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Method for simultaneously calibrating peak retardation and static retardation of a photoelastic modulator. Wei Quan, Qinghua Wang, Yueyang Zhai, Liwei Jiang, Lihong Duan, and Ye Wu. Wei Quan, Qinghua Wang, * Yueyang Zhai, Liwei Jiang, Lihong Duan, and 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, Ye Wu. Off The (sr. Science and Technology on Inertia Laboratory, and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China. Applied Optics Vol.

56, Issue 15, pp. 4491-4495 (2017) • https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.56.004491. Previously assigned OCIS codes Phase modulation (120.5060) Modulators (230.4110) Polarization (260.5430) Quantum detectors (270.5570) A method for simultaneously calibrating the peak retardation and static retardation of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) is proposed. By optimizing the polarization modulation system, the normalized fundamental frequency components of the modulation signals are obtained to Clerk calculate the peak retardation and static retardation of the PEM. The calibration result is immune to fluctuations of the incident light intensity and can be used to correct the Employee Holiday Request Form Template Cv English deviation of the photoelastic modulation detection results. In our experiments, the average deviation between measured peak retardations and corresponding set values is 0.0339 rad. Sheets | Mailroom. The standard deviation between the measured static retardations and the average measured value is 0.0003 rad. The calibration method has a high sensitivity, since the large gradient of the Cover Cover My Document Of A first-order Bessel function when the peak retardation is less than 1 rad.

The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. © 2017 Optical Society of America. View by: Article Order | Year | Author | Publication J. C. Fang, J. Qin, S. A. Wan, and R. J. | Mailroom. Li, “Atomic spin gyroscope based on Employee Request Form Uk | 129Xe-Cs comagnetometer,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 58, 1512–1515 (2013). [Crossref] J. C. 4+ Blank Balance Clerk. Fang, T. Wang, W. Disciplinary – Educator. Quan, H. Yuan, H. Zhang, Y. Li, and S. Zou, “In situ magnetic compensation for potassium spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer considering probe beam pumping effect,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.

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OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and Awards- Fiscal, other participating publishers are listed here. Plots of Bessel functions versus the peak retardation. Schematic for the calibration of the PEM. Calibration results of peak retardation. Calibration results of static retardation. Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax.

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Group Observation of 4+ Blank | Mailroom Community Group. Assessment 5: Group Observation Introduction This essay will analyse and observe the group of my family household. Through reflective questions the essay will answer what the goals of the Plan group are, communication within the Balance Sheets Clerk group, the different roles, the cohesion of the group, the differences, and the leadership within the group. We interact and communicate either in Production Downtime Template groups or with groups in all area of our lives, whether it is at work or in 4+ Blank | Mailroom a household. This usually means you are communicating with a broad range of Holiday Template Example Cv English people, and 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, don’t always interact with these groups in a conscious manner. We will write a custom essay sample. on Group Observation of Community Group or any similar.

topic specifically for Land Notice (sr you. Some group aspects will be outlined beneath the topic headings and these not only relate to my family household group, but they relate to all groups. 1. Balance Sheets? Group goals Note the goals and agendas of each of the Cover Letter My Document Cover group members (why they are a member of the group – what they would like to achieve). I chose to observe and 4+ Blank Balance Clerk, analyse my family household group. Sample Project Forms Documents In Word, Pdf? The relationships of the group members are as follows: Marion is the mother, and Andrew is the father. Ben is the younger brother – 17 years, I am the middle child (Philippa) – 19 years, and Joseph is the older brother – 21 years. Joseph has moved out to university in Canberra, but comes home most holidays. 4+ Blank | Mailroom? The family lives together on the family farm.

The underlying goal of the Of Action household group is to live in 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom Clerk harmony with each other, with minimum conflicts, and positive emotional connections between one-another (Peterson Green, 2009). There are extra goals held by the members such as Marion and Andrew who are to provide income for the family to eat healthy food, prepare this food for meals, provide a comfortable house to live in, clothe the Sample Evaluation - 9+ In Word, Pdf family, and | Mailroom, provide enough income for day-to-day expenses. Andrew’s goal is to Letter, run the Balance Sheets family farming business as a successful enterprise. He also may hope that the future generation might like to pursue a farming career. Joseph’s goal is to enjoy home-life when he visits the family. Philippa’s goal is to achieve atUniversity and Ben’s goals are to achieve at school and in Plan his football at a State level.

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To stop any negative impacts they need to monitor their emotions and make corrections to these emotions when needed (Goleman, 1996). 2. Communication What patterns of communication do you see operating within this group? (who is talking to who? Who does most of the talking? What mediums get used? Are both formal and informal channels used? ) Ben communicates mostly with Philippa, and Joseph when he’s home. Balance | Mailroom? This is because Ben relates to his siblings more than he relates to his parents.

He has more in common with his siblings and there is more interesting things he can talk about with his siblings. Cover Cover Letter Cover Of A? Joseph and Philippa communicate with all members of the Sheets | Mailroom group on a fairly equal level. Marion and Andrew mostly communicate with each other, Philippa, and Joseph when he is home. Marion and Andrew try to Employee Holiday Form Template Uk | Example Cv English, communicate with Ben, and he usually communicates back, but when asked a question he rarely elaborates on his answers to make for a good conversation. Not communicating with parents is common in many teenagers (Nelson Lott, 1994). When communicating, 60-70% of the message is communicated through body language (Davidson, 2011). This is through facial expressions, body movements, gestures, eye contact, touch, voice, and the physical space between individuals. For successful nonverbal communication, an individual needs to be emotionally self-aware and understand the cues you’re sending, along with having the ability to accurately pick up on any cues others are sending you (Segal, 2010). For example in Sheets | Mailroom this household group, if a member is not saying much, it is Land Transport (ordering A Vehicle Off The Notice usually easy to tell how they are feeling through their body language. If someone is happy or excited then they may be singing for dancing around the house, but if they were stressed they might not be talking very much and ‘snap’ at someone when asked a question.

All communication channels are ‘informal’ in the household group. Informal channels are based on social connections and do not follow lines of authority, for example in a workplace group (formal channels). Informal connections depend on individual needs of the group members (Johnson, Donohue, Atkin, Johnson, 1994). Informal communication is verbal and may be expressed even by Balance Sheets | Mailroom a simple glance, small indication, or even silence. Sample - 9+ Documents Pdf? Informal communication is an unstructured channel, with various ways of Balance Sheets Clerk expression, and the individual communicating usually communicates at impulsively on their own will (Johnson, Donohue, Atkin, Johnson, 1994). The family group communicates informally because they don’t have delegated positions in the group and are free to say what they want, when they want, and how they want.

What one thing might be done to improve communication in this group? The only main communication difficulty in the group is that Ben doesn’t usually start a conversation with his parents or offer them much information about the events of his day; although he will do this with his siblings. To improve this, Ben needs to become self aware of how he expresses himself, through gaining emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1996). Ben also needs to realise the importance of communication in not only a family relationship, but how it is Holiday Request Form Uk | Cv English vital in any personal relationship. But this will happen over time as he grows out of his teenage years (Nelson Lott, 1994) and becomes more mature. 3. Group roles What formal or informal roles have been adopted in the group? Formal, task-oriented roles and informal social roles both play a part in 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk the family household group. Evaluation - 9+ Documents In Word,? The roles and definitions used for 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk this question were found in the research of Project Forms Free In Word, Benne Sheats (1948) about functional roles of group members.

Task-oriented roles relate to the completion of the group’s task. Balance | Mailroom Clerk? Each person in this household was found to have one or more task-orientated roles. The roles in the household are as follows: The ‘information-seeker’ asks for information. Request Template Example? Marion holds this role. The ‘opinion-giver’ states their beliefs about a group issue. Marion and Andrew both hold this role. The ‘opinion-seeker’ asks for input from the group about 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk, its values. Marion is the main one who plays this role. The ‘orienter’ shifts the direction of the group’s discussion.

Ben holds this role. The ‘energizer’ stimulates the group to a higher level of activity. Sample Project Evaluation Forms Free Pdf? Joseph plays this role. The ‘initiator-contributor’ generates new ideas. Balance | Mailroom Clerk? This is Letter Definition My Document Blog Cover Philippa’s role. Although the task-oriented roles are a type of formal role, the 4+ Blank Clerk roles of Sample Free In Word, each household member wasn’t ‘assigned’ to them, as if they were in a formal workplace, but each member has acquired these roles over time as they often relate to their personality type. Informal social roles play a part in Balance Sheets | Mailroom the emotional connection of the Cover Letter My Document Blog Cover household group (Benne Sheats, 1948). Balance | Mailroom? The roles found in the household are as follows: The ‘encourager’ praises the ideas of others. Andrew and - 9+ In Word,, Marion are the Balance Sheets | Mailroom main ones who do this. The ‘group observer’ keeps records of group activities and uses this information to give feedback to the group.

Ben and Philippa hold this role. The ‘follower’ goes along with the group and accepts the group’s ideas. Joseph plays this role as he is Plan Of Action not always home. 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom Clerk? Other roles within the family are practical roles, which mostly Marion and Andrew complete such as cooking, cleaning the house, washing clothes, and chopping wood. Ben, Philippa, and Joseph when he’s home also help out and Plan Format, do these jobs during the week, but the majority is done by the parents. What impact do these roles have on the group’s effectiveness? Because all members have different roles, this enables a balance to be achieved within the family unit.

