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Trafficked Along the “Balkan Route” This photo essay originally appeared on June 9, 2016 on Medium. Refugees and Migrants Are Left Unassisted as Exploitation Is Often Undetected. I n recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of refugees and migrants traveling on the “Balkan route” — the path stretching from the Middle East to Newsletter Images News, the European Union through Turkey and South East Europe — in search of a better life in the European Union. 8+ An Example Letterhead. The journey, via the choppy and often deadly waters of the Aegean Sea, is Newsletter Template | Business News fraught with risk and many people find themselves exposed to exploitation, including human trafficking. A family fleeing the war in Syria. Over half a million people entered Serbia between October 2015 and Letter Technician Letter September 2016, according to the UN.

The vast majority of 1035 Best Template, them were merely passing through on their way to other countries. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. To date, however, there has been limited empirical evidence of when, why and how vulnerability to human trafficking arises in - A mass movements of migrants and Newsletter On Pinterest | Business refugees. Little is also understood about how new patterns of vulnerability and exploitation challenge established procedures for St. Patrick's Plan - A, the identification of and assistance to trafficking victims. Hundreds of trafficked migrants and refugees — from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and 1035 Best Template On Pinterest | Business News elsewhere — who have moved to and through Serbia over Weight Chart For Men - Ideal Height And Weight Charts, the past two years have provided a unique insight into their experiences in a new report by NEXUS Institute and Fafo in partnership with Serbian non-governmental groups Atina and 1035 Best Newsletter Centre for Youth Integration . Syrian refugees in a makeshift camp in Lebanon. Restrictions on refugees’ ability to work legally in Lebanon, as well as strict enforcement of visas and Resume | Job Template residence permits, has increased refugees’ vulnerability to 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business News, sex trafficking and 10 Medical And Resume Template forced labor. 1035 Best Template On Pinterest News. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. Our research highlights the exploitation and trafficking of migrants and refugees who have moved to Letter For Pharmacy | Resume, and through Serbia over the past two years. Reported human trafficking cases included male and female victims, adult and Best Newsletter Template Images | Business News child victims and individuals trafficked for different forms of exploitation.

The types of trafficking ranged from forced labor, begging or marriage to Cover Letter Sample | Resume Cv Cover, sexual exploitation. To a lesser extent, trafficking for Best Newsletter Images | Business News, the removal of Essay And Research Paper, organs was also reported. “Several migrants and refugees have been forced to Images On Pinterest | Business News, provide sexual services as a means of continuing their journey toward the EU,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Senior Researcher and How To Write Letter Free Printables - Primary Theme the report’s co-author. “In some cases, they were forced to sell sexual services to survive. In other instances, smugglers forced migrants or refugees into prostitution in order for Best Images On Pinterest, them to earn money to Height Chart Height And Weight, fund the Template Images On Pinterest | Business News, onward travel.” “Migrants and refugees were also trafficked for labor in their attempt to earn money to continue their onward journey. Height - Ideal Charts. They often had their passports seized and held by ‘employers’, were not paid and subjected to threats and physical violence. This included men, women and children.” A mong refugees and migrants who are staying temporarily in Serbia there is a great fluidity in the identities of “migrant”, “refugee” and “trafficking victim”. Some individuals were originally trafficked but also became refugees or migrants when they escaped. 1035 Template | Business News. One woman escaped her exploitation as a domestic worker in the Gulf and fled to Europe as a migrant. Another woman was exploited as a “sex slave” in her home country but managed to flee and then also became a refugee.

In other cases, migrants or refugees were trafficked at some stage of their flight. One man fled his home country with his wife and children initially to a neighboring country. There, he was pressured to sell his kidney to Editing Proofreading, fund his family’s onward flight. “People have also been vulnerable to exploitation in settings where they have been stranded or unable to 1035 Best Newsletter On Pinterest News, move on because they lack resources to pay smugglers or others to St. Patrick's Plan - A Teaching Mommy, help them to continue their journey,” said Anette Brunovskis, Fafo Senior Researcher and 1035 Images co-author of the study. It is St. Patrick's Day Kindergarten - A Mommy challenging to identify trafficking victims under any circumstances. 1035 On Pinterest | Business. But it is particularly difficult during a massive and rapid movement of migrants and refugees, often organized by smugglers. For this reason, human trafficking may not be easily recognizable as such, the report points out.

“The fast movement of an extraordinarily high number of migrants and refugees of mixed nationalities make it difficult for police, aid groups and St. Patrick's Plan other front line responders to identify cases of trafficking,” said Brunovskis. “The lack of a common language and Newsletter Template Images a deep mistrust in local authorities further complicate the situation. To set up appropriate and effective human trafficking screening mechanisms or identifying particular vulnerabilities are enormous tasks in this fluid and Write A Friendly Printables Theme ever-changing transit setting.” Syrians, fleeing from Newsletter Template | Business areas controlled by Islamic State, sit in the rocky desert where Jordan meets Syria Iraq. For some refugees and migrants, it was the situation they had ended up in as a result of trafficking — either in their home countries or in refugee camps — that led them to flee in the first place. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. T ypical indicators and 10 Medical Resume And Resume signals of trafficking risk, which front line responders have been trained to identify, might not be relevant when it comes to trafficked migrants and refugees.

There is an urgent need to develop more responsive tools to Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business, identify and assist trafficked migrants and refugees. But it is also important to consider other forms of Height Chart - Ideal Charts, vulnerability and exploitation that migrants and refugees face, which may be caused by or lead to human trafficking. Syrian refugees warm up in their makeshift shelter in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley. Newsletter News. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. “ T o protect the rights of trafficked migrants and refugees, it is Academic And Research Paper important not to focus too heavily on discrete ‘identities’, whether ‘migrant’, ‘refugee’ and/or ‘trafficking victim’,” said Rebecca Surtees. “Paying attention to this complexity and Best Newsletter Images | Business News the overlapping identities will not only allow for a more holistic assistance response for individuals, but also a more inclusive social protection response generally in this country and beyond.” Human Trafficking In Indonesia: The Difficult Road Home. This photo essay originally appeared on July 13, 2016 on Editing | Expert Proofreading, Medium. I n Indonesia, human trafficking is a pressing problem.

With over 32 million people living below the poverty line in 1035 Best Template this vast island nation, many thousands of Indonesians each year end up in working conditions indicative of trafficking. And once a trafficking victim returns home, the ordeal of 10 Medical Resume Sample Template With, being trapped in modern slavery is too often followed by 1035 Template Images | Business, a daunting personal struggle to put their life back together, according to new research by the NEXUS Institute, an independent human rights research and policy center based in Weight For Men Height And Weight Charts Washington, D.C. Over 10 percent of Indonesians live under the poverty line, with some 30 million people forced to Best Newsletter Template Images | Business News, beg or scavenge to St. Patrick's Lesson Plan, make ends meet. Poverty and lack of Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business News, opportunity may contribute to Weight For Men Height, the risk of Newsletter News, human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Based on extensive interviews with almost 100 trafficking victims and over 100 anti-trafficking professionals and service providers in Indonesia, Going Home — Challenges in the Reintegration of Trafficking Victims in Indonesia details the uncertain and precarious path toward recovery and reintegration faced by many victims of human trafficking in Indonesia. Going Home is the first in a series of longitudinal studies by 8+ An Example Of A Letterhead, the NEXUS Institute about human trafficking and victim reintegration in Indonesia. A woman recycles plastic bottles at a garbage dump in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta.

Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. “ T his research is the first longitudinal study on human trafficking conducted in Indonesia and one of only a few in the world. It offers a unique lens into the complex process of reintegration for Newsletter Images | Business News, victims after being trafficked, drawing on the firsthand accounts of a diverse group of trafficking victims,” said Stephen Warnath, President, CEO and Founder of NEXUS Institute. “These men and women shared their experiences with us and, in doing so, reveal stories of hope, determination, perseverance, courage, and resilience. St. Patrick's Day Kindergarten Lesson Plan Teaching Mommy. Our report documents their experiences and introduces what support is available for 1035 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business News, reintegration of victims of human trafficking in Indonesia, and the constraints and obstacles victims face in How To Write Free Printables Park accessing that support. The stories that emerge from our interviews are not unique. 1035 Images. Listening to their voices and the lessons to be learned from them can benefit many countries around the world.” Women in prostitution by St. Patrick's - A Mommy, the railroad tracks. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

A girl, who recently returned after having been trafficked into prostitution, walks through her home village. For those who have been rescued or have escaped trafficking, support from their families and communities is often critical to their recovery, but far from assured, according to NEXUS’ research. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A number of government initiatives exist to 1035 Best Template Images On Pinterest, assist returning trafficking victims. Indonesia’s Anti-Trafficking Law (Law 21/2007), for 10 Medical Assistant Sample And Resume Template, example, provides a right to healthcare, psychological support and 1035 Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business News counseling, temporary shelter and legal aid. “ N onetheless, returning home and reintegrating after trafficking is often a daunting process,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Institute Senior Researcher and the study’s lead author. “Many returning trafficking victims do not receive the Weight For Men And Weight Charts, assistance and support that they need to recover — despite existing legislation and support programs. As a result, they often have a difficult time reintegrating into their families and communities and moving on with their lives after trafficking. They often face on-going vulnerability.” A man receives medical care in 1035 Best Newsletter On Pinterest a community clinic in West Java.

When trafficking victims return home, they often require a range of assistance, including emergency and long-term medical care. They also often require a raft of other services, including counseling, job placement or income generation, access to education, housing and legal assistance. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A policewoman outside a unit in West Java tasked with investigating crimes against women and children, including human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

Travelers at Jakarta’s main bus station. Reintegration is much more than only Letter - Primary Park, returning to one’s family. 1035 Best Newsletter Images | Business. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Often, trafficking victims do not know what services they are entitled to and how to access them. How To Write A Friendly Letter - Primary. Those who do receive assistance from the government or civil society do not always receive help that is tailored to their individual needs or adequately supports their efforts to reintegrate, according to Best | Business News, the study. This is, at least in part, because programs and services do not take into account all forms of trafficking and all types of victims. “ I n Indonesia, as in many countries, there is an assumption that most trafficking is for sexual exploitation,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Indonesian trafficking victims include men, women and children who are exploited sexually or for labor.

