Battista Ramusio in Epistolae Clarorum Virorum (Venice, 1556), f. 93v. On Fausto, F.C. (parent S Signature) W/school? Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934), pp.

64-71 and P.L. Rose and S. Drake, ‘The pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics in Renaissance Culture’, Studies in the Renaissance , 18 (1971), 65-104, pp. 77-8. 14. On these manuscripts, R.C. Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture about 1445’, Mariner’s Mirror , 11 (1925), 135-63, idem, ‘Jal’s Mémoire no. 5 and the manuscript Fabbrica di galere ’, Mariner’s Mirror , 31 (1945), 160-7, Frederic Chapin Lane, ‘Venetian naval architecture about 1550’, Mariner’s Mirror , 20 (1934), 24-49, and G.B Dosio (ed.), Ragioni Antique Spettanti all’Arte del Mare et Fabriche de Vasselli (Venice, 1987). 15. The fullest accounts appear in the works of Fernando Oliveira and In Pdf,, João Baptista Lavanha. Template | Sop Example? For Oliveira, see his O Livro da Fábrica das Naus , introduction, facsimile, transcription and English translation (Lisbon, 1991), F.C. Domingues, ‘Observation and knowledge in Portuguese ship construction of the 16th century: the treatises of Fernando Oliveira’ (unpublished translation by R.A.

Barker of a paper given at Sample Brief - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word the Fourth International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography, 1983), and three papers by Eric Rieth in Neptunia : ‘Les écrits de Fernando Oliveira: un témoinage sur la construction navale de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 165 (1987), 18-25; ‘Un système de conception des carènes de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 166 (1987), 16-31; ‘Remarques sur une série d’illustrations de l’ Ars Nautica (1570) de Fernando Oliveira’, 169 (1988), 36-43. Lavanha’s work was first published in J. da G.P. Barata, ‘O Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval de João Baptista Lavanha’, Ethnos , 4 (1965), 221-98; on Lavanha, see below, section 4. Amongst other learned Iberian authors, also note Diego de Garcia Palacio, whose primarily navigational Instrucion Nauthica para Navegar (Mexico, 1587) presented some information on shipbuilding; see V.D. Disciplinary Referral (parent W/school Imprint? Tate, ‘The Instrucion Nauthica of 1587’, American Neptune , 1 (1941), 191-5. There are also Iberian texts by shipwrights, for example, Manuel Fernandes’s manuscript Livro de Traças de Carpintaria (1616; facsimile Lisbon, 1990). 16.

I borrow the term ‘constructive geometry’ from Lon Shelby’s work on the design procedures of medieval masons. Brief - 7+ Word? See in particular ‘Mediaeval masons’ templates’, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians , 30 (1971), 140-154, ‘The geometrical knowledge of mediaeval master masons’, Speculum , 47 (1972), 395-421, and Gothic Design Techniques. The Fifteenth Century Design Booklets of Mathes Roriczer and Hanns Schmuttermayer (Carbondale, Southern Illinois, 1977). For overviews of dockyard design techniques: R.A. Barker, ‘Many may peruse us: ribbands, moulds and models in the dockyards’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 34 (1988) and Sergio Bellabarba, ‘The ancient methods of designing hulls’, Mariner’s Mirror , 79 (1993), 274-92. 17. | Resume Examples And Free Builder? Carvel was a relatively recent introduction in England. Sample Project Free In Pdf, Word? The earlier north European tradition which it displaced was clinker construction, in which ships were built shell- rather than skeleton-first. After the erection of the keel, stem and sternpost, the hull of a clinker is built up as a shell of overlapping planks fastened to each other. Strengthening transverse frames are added afterwards.

However, the distinction between carvel and clinker is not historically absolute: there were various hybrid techniques. On carvel, clinker and Tafsir, hybrid construction, see O. Sample Brief Documents In Pdf,? Hasslöf, ‘Carvel construction technique: nature and origin’, Folk-Liv , 21/22 (1957/8), 49-60 and ‘Main principles in the technology of shipbuilding’, in Hasslöf et al. (eds), Ships and Shipyards, Sailors and Fishermen , trans. Tafsir 037.saffaat? M. Knight and H. Young (Copenhagen, 1972), 27-72. 18. For classifications of different varieties of carvel-building, see two papers by J.P. Sarsfield, ‘Survival of pre-sixteenth century Mediterranean lofting techniques in Bahia, Brasil’, in O.L. Filgueiras (ed.), Local Boats , British Archaeological Reports International Series, 438, part 1 (Oxford, 1988) and ‘Master frame and Project Template - 7+, ribbands: a Brazilian case study with an (parent overview of this widespread traditional carvel design and building system’, in Carvel Construction Techniques , Oxbow Monograph, 12 (1991).

19. Oliveira (footnote 15), pp. 177-83 (facsimile, pp. 91-106). For Venetian sources, see Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture’ (footnote 14), pp. Sample Project Brief Free In Pdf, Word? 153-4 and F.C. Lane (footnote 14), pp. Writing | Resume Examples Builder? 29-31.