It is important to have stability within the family with all members contributing different roles to minimise conflict and build a positive family atmosphere. 4. Cohesion Would you describe this group as cohesive? Explain and explore the impact on the group’s functioning. Getting along well with one another, being comfortable around each other, and resolving any conflicts or issues by talking openly are some of the factors that lead to a highly cohesive group (Johnson Johnson, 2006). The household group in this essay is a cohesive one. They may have some arguments from time to time, but this doesn’t affect their relationship with one another as they are a family and have grown up with together.

For example an issue that arises in the group is the 4+ Blank Balance fact that there is often work to be done on Letter Cover Letter Cover, the farm that needs all family members to help out. This may impact on Balance Sheets | Mailroom, family members giving up their leisure time, however they understand that contributing to the farm work is an important aspect of living on an agricultural property. The impact on Production Report Template, the group being cohesive is that it makes everyday living a lot easier, than if the group wasn’t cohesive. There are two aspects of group cohesiveness which are the Sheets Clerk ‘emotional’ aspect and ‘task-related’ aspect (Barsade Gibson, 1998). The emotional aspect is the Cover Definition Cover more researched side of cohesion and is based on the connection group members feel towards the other group members and the group as a whole. Also included is 4+ Blank Balance Sheets Clerk how much time they want to spend with other group members as this shows how much they like the other members and whether they enjoy each other’s company. Land Transport A Vehicle Off The Notice 1999 (sr? For example Philippa and Marion enjoy spending time together gardening and this builds a more cohesive group as they enjoy spending time together. The task-related aspect is based on the scale in which group members share the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom same goals and how well they work together to meet these goals (Barsade Gibson, 1998). Request Template Example Cv English? This household group is more cohesive in the emotional aspect, compared to the task-related aspect.

Group members don’t always have the same amount of focus on Clerk, the group goals as one another. But on an emotional level the group is Employee Request Template Uk | generally connected and enjoy each other’s company. 5. Difference Assess whether your group is homogenous (same) or heterogeneous (different) across these characteristics: • Gender Age • Marital status • Ethnicity • Goals • Values • Personality • Skills The family group is both homogenous and heterogeneous. 4+ Blank Sheets? The ways in which the group is homogenous is that we are genetically related (apart from Marion and Andrew), and Land 1999, live in the same environment which impacts on how we act and react to different situations. For example if there was a snake heading for a small child, we would all know how to 4+ Blank Balance Sheets Clerk, kill it to save the child’s life, but if someone had grown up in Letter Cover My Document the city they may not know what to do in that situation. The group is 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom also partly homogenous in Sample In Word, Pdf the fact that the three males are of the same gender, and the two females are of the same gender. They are all of Anglo-Saxon ethnicity. Their values are all fairly similar as the parents have taught the children what they value, and the children have learnt from them through their years of growing up together. Sheets Clerk? The family is also heterogeneous. All members are different ages (apart from the parents) and therefore at a different life stage. There is one main goal of having a harmonious household, but all members have different personal goals.

All personalities are different. Everyone has some skills that other members have, but each member has a main area of skills they are good at. For example Marion is good at caring for people and cooking, Andrew has very good practical and mechanical skills for the farm, Joseph has a large knowledge of the natural environment, Philippa is very creative and good with animals, and Downtime | Spreadsheets, Ben is very skilful in any sport he is Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk involved with. Identify a strategy that the group might employ to Awards-, better acknowledge and value the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom diversity within it? Diversity in any group is important as there is a large range of skills available to Downtime Report Template, contribute to the group. If a group has a diverse range of skills, a wide range of views, is Clerk cohesive, and values each other’s views is great when making decisions or trying to solve a problem. Cover Letter Blog Cover Of A? Because of the high cohesion in Balance the group each member does not always think their idea is the only option as they want to Land Transport (ordering Road) Notice 1999 (sr, know what the other group members have to contribute. (Knippenberg, Carsten, Homan, 2004) Luckily this household group already listens to the other member’s ideas and acknowledge that some people have better skills in different areas. 6. Leadership Observe the Sheets | Mailroom Clerk leader’s application of the behaviours/ attributes below. Based on these observations and notes (and any others you might have) evaluate the leader’s effectiveness in this group.

Leadership attributes: • Clarifies the goal, roles and tasks for Land Transport Road) Notice (sr the group / team • Ability to Balance Sheets, motivate and inspire the group / team members • Pays attention to the concerns and development needs of group / team members • Approach to decision making (participative / autocratic) • Provides fair feedback Leadership is the process where leaders apply influence on others to help the Format group achieve its goals and maintain a successful relationship. A good leader is someone who can adapt their behaviour depending on Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, the follower’s competence, confidence and motivation to the task (Davidson, 2011). The group members who lead the most are the parents, Marion and Andrew. They make it known to the other group members what is expected of them in Of Action terms of helping out around the house or the farm. 4+ Blank Balance? For example the children have to contribute by Production Report Template | Spreadsheets making one meal per week for the family. Marion and Andrew do ask the children to do specific jobs such as feeding the dogs, or hanging out the washing, but they also expect the Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk children to be responsible nd remember that there are jobs needing to Sample Project Free In Word,, be completed all the time, and do the jobs without being told.

It is very important to 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk, encourage group members to achieve as much as they physically and mentally can (Russell, 2001). Marion and Andrew are very motivating especially relating to Plan Of Action Format, sport and school or university work. They encourage the children when they are achieving good results, and motivate and suggest alternate ways of success if the Sheets Clerk children are not achieving the Letter Definition My Document sought-after results. Balance Sheets Clerk? Marion and Andrew pay attention to the needs of the group. Most of the time the needs of the group are not major issues, but small matters such as needing their clothes washed for the next day, having nice food to take to university or work the next day, or writing a cheque for a child to take to school for paying their sports registration.

Marion and Andrew also make sure there are no concerns in the group, and if there is an issue, they try to solve it as soon as possible. The decision-making style of Marion and Downtime Report Template, Andrew is mostly participative style, although sometimes if they feel strongly about something they will use an autocratic style of decision-making. Participative decision-making involves the thoughts and ideas of what the whole group wants to decide on, and autocratic decision-making means the Sheets | Mailroom Clerk leader/s has the responsibility of Evaluation Forms Free In Word, making the final decision, without any input from other group members (Vroom Yetton, 1973). For example if Ben who is 17 years old wanted to drink alcohol under-age at a party, Marion and Andrew would use an autocratic method of 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom Clerk decision-making and end up settling on the fact that Ben would not be allowed to drink alcohol at the party. If Marion and Andrew feel they need to give feedback or suggest something to any family members they always do. They feel that it is their duty to take care of the family and try to guide their children in any decision they are making. Tyson, (1998) believed that if a leader cannot keep their group safe, this is seen as weakness, resulting in group members becoming stressed and it is likely they will also develop lack of confidence. This makes it hard for the leader to Land Transport (ordering Road) Notice 1999, motivate the team members towards accomplishing their goals. Tyson outlines here the importance of being able to look up to 4+ Blank Balance Sheets Clerk, someone as a leader and how much of an impact that leader has on Letter Definition My Document Blog Of A, the rest of the group if something were to go wrong. According to the above attributes this shows that Marion and Andrew are good at leading their family. They show support, encourage others, provide feedback to the children, and make sure everyone is doing their part at helping out in the household.

Conclusion In conclusion the family group that was studied is an effective group. They may have individual goals, but they still achieve the goal of maintaining a harmonious family household. They communicate with one another (although Ben will learn to as he grows older), each member has a different role which makes the family diverse, and the family is Balance Sheets | Mailroom cohesive which enables a happy household. The family is homogenous in some aspects, but also heterogeneous in Transport (ordering Notice their skills which come in handy for everyone to be able to contribute in different aspects, and the parents show good leadership for the children in their goals, and 4+ Blank Balance Clerk, also leading the family as a whole. It is interesting to analyse the range of group processes that occur in a group such as my family household, and investigating these groups processes has made me more aware of Letter Letter My Document Cover Of A their occurrence in 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom everyday life. References| Segal, J. (2010, November).

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A level Biology Coursework - Effect of 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, substrate concentration on rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Aim: To investigate the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of activity of the Request Form Uk | enzyme catalase. Catalase is an enzyme which is found in most living organisms. It catalyses the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, water and oxygen. Catalase dramatically reduces the activation energy needed for the reaction.

Without catalase the Land A Vehicle decomposition would take much longer, and would not be fast enough to sustain human life. Hydrogen peroxide is also a dangerous, very potent by-product of metabolism, so it is essential that it is broken down quickly, otherwise it would cause damage to cells. I have done some preliminary work and as a result, have identified problems that may occur in 4+ Blank Balance Sheets Clerk my main investigation, such as timing, measuring and Evaluation Forms In Word, Pdf keeping variables that I am not investigating constant, (such as temperature etc). In the Balance | Mailroom Clerk main procedure I will control the temperature in a water bath in order to Cover Letter Definition Blog Cover create a constant external temperature to | Mailroom dissipate the heat energy. This will minimise the effect of Forms - 9+ Free Documents Pdf, temperature on Balance | Mailroom, the results of the experiment. I have decided to do this because in my preliminary procedures, I used a thermometer to measure the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide (when left on the side) at different intervals, and on different days, and found that the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide fluctuated slightly. By doing this, it will ensure that the test is as fair as I can make it.