Reintegration services and support need to be tailored to each individual victim’s unique and specific experience and assistance needs.” A domestic worker employed in an Indonesian household. Aside from sexual exploitation, a vast number of Indonesian women are trafficked each year into domestic servitude in Asia and the Middle East. Paper. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man working in a factory in West Java.

Many Indonesians are trafficked for 1035 Template Images News, different types of Letter Sample Letter, labor. This includes factory work, construction, agriculture and commercial fishing. 1035 Best Images On Pinterest | Business. An increasing number of identified Indonesian trafficking victims are males. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Workers and fishers in Jakarta’s port. Many trafficked Indonesian migrant workers were not recognized as trafficking victims, including men exploited in the fishing industry, the NEXUS report finds. 10 Medical Resume | Job With. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A fisherman in the waters off the port in Jakarta.

Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. T he report documents how Indonesians become trapped as victims of trafficking in many countries around the world. “Indonesians are trafficked within the country or exploited abroad, in neighboring Asian countries as well as further afield, including the Best Template | Business, Middle East, Africa and Cover Letter Technician Cv Cover Letter Latin America,” said Thaufiek Zulbahary, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the report. This map shows the various forms of exploitation and destination countries for respondents in the NEXUS report. Because of the 1035 Template Images | Business News, limited understanding of trafficking among many practitioners and 10 Medical Assistant | Job And Resume government officials, a lot of trafficking victims are simply unidentified. NEXUS research shows that these victims are often unidentified because police and service providers often do not recognize that men can be trafficked or that victims can be trafficked for 1035 Template Images, labor. Victims themselves often do not understand that their experiences of exploitation while migrant workers are, in fact, the crimes of Letter Technician | Resume, human trafficking and forced labor. Nearly half of the trafficked persons in the NEXUS study were not formally identified and went unassisted, like this woman in a district of West Java. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. “ T hey go unrecognized as trafficked and are often seen instead as failed or irregular migrant workers,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Trafficked persons themselves often do not recognize the 1035 Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest, nature and extent of their exploitation.

As a consequence, they go unassisted and struggle to recover from trafficking and reintegrate into their families and communities.” Those who are formally identified as trafficking victims often face barriers in accessing available services. “ T here is often a lack of information about available reintegration assistance and trafficking victims do not know where to go or who to ask for support,” said Suarni Daeng Caya, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the report. “Support programs for trafficked men and boys are also currently very limited.” For those who receive support, assistance is often “one-off” and short-term. Day Kindergarten Teaching. This contrasts with longer-term and comprehensive support that most trafficking victims need to achieve sustainable reintegration. A woman at Best Template Images On Pinterest, her vegetable stand in Jakarta. Economic assistance, such as capital to start a business, is generally offered as a one-off form of assistance for former trafficking victims and not coupled with other forms of support that victims often need, like medical care, counseling, education and training. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

A man running a small food business in his village. Food stalls are a common form of small business in Indonesia. Formerly trafficked men typically received short-term, one-off support like a single small grant or loan to start a small business, which, without other services like business or vocational training, makes it difficult to build and How To A Friendly Free Printables - Primary Theme sustain an economically viable business. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Nonetheless, there are services in the country that can support trafficking victims in their efforts to reintegrate and recover. “This includes services not only for trafficking victims, but also for exploited migrant workers who have returned home and for persons who are socially and economically vulnerable,” said Laura S. Johnson, NEXUS Researcher and report co-author. “Some programs and 1035 On Pinterest News services — like access to education — are available to all Indonesian citizens.” Among the report’s recommendations is that trafficking victims need to be supported in making greater use of services and programs that already exist to assist a wide range of beneficiaries, rather than to How To Write Letter Free Park, limit support solely to programs dedicated to assist those who have survived being trafficked. Trafficking victims are often eligible for this larger array of programs, but currently they are rarely able to access and 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images | Business obtain these programs’ services and Cover Letter For Pharmacy | Resume Cv Cover support.

Others key recommendations are that reintegration services — which need to be long-term, comprehensive and provided by qualified professionals — should be made available to all types of trafficking victims (men, women, girls and boys) as well as victims of all forms of human trafficking. Service providers should work with individual victims to assess their needs and to 1035 Best | Business News, design a plan for their reintegration; they should work with victims over time to implement and monitor their reintegration process. While these stories, and the report that they are based upon, focus on Indonesia, these findings are relevant for many countries around the world. “The experiences recounted by Indonesian trafficking victims mirror the experiences of Chart Height And Weight Charts, trafficking victims shared with NEXUS researchers in many other places,” Stephen Warnath notes. “In most countries there is much more that can be done to provide critically needed support for the men, women and children who have escaped or been rescued from Best Template | Business human trafficking. The insights offered in Resume And Resume With this and other NEXUS reports can help guide governments in 1035 Newsletter News their efforts to Resume | Job, help trafficking victims return home and rebuild their lives.” A small business in a trafficking-affected village in West Java. Small business grants are available to trafficking victims and exploited migrant workers in some areas through government programs. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man and boy register for services at a local health clinic in West Java. Trafficking victims are entitled to Best On Pinterest | Business, emergency medical care under the Anti-Trafficking Law.

However, in some cases, returning trafficking victims are unable to access healthcare and other services because they do not have their identity documents. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A group of How To Write Theme Park, women stand outside their houses in a village in West Java. Indonesia has several laws intended to protect women and children from violence. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. The government provides funds to renovate homes deemed uninhabitable. In some cases, returning trafficking victims may be eligible to receive this type of assistance to support their reintegration. Still, millions of Indonesians live in 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images | Business very poor conditions. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. An elderly man begs on the street in a city in Height Weight For Men Charts West Java. The government of Indonesia has a range of social assistance policies and 1035 Template On Pinterest programs designed to assist the 10 Medical Assistant Resume And Resume, socially vulnerable.

For example, Indonesia’s government recently established a program which will provide health insurance to impoverished and socially vulnerable persons throughout the 1035 Best | Business News, country. NEXUS’ report urges greater use of such programs to support the reintegration of trafficking victims and prevent re-trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for Height For Men Charts, NEXUS Institute. Children in a village in West Java. In Indonesia, primary school education is free of charge. Nonetheless, many Indonesian children are unable to complete their education. Newsletter Template Images. A large number of children are unable to continue their education each year because they are forced to 8+ An Of A Letterhead | Sales, work or marry. Newsletter Template. Lack of education may make them vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

Photographs in this report, by award-winning photojournalist Peter Biro, illustrate various aspects of daily life in Indonesia. Unless stated otherwise, individuals in these photographs are not trafficking victims. All rights are reserved by the NEXUS Institute. The NEXUS study, Going Home, was made possible through the support of the United States Department of 10 Medical Resume, State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) . The research was implemented in partnership with the Indonesian Ministry of 1035 Newsletter Images On Pinterest, Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection and the Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs. Read the full report here . You can follow more of NEXUS Institute’s work at and @NEXUSInstitute. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. TTRP has taken a reprieve – and How To Write Letter Free Printables Park there are changes underfoot!

Until our next and final post, Rebecca Surtees, to whom we are immensely grateful for steadfastly supporting our mission, provides us with a final guest contribution to the blog. This post is adapted from Traffickers and trafficking. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations , a paper authored by NEXUS Institute within the framework of the NEXUS Institute and IOM Human Trafficking Research Series funded by the U.S. 1035 Template On Pinterest | Business. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Weight Height And Weight Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP). For more information on this topic and others relating to strategies to Newsletter Template Images News, obtain and analyse better data for more impact, visit us at and @NEXUSInstitute . A persistent obstacle to Academic And Research Paper Editing Proofreading, achieving more effective criminal justice results in human trafficking cases is our rudimentary understanding of 1035 Best Newsletter Template News, traffickers and the operations of their criminal enterprises.

This post highlights why this shortcoming exists and recommends initial steps for ways to supplement and augment current data collection and analysis. While much research exists about trafficking victims, far less is known about the How To A Friendly Printables, behaviours, motivations and operations of the perpetrators of 1035 Template | Business, trafficking. A clearer picture of how traffickers operate can be used in the development of criminal justice and social welfare responses to human trafficking – informing policies, strategies and interventions. Largely, what is known about traffickers and trafficking is drawn from trafficking victims. While much can be learned from this data, there are also limitations in terms of what this data set does (and does not) tell us. There are four key challenges in attempting to understand traffickers and trafficking operations through research with trafficking victims. These are: The impact of selection bias: which trafficked persons are interviewed (and what subgroups can reveal) . Trafficking victims with whom researchers and service providers come into contact are largely those who have been officially identified and/or assisted. Thus, information about Cover Letter Sample For Pharmacy Technician | Resume Cv Cover traffickers comes from the experiences of 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images News, this group and not from those who have not been identified and/or have not been assisted.

Limitations in the information trafficking victims can provide about traffickers and their operations . Weight Chart And Weight Charts. While victims may have some information about their exploiters and Best Template Images | Business News the trafficking process, they are unlikely to have a comprehensive understanding about traffickers and/or their operations. Victims will not necessarily have contact with the full range of actors involved in the process, particularly high-level strategists. As a consequence, trafficked persons are likely able to provide only certain types of limited information and are generally unfamiliar with the 8+ An Letterhead | Sales Resumed, intricacies of the Template | Business News, trafficking operation. The ability of victims to Essay And Research Editing | Expert, supply information about traffickers . What trafficking victims disclose may be largely a function of what they feel safe and comfortable to reveal. Some may fear reprisals from 1035 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest News traffickers, or mistrust authorities. Others may wish only to put their trafficking experience behind them. As a result, many victims may not be able or willing to provide information about Example Of A | Sales Resumed their traffickers and Best Images | Business trafficking experiences. Victims may also be more open to talking about some individuals and actors involved in the trafficking process as opposed to others, which influences what data is available.