The Italian use of the technique was not restricted to Brief Template - 7+ Documents Word only Venetian shipwrights; Neapolitan usage is Tafsir Surah 037.saffaat recorded in Bartolomeo Crescentio, Nautica Mediterranea (Rome, 1607), on which see the note in Mariner’s Mirror , 69 (1983), 305-6 and Project Brief Template - 7+ In Pdf, Word, the corrections in 70 (1984), 87-8. 20. The procedure still survives in the modern world, most remarkably in Assistant Letter Document, contemporary Brazilian boatyards: Sarsfield, ‘Survival. ’ (footnote 18). Project Template - 7+ In Pdf, Word? Kostas Damianidis has documented related techniques for 19th and 20th century Greece, see ‘The survival of moulding boatbuilding in an old boatyard in the Aegean’ (unpublished) and ‘The diachronic road of dialogue of Mediterranean shipbuilding: some methods for controlling the form of Example Of Resume Writing And Free Builder a vessel’, in Cultural and Commercial Exchanges between the Project Template Free Documents, Orient and the Greek World (Athens, 1991), 97-108. Weekly Plan | Sop Example? The historical validity of using such modern ethnographic work to - 7+ Free Documents shed light on Renaissance practices is currently being richly borne out by work at Parks Canada, Ottawa under Robert Grenier.

Working with scale models of the surviving timbers of a wrecked 16th century Basque whaler, Brad Loewen is reconstructing the hull of the Resume Sample Templates Medical, vessel using the techniques of adjustable templates. 21. Template - 7+ Documents Word? Unger (footnote 11), pp. 241-2. 22. Note that plans were apparently still unknown in the French royal yards of the mid-17th century: J. Boudriot, ‘Evolution de la conception des vaisseaux royaux’ and Assistant Cover Letter Samples Blog, E. Project Template - 7+ Documents? Rieth, ‘Quelques remarques sur la conception des bâtiments de mer du moyen-age au début du XVIIIème siècle’, both in Weekly Meal Plan Example, Résumés des Communications des 3èmes Journées D’Archéologie Navale; 6-8 décembre, 1985 (Musée de la Marine, Paris, 1985). 23. Fragments , p.13 shows a midship mould identified as that of the Hart , Greyhound , Bull and Tiger . Brief Template - 7+ Documents Word? A list of ships in the navy of Edward VI in Pepys Library, PL 1266, pp. 145-152 has some annotations to indicate the shipwrights responsible for their construction. The Hart , Bull and Tiger are all identified as by Disciplinary (parent Imprint James Baker (pp.

147-8). 24. For the voyage, R. Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations , 12 vols (Glasgow, 1903-5), V, pp. 71-6. Sample Brief Template Free In Pdf,? Baker identifies the Greek merchantman as a ‘screatse’. It may be related to or even identical with the Turkish ‘skryasas’ mentioned in the Hakluyt account, p. 73. Baker observed other procedures on this voyage; for example, he refers in Fragments to Sicilian and Tafsir Qur'an, ‘Candian’ practices (p. 40).

Presumably it was also at this time that he acquired the information or interest behind his map of the Sample Brief Template Free Documents In Pdf, Word, Peloponnese (p. 4). 25. For the juxtaposition of Baker and Levello: Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 201, ff. 65v, 68v, 71r-v and Examples Builder, 74v. 26. T. Glasgow jr, ‘The maturing of naval administration, 1556-1564’, Mariner’s Mirror , 56 (1970), 3-26, p. 10.

For Levello’s duties: Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 200, f. 9v. 27. Fragments , pp. Sample Brief Template - 7+? 16, 23. Tafsir Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat? Baker’s spelling of Venetian terms strongly suggests that he had them from a spoken rather than a written source. The two most striking instances are on p. 16, where he refers to the rising of the frames as ‘lastely’ (Venetian: la stella) and to one of the frame adjustments as ‘linaramo del sesto’ (Venetian: legno in ramo [del sesto]). 28. For a typical learned witness of craft secrecy, see G. Sample Brief Documents In Pdf, Word? Fournier, Hydrographie (Paris, 1643), p. Template? 16: ‘among 400 or 500 ship carpenters one will scarcely find three or four who know the lines and proportions, because the masters are so protective ( jaloux ) of their knowledge and Brief - 7+ Free Word, skill’.

29. PRO Prob 10/305, and also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122, f. 140v). 30. PRO SP16/21/65. 31. Perrin (footnote 1), p. 7. 32. Perrin (footnote 1), p. lv. 33. I do not claim that Baker believed drawing and calculation to constitute the whole knowledge of his profession, only that he treated them as a distinct department. When criticising Phineas Pett in 1608, Baker clearly wished the master shipwright to be well experienced in assessing such matters as the quality of timber: McGowan (footnote 9), pp.

231-2. For comments on the differences between learning by observation/imitation and via a literate/verbal intermediary, see A.E. Resume Sample For Medical Templates? Christensen jr, ‘Boatbuilding tools and the process of learning’, in Hasslöf et al. (footnote 17), 235-59. 34. Sample Template Word? J.T.

Leader, Life of Meal Plan Template Sir Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland (Florence, 1895), pp. 56 and 188. Independent evidence of the connection between Dudley and Baker is Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents provided by a brass semicircular instrument in Assistant Cover - My Document Blog, the Museo di Storia della Scienze, Florence. Associated with one of the large Dudley astrolabes (II, 47) in Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Documents Word, the collection, the semicircle carries a triangular scale of proportions of exactly the same type as appears in Qur'an Surah, Fragments . The English origins of the Sample Project - 7+ In Pdf, Word, instrument are emphasised by Assistant Letter - My Document Blog an extremely faint inscription: ‘A Tabel of Project Template In Pdf, Proportion Geometricall for Shipping’. Meal Plan? Dudley published on such proportional devices in - 7+ Documents In Pdf,, Dell’Arcano del Mare (Florence, 1646-7), book IV, ch. Example Of Resume Examples Resume? 5.

35. Pepys Library, PL 2878, p. 493 (a 17th century copy). For the agreement which preceded this request, see PRO SP12/218/31-3. 36. Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word? Testimony to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry: McGowan (footnote 9), p. 234, cf. ibid., pp. 236-7.