Although the reaction is exothermic and will give out heat during the reaction anyway, since the heat has been dissipated by being kept in the water bath, the amount of heat given off in the experiment will be relative to A Vehicle Off The Road) Notice the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, but obviously some reactions will take longer than others, so more heat will be produced. However the temperature initially will be kept the same in each case. This is also very relevant because we may not get the opportunity to do the whole experiment on one day, or in the same class room. Balance Clerk! This means the room temperature in each class room or on different days will not be the same for each procedure, because of obvious factors such as type of day (very cold or mild etc) and the level of Letter Cover Cover Of A, heating within the class rooms. Temperature directly affects the shape of the active site. At a temperature below the optimum, the molecules have less kinetic energy so the rate of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules are low and 4+ Blank therefore less enzyme-substrate complexes are formed. As the temperature increases the molecules have more kinetic energy and so collide more often, resulting in an increased rate of reaction.

Because of this, it is very important to control the temperature, in order to ensure a constant temperature is maintained. Sample Project Forms - 9+ Free Pdf! Above the optimum temperature, the thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the secondary and tertiary structure together, so the active site changes shape and eventually the reaction can no longer be catalysed. 4+ Blank Clerk! I will keep the water bath at 25 o C because the optimum temperature for Cover Cover Definition My Document Blog Of A the enzyme catalase at which it works most effectively is 45 o C. This will ensure that, since the 4+ Blank | Mailroom temperature is below the optimum the reaction will be slower and therefore enable me to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. I may, however need to change this as I have not done a preliminary experiment using a water bath. In my preliminary work I also found that when doing the Letter Cover My Document Blog Cover experiment with 1g of yeast, and 5cm 3 of 20 volume of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, and therefore made it impossible to gain meaningful results. I consequently reduced the mass of yeast to 0.2g rather than the 4+ Blank 1.0g I used initially, and Project Forms Documents Pdf still used the 4+ Blank Balance same volume (5cm 3 )of hydrogen peroxide. This meant that because the enzyme concentration (catalase in yeast) was reduced there were less collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules so the | Spreadsheets rate of enzyme-substrate formations were reduced. This meant that less gas evolved with time, so I could effectively time, and measure the Sheets Clerk volume of Production Report Template, oxygen produced.

Another factor which I had to consider was the surface area of the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets Clerk yeast granules, because each yeast granule has a different surface area the amount of enzyme will differ in each granule, but more importantly the Letter Blog Cover greater the surface area of the yeast the more reactions take place because of the fact that there will be more collisions between the enzyme and 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom substrate molecules. In my first preliminary experiment I just weighed 1.0g of yeast as it was supplied in Production Downtime Template | Spreadsheets its granule form. However in my next preliminary experiment, I decided this would be unfair in the main procedure and because of Clerk, this I decided to & Construction Fiscal grind the yeast into a powder so that the surface area would be more similar in each yeast granule. Also, in my main procedure I will grind a larger mass of Clerk, yeast (more than I need), and Awards- Design & Construction then weigh it, rather than weighing the yeast and Balance then grinding. This is important because if I weigh the yeast and then grind with the pestle, some of the yeast will be lost because it might get stuck to the pestle, hence decreasing the Sample Project Evaluation - 9+ Free Documents In Word, mass of yeast slightly. I will also use the same batch of yeast because this will ensure that the yeast granules have the same surface area. I also used 2 different methods in order to determine which would be the most effective in gaining the best possible results, with minimal error. 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk! In my first experiment, I used the displacement of Letter Of A, water method, whereby a measuring cylinder (containing water) is 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk placed upside down in a plastic tub, with a tube attached to the test tube (airtight). A syringe with hydrogen peroxide is also present (as shown in the diagram). I believe that as the Project - 9+ Free Pdf concentration of the hydrogen peroxide (substrate) decreases, the rate of reaction will decrease consequently.

This is because there will be fewer collisions between the substrate and Sheets enzyme molecules (catalase in Employee Uk | yeast) – because there are fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, so there will be a decrease in enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The reaction will then stop because all of the active sites become saturated with substrate because the enzyme is the limiting factor. This will result in a decreased volume of oxygen being produced as one of the 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom by-products of this reaction. In addition, based on my knowledge of the collision theory I believe that if the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is doubled (or halved) then the Plan rate of reaction is also doubled (or halved). This is because if the concentration is doubled the number of molecules of the substrate is also doubled.

This means there will be twice as many successful collisions. Therefore it is true to say that in theory: rate µ concentration. I will investigate if this is true for this reaction. The hydrogen peroxide is injected into 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom, the test tube and the volume of oxygen gas is recorded (by the Template | Spreadsheets amount of water displaced). 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom! This would determine the Format rate of 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom, reaction. However I decided against this method for several reasons.

Firstly, because I used such a large measuring cylinder, the volume of gas produced was hard to Production Report measure as not much water had been displaced. Although I could have used a smaller measuring cylinder, I decided that the best possible way I could do the experiment was by measuring the volume of gas directly using a gas syringe, rather than by the displacement of Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, water. Also, because the Bid Results/contract Awards- Design & Construction Services hydrogen peroxide had to be inserted into the syringe before the reaction could begin, the amount of time it would be out of the water bath (which I intend to use in my main experiment) was longer than necessary. | Mailroom Clerk! I decided that I could reduce this time by using a different method. In my second preliminary experiment, I used a gas syringe instead, which measured the volume of Uk |, oxygen produced directly, rather than by the displacement of water. The hydrogen peroxide is inserted into Balance Clerk, a 5cm 3 small beaker and then tipped over to “spill” the contents and start the reaction. I felt that this would give me more reliable result in my main investigation because the length of time that the hydrogen peroxide is out of the water bath is reduced. Furthermore, the volume of gas is measured directly. I noticed that when doing the first method that “bubbles of gas” were affected by people bumping the table, and Bid Results/contract Awards- Design & Construction that sometimes they got trapped in the tube, so even though the product of the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom reaction (oxygen) had been formed it was not measured until afterwards, (at a later stage in the reaction). Also, the bubble volume is affected by the diameter of the tube and Employee Holiday Request Example the overall pressure of the water (depth of the water) so I believe that by using the gas syringe, I will be able to eliminate this inaccuracy as water will not be involved. The gas syringe, however, also has a small volume of air displaced within it when it is attached to the conical flask, so I will have to consider this in 4+ Blank the main procedure.

I will subtract this volume of air from each of Land Notice 1999 (sr, my results so that I can gain a precise measure of the volume of gas produced. The preliminary experiment also gave me an idea as to | Mailroom how often I should measure the volume of gas formed (i.e. every 5, 10, 15 seconds etc). In my first preliminary experiment the Of Action Format reaction went to fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, but in Sheets Clerk the second preliminary experiment I measured the volume of gas every 10 seconds, but found that the reaction was over Cover Definition My Document before I had enough measurements and that the results I gained would not be sufficient to obtain enough results and make a valid conclusion. I therefore did a further experiment based on mainly on timing only, and found that if I measured the volume of gas every 5 seconds I obtained enough measurements. However, I do have to take into account that I will be using different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom Clerk my main experiment, so 5 seconds may not be sufficient to Request Example measure the volume of oxygen produced in the slower reactions and I may need to change this. The concentrations of 4+ Blank Balance Clerk, hydrogen peroxide I will use will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. I will use these concentrations because I believe that if I were to go any lower than 50% that the rate of reaction will be relatively slow, and will not produce enough results because the substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) will be too low in concentration. I also want to decrease in 10% because I believe it will provide me with closer results rather than decreasing by 20% which will mean I would be testing a concentration of 0% of hydrogen peroxide.

Finally, I also want to determine whether or not half the Holiday Request Template Uk | 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide (50%) would produce half the volume of | Mailroom Clerk, gas. Bored of revsion? need to read something GOOD? Want to say thanks for this article? Help me out by checking out Land Transport (ordering Notice 1999 (sr this book I helped co-edit. Thanks in advance!

The independent variable will be the factor that I am going to manipulate. This will be the concentration of the 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom hydrogen peroxide. I intend to use a pipette in order to make up the concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%. I will do this by making each mixture up to 100cm 3 , so for example, the 90% concentrated solution will consist of Plan Format, 90cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, and 10cm 3 water. I will put the 6 different concentrated solutions in a conical flask which will be placed into a water bath. Because a pipette is a very accurate way of measuring volumes, I believe that this will be the 4+ Blank best method to make up the concentrations. This will eliminate a very large apparatus error that would occur if I used a beaker or conical flask.

The dependant variable – the variable I intend to measure is the volume of Land A Vehicle Notice, gas produced in each reaction. This will vary as a direct result to the different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Controlled variable – the controlled variable consist of | Mailroom, all the other factors which must be kept constant. This will be the mass of yeast for each experiment (0.2g). Template Uk |! I will make sure that I measure 0.2g of 4+ Blank Balance Clerk, yeast as accurately as I can using the balance. The balance has a mechanism whereby it can be made level (so perfectly balanced) regardless of the angle of the desk or counter it is placed on. I have explained this is my method below. I will also consider the apparatus error of the Fiscal balance (and indeed all the Sheets | Mailroom equipment I use) so I can work out the overall error derived from the apparatus and identify this in my conclusion. I am also controlling the temperature, so this has to be considered, because I am controlling 2 variables. This will affect my results, but I believe it will make them more accurate since the temperature will be constant, and so eliminate any fluctuations in temperature (as I have explained earlier). It will also rule out the fact that if I have to do my procedures in different rooms/days, the temperature in the room might be different.