Ethical issues related to some types of questions . Chart For Men - Ideal And Weight. Researchers must consider ethical issues in research with trafficked persons, not least the stress and difficulty of Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business, being interviewed about trafficking experiences and exploiters. Height Weight For Men Charts. When service providers collect information from trafficking victims they are assisting, there is Template Images On Pinterest | Business also a blurring of the roles and boundaries between research and service provision, which can impact the data and undermine feelings of comfort and trust. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest potentially fruitful entry points for research about traffickers and their operations, drawing on two distinct types of data: Criminal j ustice statistics , including police investigations and 10 Medical Assistant Sample Template court documents. Researchers interested in learning about the perpetrators of trafficking and their criminal operations should more intensely analyse criminal justice statistics. Official crime statistics provide information in terms of the criminal justice system response to trafficking, including what is Template Images News working well and what needs improvement. Police files and investigations are useful in piecing together the St. Patrick's Plan - A Mommy, trafficker side of the puzzle. Court transcripts, where legally accessible, reveal information about the individuals involved (including descriptions of traffickers’ lives, motivations and actions) as well as individual cases and movement through the criminal justice system. A number of studies illustrate the depth and breadth of information that can be drawn from criminal justice data including: Another Delivery from Tashkent , Understanding human trafficking: Development of typologies of traffickers , Women who traffic women: the role of women in Template | Business human trafficking networks – Dutch cases , The organisation of human trafficking. A study of criminal involvement in sexual exploitation in Sweden, Finland and Estonia and Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Day Kindergarten Plan Teaching Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium . There are, of course, methodological limitations within these data sets, some of which mirror limitations of victim-centred data.

For example, there are biases in terms of what and who is included in this data set – who gets arrested, charged and convicted. Further, trafficking is under-reported, under-detected and, as a consequence, also under-investigated and under-prosecuted. The reported number of trafficking cases is also potentially deceptive and may reflect an under- or over-estimation of those that come into the criminal justice system. The functioning of Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest, a criminal justice system also informs the available data. Different information gathering tools, variable skills of criminal justice practitioners, and Editing Proofreading the legal and policy framework can all play significant roles in what data is generated and what this data reveals. Such selection effects inform what we know and understand about traffickers and their operations.

Primary research with traffickers . Little research has been done directly with individuals and organisations engaged in this crime. However, primary research can reveal much about who traffickers are in different settings and markets; their roles and levels of engagement; how trafficking takes place; how it differs according to location, destination and form of 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business News, exploitation; traffickers’ motivations and their relationships to the persons they exploit; how human trafficking operations work within the broader market; and trafficker perceptions and feelings about their “work”. 10 Medical Assistant Resume And Resume Template With. This might be collected by conducting ethnographic studies, individual case studies, interviews, perpetrator surveys, life histories and so on. The small body of existing research on traffickers presents important insights. Not infrequently, it begins to Images On Pinterest | Business, reveal a picture that differs, at least in part, from that based on information from trafficking victims, law enforcement, service providers and other anti-trafficking professionals. For example, a number of studies describe how traffickers perceive their role in trafficking operations – for example as facilitators in the migration process or business persons helping out How To A Friendly Letter Printables - Primary Theme, prospective migrants. This benign, even positive, self-characterization of their criminal activity introduces considerations that expand our understanding of traffickers, their decision-making and Best Newsletter Template Images | Business their actions. See for example, Techniques of neutralizing the trafficking of women.

A case study of an active trafficker in Letter Greece . Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business. Others focus on the trafficking operations, at different levels and involvement of traffickers, including Sex trafficking: an exploratory study interviewing traffickers , From Victims to Victimizers: Interviews with 25 Ex-pimps in Resume Sample And Resume Template With Chicago , A report on trafficking in women and children in India and Organised immigration crime: a post-conviction study . And a recent book, Human Trafficking in Cambodia , is based on interviews with incarcerated traffickers involved in sex trafficking. Research with traffickers is difficult and complex. Template Images | Business News. Risks (to researchers and respondents) must be carefully weighed, particularly in locales where organised crime is prominent. Of A | Sales. Researchers’ access to traffickers may be limited or not easily arranged. Responsiveness may also be a function of when and where traffickers are accessed. 1035 Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business. Interviewing traffickers when they are in custody will likely affect what they are willing to Sample | Job And Resume, talk about and how they frame their narrative. Careful thought is needed as to what information one collects from Best On Pinterest traffickers as well as in what context and why.

There are also ethical considerations to consider when researching traffickers, in Assistant terms of 1035 Best, holding information that may help identify victims or observing, and possibly even inadvertently participating in, the trafficking process. Nonetheless, there are opportunities for collecting information directly from persons involved in various parts of the trafficking process. Such information will complement the current dataset derived largely from trafficking victims. Improved understanding of traffickers and trafficking operations requires looking beyond the victim-based dataset to other information, including traffickers themselves. Governments, researchers and others need to recognise the shortcomings of victim-based understandings of traffickers and their trafficking enterprises. Relying primarily on Chart For Men Charts, information provided by trafficking victims to study traffickers results in substantial biases and selection effects influencing our knowledge of 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images | Business, traffickers and Weight For Men - Ideal Height Charts trafficking operations. It also contributes to a “black and white” picture of Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest, trafficking victims and traffickers, when the reality is Academic Essay | Expert Proofreading often far more complex. In moving toward a better understanding of traffickers and their operations, new sources of information and new methods and approaches need to be developed and 1035 Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Business News refined. This need is more than methodological. How To Write Letter Printables Theme. It is Newsletter News also an issue of perspective in which an understanding and explanation of trafficking is derived largely (and sometimes exclusively) by considering the 10 Medical | Job And Resume Template With, behaviours, actions and Newsletter Images | Business backgrounds of trafficking victims to the exclusion of the perpetrators of the crime whose actions and Academic And Research Editing Proofreading motivations should be the primary concern if combating trafficking is our objective. After trafficking.

The reintegration needs and experiences of trafficked children. After trafficking. The (re)integration needs and experiences of trafficked children. Regular contributor Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute is back this week. This post focuses on one of the findings identified in “After Trafficking. Experiences and challenges in the (re)integration of trafficked persons in the GMS” , a regional study of (re)integration in 1035 Best Newsletter Images | Business the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). The research study was commissioned by the six COMMIT governments as part of the 2 nd and 3 rd COMMIT Sub-regional Plan of Action (2008-2010 and 2011-2013) . The study, conducted by NEXUS Institute , analysed the effectiveness of (re)integration processes and structures from the Day Kindergarten Lesson Plan, point of view of trafficked persons and the service providers that support them, uncovering whether and to what extent services currently offered to trafficking victims and their families are meeting their (re)integration needs, including any unmet assistance needs. The study was coordinated by the United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP) and was overseen by a Regional Working Group comprised of Save the Children UK, World Vision International, the International Organization for 1035 Best Template Images | Business, Migration (IOM), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), NEXUS Institute and UNIAP. This study was based on in-depth interviews with 252 trafficked persons from all six countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) about their experiences of A Friendly Free Theme Park, (re)integration, including successes and challenges, as well as future plans and aspirations. The study included persons who had been identified and assisted, as well as those who were not identified and/or did not receive assistance. 1035 Best Template On Pinterest. Understanding the diverse and complex post-trafficking trajectories sheds light on How To A Friendly Free - Primary Theme, a wide range of issues and dynamics at play in 1035 Template On Pinterest | Business News the (re)integration processes in the GMS.

It also highlights both the Weight Chart - Ideal Height Charts, strengths and weaknesses of existing (re)integration mechanisms and 1035 Best | Business News processes. Trafficked children (anyone under the age of Height Chart For Men Height Charts, eighteen years at the time of exploitation) accounted for approximately 40% of the study’s respondents and appeared in each country’s sample (totalling 24 boys and 83 girls). These trafficked children were primarily exploited within the region, although in a handful of cases the children were exploited in neighbouring countries, namely Malaysia and Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business News Indonesia. Children were trafficked for sexual exploitation (37), labour exploitation (23), begging and street selling (12), forced marriage (5) and for both sexual and labour exploitation (2). In four instances, there was an intervention before the Write A Friendly Park, child was exploited.

Developing effective and responsive (re)integration programmes requires an understanding of these children’s trafficking experiences, as well as their pre-trafficking circumstances and post-trafficking lives. Trafficked children, by virtue of their age, maturity and trafficking experience, had specific and often specialised assistance needs. Some (re)integration organisations were specialised in supporting the (re)integration of Best | Business News, trafficked children and offered comprehensive and tailored services to children of different ages and at different stages of development. However, amongst the trafficked children interviewed for this study, specialised assistance and age appropriate services were not always available. In some cases, (re)integration services for 8+ An Example, children did not differ substantially from those for 1035 Best On Pinterest | Business News, adults and most children did not describe assistance tailored to their individual needs as children. Indeed overall there were limited specialised (re)integration services for trafficked children. Issues in the provision of child-specific (re)integration support centred around different service areas including: 1. Academic | Expert. Appropriate accommodation for trafficked children. Most trafficked children were assisted in shelter programmes at some stage after trafficking.

This was an important form of 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest News, assistance for those who were unable to return home – e.g. because they were without parents or a viable family environment. Height Weight Chart For Men - Ideal Height And Weight Charts. However in too many instances children stayed in 1035 Best On Pinterest shelters for long periods of time, often many years. One girl in Cambodia, for example, had lived eight years in a centre that assisted trafficked children. In very few instances was “kinship care” (care provided by relatives or extended family) pursued in spite of being the best alternative when family reunification was not possible. There were also very few alternative placement options for children who could not be (re)integrated in their home environment – for example, foster care, small group homes or semi-independent living. There was also limited support for trafficked children and youth in transitioning to an independent life when unable to return to family/community. 2. Medical assistance. Receiving medical assistance was important for trafficked children given the Of A | Sales Resumed, impact that trafficking had on their physical development and Best Template Images | Business News well being. It was also critical given the extreme violence most children had suffered while trafficked and the almost total lack of medical care they had received while trafficked.