37. Report of c.1587, printed in John Knox Laughton (ed.), State Papers relating to Referral (parent S Signature) W/school the Defeat of the Spanish Armada , Navy Records Society (London, 1895), I, p. 39. More generally, see Simon Adams, ‘New light on the Reformation of John Hawkins: the Ellesmere naval survey of January 1584’, English Historical Review , 105 (1990), 96-111 and David Loades, The Tudor Navy: an Sample Project Template - 7+ Administrative, Political and Military History (Aldershot, 1992), pp. Referral W/school Imprint? 184-5. 38. For the general trend towards social stratification in shipbuilding, Unger (footnote 11), p. 274 and, for the Venetian case (with principally 17th century evidence), Robert C. Davis, Shipbuilders of the Venetian Arsenal: Workers and Workplace in the Preindustrial City (Baltimore, 1991), pp.

180-1. For the Brief Template - 7+ In Pdf,, Venetian Arsenal and its social structure in the 15th and 16th centuries, F.C. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934) and Care & Babysitting Design, Maurice Aymard, ‘L’Arsenal de Venise: science, expérience et technique dans la construction navale au XVIe siècle’, in Cultura, Scienze e Tecniche nella Venezia del Cinquecento. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studio Giovan Battista Benedetti e il Suo Tempo (Venice, 1987), 407-18. 39. E.G.R. Sample Project Brief Free? Taylor (ed.), The Troublesome Voyage of Captain Edward Fenton 1582-3 , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 113 (Cambridge, 1959), p. 154. Note that this separation of responsibility does not necessarily depend on or imply the use of plats, though it is suggestive. 40.

The contrast is Medical Cover Samples Document clearly marked by the title of the Sample Documents Word, first published arithmetical text in English, the anonymous An Introduction for to Lerne to Recken with the Pen or with the Counters (St. Albans, 1537). 41. Medical Cover Letter Samples - My? See, for example, the Brief In Pdf, Word, payments frequently listed under ‘Deptford Ordinary’ in the navy accounts cited in footnote 8. For arithmetic ‘with the counters’, F.P. Referral (parent S Signature) W/school? Barnard, The Casting-Counter and the Casting Board (Oxford, 1916; reprinted 1981). 42. Baker readily incorporated symbols into his work. Sample - 7+ Documents In Pdf,? He used for square, for (square) root (or more fully ), for cube and or for cube root. These symbols can be found in Robert Recorde, The Whetstone of Disciplinary (parent Imprint Witte (London, 1557), sigs S1v and Project Brief Template Free In Pdf,, Ll3r-v. 43.

However, Baker’s usage was not idiosyncratic. ‘Demonstration’ was used in the same sense by mathematical practitioners such as Thomas Hood, The Making and Infant Care & Babysitting Card & Letterhead, Use of the Geometricall Instrument, called a Sector (London, 1598), f. 9r-v. 44. Sample Brief - 7+ Word? Baker provided his own template for constructing linear scales. Care & Babysitting Business & Letterhead Template? He drew up a device with 60 equidistant parallel lines to divide any suitable line into a given number of Sample - 7+ Free Word equal parts (p. 55). Infant Care & Babysitting Business Card Template? This method is described, for Sample Brief - 7+ Free Word example, in Example Of Resume | Resume Examples, John Blagrave, The Mathematical Jewel (London, 1585), pp. 4-5. 45.

Fragments , p. 73. Peletier made four additions to the Pythagorean theorem, all of which were available not only in his In Euclidis Elementa geometrica demonstrationum libri sex (1557) but also in Billingsley’s English translation of Euclid (1570), f. 58v. 46. Alae seu Scalae Mathematicae (London, 1573), sig. K3r. For Digges, Chancellor and Sample Template Documents In Pdf, Word, the earlier history of transversals, see above, chapter 2, section 2. 47. Hakluyt (footnote 24), V, p. 76. 48. PRO HCA25/1, part 2. The document is one of an unpaginated bundle.

Note that the Judith ’s official burden was 110 tons (confirmed by Resume Sample Medical PRO SP12/107/68), whereas Borough later described it as of 75 tons (SP12/129/11). The discrepancy is explained by the differing systems of tonnage calculation: deadweight (tons and tonnage) for royal ships, carrying capacity of goods (tonnage) for merchantmen. For tonnage, see William Salisbury, ‘Early tonnage measurement in England’, Mariner’s Mirror , 52 (1966), 41-51, though its account of Sample In Pdf, Word Baker is not entirely adequate. 49. In 1585 Borough was supporting Baker and Writing | Resume Resume, praising him as more skilful than his elder colleague Peter Pett: BL Lansdowne MS 43/33. Sample Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word? For Borough, see below, chapter 4; for Dover, see chapter 5. 50. Baker: Fragments , pp. 24, 29, 126; Borough: Hatfield House, CPM, I, 69 (North Atlantic chart for | Sop Example Frobisher), National Maritime Museum, N51-4/G.215:1/5 MS (passage from England to the Gulf of Finland).

51. PRO SP12/243/110. See also SP12/152/19, an unsigned naval document in Borough’s hand, which presents the same tonnage methods (f. 49r). (This ostensibly administrative paper also has a remarkable addendum to its prescriptions for ropes and rigging, in which Euclid is quoted on the proportions of circles and Project - 7+ Documents Word, a geometrical diagram provided to Example Writing Examples show the calculation of the area of Project Template - 7+ Word a circle; f. Assistant Cover Letter - My Document? 51r.) 52. W. Borough, Discours of the Variation of the Cumpas (London, 1581), sig. *3v. 53. The following remarks are based on Jon V. Pepper, ‘Harriot’s manuscript on shipbuilding and rigging (ca. 1608-1610)’, in Derek Howse (ed.), Five Hundred Years of Project Brief Template Free Documents Nautical Science, 1400-1900 , Proceedings of the Third International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography (Greenwich, 1981), 204-216 and Infant Card & Letterhead Template, John W. Shirley, Thomas Harriot: A Biography (Oxford, 1983), pp.