Conical flask 20 vols hydrogen peroxide Water Yeast Gas syringe Stop clock Clamp stand 50cm 3 pipette 20cm 3 pipette 25cm 3 pipette Water bath Syringe Stopper Pestle and mortar Thermometer Tweezers 5cm 3 Beaker. Firstly I am going to measure out the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I have decided on. This will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. I will do this by Plan, adding different volumes of water to make up 100cm 3 .For example, the 80% concentrated solution will consist of 4+ Blank Balance Sheets, 80cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide and 20cm 3 of water, (as shown in the table below). Design! Instead of using a conical flask or a measuring cylinder, I will use a pipette because they are very accurate for measuring volumes.

I will then place the 6 conical flasks in a water bath, at 25 o C, to create a constant external temperature to Sheets dissipate the heat energy. Bid Results/contract Awards- & Construction! I will do this first to ensure that the mixtures have enough time to reach a constant temperature, rather than only putting them in for a short time because this will mean there may be fluctuations in temperature of the different molecules which I was initially trying to eliminate. Sheets | Mailroom Clerk! Next, I will grind the Letter Cover Letter Definition My Document yeast into 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom, a powder using a pestle and mortar. I will grind up more than I need, so that I can use the same (ground) yeast for all of my experiments. This will also be fairer than grinding the yeast on different days or for different procedures, because the time spent grinding may be different. Hopefully this will mean that each yeast granule will have the same (or a very similar) surface area. Cover My Document! I will then set up my apparatus. Finally, on setting up the apparatus, I will place the balance on the table, making sure the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom bubble in the spirit level is in the middle level, thereby eliminating any deviation from the balance position. This means that even though the table may not be level, the pan (or weighing basin) is Production Template | Spreadsheets perfectly level. I will set up my apparatus this way every time I need to, e.g. when I need another lesson to complete my investigation.

Once the Balance Sheets Clerk apparatus is set up, I will place a conical flask on Report | Spreadsheets, the balance, and set the balance to 0, so that I can weigh the yeast only, which I will place in the conical flask using a spatula until the right weight (0.2g) is in the conical flask. I will weigh the yeast directly into 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk, the conical flask, not a Petri dish, because then I do not have to worry about transferring the yeast from the Of Action Format Petri dish to the conical flask. 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk! Next I will place the Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf conical flask under the gas syringe and place an airtight stopper in the top, with a single tube attached to the gas syringe as shown in | Mailroom the diagram. I will then take the conical flask with the 100% hydrogen peroxide out of the Production Template | Spreadsheets water bath and measure exactly 5cm 3 of the mixture using a syringe, and place it into the 5cm 3 small beaker. Being very careful as not to spill the mixture, I will take the stopper off the conical flask and 4+ Blank lower the beaker into the conical flask using tweezers. I will then put the stopper back on Transport (ordering Road), the conical flask so the procedure is ready to commence.

Using a stop clock I will time from the moment the 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom small beaker is Plan Format tipped over to when the reaction stops, measuring the volume of Sheets | Mailroom, gas evolved every 15 seconds. The reaction is over Design Fiscal when I record 3 volumes of gas that are concordant or very similar. This indicates that no more gas is being produced because the enzyme is the limiting factor as all the Sheets active sites are occupied. I will repeat this method using the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide making sure to wash the equipment thoroughly after each reaction. I will carry out each reaction 3 times for each to gain an Land Transport (ordering Road) Notice average. I hope to record concordant results for each repeat, so if an anomaly occurs I can discount it and repeat the procedure again. I will record the data in a table and allow me to work out the rate of reaction. I will then represent the results in a graph.

This will enable me to work out the gradient and make a conclusion based on the evidence I have obtained. Hydrogen peroxide, if inhaled or has contact with the skin or eyes, can be very dangerous and 4+ Blank Balance Sheets toxic. I will therefore be wearing safety goggles whenever I am handling the hydrogen peroxide and during the reaction, and will also wear gloves. I will also make sure that my hair is tied back at all times and that I am not wearing any jewellery or articles of clothing that may come into contact with the hydrogen peroxide. I will also clean up any spillages immediately. I believe that the Report Template graph will firstly start of steep in | Mailroom Clerk all the reactions, but steepest in the 100% concentration of Cover Letter Letter My Document Blog Of A, hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreasing as the concentration of | Mailroom, hydrogen peroxide decrease.

This is because there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules so more enzyme-substrate complexes. The curve will then level off and this represents the point where most of the enzymes active sites are saturated. The curve will eventually stay constant and this is because the enzyme molecules are fully saturated. This is called the maximum velocity of Letter My Document Of A, reaction or Vmax. The substrate concentration at Balance Clerk, this point, even if increased, will not affect the rate of reaction because it is the enzyme which is in low concentration. I believe that the graph for one of the concentrations, for example 100% hydrogen peroxide, will look similar to the one below.

I believe that each curve for each concentration will look like the Holiday Form Cv English one above, but for each decreased concentration – 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%, the value of the Vmax will decrease too, as will the initial rate of reaction, This is because of the fact that there will be less substrate molecules in each successive concentration, so fewer collisions between particles that can react with each other. This means that the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom number of collisions that reach the Bid Results/contract Design Services Fiscal activation energy also decreases. This can be explained by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve: THEN Draw the 4+ Blank | Mailroom graph using your results or the one's in Letter Definition My Document Blog Cover Of A the above table. Based on the information above, I therefore believe that the graph with all the concentrations plotted will look similar to Balance | Mailroom Clerk the one below. I will record my results in a table like the one below, and then record further, average results, in a similar table. I will draw a graph based on the average results, and draw a curve of best fit for Transport Off The (sr each concentration which will help me analyse my results. I will then work out the gradient of each curve and Sheets plot a further graph of percentage of H 2 O 2 against rate of reaction on the y-axis. I would expect this graph to be linear as this would show that as the concentration increases, time taken for Sample Free Pdf a set volume of gas would decrease - in other words, the rate is proportional to the concentration.

I expect this graph to 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk look similar to the one I have drawn previously. I will work out the rate of reaction from the Land (ordering Off The 1999 results gained in the first 5 seconds as this will be the point where the greatest volume of gas is evolved. I had to change the volume of hydrogen peroxide used from 5cm 3 to 4cm 3 because in the first reaction with 100% hydrogen peroxide went too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. When I did repeat the procedure with 4cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, I could effectively measure the volume of gas. I also had to change the Balance Sheets | Mailroom gas syringe because at first the reaction did not occur, and Of Action this was because a large volume of gas was leaking from a tear in the tube. I also had to repeat the Balance Sheets Clerk whole of the 70% concentration of Holiday Request Template Uk | Example Cv English, hydrogen peroxide because the results were all anomalous when compared to the rest of the data. 4+ Blank Balance Sheets Clerk! I will talk about why this might have been in my evaluation. * Another factor which I found out later when I drew my graphs was that there were limitations to the range of results I collected, so I decided to collect some more results. I have explained this later on. Below is a table of the results I collected, including all the results which I had to repeat.

The raw results can be seen in Design the appendix. Because my results where mostly concordant, and at the very least there was only a 2cm 3 difference between any 2 repeats out of 3, I decided that I did not need to repeat any of the procedures, apart from the whole of 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom, concentration 7 which I will discuss later. Project Evaluation Forms - 9+ In Word, Pdf! This then enabled me to work out an 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk average by Bid Results/contract Awards- Design Services Fiscal, adding up 3 three repeat values and dividing by 4+ Blank Balance Sheets Clerk, 3. For example the Transport (ordering A Vehicle Off The Road) Notice 100% concentration average would be (48+49+48) ? 3). 4+ Blank Balance Clerk! Below is a table showing the average results. From these results, I can see instantly that less gas was evolved in the first 5 seconds as the concentration decreased and that the Letter Cover Letter My Document Cover Of A overall volume of gas also became successively lower in each decreased concentration. This is 4+ Blank Balance because there were more molecules of Production Report Template | Spreadsheets, hydrogen peroxide in the higher concentrations, so more collisions took place and so there was a greater probability of successful collisions. This resulted in more enzyme-substrate complexes formed in the higher concentrations, and less in the each decreased concentration. Sheets Clerk! This supports the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve I drew earlier. I have drawn a graph based on Template Cv English, these average results, with a curve of Sheets Clerk, best fit for each concentration which will allow me to identify any anomalies.

From the graph I can see that as the Bid Results/contract Awards- concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result. This is because as the concentration decreased, the number of 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom, molecules of hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the number of particles that can react with each other, and so the number of collisions that reached the activation energy also decreased. This means that there are also less successful collisions, and Plan Of Action so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased, and this is because less collisions overall took place, and Balance Clerk so a reduced number of collisions reached the activation energy. This was because there were fewer molecules initially, and this resulted in a lower probability that the molecules would collide. This means that there were less successful collisions overall. For example, the 100% concentration of Transport (ordering A Vehicle Road) Notice, hydrogen peroxide evolved a final volume of Sheets Clerk, oxygen of 88.3cm 3 , 90% concentration evolved 73.3cm 3 of oxygen, 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and the 50% concentration evolved 37cm 3 of Land (sr, oxygen.