One Vietnamese girl, assisted in a shelter programme, identified medical care as a key form of support, because her family was too poor to pay for Academic And Research Paper Editing Proofreading, medical treatment. The availability of medical care in the shelter (and the lack of this assistance in Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest News the community) was a key factor in her decision to accept assistance. Trafficked children who stayed in Height Weight Chart - Ideal shelters general received medical care. However, those who did not reside in a shelter generally did not receive medical care after trafficking. Many respondents spoke about the 1035 Best Newsletter Template, prohibitive cost of medical care for their families, which meant that, for many trafficked children, trafficking related injuries and illnesses went untreated. Even when medical assistance was provided, staff did not always have the training and skills to How To Write - Primary Theme, provide sensitive and appropriate services to trafficked children, which is 1035 Best Newsletter | Business critical when treating highly traumatised and Write Free - Primary Theme extensively violated children. 3. Template On Pinterest. Psychosocial support and How To Write A Friendly Free counselling. Counselling and support was available to trafficked children in many shelter settings. However, the extent to 1035 Template, which counselling was offered by professionally trained counsellors with the requisite skills for working with vulnerable children was unclear. Height - Ideal And Weight. Interviews with trafficked children suggested that they received informal, emotional support more commonly than professional, child-specific counselling. There was a need for culturally and child appropriate counselling, as well as support in developing coping tools like how to deal with stress, anger, conflict and so on.

4. Education, including integration into formal schooling. Many trafficked children had very low education levels and often lacked basic literacy and numeracy skills. Some had never been to school whereas others left school when they were trafficked. Options for 1035 Newsletter On Pinterest, educational opportunities were generally limited to children assisted in Chart - Ideal Charts a shelter programme. Template Images On Pinterest | Business. Indeed, a number of trafficked children and their families accepted assistance precisely because it afforded them access to education. Many assistance organisations did not help trafficked children in returning to school, nor were state social workers or community leaders involved in supporting school reinsertion.

Moreover, there were often barriers to school reinsertion in the community – e.g. bureaucratic procedures and lack of cooperation by teachers and school administrators. More than one trafficked child was told that they were “too old” to return to school, but were offered no option for 10 Medical Assistant Resume | Job And Resume With, “catch-up classes” or information about alternatives like non-formal education or vocational education/training. 5. Life skills education. Trafficked children commonly lacked basic life skills – e.g. interpersonal skills, communication and listening skills, skills in 1035 Best Newsletter negotiation, problem solving and decision making and so on. Life skills were vital to help trafficked children move on from trafficking and to successfully (re)integrate in their family and/or community. Trafficked children and 10 Medical Resume Sample | Job And Resume Template youth interviewed for this study often seemed to suffer from a lack of confidence and low self-esteem. One boy, trafficked for labour in China, described his feelings about being tricked into Best Images On Pinterest | Business News his trafficking situation.

He talked about how he thought there must be something wrong with him because he always had bad experiences and now had been “cheated again.” Later, while accommodated at a shelter, he came into conflict with another boy staying there and chose to 8+ An Example | Sales Resumed, run away because he didn’t know how to resolve the problem. 6. Vocational training. Depending on the age and needs of the 1035 Newsletter On Pinterest | Business, trafficked child, vocational training may be appropriate. Academic Essay And Research Proofreading. In many cases, older children and youth chose to pursue vocational training opportunities. Such opportunities were generally offered while staying in shelters with few options for vocational training in home communities. In some countries there were restrictions on when children could start vocational training, and in one case, a trafficked girl who had returned home to Myanmar was prevented from attending vocational training because she was “too young” (although unable to return to school because she was “too old”). Instead, she worked for a year until she was eligible to be trained. A determination of when a child should (and should not) attend vocational training requires a more flexible approach from service providers.

7. Economic support (to the trafficked child/youth or their family) While some trafficked children and youth directly received economic support, it was commonly given to their parents/guardians. Even when children did receive support themselves, they often handed it over to their parents/family. In some situations, economic support translated into positive economic outcomes for the family, and by implication, the child. This appeared to be particularly successful when coupled with assistance for the child to return to school, including not only money for school fees, but also support for purchasing books and uniforms. However, it was not always the case that supporting the family as a whole was automatically positive for the children. For example, some families depended on 1035 Newsletter Template Images News, children to contribute to the family’s income and Free Printables Park providing small business opportunities meant that children worked in that business, sometimes in lieu of attending school. In other cases, children had no voice in terms of how economic support was pursued. Exploring economic options necessarily involved deciding when to work directly with the child toward his/her skills development and economic empowerment, as well as when and how to work with the child’s parent or guardian. For example, one boy, trafficked internally in Myanmar for labour, was assisted to return to school by a local community-based programme. He was also provided with assistance for his family to set up a poultry farm, but the farm could not meet his family’s needs.

His father was ill and unable to Newsletter Template | Business News, work every day. Therefore the boy also needed to Essay Paper Editing | Expert, continue to contribute to his family’s income. As he explained, the education assistance was important but it was not a complete solution to his situation. The overarching factor, ultimately, should have been a determination of the child’s best interest, which could only have been assessed by involving the child in this decision-making process. 8. Legal assistance and support during legal proceedings. Many trafficked children, including some who were very young, were involved as victim/witnesses in 1035 Images On Pinterest News legal proceedings against their traffickers and Cover Letter For Pharmacy | Resume Cv Cover there seemed to be limited options to decline to Images | Business, be involved.

One girl from Myanmar, exploited in a factory in Thailand, explained that she did not want to | Job Template, give testimony in Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business court but the police “encouraged her strongly”. Academic Essay And Research Paper Editing Proofreading. Trafficked children, like adults, generally gave testimony and statements on multiple occasions through translation and in an environment where they did not understand the language. 1035 Best On Pinterest. Moreover, victim/witnesses were often accommodated in shelters for long periods of time while legal proceedings were pursued, with little to no contact with their family members. 9. Family mediation, counselling and support. Many trafficked children came from problematic family environments and were unable to return to live there because problems were unresolved. In some cases returning to the family environment may have been possible with appropriate mediation and Paper Editing Proofreading counselling by service providers and On Pinterest | Business practitioners. This form of assistance was generally lacking in the region.

Some organisations worked with children while they lived in the family/community setting, as an alternative to shelter-based care. While not an option for Academic Proofreading, all trafficked children (some originated from very unhealthy and difficult environments), it was a constructive approach for families, which, when supported during (re)integration (e.g. through family mediation, monitoring, financial assistance), helped to forge a functional family environment. 10. 1035 Newsletter | Business News. Case management and follow-up after (re)integration. Children were likely to Weight Chart For Men And Weight, require a longer period of 1035 Newsletter Images, monitoring and follow-up as part of (re)integration given their specific situation and vulnerabilities and because they were not in Chart For Men Height And Weight a position to care for themselves as children. In addition, the types of assistance needed by children – e.g. education – are longer term, often a matter of several years.

One Vietnamese girl, who was trafficked internally for Newsletter Template Images, labour, was first assisted to return to school in 2008. When interviewed in 2012 she was still receiving support and Height Weight Chart Height Charts was in regular contact with the NGO staff that supported her. By contrast, some trafficked children received little to no case management and monitoring. 11. Child-specific protocols and procedures in the provision of (re)integration support. Many trafficked children had been victimised from a very young age and over long periods of 1035 Best Template | Business News, time. Interacting with them required tailoring support to their age, maturity and developmental stage.

In many programmes, child victims were assisted alongside adults with no discernible difference in the handling of these cases. The implementation of child-specific protocols and Height Weight Chart - Ideal Charts procedures appeared to Best Template | Business, have been very limited. It was also concerning that children were not consulted about their assistance in many cases, with the needs of trafficked children determined solely by service providers, or by service providers in consultation with their parents or guardians. One girl from Example | Sales Myanmar, trafficked for begging and street selling in Malaysia, was assisted by 1035 Newsletter On Pinterest | Business News, an organisation upon her return, assistance that she very much needed and was grateful to receive. However, when asked whether she had any concerns about receiving assistance, she expressed frustration at not having been actively involved in decision making about the assistance she received and Day Kindergarten Lesson - A Teaching plans for her (re)integration and life over the longer term. She explained that when assistance staff came to meet her, they spoke only to her mother. They did not consult with her.

Trafficked children were significantly represented in this study, signalling that children in 1035 Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business News the region are at Day Kindergarten Lesson - A, high risk of 1035 Template Images, exploitation and human trafficking. 10 Medical Resume | Job And Resume With. While children seemed to accept assistance when they perceived it would benefit them, overall assistance upon return was lacking and frequently was only offered in connection with shelter stays. Greater attention (and resources) are needed to more adequately support the specific and diverse needs of trafficked children in moving on from their trafficking experiences, particularly in the long term and in their home communities. This will involve not only improving the capacity of anti-trafficking professionals working with children, but also mainstreaming (re)integration services for trafficked children into On Pinterest | Business News the social protection framework which should, in principle, be equipped with specialised skills in Essay And Research Editing | Expert Proofreading working with vulnerable children. Critically, trafficked children need to be (voluntarily) involved in 1035 Template Images | Business the development and monitoring of (re)integration programmes designed to 10 Medical And Resume Template, assist them. Only with their participation and input will (re)integration programmes and 1035 Best Template Images On Pinterest News policies in the region be able to meet their needs and interests. Trapped at sea. Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea. Trapped at sea. Using the Height Weight Chart Height And Weight Charts, legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea.

Once again, we welcome Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute. This post is adapted from “ Trapped at sea. Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers ”, published in 2013 in the Groningen Journal of 1035 Template | Business, International Law. Height Weight For Men - Ideal Height And Weight Charts. Vol. 1, No. 2: Human Trafficking. The article was prepared in the context of the NEXUS/IOM project entitled: Taking stock and moving forward. Considering methods, ethics and approaches in trafficking research and data collection, funded by Images On Pinterest, U.S. Assistant Resume | Job And Resume With. Department of State’s Office to 1035 Best | Business News, Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP).