97-103. 54. On Bourne, see the introduction to Sample Brief Template - 7+ Free Word E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), A Regiment for the Sea and other Writings on Navigation by (parent S Signature) W/school Imprint William Bourne , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 121 (Cambridge, 1963). 55. For Bourne’s appointment, Bodl. Brief - 7+ Documents In Pdf,? Rawl. MS A 202, f. 40r. 56. W. Bourne, A Booke called the Treasure for Travellers (London, 1578), III, f. 14r. 57.

Not only was there much contemporary comment by outsiders on building ships in proportion, but the topic was also of concern to those responsible for commissioning vessels. Note, for example, that the largest ship agreed on in 1588 (footnote 35) was to be moulded like the earlier Revenge , but 200 tons heavier. 58. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 15v. 59. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 16v. 60. Baker’s reference to Meal Template Example ‘Albartus Dureri’ suggests that he had access to the Latin translation rather than the Sample In Pdf,, original German text. For Dürer’s presentation of the cube problem, see Albertus Durerus . exacte Quatuor his suarum Institutionum Geometricarum libris, lineas, superficies solida corpora tractavit (Paris, 1532), pp. 158-61 or the English translation in Albrecht Dürer, The Painter’s Manual , trans. W.L.

Strauss (New York, 1977), pp. 346-353. The ultimate source for Dürer’s method was Pappus’s Mathematical Collection , relayed through Eutocius’s commentary on Example Writing | Resume Archimedes’s De Sphaera et Cylindro . Dürer did not give a proof of the result. For Pappus’s proof, see P. Ver Eecke (ed. and trans.), Pappus. Brief - 7+ Word? La Collection Mathématique , 2 vols (Paris, 1933), I, pp.

47-50 or T. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics , 2 vols (Oxford, 1921), I, pp. 266-8. 61. Compare Dürer’s various spirals, and particularly the curve to Referral (parent W/school Imprint be used for Project Template Free Documents In Pdf, towers: Dürer, trans Strauss (footnote 60), pp. 47-51, 85-7, 239-40 and 453-5. 62.

Note in particular the appearance of the tale in the English Euclid of 1570, f. 58r. Baker was not the Referral (parent Imprint, only mathematical mechanician to compare himself with Pythagoras. Robert Norman made use of the same trope when describing his delight at the discovery of the phenomenon of Sample Brief Template Documents Word magnetic dip: Newe Attractive (London, 1581), sig. A2v. Indeed, Norman also used the ‘Eureka!’ story of the naked Archimedes to express his own joy.

63. Margaret Rule, The Mary Rose (London, 1982); Björn Landström, The Royal Warship Vasa , trans. Jeremy Franks (Stockholm, 1988). 64. Lavanha’s text, dated by Weekly Meal Template | Sop Barata to the first quarter of the Sample - 7+, 17th century, appears in Barata (footnote 15), pp. 264-294.

A facsimile edition, with new transcription and English translation by R.A. Barker, is forthcoming. My thanks to Richard Barker for sight of this translation prior to publication. On Lavanha, A. Infant Care Business & Letterhead Template? Cortesão, Cartografia e Cartógrafos Portugueses dos Séculos XV e XVI , 2 vols (Lisbon, 1935), II, pp. 294-361. 65. In De Re Aedificatoria , IX, x, Alberti deliberately departed from Vitruvius’s broader prescriptions for the education of the architect. For Lavanha’s references to Alberti in the Livro Primeiro , Barata (footnote 15), pp.

265 and 267. 66. Brief Template In Pdf, Word? Alberti had, however, mentioned ships in the context of architecture. In De Re Aedificatoria , V, xii, he noted two ways in which ‘the art of building may contribute to the safety and victory of generals of Imprint fleets and Sample Free In Pdf,, their forces: the first consists in the right construction and rigging of the vessels . ’. Alberti went on to name the major parts of a vessel and gave a few proportions before referring the reader to a fuller exposition of Tafsir Qur'an Surah such matters in Sample Brief - 7+ Free, his now lost treatise on ships; J. Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance (Chicago, 1969), p. Infant Card Template Design? 204. 67. Livro Primeiro , chh. Project Brief Template Documents? 5-7. An earlier Iberian discursive treatment of shipbuilding also covered the Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat, same range of material topics: Oliveira (footnote 15), chh.

2-4. In the Sample Brief Template Free Documents In Pdf,, prologue to this text of c.1580, Oliveira, like Lavanha, compared the construction of ships with that of buildings. Significantly, Oliveira was familiar with sources such as Vitruvius. 68. Sig. d4v. Dee’s interest in naval architecture is Writing Examples revealed by a manuscript volume in Sample - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word, his library: ‘Naupegia Itali cuiusdam, cum figuris. papyro 4o’. Unfortunately, this evidently anonymous manuscript has not been identified; Julian Roberts and Andrew G. Watson (eds), John Dee’s Library Catalogue (London, 1990). 69. Stratioticos (London, 1579), sig. a4r. 70. PRO Prob 10/305, also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122).

71. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor and Stuart England (Cambridge, 1954), p. 199. 72. John Wells to Example Of Resume | Resume And Free Resume Henry Briggs, 9 January 1621 in S.J. Project Brief Template - 7+ Free? Rigaud, Correspondence of Disciplinary S Signature) W/school Imprint Scientific Men of the Brief - 7+ Free, Seventeenth Century , 2 vols (Oxford, 1841), I, pp. 5-6 and cf. Fragments , pp.

99-100 for Medical Assistant Cover Letter Samples - My Document Blog earlier references. 73. In particular, the ‘Scott MS’ (Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Scott MS 798), as well as a related text now printed as Richard Barker, ‘A manuscript on Sample In Pdf, shipbuilding, circa 1600, copied by Newton’, Mariner’s Mirror , 80 (1994), 16-29. Also note the anonymous treatise on shipbuilding attributed to John Wells and published by Resume Sample Resume W. Salisbury in Society for Nautical Research, Occasional Publications , 6 (London, 1958). 74. A.H. - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word? Markham (ed.), The Voyages and Works of John Davis the Navigator , Hakluyt Society, 59 (London, 1880), pp. 234-6. 75. Cover Samples Document? A.B.

Grosart (ed.), The Works of Gabriel Harvey , 3 vols (London, 1884-5), II, pp. 289-90. All images by permission of the Museum of the History of Sample Project Template Documents In Pdf, Science, University of Oxford, except where explicitly noted otherwise.

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CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to Sample Brief Template In Pdf, Word help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. Business Design! For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to Sample Template Free creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on Care & Babysitting Card & Letterhead Template Design, the world wide web and copy it. One method of Brief In Pdf, Word, locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Resume Sample, Clipart. Sample Brief Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf,! Another method of Assistant Cover - My Document, locating useful images is to - 7+ Documents use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image.

To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and Resume Sample For Medical Assistant Resume click on the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for - 7+ Free Word a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from Resume Templates Medical, your page. In addition, you should keep the Project - 7+ Free Word content of Care & Babysitting Card, your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to Project - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to Tafsir Qur'an have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist.

However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and Sample Project Brief Free In Pdf, creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in 037.saffaat your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and filename of your image. For example, to display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the - 7+ Documents In Pdf, following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in Sample For Medical Assistant Resume Medical the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in Project Brief - 7+ Free In Pdf, it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to - My Blog load your image. Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word! Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the Writing | Resume Examples And Free Resume correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the Sample Project Template In Pdf, Word file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for Care & Babysitting & Letterhead Template help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt.

There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and Sample Project Template - 7+ Word ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the Example Writing | Resume And Free Resume Builder file, then click on the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Sample Brief Template Free! Viewing your resume in Qur'an Surah 037.saffaat an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Word content of your resume.

REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and Weekly Meal | Sop Example make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in Sample - 7+ Free Word any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on Referral (parent, each of the Brief Documents Word links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to Surah 037.saffaat a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for students to install their resumes.

Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible.

In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to Sample Project Brief Template Free any potential employers. Medical Document Blog! By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to Sample Project Brief - 7+ Documents Word implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and Assistant Cover Letter Blog delivering interactive content across the Web. Sample Project Template - 7+ Documents! Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an Infant Care & Babysitting & Letterhead, excellent job of explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. Template - 7+ Free Documents! The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code.

I strongly agree with Mr. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to Tafsir Surah develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Product Review. In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about individual products.

In general, Java Report is a great source of Sample Documents Word, information relating to the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the Disciplinary (parent W/school scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. Brief Template Documents! The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec.

C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and Of Resume | Resume And Free Builder disadvantages of an HTML resume. The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the topics Mr. Sample Project Template - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word! Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the Tafsir 037.saffaat importance of writing your HTML resume in Sample Project Brief - 7+ Documents the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the dehumanization of it all.

In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and Qur'an HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an Project Brief Template - 7+ Documents Word, ample amount of information and Of Resume Writing | Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder resources necessary to create an HTML resume. Rampe provides both the Project Template Free In Pdf, Word pros and Of Resume Writing Examples Resume Builder the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the Brief Documents In Pdf, reader to decide the necessity of an HTML resume.

Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the Infant Business Template Design most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is Template, currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. Template | Sop! The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents authors validate the document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the Tafsir Qur'an Surah importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into Sample Documents In Pdf,, a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. Disciplinary Referral (parent W/school! In addition the document contains an easy to Free Documents Word use index which allows the reader to Weekly Meal Template jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to Brief Template - 7+ Free Word use.

This document is an excellent source of information for both the Cover Samples Document novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by Project Brief Documents In Pdf, their respective owners.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in Sample - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf,, helping people write essays faster and Tafsir Surah easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is Sample Project Template Word called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias?

Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to Tafsir, rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in Brief Template Free Word, love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at Example Writing | Resume Examples And Free Builder, first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for Sample Project Brief Template Free Word some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and Infant & Babysitting long term memory?

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Why do adolescents need to Sample Assistant Resume Templates Medical, establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and Project Brief Template - 7+ Word kneading?

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Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is Project - 7+ Documents larger size an advantage for Letter - My Blog animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is Sample Brief - 7+ Free Documents Word nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light?

Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage?

Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of Medical Assistant Blog, 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of Sample Project Brief - 7+ Free, 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world?

Or why is Medical Letter - My Document Blog it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from Sample Template - 7+ Free Documents rural areas? (You could talk about Resume Medical, this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in Sample Brief Template Free, the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Resume Sample Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies?

Why is Project Free Documents In Pdf, Word Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the Care & Babysitting Business & Letterhead Template Design main language used around the world in Brief Template Documents Word, business and Example Writing | Resume And Free science?

Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Project Brief Template Free In Pdf, Word Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the Writing Builder great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Project Brief Template - 7+ Documents Word Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system?

Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the Infant Care & Babysitting Business & Letterhead world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for For Medical Resume Templates Medical your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for Sample Project Brief - 7+ Documents In Pdf, the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of Weekly Meal | Sop, your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the Brief Template - 7+ In Pdf, chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis.

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Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to Sample Project Template - 7+ Word, either urge the reader to Meal Plan Template | Sop Example, believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Project Template - 7+ Conclusions. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Writing | Resume And Free Builder Virginia Kearney 6. How to Sample Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents Word, Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.

100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for For Medical Medical Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Word, writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for Example Writing | Resume Examples Builder introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics.

Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers.

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Latino/Chicano/Hispanic Education Essay. In my research I discovered an abundant amount of information on educating Chicano’s or Latino’s in the United States, particulary California being that an extremely high population concentrations are in California. Sample Project Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word! In this paper I will list some of the most important cultural diversity facts I’ve found regarding educational barriers, communication behaviors, cultural differences, teaching implications, learning styles and tools and insights. For Medical Resume! First, what is Chicano or Chicana? A Chicano or Chicana is a term used to indicate an identity held by some persons of Mexican descent living in the United States. Often times, it refers to a first or second generation Mexican American living in an urban, Mexican American immigrant community, where there exists the strong ethnic consciousness of being “Mexican American”. It is considered a term of ethnic pride, though not all Mexican Americans proud of their heritage necessarily consider themselves Chicano.

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EDUCATIONAL BARRIERS AND TEACHING IMPLICATIONS I feel that educational barriers and teaching implications go hand in hand. I feel this is true since an Disciplinary Referral W/school, educational barrier is a direct implication to teaching. Nearly half of all Californians today are first-generation or second-generation immigrants. As that share of the California population continues to grow, it is increasingly important to understand the nature of intergenerational progress for immigrant groups. ( Myers, Dowell, John Pitkin, and Julie Park) Recent research has called into question the intergenerational progress of immigrants, particularly educational progress between the second generation and Project Brief Template Documents, the third generation. When the educational attainment of second and third generations is Resume Medical, compared directly with that of their parents or their parents’ generation, the Template Free In Pdf, Word, authors find strong intergenerational progress for all major immigrant groups. Care & Babysitting Business & Letterhead Template Design! ( Myers, Dowell, John Pitkin, and Project Brief - 7+ In Pdf, Word, Julie Park) However, even by the third generation, Mexican Americans in California have not attained the educational levels that whites have attained. In other words, there is some progress but even by the third generation only 11 percent of Mexican American adults have earned a bachelor’s degree. In contrast, among third-and-later generation whites, more than a third has a bachelor’s degree.

Also, about 30 percent of California’s children are growing up in families where neither parent has completed high school. One consequence of this low educational attainment is that as many as 95 percent of these children might not earn a bachelor’s degree; the low educational attainment of parents makes it less likely that their children will attain high levels of education. Among these children at risk of Disciplinary (parent S Signature), low educational achievement, Mexican Americans make up a large percentage. Sample Project! More than half of all California youth ages 13 to 24 have a foreign born parent. Because a large number of these immigrant parents have a limited education, lack of improvement in educational attainment from one generation to the next would have serious implications for the state economically as well as socially. Education is an important determinant of social and economic well-being, such as income, health, home ownership, and Sample For Medical Assistant Resume Templates, civic participation. The concern for educational progress is particularly acute for Mexican Americans who, even by the third generation, have very low levels of educational attainment. It finds that intergenerational progress has not stalled but rather that second- and Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf,, third-generation immigrants have made substantial educational progress when compared with their parents.

Most of (parent Imprint, California’s Latino youth are of Project Brief Documents In Pdf,, Mexican ancestry (84%) and over 60 percent of them were born in the United States. Care Template! Overall, one in Sample Free Documents In Pdf,, four youth is a first-generation immigrant (i. e. Disciplinary! , born in Sample Project Brief Documents In Pdf, Word, a foreign country). About the same share are second-generation immigrants (i. e. , born in the United States with at least one foreign-born parent). Racial and ethnic differences in educational attainment are strongly influenced by immigration. | Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder! Of the major racial and ethnic groups in California, young adults of Mexican descent have the Sample Project Brief Documents In Pdf, Word, lowest levels of education. Of those ages 25 to 29, only 51 percent have earned a high school diploma, compared to 93 percent of non-Hispanic whites. However, the rate for Meal Plan | Sop Mexican American youth born in Sample Project Template - 7+ In Pdf,, the United States is substantially higher—76 percent. Mexican youth who come to Infant & Babysitting Card Design the United States as teens often do not attend high school here.

The older their age at arrival, the less likely Mexican youth are to attend school in California. Among those ages 16 to 18 and who recently arrived in the United States, less than half are enrolled in school. Among men, many are working; among women, substantial numbers are working, married, or raising children. In particular, although some research has suggested that educational progress stalls between the second and third generations for Mexican Americans, it has been found that college graduation rates of third-generation immigrants are more than twice those of their parents. Further, although over half of their parents did not graduate from Sample Brief Free Word high school, about eight in 10 third-generation Mexican Americans have graduated from high school. Even by Of Resume | Resume Examples the third generation, however, Mexican Americans in California have lower educational attainment than whites have. Despite strong intergenerational progress, less than 85 percent of third and-later-generation Mexican American adults, ages 25 to 34, have finished high school and only 11 percent have completed a bachelor’s degree. (“Third-and-later” generation includes youth with both parents born in the United States but the Project Brief Template Free In Pdf, Word, data do not identify whether their grandparents or great-grandparents were born in the United States. ) In comparison, among third-and-later-generation whites, 95 percent earned a high school diploma and over a third has a bachelor’s degree. Mexican immigrant youth who arrive at age 15 or older are among the least educated Californians. Improving their educational attainment is particularly challenging because many do not enroll in California schools but are working and Infant, raising families. Analysis suggests that about 30 percent of California’s children are growing up in families where neither parent has completed high school and Brief - 7+, that as many as 95 percent of these children might not achieve a bachelor’s degree.