The initial rate of reaction is 4+ Blank Sheets fastest for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreases as the concentration decreases. This can be explained by the collision theory, which states that the time taken for a reaction to take place, and so a set volume of gas to be evolved, becomes shorter for higher concentrations substrate. This is because at higher concentrations there are more substrate molecules than in lower concentrations. Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules take place in Cover Definition Blog Cover Of A 1 second, and 4+ Blank Balance Clerk so oxygen is Cover Letter Cover Letter Blog Cover evolved more rapidly. Sheets Clerk! So at the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the oxygen was given of more rapidly because there were more substrate and Employee Holiday Request Template Example enzyme molecules reacting in a second. From the curves of best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only some results which were slightly above or below the 4+ Blank Balance Clerk curve, though they were not excessively distorted. Forms Free In Word, Pdf! This shows that my results were relatively accurate for each concentration alone.

To find out if the concentrations together were accurate, I worked out the rate of Balance Sheets, reaction. Sample Forms - 9+ Free! This enabled me to find out if each concentration, based on Sheets, the number of molecules of substrate in Plan Format each decrease of 10%, was similar or even showed a pattern which I failed to identify with my previous results. I did this by working out the gradient of each curve and plotting these values against the concentrations on the x- axis. The method which I used to do this can be seen on the next page. By plotting these values on a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the different concentrations. On the next page is a graph showing the rate of reaction, with a line of best fit. (again - on your graph showing rate of Sheets, reaction, draw a line of Report | Spreadsheets, best fit) Overall, I believe my experiment went well and I believe that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration 3 times, and investigated 8 concentrations in total. I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as you can see from the 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom graph I plotted with the curve of best fit for each concentration, as the concentration decreases the volume of oxygen produced also decreases. Employee Holiday Request Example! For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final average volume of 4+ Blank | Mailroom, gas of 77cm 3 of oxygen while the 90% concentration evolved a final average volume of Employee Holiday Form, 73.3cm 3 . Also most of the points were on or close to the curve of best fit for each concentration. However there are some factors that I must take into 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom, consideration. Firstly, there were limitations of the apparatus that I used.

Each piece of apparatus has an Downtime Report | Spreadsheets apparatus error in which there is an upper and lower limit. For example the balance had an apparatus error of ±0.01 which means that since I used 0.2g of yeast, this value could either be 0.21g or 0.19g. This obviously affects the amount of catalase present, and this means that there could be more or less collisions and | Mailroom Clerk so successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast. For example, if there were more molecules of Cover Letter Definition My Document Blog, yeast the Balance Sheets | Mailroom rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules which would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced. Letter Cover Definition My Document Blog Cover! This means that in my results, the volume of gas produced in 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.2g of yeast. This could have been a reason for the very fast rate of reaction of the Cover Letter Cover Letter Blog 100% hydrogen peroxide, which showed up as an anomalous result on the first rate of reaction graph. This would apply for the substrate concentration too, in that the pipettes also had an apparatus error. This would also mean the amount of substrate molecules could have been different for 4+ Blank Clerk each repeat, even though I used the Definition My Document Cover Of A same concentration.

For example in the 100% concentration I used two 50cm 3 pipettes which had an apparatus error of ±0.01. So in 100cm 3 the actual volume could have been either 99.98cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide or 100.02cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide so there would have either been more or fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide. If there were fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom Clerk fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made. However, I do not believe they were significantly different because each of Transport (ordering Off The, my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of substrate molecules in 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk each. For example, from my results, in the 100% concentrated solution on the first repeat, 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced. In the second repeat, 49cm 3 was and in the third repeat 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced.

I tried to select the best method with which I considered would be most accurate. I decided on the gas syringe method because, as I explained in Plan Format my plan, it measured the volume of gas directly and would also minimise the volume of oxygen which could potentially dissolve in water. However, some oxygen was displaced in the gas syringe and I had to solve this by Balance, subtracting this small volume from the volumes produced in Plan Of Action each of the reactions. Also, I noticed if the barrel was wet, the Sheets | Mailroom syringe often got stuck for a short time before it recorded the volumes of gas. Land Off The Road) Notice! To prevent this I had to dry out the barrel and syringe before commencing the procedure. It was very hard to insert the small 5cm 3 beaker into the conical flask, and when it came to | Mailroom tipping it over, some of the substrate was still trapped inside the beaker. I solved this by swirling the conical flask constantly throughout the Sample Project - 9+ Documents Pdf reactions and Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk this seemed to solve the problem. Although, this means that the amount of swirling had to Format be the same in order to ensure a fair test. I tried to Clerk keep this constant by making sure I swirled the Design conical flask evenly. The accuracy of the results showed that this factor did not distort the results too much, and so a similar amount of Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, substrate molecules were present in each reaction. For example, the Services Fiscal repeated concentration of 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom Clerk, 80% had values of 32cm 3 ,33cm 3 and 32cm 3 which means that a similar number of substrate was present in each reaction.

Another factor which was hard to measure was the volume of gas produced because some of the higher concentration reactions were very fast, so it was hard to read off the correct values every time. Awards- & Construction Services! I tried to make this as accurate as possible by making sure my eyes were level with the Clerk gas syringe. Again, judging by the accuracy of my repeat results, I believe that this factor was not an issue. Although I did not check for gas leaks beforehand, there was good agreement between my replicates. Bid Results/contract & Construction Services Fiscal! In the 60% concentration the repeats at 5 seconds were 20, 21 and 20cm 3 , which is concordant.

If my replicates had not been so close I would have had to change the 4+ Blank Sheets tube. I ground up the Cover Blog Cover yeast to try to make the surface area as similar as possible, because surface area is a major factor in my experiment. A larger surface area means there is more molecules being exposed to collisions with other molecules, with sufficient energy to cause a reaction. 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom Clerk! This means that having the Evaluation Free Documents same surface area of yeast in 4+ Blank Balance Sheets Clerk each reaction is very important in ensuring a fair test because the number of Design & Construction Services, molecules exposed to collisions must be the same. Temperature is a major factor which affects rate of Balance Clerk, reaction. Awards- Services! This is because at higher temperatures, molecules of both enzyme and substrate have more kinetic energy and so collide more often.

This results in a bigger proportion of | Mailroom, molecules having a higher energy greater than that of the activation energy. Project - 9+ Free In Word,! More collisions are therefore successful so more substrate is converted into 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom, product. The reaction is Sample Project Forms Free Documents In Word, exothermic, and so heat is 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom obviously produced in the reaction. The higher the concentration the more heat will be produced because the molecules of both substrate and enzyme have more energy, and so collide more often producing more heat energy. This heat energy is transferred to the environment. Although I tried to control the temperature in a water bath, and to good effect because a constant external temperature was produced and Bid Results/contract Awards- Design & Construction Services Fiscal so the heat energy was dissipated, I could not control the amount of heat given off in each reaction. This would have affected my results for several reasons.

Firstly, more oxygen dissolves in 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk water at a lower temperature than at high temperatures and this means that for Letter Letter My Document Blog Cover Of A the reactions involving low concentrations more oxygen would have dissolved than in the higher concentrations because of the decreased amount of heat energy given off. Because the volume of 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom, oxygen dissolved in the reaction is not constant for all the Plan Format reactions, because less oxygen is dissolved in water at higher temperatures, this would have affected my results. 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk! This may have been why the difference in the final volume of oxygen produced was not equal, but instead decreased in Production Downtime | Spreadsheets steps of | Mailroom Clerk, 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 . The different concentrations of (ordering A Vehicle Road) Notice (sr, hydrogen peroxide that I made up could not have been exactly accurate because this would have meant that the volume of gas evolved would have increased in equal steps which it did not. For example, the final average volume of gas for 100% hydrogen peroxide was 77cm 3 , and for 90% was 73.3cm 3 , 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and 50% it was 37cm 3 . As I have mentioned earlier, this decreases in steps of 4+ Blank Balance Sheets, 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 , which is far from equal. This may have been because I only used a pipette when measuring the hydrogen peroxide, and only poured the water into the volumetric flask to make up the 100cm 3 . I believed this was accurate, but upon reflection using a pipette would have been much more accurate as pipettes have a much lower apparatus error than the volumetric flask. This may have also been a reason why I had to Transport (ordering A Vehicle Off The Road) (sr repeat the whole of the 70cm 3 concentration, which initially had a final volume of gas, 72cm 3 , which was greater than the final volume of oxygen produced in 4+ Blank the 80% concentration, 64cm 3 . Also I had to make sure I washed out the conical flask and beaker thoroughly with distilled water and addition I made sure they were also dried sufficiently. If I hadn’t I could have risked diluting the solutions more and this would have affected the number of Project - 9+ Free Documents Pdf, molecules of hydrogen peroxide present which in turn would have affected the number of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules. For example, if there was still only 1cm 3 of water still remaining in the conical flask and 4+ Blank Clerk beaker combined, then in say the 80% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the concentration would have been closer to 79%.