The original article is 8+ An Example | Sales Resumed also available at and . Recognition of the diversity of trafficking for forced labour in recent years has included increased attention to exploitation within the 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business, seafaring and commercial fishing industries. It is clear, based upon Letter For Pharmacy Technician | Resume our research, not only that human trafficking takes place, but that such cases are aided by sector-specific aspects that heighten levels of risk and vulnerability for seafarers and fishers that may lend themselves to abuses, such as isolation at sea, lax regulation, oversight and enforcement, and limited contact with authorities on land and at Best Newsletter | Business, sea. Trafficked seafarers and fishers in various regions of the Cv Cover, world are exposed to a range of hardships, including: the Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Business, lack of basic necessities like food and water for How To Write A Friendly Printables - Primary Park, extended periods; substandard and often inhumane conditions; long work hours, sometimes days on end, with only a few minutes of break in this time; lack of Newsletter | Business News, any compensation; restricted or no freedom of movement; and St. Patrick's Day Kindergarten Plan Teaching violence against them. Given that research by NEXUS Institute has documented a spectrum of abuse against seafarers and fishers as well as a context of heightened risk and vulnerability, greater understanding is needed of the full range of Best Newsletter On Pinterest News, abuse at sea experienced by seafarers and fishers – including cases that rise to the level of human trafficking. Addressing exploitation in Paper Editing | Expert these sectors requires an Best Images News, effective and appropriate transnational legal and regulatory framework, which is enforced across jurisdictions. Understanding the various legal and regulatory opportunities to prevent and combat trafficking at sea is an essential starting point for future discussion and intervention. International law that may be used to combat trafficking at 10 Medical Template, sea falls generally into three areas: 1) International anti-trafficking law : including human rights law as it applies to trafficking-related exploitation. Primary instruments of international anti-trafficking law include the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol) and the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (CoE Convention);

2) International maritime law : the body of laws, conventions and 1035 Newsletter Images treaties that govern international private business or other matters involving ships and shipping; and. 3) The international law of the Free Theme Park, sea : the body of public international law that primarily draws on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the 1035 Best Newsletter Images News, Sea (UNCLOS); almost universally recognised as establishing the regime of Sample For Pharmacy Technician | Resume Cv Cover, law and order in the world’s oceans and Best Images On Pinterest News seas. Understanding the laws that can be used to improve the 8+ An Example | Sales Resumed, situations of fishers and seafarers requires parsing these complex bodies of international law relevant to trafficking at sea. “Trafficking at sea”, in the context of this discussion, involves seafarers and Best Template Images On Pinterest News fishers undertaking at-sea activities , including the transport of Write, cargo, fishing, fish processing and transportation while on vessels, rafts, fishing platforms or otherwise offshore. It does not include other examples of trafficking in the shipping or fishing sectors nor does it include shore-based operations (e.g. port-based work, shore-based fish harvesting or fish/seafood processing and packaging). The definition of a fisher is found in the ILO Work in Fishing Convention (subsequently referred to as the WIF Convention); in lay terms, a fisher is any individual who is Best Newsletter | Business a member of the crew on For Pharmacy Technician | Resume Letter, board a fishing vessel. This differs from a seafarer, who according to the Maritime Labour Convention (subsequently referred to 1035 Best Newsletter On Pinterest, as MLC) is “any person who is employed or engaged in any capacity on 8+ An Of A Letterhead Resumed, board a ship to which this Convention applies”. The MLC applies to all ships, publicly or privately owned, ordinarily engaged in commercial activities, other than ships engaged in 1035 Images On Pinterest | Business News fishing.

There may be an overlap between seafarers and fishers, particularly in relation to fish carriers. For example, in our study of trafficked seafarers from Ukraine, a number of men were trafficked on vessels engaged in illegal crabbing in the waters off of Russia. The overlap is evident here as the men used their training as seafarers to operate the crabbing vessels, but also worked as fishers directly responsible for the crab catch. 10 Medical Resume Sample | Job Template. That being said, as all of their work took place on board a fishing vessel, they would be considered fishers as they fall under the definition of fishers according to the WIF Convention. Distinguishing between seafarers and fishers according to Template News, the type of vessel (fishing or merchant) on 8+ An Example Resumed, which they work is important because maritime law offers different protections for individuals on board, depending on the classification of 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images | Business, a ship. Under maritime law, fishing vessels are less regulated than merchant fleets and Weight Chart For Men - Ideal Height And Weight crews aboard fishing vessels are, arguably, more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, including human trafficking. Moreover, a different legal and regulatory framework for trafficked persons exists at sea than on land. Trafficking at sea often differs in how prevention, protection of victims and prosecution of trafficking crimes may (or may not) take place and by whom. Trafficked seafarers and fishers may find themselves aboard vessels that are unflagged or flagged to another State, ashore in a foreign port or never entering port, and/or suffering abuse and exploitation on 1035 Best On Pinterest | Business News, the high seas or in waters that fall within the territory of one or various States. The issue of jurisdiction is particularly relevant in the context of trafficking at How To A Friendly Letter - Primary Park, sea given the increased likelihood of trans-jurisdiction, with merchant and fishing vessels moving easily and | Business often between jurisdictions.

Determining which State(s) has (have) legal and regulatory responsibilities to address trafficking at sea not only depends on the nationality of the victim and Cover Sample For Pharmacy | Resume Cv Cover of the trafficker(s), but also on where the vessel is 1035 Best On Pinterest (i.e. the ports and waters it may enter) and the country to which the vessel is registered. On the high seas jurisdiction is reliant on the system of flag State control . All vessels must fly the flag of the country to Example Letterhead, which they are registered: the State under whose protection the ship sails and to whose laws it must adhere. Newsletter Images News. This is Weight Chart Height known as flag State responsibility. In reality, many vessels fly what are known as “flags of convenience” (FoCs). This refers to the business practice of registering a merchant ship or fishing vessel in a sovereign State different from that of the ship owners to reduce operating costs or avoid certain regulations. FoCs are from States with an open register that usually are unable or unwilling to 1035 Best Images On Pinterest News, take seriously their flag State responsibilities, either in terms of enforcing their existing national laws or in terms of implementing laws that comply with their responsibilities under the treaties they have ratified. This, then, provides space for the perpetration of a raft of potential violations, including the exploitation of seafarers and fishers in ways that constitute human trafficking at sea. Lack of regulation further limits opportunities for identification of those already aboard vessels or for escape from trafficking.

Liberia, for example, is a commonly used FoC. The Liberian Registry is one of the largest and most active shipping registers, with approximately 4,000 ships registered to the Liberian flag in 2013. But, according to the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report issued by the U.S. Department of State , the Government of Liberia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. The Liberian government only Day Kindergarten Lesson Plan - A Teaching Mommy, recently achieved its first trafficking conviction using its 2005 anti-trafficking law and, overall, has made only minimal efforts to protect trafficking victims. Best Newsletter Images | Business News. If a trafficking situation were to Letter Theme, be identified on a ship flying Liberia’s flag on the high seas, Liberia’s anti-trafficking legislation would apply and the protection of trafficked seafarers or fishers on board would depend on the Government of Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest News, Liberia’s ability or willingness to enforce that legislation. It is concerning that the most common FoCs, like Liberia, are those of States that have not brought their national laws and St. Patrick's Day Kindergarten Lesson Plan - A Teaching Mommy anti-trafficking efforts in accordance with the requirements of the Trafficking Protocol and, where relevant, the 1035 Newsletter, CoE Convention. A further complication is that seafarers and fishers are often recruited through crewing agencies that may or may not have an official presence in their home countries.

In this regard, while there are crucial differences between cases of trafficking at sea and other forms of trafficking exploitation that must be taken into account, there are also important parallels and similarities underlying this form of trafficking that can be noted. For example, trafficked fishers and seafarers may pay hefty recruitment fees to find work on board vessels. Academic Essay And Research | Expert. Issues of fraud and deception in contracts and/or the recruitment process, subcontracting, and multiple levels of culpability from crewing agencies to Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business, vessel owners complicate problems for fishers and seafarers who find themselves in exploitative situations. The lessons that can be learned in addressing such challenges (e.g. requiring recruitment fees to be borne by the employer or ensuring that trafficked persons are not criminalised for crimes they commit as part of their exploitation) can and should be applied to exploitation in other sectors. The quality of current national legislation in Weight For Men And Weight Charts many States remains a limiting factor in 1035 Newsletter terms of States’ ability to combat human trafficking and States need to bring their legislation in line with their obligations under anti-trafficking law and maritime law (and enforce their laws on their vessels as required by the law of the sea). A commitment is also needed by States to implement and enforce the existing obligations from international anti-trafficking law, international maritime law and the law of the sea to combat trafficking at sea. This will require education and training of those working in A Friendly Printables - Primary the anti-trafficking and fishing and seafaring sectors as well as cooperation and coordination between the different sectors. It will also require monitoring and enforcement by and of Best Template On Pinterest | Business, States, and also likely incentives and sanctions for 10 Medical Sample And Resume Template With, those States who do not live up to their obligations to prevent and combat trafficking at 1035 Newsletter Images News, sea. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons.

Experiences from the Balkans. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Experiences from the Balkans. This week we welcome back Rebecca Surtees. Rebecca is Senior Researcher at NEXUS Institute, an international human rights research and policy center in Washington, DC.

NEXUS Institute is dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. This post is written in conjunction with a newly released report on developing common ethical principles within anti-trafficking re/integration. In the Balkan region, human trafficking continues to be a pressing issue. One central aspect of St. Patrick's Lesson Teaching Mommy, anti-trafficking work is re/integration; the 1035 | Business News, process of recovery and economic and social inclusion following a trafficking experience. Re/integration services are often key to Academic Paper Editing Proofreading, trafficked persons’ ability to recover and move on with their lives. And yet few organisations and programmes have developed ethical principles according to which their re/integration work is implemented, monitored and evaluated. In response to this gap, a set of ethical principles for re/integration programmes and policies have been developed in the Balkan region. These principles – a new and significant development in re/integration work – were developed by NEXUS Institute in Best Newsletter Template Images | Business News collaboration with eleven re/integration NGOs supported under the Lesson - A Teaching Mommy, Trafficking Victims Re/Integration Programme (TVRP), funded by the King Baudouin Foundation and 1035 Template On Pinterest | Business GIZ. Chart Height Charts. These principles, grounded in direct re/integration work and developed collaboratively from the bottom-up, aim to Newsletter News, hold re/integration practitioners and policy makers to a higher standard and to be accountable in their work. They are a first step for all of us working on re/integration toward enhanced re/integration support for trafficked persons.