Among these children at risk of low educational achievement, Mexican Americans make up a large share (68%). | Sop! The success of Sample Project Brief - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, students in California’s community colleges is of particular importance for Meal | Sop improving Latino postsecondary education because almost 80 percent of Latinos who enroll in public higher education enter through community colleges. Of great concern, however, is the low transfer rate to four-year institutions, and transfers are especially low among Latino students. In addition to preparing students for transfers, community colleges provide English language, remedial, and vocational courses. Sample Project - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word! As the value of education and Plan Template | Sop, skills in the California economy continues to grow, these courses will become increasingly important to workforce training, especially for those who do not go on to complete a bachelor’s degree. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES.

Because California has such large numbers of immigrants with limited education, a lack of improvement in Sample Brief - 7+ Free, educational attainment from one generation to the next would have serious implications for the state economically as well as socially. Educational progress is particularly important because education plays a role in determining racial and ethnic differences in & Babysitting Business Card & Letterhead Template, other areas of Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf,, social and economic well-being, such as poverty, health status, employment, home ownership, and Tafsir, civic participation (Reyes, 2001; Reed, 2003a). This information is important to understand why immigrant families rely so much on each other and not on education and opportunity. Hispanic-Americans are united by customs, language, religion, and values. There is, however, an extensive diversity of Sample Template Documents Word, traits among Hispanic-Americans. One characteristic that is (parent S Signature) W/school, of paramount importance in most Hispanic cultures is Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, family commitment, which involves loyalty, a strong support system, a belief that a child’s behavior reflects on Assistant Resume Medical the honor of the family, a hierarchical order among siblings, and a duty to care for family members. This strong sense of other-directedness conflicts with the United States’ mainstream emphasis on individualism (Vasquez, 1990). Stereotyped sex roles tend to exist among many Latinos: the Sample Project Brief Template - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, male is perceived as dominant and strong, whereas the female is perceived as nurturing and self-sacrificing. Note, however, that in Latino cultures, the term “machismo” (used by Anglos to refer to male chauvinism) refers to a concept of Assistant Letter Blog, chivalry that encompasses gallantry, courtesy, charity, and courage (Baron, 1991).

Indeed, Hispanic culture’s emphasis on Sample Free In Pdf, cooperation in the attainment of goals can result in Hispanic students’ discomfort with this nation’s conventional classroom competition. This cultural difference could play a negative role when the value of education in the California labor market has increased substantially in recent decades and projections suggest that workers without a college education will continue to see their earnings erode. Among youth in immigrant families, there is Referral (parent S Signature) W/school, tremendous variation in family income and Sample - 7+ Free In Pdf, Word, parental education. Among young immigrants ages 13 to 17, about one-third of those from Mexico are living in poor families and only 17 percent have a mother who finished high school (maternal education is Cover Samples - My Document Blog, measured only for those living with their mothers). These differences in family characteristics contribute to racial and Sample Brief Template Documents In Pdf,, ethnic differences in educational attainment for immigrant youth, which, in turn, contribute to education differences for Samples Blog their second-generation children. Differences in family characteristics explain most of the lower educational attainment of Mexican Americans. Among Mexican American youth, parental education, parental English language ability, and family income are substantially lower than among white youth. LEARNING STYLES An expanding body of research affirms that teaching and counseling students with interventions that are congruent with the Brief Template - 7+ Documents, students’ learning-style preferences result in Letter - My, their increased academic achievement and Sample Template - 7+ In Pdf, Word, more positive attitudes toward learning. Research on the learning styles of Weekly Template | Sop Example, Hispanic-Americans in particular, however, is Sample Brief Template Free Documents, limited. Within the Latino groups, the majority of Medical Assistant Letter - My Document, studies have focused on Brief In Pdf, the learning styles of Mexican-American elementary school children.

Several investigations (Dunn, Griggs, Price, 1993) have compared various ethnic groups of students in elementary school through college levels using a measure that identifies 21 elements of learning style grouped into five categories. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING STYLE elements include sound, temperature, design, and light. A cool temperature and formal design were identified as important elements for Mexican-American elementary and middle school students (Dunn, Griggs, Price, 1993). 2. EMOTIONAL LEARNING STYLE elements include responsibility, structure, persistence, and For Medical Resume Templates Medical, motivation. Sims (1988) reported that Mexican-American third- and fourth-graders were the least conforming of three ethnic groups studied. Yong and Ewing (1992), however, found that Mexican-American middle-school adolescents were conforming.

The disparities between these data may result from Brief Template Free Documents subjects’ age, lifestyle, and urban/rural differences in the two studies. Both of these studies reported that Mexican-Americans required a higher degree of structure than did other groups. Example Of Resume Writing | Resume Resume! 3. SOCIOLOGICAL LEARNING STYLE elements are concerned with the social patterns in which one learns. Project Brief - 7+ Free Documents! Learning alone (as opposed to in groups) was preferred more by Caucasian students than by Mexican-American children (Dunn Dunn, 1992, 1993) and more by Care & Babysitting Card Template Mexican-Americans students than by African-American children (Sims, 1988). Mexican-American students required significantly more sociological variety than either African-Americans or Caucasians (Dunn, Griggs, Price, 1993). Brief - 7+ Free Documents Word! Mexican-American males were authority-oriented and Mexican-American females were strongly peer-oriented (Dunn, Griggs, Price, 1993).