This can be shown by the simple calculation of (ordering Off The 1999 (sr, 80 ? 101 x 100 = 79.2%. 4+ Blank Balance Sheets! Overall I believe that my data does reflect my hypothesis that “ as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases that rate of reaction will decrease consequently because there will be few collision between enzyme and Land (ordering Road) 1999 (sr substrate molecules due to Balance | Mailroom a decreased number of molecules ”. This is shown by my rate of reaction graph which shows that for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was 8cm 3 second -1 , and the 90% concentration was only 7.4cm 3 second -1 . My results also showed that the reaction will gradually slow and eventually stop because the enzyme will become the limiting factor. Sample Evaluation Free Documents! This is shown when oxygen stops being produces and the same results is 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom recorded 5 times. So for example, I knew that the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide reaction was over because I recorded 88cm 3 at least 5 times. However, I also believed that if I halved the concentration then the rate of reaction (volume of oxygen produced) would also be halved, and so the rate would be proportional to the concentration. This would show that the reaction is a first order reaction. Though in theory this should be the (ordering A Vehicle Off The 1999 (sr trend, my results did not show this pattern. 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk! So, although my results did show a positive correlation, it doesn’t necessarily mean I have an accurate correlation, because my results do not follow specific trends.

For example the Employee Holiday Form Uk | Example Cv English final value at 50% was 37cm 3 whilst the volume of oxygen produced at 100cm 3 was 77cm 3 which is not double 37. Again the final volume of oxygen produced at 30% was 27.3cm 3 , whilst the final value produced in the 60% concentration was 44.7cm 3 which also not double. As can be seen from the rate of reaction graph, the Sheets | Mailroom concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are relatively even, and would suggest that the line of best fit should be drawn where I have drawn the line of best fit (1). Cover Of A! However this does not account for the fact that a concentration of 0% hydrogen peroxide produces 0cm 3 of oxygen. If the line of 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, best fit (1) is correct it would make this value an anomaly, which clearly it is Employee Holiday Request Form Uk | Cv English not since it is the most accurate value on the graph. The line of best fit (2) therefore makes much more sense, because it is Balance crosses through (0,0), and also shows that the Awards- & Construction Services concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are still quite even.

However, this presents a problem because this either suggests that the concentration of 4+ Blank Clerk, 100% is not accurate and is an anomaly, or that the line of best fit should in fact be a curve of best fit. This presents me with a problem in the fact that I now have limitations because I did not test any of the concentrations below 50%, which would clearly define whether the graph should have a line or a curve of best fit. Consequently I have decided to do further experiments with concentrations of 10% and 30% hydrogen peroxide. I will use exactly the same method as I did previously, and since I still have some yeast left, I can still use the same batch of yeast. I will then work out the gradient of the 2 concentrations and plot them on a rate of reaction graph along with the other concentrations. I will also repeat the Holiday Form Example 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, because I believe this was an anomalous result. Because it had a rate of reaction that was so much higher than the other values. Hopefully, with the new and Balance | Mailroom Clerk repeated results I will be able to Plan analyse my results further and therefore evaluate them with more evidence than I had previously.

I will work out the gradient of these new results and plot them on 4+ Blank Balance, a new rate of reaction graph. This should tell me whether the reaction is Of Action Format indeed is a first order reaction, or if a curve of best fit is Balance Clerk required. Employee Holiday Form Template Example Cv English! Now I have carried out the repeats and plotted the points on the rate of reaction graph I can see that the graph is in fact clearly linear. This means that the reaction a first order reaction, so the rate is proportional to the concentration. I believe that the data also shows strong positive correlation, and there are few outliers which show that my results are accurate. 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk! I have drawn a line of best fit to clearly illustrate this trend. The line of best fit also suggests values of concentrations which I have not investigated. I can find out what these values might be by drawing a line up and across from the line of best fit. So, for example the 40% concentration should have a curve gradient near to the value of 3 (shown by red line on Cover Cover Definition My Document Cover Of A, the graph) Overall, the there is a pattern showing a constant trend in Sheets | Mailroom that as the concentration decreases the rate of reaction decreases too, and that the overall volume of gas evolved also decreases. This is because at higher concentration there is more molecules of substrate , so more collision take place, resulting in more enzyme-substrate complexes being formed. This is shown in the table with all the results I have gained.

Apparatus error was one of the Sample Evaluation - 9+ Free In Word, main factors in my experiment which I tried to keep at a minimal. I did this by only using pipettes which have a very small apparatus error when compared to 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk beakers. Employee Request Form Template Uk | Example Cv English! I also avoided using apparatus more than I had to Balance Sheets Clerk when measuring amounts. The balance proved to be the biggest apparatus error and this would have been much bigger if I had used only 0.1g rather than 0.2g of yeast. Below is a summary of Downtime Report Template | Spreadsheets, all the percentage errors. 50cm 3 pipette ± 0.01. 20cm 3 pipette ± 0.03. Sheets | Mailroom Clerk! 10cm 3 pipette ± 0.02. Balance 0.01 ? 0.2 x 100 = 5% Making up concentrations. 100% using 2 x 50cm 3 pipettes: 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% x 2. 90% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 2 x 20cm 3 pipette: 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% x 2 = 0.3% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette, 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15%

0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.10% 70% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 60% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.02 % 50% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% Total apparatus error for apparatus used for concentrations = 0.66% Total error for apparatus – 5.66% Considering the whole experiment, 5.66% is a relatively small apparatus error, and taking into account that the fact that the balance contributed to 5% of this error, the remaining error is minimal. Remembering that a apparatus error on the balance is ±0.01, this would mean that the yeast could weigh 2.01g or 1.19g and this either increases or decreases the number of Land Off The 1999, molecules present. 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk! I will talk about this in my evaluation. for original and inspiring surf photography, articles and interviews with your favourite surfers. Sample Free Documents In Word,! A grade GCSE chemistry coursework - Rates of reaction Decomposition of sodium thiosulphate. Oxygenate Your Body - Proper Regimen for Powerful Results. by Fairwitness 0. 4+ Blank! The Enzyme Catalase Activity at Different Conditions Lab Report. by hyunchang 70. Why is the study of basic chemistry essential to understanding human body systems ? by Liwayway Memije-Cruz 86. Employee Holiday Request Form Uk | Example! Classification of Insulating Materials. by OSBERT JOEL C 3. MemeMachine 4 months ago.

Everybody knows that luno2012 has some of the dopest fresh swag. I like memes tbh. Are you of insultings me. I am of here to the learn of | Mailroom, biology not for the English. English of no importants to of becomings doctor. Please shut off.

This is the very good the piece of the work but i think the conclusion could be the better man so the marks could the be the Template | Spreadsheets highest. Nice hub with great information about enzyme kinetics. (Ignore the last question) What board gave the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom grade? What mark did this get? Thanks, this is great! full marks..nice! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Cover Letter Blog Cover Of A advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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essay on oligarchy Oiligarchy is a playable commentary on the oil industry. The player takes the role of an oiligarch managing the extraction business in the homeland and overseas and lobbies the government to keep the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom, carbon-fossil based economy as profitable as possible. Oiligarchy can be considered an extended business sim/tycoon game since the player makes decisions and performs actions that are not always in the domain of business. This mixed gameplay is meant to highlight the Bid Results/contract Awards-, intricate relations between war, politics, and energy corporations. The purely economical activities range from finding new oil fields to building extraction plants and 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk managing resources. As domestic resources decline, the Production Downtime | Spreadsheets, player is Balance Clerk, forced to expand their business in Downtime | Spreadsheets, foreign countries to meet the demands of the market. The overseas operations could require the political or military support from the government and various crisis management actions. This document, written after the Balance, release of Oiligarchy, attempts to outline the Cover Cover Letter Definition My Document Blog Cover, major game design choices we faced and 4+ Blank Balance Sheets provide footnotes and additional documentation to the parts that reference real-world situations or events.

Since the inception of the Molleindustria project we argue that game design is never an Bid Results/contract Awards- & Construction Services, ideologically neutral process: games, as every other cultural product, reflect the designers' beliefs and value systems. And this is Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, particularly visible in games that claim to “simulate” actual non-deterministic situations. We want to stress this idea by proposing a sort of politically informed post-mortem in which we describe the odd challenges of Land (ordering A Vehicle Off The Road) Notice (sr producing social commentary into a playable form. Video games are intrinsically opaque texts due to their double nature of source code and playable software. Certainly the source code is the 4+ Blank | Mailroom, strictest manifestation of the algorithm, but it is Awards- Design Services, generally unavailable or unintelligible to the player. On the other hand, the executable software which is “activated” by the player's performance cannot be fully grasped due to the potentially infinite texts that can be generated by the same algorithm (see Lev Manovich principle of 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom variability in The language of new media p.55) and the complexity of the Holiday Uk | Example, software's hidden computations. There is no definitive way for the player to assess that a certain output is Balance Sheets | Mailroom, triggered by a certain input. Because of this opacity we feel committed to breaking apart and Sample Project Evaluation Free In Word, explaining in natural language the components of the game that constitute the socio-economic engine. 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk. We hope in this way to facilitate the textual analysis and the critique of the game, and, possibly push other producers of activist/political games to do the Sample Project Evaluation Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf, same. Games referencing real-world elements and historical events are problematic cultural artifacts.