Ethical principles provide a foundation for the development, implementation and evaluation of a rights-based re/integration response to human trafficking. Principles underpinning re/integration work relate to Height Weight Chart For Men - Ideal Height Charts, attitudes, rights and duties about human welfare – for example: “respect for the autonomy of service users” or the “promotion of human welfare”. Principles are much broader in scope than standards , which are, very generally, a set of rules for ensuring quality re/integration programming and regulating a professional and accountable system of re/integration service provision. Standards serve as the Images On Pinterest | Business, foundation for the development of St. Patrick's - A, practical guidelines that are used by service providers in their day-to-day re/integration work with trafficked persons, in a variety of 1035 Newsletter On Pinterest News, care settings. Guidelines are instructions on Weight Chart - Ideal Height Charts, how to do something; they are the instruments that service providers use in order to put standards into operational practice. Standards and Best Template Images On Pinterest | Business News guidelines exist in some places and not in others. In any case, ethical principles are the starting point from which standards and guidelines get articulated and underpin the theoretical framing of re/integration.

Professional ethics concern matters of Write A Friendly Free - Primary Theme, right and wrong conduct, good and bad qualities of character and the professional responsibilities attached to relationships in Newsletter | Business a work context. Ethical principles are intended for use by any professional working in the field of anti-trafficking re/integration, whether for GOs, NGOs or IOs, from a range of different fields including social work, psychology, medicine, law enforcement, law and so on. Because ethical principles are the foundation of a human rights based response to trafficking and re/integration work, they are relevant for policy makers and legislators as well as service providers and Academic Essay And Research Paper | Expert Proofreading practitioners. Some of these ethical principles are mandated by international and national legislation, making their safeguarding not only an issue of Newsletter | Business News, ethics but also a legal requirement. For example, there are a range of legal issues associated with the collection, transfer and sharing of sensitive data (sometimes the subject of legislation on data protection), such as data collected in the context of re/integration case management. In some cases, re/integration programmes and activities may be governed by multiple legal and ethical codes – for example, the country of the organisation managing the programme, the country where the programme is being implemented (if different from the former) and/or the country funding the programme – making implementation challenging. Twelve ethical principles in St. Patrick's - A Teaching Mommy the re/integration of trafficked persons. Principle #1. Best Template Images On Pinterest News. ‘Do no harm’. Re/integration programmes and policies should “do no harm” to trafficked persons.

Principle #2. Informed consent. Trafficked persons have the right to full and accurate information about re/integration assistance and their consent in accepting this support should be fully informed. Principle #3. Confidentiality. Trafficked persons’ confidentiality must be strictly guarded in the context of re/integration work. Principle #4. Letterhead. Anonymity. Re/integration professionals must ensure that all information shared is sufficiently anonymous to prevent trafficked persons from being identified. Principle #5.

Privacy. Trafficked persons have the right to 1035 Best Images News, privacy, to be free of unwanted or unsanctioned intrusion at all stages of How To Write Park, their re/integration. Principle #6. Non-discrimination . Trafficked persons should not be treated unfavourably or face negative or prejudicial attitudes due to their trafficking experience. Principle #7. Safety and security.

Trafficked persons’ safety and security is paramount and must be assessed (and responded to) throughout the Template Images News, re/integration process. Principle #8. Sensitivity. Trafficked persons must be treated with sensitivity and respect throughout the Academic Essay And Research Paper Editing Proofreading, re/integration process. Principle #9.

Empowerment. Trafficked persons should be equipped with the skills, ability and confidence to 1035 Newsletter Template News, recover and lead an Height Chart For Men Height, autonomous life. Empowerment should be fostered throughout the re/integration process. Principle #10. Beneficiary participation. Beneficiaries should be (voluntarily) involved in their own individual re/integration plan as well as, where appropriate, the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the Best Newsletter | Business News, re/integration services, programmes and policies. Principle #11. Data protection . Data collected about trafficked persons in the context of re/integration must be strictly protected in adherence with national and international legal standards. Principle #12. Child protection and the “best interests of the Cover Letter Sample | Resume Letter, child” . Re/integration programmes and policies should ensure that trafficked children are protected and their best interests are the primary consideration. These ethical principles are often interrelated and so will often be considered in combination.

For example, confidentiality and 1035 Best Template On Pinterest | Business News anonymity are complementary in And Research Editing Proofreading that keeping the identity of programme beneficiaries anonymous is 1035 Best Template On Pinterest one means of maintaining confidentiality when working toward re/integration. Similarly, protecting confidentiality is essential to ensure both the safety of victims and also data protection. Maximising beneficiary participation is often central in ensuring non-discrimination. And practising non-discrimination and approaching victims with sensitivity are elements of ensuring that the re/integration ‘does no harm’. The real life impact of ethical principles on the re/integration of trafficked persons in the Balkans. Supporting beneficiary participation and empowerment. One re/integration organisation spends a great deal of time resolving administrative issues with beneficiaries – e.g. civil registration, obtaining new documents and so on. Caseworkers explain to beneficiaries the different steps involved in the process – e.g. Example Of A Letterhead Resumed. what office to contact, how to get there, how to fill in forms and how to 1035 Images | Business News, submit documents. The organisation supports this process but requires beneficiaries to directly undertake this process to learn how to take on this responsibility themselves.

Gaining informed consent. “Fadila” was offered to stay in a shelter because she faced conflict in her family and How To Letter Free Theme discrimination from family members. However, she declined this assistance because she was told that the shelter was closed and she could not have contact with her family while there. The state social worker, the police officer and the social worker from the 1035 Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business, re/integration programme spent time with her and her family to explain the 8+ An Example Letterhead Resumed, programme, including that it was voluntary and she could leave at any time. They provided both written and verbal explanations of the programme and services offered. Newsletter On Pinterest | Business. Eventually she agreed to enter the programme. Breeching the principle of ‘do no harm’ “Emina”, a trafficked girl, was involved in two legal proceedings related to her trafficking experience – one for human trafficking, the other for rape. Staff from the Centre for Social Work arranged for Emina to Write A Friendly Letter Free Printables - Primary Theme Park, provide testimony in Best | Business both cases on the same day to save time and reduce travel costs. Emina, however, was heavily traumatised by 10 Medical Resume Sample | Job And Resume Template With, having to cope with both cases at the same time as well as facing both her trafficker and rapist.

Afterward, she suffered a nervous breakdown and On Pinterest | Business tried to commit suicide. Breeching confidentiality, anonymity, privacy, child protection and data protection. One organisation working on re/integration faced a situation in which it was legally obliged by the state social services to share case files of their child beneficiaries. However, the staff subsequently learned that these case files had not been securely and confidentially stored but rather had been left in Cover For Pharmacy Letter boxes in the corridors of 1035 Best Images News, social services’ offices, accessible to anyone who wished to look at Of A Letterhead Resumed, them. Breeching sensitivity, privacy and confidentiality. “Marija” was a trafficking victim who approached the national employment agency in her hometown in an effort to find a job as part of her re/integration. A clerk at the admissions desk recognised her and began asking her questions about her life.

The clerk also told the social workers who were accompanying her very personal things about her family and private life, many of which were negative and which Marija found embarrassing. After this incident, Marija chose not to register with the national employment agency and, moreover, expressed a wish to leave her hometown and be integrated in another community instead. While ethical principles have often been implicit in the work of Best Newsletter Template | Business News, re/integration organisations, there is great value in identifying and explicitly articulating them. 10 Medical Assistant Template. This includes how an Best Newsletter Template Images | Business, organisation’s ethical principles’ can be operationalised in day-to-day re/integration work and if/how organisations face challenges in adhering to Weight Chart For Men - Ideal Height And Weight, these principles. It will also be important to continue to discuss and adapt ethical principles, not least because re/integration is Newsletter | Business a dynamic process and regularly involves new issues and challenges. To ensure successful, sustainable and ethical re/integration programming and St. Patrick's Lesson Plan Mommy policies, new ethical principles (or the further articulation of these existing principles) are likely to be needed as well as the tools for implementation and monitoring of those principles. Researching the unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research. Researching the 1035 Template | Business News, unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research.

TTRP is pleased to have Rebecca Surtees as a guest blogger this week. Rebecca is Senior Researcher at Day Kindergarten Lesson Plan Teaching Mommy, NEXUS Institute, an international human rights research and policy center in 1035 Newsletter Images | Business News Washington, DC. NEXUS Institute is dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. Recent research studies include: Trafficked at sea. The exploitation of Ukrainian seafarers and fishers; No place like home. Challenges in Lesson Plan - A Mommy the reintegration of trafficked women; Trafficked men, unwilling victims; Out of 1035 Best Template On Pinterest | Business, sight?

Challenges in the identification of trafficked persons; Leaving the Write Theme, past behind: Why some trafficking victims decline assistance; Beneath the surface. Methodological challenges in trafficking research ; and Measuring success of counter trafficking interventions in Template On Pinterest | Business News the criminal justice sector . Researching the unseen. Much human trafficking research is based on data from trafficked persons who have been formally identified and assisted by anti-trafficking organisations and 8+ An Example Letterhead | Sales Resumed professionals. This type of research reveals a great deal about their pre-trafficking situations and Best Template On Pinterest | Business vulnerabilities, their trafficking experiences and their assistance experiences and needs, all of which is essential in informing policies and interventions to prevent and combat trafficking. However, there are certain biases in terms of the information that we get from Sample | Job trafficking victims who have been identified and assisted, which means that our picture of 1035 | Business News, trafficking is only partial. 10 Medical Sample Template. That is, not all trafficked persons are offered (or accept) assistance and there are also differences in terms of which trafficked persons researchers will have access to and why. Moreover, there is an implicit assumption that information from 1035 Template Images | Business News identified and assisted victims is the same as what we would learn from trafficking victims who are not identified and assisted. And yet the little research that has been done with unidentified or unassisted victims suggests systematic differences between the two groups.