4. PHYSIOLOGICAL LEARNING STYLE elements relate to Tafsir 037.saffaat time of Sample Project - 7+ Documents, day, food and drink intake, perception, and Business Card & Letterhead, mobility. Puerto-Rican college students exhibit a strong preference for Sample Project Brief - 7+ Free Word learning in the late morning, afternoon, and evening. The time-of-day preferences of Mexican-Americans are less clear. Sims (1988) found that Caucasians preferred drinking or eating snacks while learning significantly more than did Mexican-Americans. Weekly Meal Plan Template | Sop Example! Yong and Ewing (1992) reported that Latinos’ strongest perceptual strength was kinesthetic. - 7+ Documents! Both Caucasians and African-American were significantly more auditory and visual than Mexican-Americans (Dunn, Griggs, Price, 1993; Sims, 1988). The study by Sims (1988) indicated that Caucasian students exhibited a higher need for mobility than did Mexican-American students.

Contrary to findings for Tafsir Qur'an the U. S. general population, Mexican-American females had a significantly higher need for mobility than their male counterparts (Dunn, Griggs, Price, 1993). 5. PSYCHOLOGICAL LEARNING STYLE elements relate to global versus analytical processing. The construct of Project Brief - 7+ Free Word, field dependence/independence is a component of this learning style. Field dependent individuals are more group-oriented and cooperative and Example | Resume Builder, less competitive than field independent individuals. Research generally has indicated that Mexican-American and other minority students are more field dependent than nonminority students. Hudgens (1993) found that Hispanic middle and secondary school students were more field dependent than Anglo students; Hispanic female (and African-American male) students had a greater internal locus of control than other groups; and Hispanic male (and African-American female) students had a greater external locus of control than other groups. INSIGHTS AND TOOLS There are a number of Sample Brief - 7+ In Pdf, Word, state and local programs designed to improve the lives of Example Of Resume And Free, youth as well as to steer them in the direction of positive future outcomes. Youth ages 13 to Sample Project Brief Template Free In Pdf, Word 24 are of Medical Cover Letter Samples - My, critical concern because during these ages youth are preparing for the transition to adulthood with its increased economic challenges and Project Brief Template Documents In Pdf, Word, responsibilities and often with new marriage and parenting relationships. During these ages, many potentially life-changing decisions are often made, including the decisions to finish high school, to go to college, and perhaps to start a family. For these youth, adult education programs in school districts and community colleges can provide better schedules for part time, evening, and weekend coursework.

In addition, as these youth become parents, programs that work with young children can assist parents with parental support and literacy improvement. For second and third generations, and for immigrants who do enter California schools, the quality of the K–12 public education system is clearly a key factor in success. Several recent and continuing reforms are improving California schools, particularly in the areas of student achievement, teacher quality, and quality of Medical Assistant Cover Letter Samples Document Blog, facilities. In addition, English language learning is of concern for the children of immigrants. For students whose own parents have limited educational experience, programs of educational counseling and tutoring are particularly helpful. BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Baron, A. , Jr. , Counseling Chicano College Students. In C. Lee, and B. Richardson (Eds. Brief Template Free! ), MULTICULTURAL ISSUES IN COUNSELING: New Approaches to Examples Resume Diversity (p. 171-184). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development. ED 329 861, 1991.

2. Project Brief Documents In Pdf,! Dunn, R. , and K. Dunn. , TEACHING SECONDARY STUDENTS, 1993. 3. Dunn, R. , S. Griggs, and G. Price. , Learning Styles of Mexican-American and Anglo-American Elementary-School Students. JOURNAL OF MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT 21(4): 237-247. & Babysitting Business & Letterhead Template Design! EJ 470 183. 1993. 4. Hudgens, B. Template Word! , THE RELATIONSHIP OF COGNITIVE STYLE, 1993. 5. Myers, Dowell, John Pitkin, and Julie Park, California Demographic Futures: Projections to 2030, by Immigrant Generations, Nativity, and Writing | Resume And Free Builder, Time of Arrival in U. S. , School of Policy, Planning, and Development, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 2005. Sample Brief Free Word! 6. Neumark, David, California’s Economic Future and Infrastructure Challenges, Occasional Paper, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2005. 7. Reed, Deborah, “The Growing Importance of Education in California,” Occasional Paper, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2003a. 8. Sample! Reed, Deborah, Racial and Ethnic Wage Gaps in the California Labor Market, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2003b. 9. Reyes, Belinda I. Project Brief Template Documents In Pdf, Word! , ed. , A Portrait of Race and Ethnicity in Of Resume Writing, California: An Assessment of Social and Economic Well-Being, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2001.

10. Sims, J., Learning Styles of Black-American, Mexican-American, and Sample Template - 7+ Documents In Pdf,, White-American Third- and Infant & Babysitting Template Design, Fourth-Grade Students in Traditional Public Schools. Doctoral dissertation, University of Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 1988. 11. Vasquez, J. , Teaching to the Distinctive Traits of Minority Students.

THE CLEARING HOUSE 63(7): 299-304,1990. 12. Yong, F. , and N. Ewing, A Comparative Study of the Brief Template Free In Pdf, Word, Learning-Style Preferences among Gifted African-American, Mexican-American and Qur'an Surah, American Born Chinese Middle-Grade Students. Brief - 7+ Free Documents! ROEPER REVIEW 14(3): 120-123. EJ 447 200, 1992. University/College: University of (parent, California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 January 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Latino/Chicano/Hispanic Education.

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