Software does not constitute a document itself as a documentary footage or a journalistic report. Games often feature carefully reproduced elements such as characters, vehicles, and weapons, however the way these elements operate and relate to each other via the gameplay is always dictated by an algorithm that cannot be directly related to any actual entity (in the way, for example, a picture or a film have and direct, indexical relationship with objects in time and space). It is possible to create credible representations of phenomena that are already formalized into sets of 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom rules (e.g. Evaluation Forms In Word, Pdf. physical models), but when it comes to social systems or, more in | Mailroom, general, human behavior our programming languages seem to be inappropriate tools. Despite that, mathematical models constituting the core of a game can be based on documents or derived from well-informed theories. Obviously the goal has not been to produce some kind of scientific, objective representation, but to outline a web of cause-and-effect-relations that can arguably share strong qualitative similarities with the mess we call reality. Oiligarchy’s main mechanic is loosely based on the Hubbert peak theory. The theory can be summarized as follows.

For any given geographical area the rate of petroleum production tends to follow a bell-shaped curve. Early in the curve the production rate increases due to Sample Evaluation Forms Free Documents, the discovery rate and the addition of 4+ Blank Balance Sheets Clerk infrastructure. Late in the curve the production declines due to resource depletion. Peak oil activists (sometimes called depletionists) argue that if global oil consumption is not mitigated before the Plan Format, peak, the availability of conventional oil will drop and prices will rise causing catastrophic chain reactions on the whole economy. Original prediction of domestic production peak by M. King Hubbert. Oiligarchy is meant to popularize Peak oil as a key issue to understand present and future crisis and to contribute to the re-framing of the vague and deceptive argument of dependency of foreign oil that is dominating the current political discourse in the US.

We choose to focus on the United States because it is the most oil dependent country, where the relations between politics and the oil industry played a major role in recent times and despite the relative decline of the American global influence, US policies are going to affect the rest of the world for many years to Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, come. As Molleindustria's McDonalds' video game, Oiligarchy places the player in the shoes of the bad guys in Sample Evaluation Forms - 9+ Pdf, order to articulate the critique. Our belief is that power structures can be understood more clearly if represented from a privileged position. The player tends to 4+ Blank, perform actions with both positive outcomes (profits, advancement in the game) and social or environmental costs (a.k.a. negative externalities) dealing with responsibilities in a system that does not really punish unethical choices. The unethical gameplay is designed to reflect the free market system, which is ultimately, the object of the critique. Moreover, a mirrored point of view can avoid the trap of the Land (ordering A Vehicle Off The (sr, “simulated activism”, a cathartic illusion of empowerment and normative “do the right thing” enunciates. Games do not work as Skinnerian conditioning devices: games rewarding (virtual) social change do not produce activists for the same reasons games rewarding (virtual) violence do not produce violent players. As a result of taking a look at the players’ feedback, it is apparent that pushing the people to 4+ Blank | Mailroom, explore the dark side, especially if done with abundant irony, does not undermine the Letter Definition Blog Of A, overarching game objectives. Although the player is intended to lead a big vertically integrated oil company, the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom, game only shows the beginning of the production chain, as well as exploration and extraction, which is the relevant part for addressing the issue. The visual representation of drilling and extraction is grossly simplified, but on the other hand, an important and not broadly known technical detail is taken into account: the extraction rate of every single oilfield tends to gradually decline when the (ordering 1999 (sr, reservoir is half depleted. This is Clerk, one of the factors that determines the typical bell shaped curve of oil production.

Hubbert curve, regional Vs Individual Wells. Template. Source ASPO. The player will probably tend to Balance | Mailroom, exploit resources that are easier to reach and gradually move to Project Forms - 9+ In Word,, more expensive techniques like offshore drilling and to invest in politically unstable countries. The bell shaped curve of production is the Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, most counter-intuitive part of the Peak Oil theory: unlike a car that suddenly stops working when the tank is empty, the global crude extraction (in a business as usual scenario) reaches the peak when half of the Project Forms - 9+ Free Pdf, oil underground remains. Then it declines gradually, but at progressively increasing speed like a roller coaster slope. This factor deeply affects a typical game session that will have an expanding phase (as in all the mainstream strategy and business simulation games) followed by a contracting phase marked by the struggle to keep up with the demand and the convulsions of the economic system.

Early Oiligarchy prototype representing the peak dynamic. 4+ Blank Sheets | Mailroom Clerk. Click to start and click on the black fields to build wells. The red line is the demand the Downtime, black one is the maximum production. The player's primary objective is to 4+ Blank Balance, match the market demand of crude. The demand is a function of two variables: the Gross Domestic Product (representing the size of the economy) and an umbrella value called “oil addiction”.

GDP tends to grow at a rate of 3% per year, which is a reasonable rate for Sample Evaluation Forms - 9+ Pdf, the game's time frame. The figure can be lower or even negative (recession) in case of 4+ Blank | Mailroom serious oil supply crisis or event-generated crisis (see events in Events Appendix). The “Oil addiction” variable is as homage to George W. Bush ghost-writers, who popularized the expression in a rare moment of honesty, and represents the dependency of the entire economy to fossil fuels. This takes into account a wide range of factors such as agriculture, public transportation, car-centered urban planning and so on. When at Holiday Example, the beginning of the turn/year, the Balance Sheets | Mailroom, oil production is lower than the demand a supply crisis algorithm is triggered.

This algorithm is probably the most “political” part of the game as it embodies various statements in Awards- & Construction Services Fiscal, a procedural form. A supply crisis can occur as a result of resource depletion, bad management or political reasons and the systems can react in three different ways. 1) Somebody in the government proposes a bill that tackles the issue (see oil-unfriendly Acts). Oil-unfriendly Acts generally tend to Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, moderate the demand by reducing the oil addiction. The probability for these types of acts to be approved, depends on the government “oiliness” (see politics): with a fully oiled government all the “good” acts are basically blocked, while with a fully green government, every year of crisis a new act should be approved.

Every act has a degree of “boldness” that also plays a part in the approval. For instance, an act that promotes electric cars is (ordering A Vehicle 1999, bolder and less likely to be approved by an ideologically mixed administration than an act which simply reduces speed limits to save gas. 2) If the bill is not approved or the act is 4+ Blank | Mailroom, not sufficient to solve the oil deficit, the Letter Cover Letter Of A, government popularity decreases and the social body tries to react with initiatives that in the game are classified as grassroot (see grassroot). These initiatives are more likely to Balance Clerk, happen if the society has a high of environmental awareness (greenness). 3) If, at this point, the demand still exceeds the offer, the oil prices and the greenness rise as the environmentalists have more arguments on their side.

When the prices become dramatically high, they may trigger catastrophic events (see catastrophe), which generally reduce the GDP. Even in the absence of catastrophes, high oil prices tend to reduce the growth of the economy. Sample Project Forms Documents In Word, Pdf. After a crisis, oil prices will gradually recover to the previous stable value. Affecting the politics is the 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk, key to being a successful manager in Oiligarchy. Request Form Uk |. The player is encouraged to keep the government “oiled” by playing the “democracy” mini-game that occurs every 10 years (a 4 year term would have been too disruptive of the main game flow). The democracy mini-game refers to a type of election race, but it does not try to simulate the complexities of the electoral process. The donations during the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets, race should be seen as a representation of the corporate influence on politics in a broader sense, including lobbying, revolving doors and so on. The initial speed of the two parties reflects the popularity of the last administration which is, in Sample Evaluation Forms - 9+ Free Documents In Word,, turn, dependent on a generic citizen satisfaction (consent) and environmental consciousness which are visualized in the Washington scenario as demonstrators. Additionally, there are some random thrusts that can affect the race and are meant to represent variables like the effectiveness of the campaign and the typical scandals and surprises involving the 4+ Blank | Mailroom, two parties. The ability of the player to affect the Template, election outcome is | Mailroom, very limited, but his donations have a fundamental influence on the policies of the - 9+ Free In Word, Pdf, future administration.

As a part of the satire, the two parties have no ideological features, in other words the Republican Party is not intrinsically more inclined to help the oil industry or vice-versa (observing the electoral funding by industry you can notice a general preference for Republican, but oil and gas industries are not amongst the most partisan industries. Therefore, the experienced player would simply choose to 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk, “bet” on the winning party to obtain the most influence. These design choices loosely reflect a study by Steven D. Holiday Form Template Example Cv English. Levitt about campaign spending popularized by 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom the book Freakonomics (excerpt here). As a function of the result of the elections and the donations to the two parties, the government (a stylized rendition that summarizes the many institutions in a 10 people congress) will be composed by three categories of Form Template Uk | Example representatives: Oiled: representatives that will vote for oil-friendly bills (see oil-friendly acts) every year and Sheets oppose the oil-unfriendly bills. Green: representatives that will vote for oil-unfriendly acts in case of supply crisis. Gray: representatives that will vote for both kinds of bills with a probability of Request Form Example 50%. The number of green representatives is directly related to | Mailroom, the greenness: with the emergence of the environmental awareness (due to global warming or oil crisis) the green representatives will substitute the gray ones. Big and “wise” donations can affect politics to Production Downtime Template, elect an oil-friendly president. This will grant the player the possibility to access the secret underground room (a reference to the presidential cabinet and the Pentagon) and trigger “Special Operations”.

Special operations are fundamental to promote “national interests” abroad. For instance, they will allow the player to 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom, invade Iraq and Cover Letter Blog Of A unblock its resources or to prevent or counter a potential nationalization of the industry in Venezuela (see special operations). As domestic resources deplete, the player will be forced to explore and deploy wells in foreign countries. This production will inevitably create anti-imperialist tensions that are distinctive for every scenario. This scenario is intended to represent not only the struggle to autonomy of the Venezuelan people under Hugo Chavez, but also patterns that can be recognized in other countries of South America (especially Ecuador and Bolivia). The Iraqi scenario, unavailable at 4+ Blank Balance Sheets, the beginning can be “liberated” in two ways that are both dependent to the control of the Cover Letter Cover Definition Of A, special operation room. The first strategy, available since the beginning, references both the first Gulf war economic warfare and the diplomatic pressures for a regime change.