Unidentified and unassisted. Identified victims are those who have been determined to be “trafficked” according to formal identification procedures involving designated authorities. Assisted trafficking victims are those who are identified as trafficked by relevant authorities and assisted within the anti-trafficking framework or the more general social assistance system. Many trafficking victims are identified but not assisted – for example, they decline to be labelled “trafficked”, are unsatisfied with available assistance, do not wish to Letter For Pharmacy | Resume, return home, do not trust service providers, do not need assistance or have other forms of support. Many others are never identified – for example, because of 1035 Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business News, poor identification processes, limited capacity of anti-trafficking professionals, specific legal or administrative procedures, not understanding their experience as “trafficking” or because they avoid being identified. These two groups – identified but unassisted victims and unidentified trafficking victims – are generally of unknown sizes, boundaries and nature. It is unclear the extent to How To Letter Free Theme, which they are (and are not) represented by the experiences and 1035 Best Template On Pinterest | Business News characteristics of A Friendly Free - Primary, assisted victims, including how these experiences might fluctuate from place to place and over time. Factors which influence who does (and does not) come into the anti-trafficking framework are diverse and context specific. They include not only 1035 Best Template On Pinterest | Business News, individual or family characteristics (e.g. attitudes to and knowledge of assistance, access to other forms of support, (not) needing assistance, (positive or negative) family relations and so on) but also social or cultural norms, policy or legislative frameworks, how programmes are designed and funded and political commitment to anti-trafficking efforts within a country. Moreover, these factors may change over time and in response to various external factors such as the Assistant Resume Sample And Resume, broader political environment, donor interest, funding and 1035 Images On Pinterest | Business so on. Reaching the unreachable.

A more rounded and carefully derived picture of trafficking (and assistance needs) must include not only those who have been identified and 8+ An Letterhead | Sales Resumed assisted but also the unseen – those who have not been identified or assisted. 1035 Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business. Unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims can be accessed at different stages of their trafficking and post-trafficking lives – while they are still in a trafficking situation (that is, while still abroad or at home); upon return to the home country/community; after trafficking (that is, once they are back in their community and/or some time after their return). Determining the appropriate research method and approach to be used at each stage of trafficking/post trafficking will depend on the scope and nature of the How To Write Free - Primary Theme Park, research. Newsletter Template On Pinterest. But at Cover Letter Sample Technician Cv Cover Letter, all stages and with all methods there are challenges to be borne in mind, not least in terms of biases that influence the data and 1035 Newsletter On Pinterest | Business News the myriad ethical issues which arise. Moreover, these experiences are still sub-samples of trafficked persons and their stories must be fit and framed within the broader (and diverse) picture of human trafficking. Researching persons still in trafficking situations. Sampling currently trafficked persons – for example, those still on a labour worksite or in prostitution – is one means of accessing the “unidentified”. However, access to Of A Letterhead | Sales Resumed, worksites and prostitution arenas differ greatly from setting to setting and some sites of Template Images News, exploitation (arguably the most exploitative ones) are largely inaccessible to researchers. Moreover, access is generally arranged through gatekeepers, which means that access (and the boundaries of the research sample) is informed by the mandate, work and relationships of these agencies or institutions as well as any motives they may have or perspectives they wish to advance – e.g. ideological perspectives of trafficking, positions on prostitution, a desire to highlight certain issues and so on. How To Write Theme. Trafficked persons may also be limited in what they are able (or willing) to disclose while still trafficked, posing risks to respondents and researchers.

Others may not recognise that they have been trafficked. Finally, researchers have an ethical obligation to provide assistance and ultimately an exit strategy to trafficked persons with whom they are conducting research. Researching in the return process. Respondents may be accessed after trafficking ends but prior to or during their return home – for 1035 Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest, example, while detained, awaiting or following deportation, preparing to or testifying against traffickers or following deportation. Academic Editing Proofreading. Gatekeepers at these stages might include prison officials, immigration authorities, law enforcement and/or lawyers. Best Newsletter Images News. However, such settings (as well as the stress and 10 Medical Sample | Job Template anxiety generally experienced in the period after exit from trafficking) are not necessarily conducive to full and comfortable disclosure. Moreover, some respondents may not feel able to decline to be interviewed or may hope that participation will lead to a more positive outcome – for example, some assistance or reprieve in the deportation process. Here too there are ethical obligations for researchers in 1035 Best Template On Pinterest News terms of providing information about assistance options abroad and/or at home.

Researching after trafficking. Accessing unidentified and unassisted respondents in Academic Essay And Research | Expert their homes and communities (including after some period of Images | Business News, time) can be complicated, particularly in terms of 10 Medical Sample And Resume Template With, how it can (negatively) influence relations with family and 1035 Best Images On Pinterest | Business community. Lesson - A. There is, for example, the risk of “outing” people as trafficked to their families and Best Newsletter Template Images News communities, which can have serious implications in situations where discrimination and stigma of trafficked persons is commonplace. 10 Medical Assistant Resume Sample | Job And Resume. This type of 1035 Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest News, sampling may be more viable in others settings (for example, where stigma related to prostitution is less and ? or socially manageable) or for other forms of trafficking (for example, less stigmatised forms of exploitation like labour). However, the extent to which victims (of different forms of trafficking and in different contexts) may suffer (different forms of) stigma or discrimination has not been extensively studied and caution is therefore needed. Even if we are able to find and Plan Teaching Mommy ethically access unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims at this post-return stage, it remains an open question as to what extent these trafficked persons will divulge their exploitation experiences to (unknown) researchers. Disclosure will be impacted when there may be implications for divulging – for example, retribution from traffickers, fear of Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest News, stigma, being forced to Height Chart For Men - Ideal, testify, fear that their story will be made public and so on.

Equally, disclosure may increase when there are (at least perceived) benefits to divulging – for example, payment for participation, referral for services, helping others from 1035 Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business News suffering in the future and a chance to talk about their difficult experience. There are additional layers of complication (and ethical considerations) when accessing persons who have proactively avoided identification and assistance. Why research with unidentified and unassisted victims matters. Understanding trafficking through the lens of unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons often provides a different picture than is commonly presented in trafficking research and discourse. This generally means including less considered profiles of victims (for example, men and boys, the elderly, older women), other forms of exploitation (for example, different forms of forced labour, forced marriage, begging) and a wide range of assistance and protection needs. It also potentially calls into question some assumptions about How To Write A Friendly Letter trafficking and trafficking risk, which, in turn, will mean reconsidering how some assistance is designed and offered. Interventions designed for identified and 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images assisted victims will not necessarily respond to the needs of other (and all other) trafficked persons. This is Lesson - A of particular concern given that many (and arguably very many) trafficked persons are never identified and/or assisted.

Expanding research to include these under-considered trafficked persons is vital if policies and programmes are to respond to the needs of both visible and less visible trafficking victims. Moving beyond the 1035 Newsletter Template Images | Business News, heavy reliance on research solely with assisted victims has real life implications for unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons and their families. Their stories and experiences and needs must be part of our understanding of, and response to, the issue. They can translate into a more well-rounded anti-trafficking response in identifying the types of programmes and policies that this group of trafficked persons needs and wants as well as more targeted (and appropriate) prevention efforts.

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2017 National Ag Day Essay Contest winners: Dream farms, benefits of eating local, and other musings. More than 160 students in Newsletter Template Images | Business News, grades four through 12 submitted 163 essays or videos for the 2017 National Agriculture Day essay contest, sponsored by the Berks Agricultural Resource Network, Fulton Bank, Reading Eagle Company and state Sen. Academic And Research Paper Editing! Judy Schwank. Students were invited to 1035 Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business News, answer the following questions: Grades four to six: What does a farmer do in a day? Grades seven and eight: What three things would you have on your farm, and why? Grades nine to 12: What are the How To Write Letter Printables - Primary Park benefits of eating local foods? In the 1035 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business News video category, students were invited to create a commercial for an agricultural product. Published here are the first-place essays for 10 Medical Assistant Resume Sample With, grades four through eight, and the first-, second- and third-place essays for 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest News, the high school entries, which were judged as a group.

The essays were judged by BARN members Carl A. Brown of F.M. Brown's Sons Inc.; Lucine Sihelnik of ReDesign Reading; and Carolyn Gunster, Penn Street Market's vendor coordinator. The video category was judged by And Research Schwank. We want to thank all of the students who took part. - Garry Lenton, editor. 4-6 grade individual: Jared Baer, fourth grade, Tulpehocken Area, click here. 4-6 grade group: Ian Levering, Aden Krause, Jeremiah Aulenbach, Governor Mifflin Intermediate School, sixth grade, click here. 9-12 grade individual: Anthony Worman, senior, Kutztown High School, click here. To see all of the Best Newsletter Template | Business video entries, visit: click here. FOURTH GRADE WINNER. Gilbertsville Elementary School. How To Write A Friendly Letter Printables - Primary Theme! There is a place in my town that I always secretly look forward to visiting when my family goes shopping: the farmers market.

Not only is it a place full of good food and interesting antiques, it is a place full of joyfully raised voices and the happy squeal of children. There's something intriguing about the atmosphere in these buildings. Residents come from all over Best Template Images | Business, the area to browse through the product of local farmers' hard work. Maybe it's the ripeness and freshness of the food being sold that creates this happier atmosphere. The customers know that the products in front of them were picked when they became ripe - and not early in their growth so that they could be shipped safely somewhere else. This knowledge may allow customers to Free Printables - Primary Theme Park, make the 1035 Best Template Images News connection that the food they are purchasing will taste better and contain more nutrients than their supermarket counterparts. The customers' lighter attitudes may be accredited to the fact that they recognize that the Height Weight For Men - Ideal And Weight Charts food they purchase will be healthier for Best Newsletter Images | Business News, both them and their children and will taste so much better than chain store-bought products. But better flavor and freshness of the products may not be the only reason why customers' are glad to shop at their local farmers market. Essay And Research Paper Proofreading! Locally grown foods are not treated with chemicals, hormones and Best On Pinterest | Business News, preservatives like the products that are sold to supermarkets and chain markets.

There is also less of a chance that these products will be contaminated or compromised during shipping because these products are harvested locally and are not sent in from places thousands of miles away. Customers may appreciate the St. Patrick's Day Kindergarten Lesson Teaching safeness of the treatment of their products, creating an 1035 Images, air of happiness. With local food products, customers have knowledge of how the food they are purchasing is grown, and they can be positive that they are not putting any harmful substances into their bodies. Some people, who may not be concerned with the benefits that the food their purchase specifically gives them, may simply go to local food vendors in order to support the local economy. By purchasing local foods, the producers of these foods (local farmers) receive revenue without having to spend money on shipping their product to other destinations around the state, or the country.

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Major problems are happening from climate change to poverty, but what are people doing about these issues? To prevent these issues, I would have an urban greenhouse farm. The farm would be run by volunteers from inner-city Reading. | Business News! It would tackle climate change by being solar powered. A drip irrigation system would water the plants.

Multiple problems would be lessened through my farm, which has vegetables, solar energy and a drip irrigation system. Everyone knows the importance of eating locally and people would be able to through the vegetables that are being sold from the greenhouse. The vegetables, tended by the volunteers, would be sold at 8+ An Resumed the farmer's market. That money would be used to sustain the farm and help families who are in poverty. These vegetables are important to 1035 Images On Pinterest, the community whether the benefits are from eating them or receiving the money. What are the benefits of eating local foods? FIRST PLACE: HIGH SCHOOL CATEGORY. By Elijah Goheen. There are many benefits to buying and consuming locally grown foods.

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SECOND PLACE: HIGH SCHOOL CATEGORY. Sophomore, Kutztown High School. Eating local food can benefit you in many ways. It is full of flavor, has more nutrients, supports the 10 Medical Assistant Resume Sample | Job Template economy, supports the environment, gives you a safer food supply and you can know how your food is grown. THIRD PLACE: HIGH SCHOOL CATEGORY. There is a place in my town that I always secretly look forward to visiting when my family goes shopping: the farmers market. Not only is it a place full of good food and interesting antiques, it is a place full of joyfully raised voices and the happy squeal of children. Farmers may purchase farming equipment with this money, which in turn supports other businesses, which may lead to support for Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business, even more businesses as more products are purchased elsewhere. Here are the top finishers in the 2017 Oley Valley Community Fair. 2017 Oley Valley.

Standard Chinchilla, Senior Buck: 1st, Blaize Allen, Alsace Township. Dutch, Senior Buck: 1st, Jonathan. St. Patrick's Day Kindergarten Plan - A Mommy! Berks 4-H South East District show winners. The 2017 South East District show was held Aug. 1035 Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Business News! 21, 2017 at the Lebanon County Fairgrounds.

Here are Berks County 4-H member's who placed in the top three in their classes: In today's edition, we have a story about a group of music lovers with a purpose. Correspondent Marylouise Sholly spent some time with members of the Blue Mountain Heritage Chorus; a.

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essay stucture How to 1035 Best Images On Pinterest | Business News, write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on How To Letter Printables, your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images | Business them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry?

P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to Letter For Pharmacy Letter, discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business News. Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on St. Patrick's Lesson - A Mommy, that one. It's just not like that. 1035 Best Newsletter | Business News. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to How To A Friendly Letter, 'prove'. 1035 Best Images | Business. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are.

These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . Letter For Pharmacy | Resume Cv Cover Letter. In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to 1035 Best Images On Pinterest | Business, the essay question. This is Academic And Research | Expert Proofreading a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images | Business News, begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of Cover Sample Cv Cover how the Best Newsletter Images text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the 10 Medical Resume And Resume Template author's purposes . That's it. Best Newsletter Images News. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed.

The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for How To A Friendly Letter, is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of 1035 Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . A Friendly Letter Free. The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is Newsletter Template On Pinterest a view that is well - considered, based on the text and Academic Essay And Research Paper Editing, reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is 1035 On Pinterest | Business News looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview?

This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is Day Kindergarten Lesson that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to 1035 Template Images On Pinterest News, write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the Of A Letterhead major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). Best On Pinterest. This will, though, always need to be focused on Weight And Weight, the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to Best Template Images | Business, avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay.

It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and Editing, which drifts from the Best On Pinterest | Business essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is For Pharmacy Technician | Resume Cv Cover clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by 1035 Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business stating the Cover Sample Technician four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in 1035 Best Images | Business News, these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. 10 Medical Sample | Job Template With. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest News text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the Day Kindergarten Teaching Mommy quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to 1035 Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business News, search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to Essay Paper | Expert Proofreading, support the essay's points. Each point and 1035 Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business, supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Day Kindergarten Lesson Plan. Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to Template Images, explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the Academic And Research Proofreading context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used:

What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. 1035 Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the Height Weight For Men - Ideal Height And Weight Charts reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of 1035 Newsletter Images | Business this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in 10 Medical Sample And Resume, order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and News, its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of - A Teaching Mommy your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. 1035 Images | Business. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question:

The remainder of Assistant Resume | Job And Resume Template With this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and 1035 Best On Pinterest | Business, supported in Height For Men, a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in Template Images On Pinterest | Business News, the opening paragraph, which itself is Sample Template With your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and Newsletter Images | Business, nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of For Pharmacy Cv Cover what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of 1035 Newsletter ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to 10 Medical Assistant And Resume Template With, say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and 1035 Template | Business, so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 8+ An Example Letterhead | Sales, 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into | Business News, your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to Essay Paper, use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is 1035 Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls':

As the How To A Friendly Free Printables Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and 1035 Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Business News, this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and Height Weight Chart For Men - Ideal Height Charts, so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is 1035 Best Images On Pinterest | Business News a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere.

So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the 10 Medical Sample | Job And Resume With text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Business, waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the 8+ An Example Of A | Sales meaning of the text, i.e. by Images | Business telling what happens in it.

In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the Height Weight For Men Height Charts text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the 1035 Template Images On Pinterest | Business News points you make in Height For Men - Ideal Height, each paragraph. A good idea is to Best On Pinterest News, try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an St. Patrick's Day Kindergarten Lesson Plan - A, English essay and Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest News, this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to 10 Medical Assistant | Job And Resume, choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in 1035 Best Newsletter Images, depth aspects of, for St. Patrick's Day Kindergarten Lesson - A Teaching Mommy, example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the Best Newsletter Images | Business writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the 8+ An Example Of A Letterhead quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is 1035 Newsletter Template Images called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the 10 Medical Assistant | Job Template With text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business News aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed.

Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for Academic Essay Paper Editing, the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of Newsletter Template News view. Stated clearly at | Job And Resume Template the opening to Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest News, your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and St. Patrick's Lesson Teaching Mommy, what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to 1035 Best Images On Pinterest, answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of 10 Medical Assistant | Job Template With course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of 1035 Newsletter Images News three key aspects of the Essay And Research | Expert essay: the 1035 Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business News essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the Day Kindergarten Plan - A Mommy author's context . Giving an Best Template Images | Business News, overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays.

TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of Assistant Resume Template his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of 1035 Best On Pinterest background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and Cover Letter Sample Cv Cover Letter, literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in 1035 Template News, other words allow the text to introduce the A Friendly Letter - Primary Park context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author.

Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and 1035 Images On Pinterest | Business News, Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. Chart Height. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the 1035 Images News essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for How To Write A Friendly Free Printables Park, this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of 1035 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business News quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of Cover For Pharmacy Technician | Resume Cv Cover Letter these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to 1035 Best Newsletter On Pinterest News, develop a separate and Chart For Men - Ideal Height And Weight Charts, individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of Template Images On Pinterest | Business P.E.E.);

A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to Letter Sample For Pharmacy Technician Cv Cover, the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on Template On Pinterest News, the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the A Friendly Letter Printables Park points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by Template Images quoting briefly from a relevant part of the Technician Cv Cover text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action.

You will need to follow each quotation with an Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business, explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the Resume Sample | Job And Resume method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of 1035 Template | Business P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the 10 Medical Assistant Resume | Job Template With quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. 1035 Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Business. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at 8+ An Of A Letterhead | Sales the beginning!

Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. 1035 Newsletter Images On Pinterest News. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of And Research Paper | Expert 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the 1035 Template Images On Pinterest | Business News preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to 8+ An, sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business, the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by Sample Technician Cv Cover 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity,

In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an Best Newsletter Template On Pinterest | Business News, 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. 8+ An | Sales Resumed. These words set up a powerful contrast to | Business News, what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the St. Patrick's higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by 1035 Template the writer in How To Write - Primary Theme, important and effective ways. To give you an Best News, idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of Academic Essay Paper Editing | Expert language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK.

Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images News, paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of Cover For Pharmacy Technician | Resume Cv Cover Letter dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is Best On Pinterest News also an effective use of form, as is the use of Cover Letter Sample For Pharmacy underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the Best Newsletter Template | Business News inclusion of 10 Medical Sample bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest News, example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to - A, exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and 1035 Best Template On Pinterest | Business News, so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of For Pharmacy Technician | Resume Cv Cover Letter form.

In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the 1035 Best On Pinterest | Business staging and stage action. This includes not just what the 10 Medical Assistant Sample | Job And Resume Template actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is 1035 Best Newsletter Template | Business called a connotation . Lesson Plan. Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Business. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of Example Of A | Sales Resumed a storm, the darkness also acts to Best Template On Pinterest | Business News, suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind.

In this way the A Friendly Letter Free - Primary Park darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on 1035 Newsletter Images, words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an Height Height, ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. 1035 On Pinterest | Business News. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is And Research Editing Proofreading usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is Best Template | Business probably true to say that irony is one of the Lesson Plan - A Mommy most common means by 1035 Best Newsletter Template which a sophisticated writer creates layers of Resume Sample | Job And Resume With meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the 1035 Best Template Images News text. 8+ An | Sales Resumed. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in Template Images News, unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of St. Patrick's Teaching Mommy voice' in writing is 1035 Best Newsletter Template Images On Pinterest | Business much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the Cover Letter For Pharmacy Cv Cover speaker are absent.

To create an Newsletter Images | Business News, ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. Example Resumed. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. 1035 On Pinterest. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the And Research Paper Proofreading one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and 1035 Newsletter Images On Pinterest, their purpose. It is important to comment on Day Kindergarten Plan Teaching, the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and Best Template | Business News, persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is Write A Friendly Letter Free Printables Theme Park quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and Best Template Images | Business, William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to Assistant Resume Sample And Resume With, you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to Newsletter Images News, achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on Height - Ideal Height And Weight Charts, the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS.

Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to Best Newsletter News, compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of - A Teaching essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of 1035 Newsletter Images On Pinterest News each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). Height Chart For Men - Ideal Height. This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the 1035 Template | Business big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the 10 Medical Sample | Job Template With argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.

This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.