Two consequential special operations “The enemy of the enemy” and Messing Iraq economy enable the Kuwait invasion event that is likely to happen within a few years. After the Balance Sheets, Kuwait invasion, a new special operation referencing the mission Desert Storm will be enabled. The second strategy reflects the second Gulf War and Bid Results/contract Awards- Design will be available after a major terrorist attack in the US. It requires the manufacturing of a link between terror and Iraq (that is, another special operation called WMD). In case of successful war, both cases will lead to a similar outcome: the unblocking of the scenario action menu.

However, after a period of 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk relative stability the insurgency movements will start to target oil wells and Downtime Report | Spreadsheets occupation forces. Attack on wells can be countered by hiring mercenaries (a reference to Blackwater) to protect structures. Attacks to Sheets | Mailroom, the main base in Baghdad can be contained by sending more troops, and ordering a special operations that, as a side effect, reduces the Evaluation Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf, popularity of the administration. Successful insurgent victories against the occupation forces will block plants and any further action in Sheets Clerk, Iraq until another re-liberation. Oiligarchy is an ambitious game: it tries to describe how the USA became addicted to oil, how it could have been different, and how a successful or a failed transition to a post-carbon society would look like. So we chose to start from the WWII aftermath, that is Plan Of Action, arguably the beginning of the 4+ Blank Balance | Mailroom, golden age of oil for Employee Request Form Example, the combined effect of the Green Revolution, the car culture and. Since the game statements revolve around the major role of the oil industry in shaping the world we live in, we had to give the player the possibility to affect the history but, at the same time, we wanted to provide some incentives to retrace the events as they actually happened to stimulate a critical reading of history. We tried to resolve the conflict between game as a device for describing “what if” scenarios and game as informative media, through design choices we could define as pseudo-historical. Oiligarchy pseudo-history is based on Sheets Clerk, a procedural interpretation of past.

In-game events do not occur on a certain year because that is what happened in reality, but they are entangled in a web of cause and effect relations. Every event is Employee Holiday Request Template, enabled by certain conditions (game variables, players’ actions or other events) and produces certain effects. 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk. Additionally, there is a slight randomness that makes game sessions less predictable. Some events that are likely to happen in the post-peak oil phase are mostly based on Land Transport A Vehicle Road) 1999, predictions formulated in the recent years by depletionist and | Mailroom Clerk climate change activists, plus some heavy handed satirical additions, as the invention of Plan human burning plants for energy production. Though they may have similar outputs, events are classified in many ways: Oil-friendly Acts: approved roughly every 3 years according to the oiliness of the governments and their “shameless” value. Oil-unfriendly Acts: proposed every year and approved according to the oiliness of the governments and 4+ Blank | Mailroom their “boldness” value. Pseudo-historical events: triggered roughly every 3 years by in-game variables such as GDP, level of dissent or other events.

Grassroot initiatives: activated according to Of Action Format, the society environmental awareness and their greenness value. Catastrophe: triggered by high oil prices in years of Clerk unsolved supply crisis. Undercover Operations: enabled by in-game variables with certain “escalation” patterns, but directly triggered by the player in case of oiled President. Nigerian Government: triggered by the player. For a complete list of events, how they affect the game variables and detailed documentation see the appendix Events. The contemporary science of game design revolves around the Plan Format, idea of meaningful play. According to Salen Zimmerman (see Rules of | Mailroom Play, unit 1), players should be given opportunities to Sample Evaluation Forms Documents Pdf, take non-random actions and make decisions that have an immediately clear and 4+ Blank Sheets integrated (makes big-picture sense) effect on the game. Meaningful game systems are elegant, appealing, easy to understand and internally consistent. Unfortunately, such kinds of games may be inappropriate to describe systems that are inelegant, unappealing, obscure and Bid Results/contract Awards- & Construction contradictory like the free market capitalism that is destroying the world. Oiligarchy is full of Balance Sheets | Mailroom Clerk broken connections, meaningless interaction, inverted rewards and Plan Of Action randomness. The money factor is central at the very beginning, but quickly becomes totally ignorable as the player profit skyrockets.

The administration popularity represented by the demonstrators in Sheets | Mailroom Clerk, Washington is presented as a sort of punishment or a bad performance warning, but it does not meaningfully affect the player routines since, in the eyes of the Format, oiligarch, the parties are interchangeable. | Mailroom. In the late stages of the game, donating money to Cover Letter My Document Of A, the parties may be a counter-productive habit because there are no more oil-friendly acts left and the prices are rising anyway. Hanging Nigerian activists actually radicalizes the 4+ Blank | Mailroom Clerk, tension, but it is an implicit rule that most of the players may never get. And, above all, the very same goal of the game becomes quite blurred after the peak. Oiligarchy has four possible endings. In the pre-peak phase the player can be fired for Employee Form Template Example, bad management if the demands exceed the offer for too many years. That is an implementation of the free competition mode of production.

Competition is not directly simulated for the simple reason that it never played a major role in the history of oil industry, nevertheless if the 4+ Blank Balance, player tries to create too much artificial scarcity or refuses the expansion imperative he/she will be kicked out of the market. Game statistics after the Sample Project Evaluation Free Documents In Word,, peak. The player managed to increase the oil addiction (black line) and keep up with the demand (red line). The highlighted point shows the moment in which the demand exceeds the production (grey line). Prices skyrocket and some grassroot initiatives are trying to 4+ Blank Sheets Clerk, reduce the addiction. The hardcore gamer will probably see the Mutually Assured Destruction ending that represents the Definition My Document Cover Of A, failed transition to a post-carbon society. This global nuclear war scenario happens when the oil prices reach the ceiling of $300 per barrel and 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom it is usually the result of aggressive and persistent efforts to control the government. Production Report Template. By buying off the politicians, the player essentially introduces rigidity in the system and prevents a harmonic rearrangement of the society. The retirement ending stands for a successful transition to a post carbon society (for calibration reasons it happens when the oil addiction is less than 25% basically meaning that the economy is on the right track even if it is not totally oil-free).

Retirement usually happens when the player loosens the grip on politics around, or after the peak oil. It is basically the happy ending, though it can be reached after some major catastrophes. This is basically an implementation of our conclusions and hopes. In brief, we believe that the 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom, dependency on oil can be solved by a combination of different approaches: A series of top-down, government-lead structural policies ranging from supporting renewable energies to Letter Letter Definition Blog Cover, nation-wide infrastructural rearrangement (see oil friendly acts in the Events Appendix). A proliferation of bottom-top, more or less organized initiatives promoting alternative lifestyles such as the rejection of 4+ Blank Balance Sheets | Mailroom consumerism, promotion of bike transportation and organic, locally grown farming (see grassroots Events Appendix) A substantial downsizing of the economy on the whole and the overcoming of the GDP growth imperative. An example of game ending with Retirement. After the peak (gray line declines) the player stop affecting politics. A series of Plan Of Action Format acts and gressroots initiatives reduce the oil dependency (black line) and Balance Sheets Clerk consequently the demand (red line). After a brief recession (yellow line drop) the oil addiction reaches the Employee Holiday Form Template Cv English, threshold and the retirement end screen appears. The fourth possible ending is titled Farewell West and represents a mildly dystopic collapse of western civilization as we know it. 4+ Blank Clerk. It occurs when the Transport Off The Notice 1999, GDP goes below a certain level, three times the initial value.

Apparently the fourth ending never occurred to anyone and may be actually impossible to reach. At the end of the day good gamers tends to get rich and blow up the world while the bad, lazy or non competitive gamers may reach a tragic end. The debasement and relativization of the binary win/lose formula seems to be the most shocking part for 4+ Blank Balance, the habitual gamers. The online feedback shows how the players are struggling to negotiate between the ambiguous rewards and punishment system and the conventions they learned from traditional strategy/business games. Many players posted successful tips for reaching the dystopic scenario with the most money, others proposed counter-strategies about Cover Blog Cover, how to get to the happy ending.

Some people argued that the best way to 4+ Blank, “beat” the Transport Notice, game is to avoid any imperialist activities while others suggested building as many human burning plants as possible. In conclusion, we think that this kind of disorientation that indicates many open moral interrogatives is the biggest accomplishment of 4+ Blank Sheets Oiligarchy. ASPO, The Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas. The Oil Drum, Discussions about Energy and Our Future. by Richard Heinberg. by James Howard Kunstler. Amazon Watch, video and Transport (ordering A Vehicle Off The Notice 1999 documents about Oil industry devastation in South AmericaPINR, Venezuela Moves to Nationalize its Oil Industry. Minimizing Mischief in Venezuela, Stabilizing the Balance | Mailroom, U.S.

Oil Supply, a proposal by the right wing think tank Heritage Foundation. Democracy Now, Drilling and killing, award winning audio documentary about Chevron's role in Production Report | Spreadsheets, the assassination of Nigerian people. Oil War, Nigeria, a documentary about Nigerian emancipation movements. Naomi Klein, Shock Doctrine, Part 6. Chapter linking free market policies and iraqui insurgency.

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