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kind of nature essay Physics and Cosmology Articles, Blogs, Videos, and News. Wandering Towards a Goal. How can mindless mathematical laws give rise to aims and intention? December 2, 2016 to March 3, 2017. Contest Partner: The Peter and Patricia Gruber Fnd. Contest Partners: Nanotronics Imaging, The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, and The John Templeton Foundation. Media Partner: Scientific American.
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The distinction between a theory's kinematics and Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005 its dynamics, that is, between the space of physical states it posits and its law of evolution, is Calendar | Printable Calendar, central to the conceptual framework of many physicists. A change to the kinematics of Nursing Resume | Self, a theory, however, can be compensated by a change to its dynamics without empirical consequence, which strongly suggests that these features of the theory, considered separately, cannot have physical significance. Fertility Calendar | Printable Online Calendar? It must therefore be concluded (with apologies to Minkowski) that henceforth kinematics by itself, and dynamics by Certified Nursing Assistant Improvement itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality. The notion of Fertility Printable Online, causal structure seems to provide a good characterization of this union. Robert Spekkens is a faculty member at Satisfaction Of Mortgage Form Templates, the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada. His area of research is the foundations of Fertility Online Calendar, quantum theory. One of the basic assumptions implicit in the way physics is usually done is that all causation flows in a bottom up fashion, from micro to macro scales. Lake Don Pedro Owners'? However this is wrong in many cases in biology, and in particular in Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable Online the way the brain functions. Nursing | Self? Here I make the case that it is also wrong in the case of digital computers – the paradigm of mechanistic algorithmic causation - and in many cases in physics, ranging from the origin of the arrow of time to the process of quantum state preparation.
I consider some examples from Calendar Printable | Printable, classical physics; from quantum physics; and the case of digital computers, and then explain why it this possible without contradicting the causal powers of the underlying micro physics. Understanding the emergence of genuine complexity out of the Sales, underlying physics depends on recognising this kind of Calendar | Printable Online Calendar, causation. It is a missing ingredient in present day theory; and taking it into account may help understand such mysteries as the measurement problem in quantum mechanics: George Ellis is a relativist and cosmologist residing in Cape Town, South Africa. His books include On the Large Scale Structure of Space-Time co-authored with Stephen Hawking. In addition to contemplating relativistic and philosophical aspects of Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, cosmology, he is now engaged in trying to understand how complex systems such as you and me can arise out Fertility Online of the underlying physics. From classical mechanics to quantum field theory, the physical facts at one point in space are held to be independent of those at other points in space. I propose that we can usefully challenge this orthodoxy in order to explain otherwise puzzling correlations at both cosmological and microscopic scales. Steve Weinstein is an associate professor of philosophy and physics at the University of Waterloo, and an affiliate of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.
He has written broadly on the foundations of quantum mechanics, on reasoning in cosmology, and on the possibility of Letter To Withdraw Certificate, extra time dimensions. | Printable Calendar? He is also a musician and songwriter in his copious spare time. According to reductionism, every complex phenomenon can and should be explained in Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005 terms of the simplest possible entities and mechanisms. The parts determine the whole. This approach has been an outstanding success in science, but this essay will point out ways in which it could nevertheless be giving us wrong ideas and Calendar Printable | Printable Online Calendar holding back progress.
For example, it may be impossible to understand key features of the universe such as its pervasive arrow of time and remarkably high degree of isotropy and Certified Nursing Assistant | Self Improvement homogeneity unless we study it holistically -- as a true whole. A satisfactory interpretation of quantum mechanics is also likely to be profoundly holistic, involving the entire universe. The phenomenon of entanglement already hints at such a possibility. After completing a PhD in Calendar Calendar theoretical physics, I became an independent researcher to avoid the publish-or-perish syndrome. For 45 years I have worked on the nature of time, motion, and the quantum theory of the Nursing Assistant Resume Improvement, universe.
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General relativity and Satisfaction Form In Pdf the standard model of Fertility | Printable Online, particle physics remain the most fundamental physical theories enjoying robust experimental confirmation. The foundational assumptions of physics changed rapidly during the Feedback And Complaint - Power Plate, early development of these theories, but the challenges of their refinement and the exploitation of their explanatory power turned attention away from foundational issues. Deep problems and anomalous observations remain unaddressed. New theories such as string theory attempt to resolve these issues, but are presently untested. In this essay, I evaluate the foundational assumptions of modern physics and Calendar Printable Online Calendar propose new physical principles.
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PhD from Boston University. Was awarded an FQXi Large Grant in 2008. The symmetrization postulate and the associated Bose/Fermi (anti)-commutators for field mode operators are among the pillars on which local quantum field theory lays its foundations. They ultimately determine the Nursing Assistant Resume, structure of Fock space and are closely connected with the Fertility Printable | Printable Online, local properties of the fields and with the action of Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, symmetry generators on observables and states. We here show that the quantum field theory describing a relativistic particle coupled to three dimensional Einstein gravity as a topological defect must be constructed using a deformed algebra of creation and annihilation operators. This reflects a non-trivial group manifold structure of the classical momentum space and a modification of the Leibniz rule for the action of Fertility Printable | Printable Online, symmetry generators governed by Nursing Assistant Resume Improvement Newton's constant. We outline various arguments suggesting that, at least at the qualitative level, these three-dimensional results could also apply to real four-dimensional world thus forcing us to Printable | Printable Online Calendar, re-think the ordinary multiparticle structure of quantum field theory and many of the fundamental aspects connected to Certified Nursing Assistant Sample | Self Improvement, it. Dr. Arzano is a researcher in theoretical physics at the Sapienza University of Rome in Italy. Fertility Online? He obtained his PhD from the University of North Carolina at Satisfaction Of Mortgage In Pdf, Chapel Hill and has worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Canada and as a Marie Curie Fellow at Institute for Theoretical Physics at Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
Part of his current research revolves around the question of which of the fundamental pillars of our current description of high energy physics can or must be rethought when (quantum) gravity enters the picture. In this essay I will discuss the question: Is spacetime quantized, as in quantum geometry, or is it possible to | Printable Online Calendar, derive the quantization procedure from the Certified Nursing Assistant Resume Improvement, structure of spacetime? All proposals of quantum gravity try to quantize spacetime or derive it as an emergent phenomenon. In this essay, all major approaches are analyzed to find an alternative to a discrete structure on spacetime or to the emergence of spacetime. Here I will present the idea that spacetime defines the quantum state by using new developments in the differential topology of 3- and Fertility Printable | Printable 4-manifolds. Request Letter To Withdraw Original? In particular the Fertility Printable | Printable Online, plethora of exotic smoothness structures in dimension 4 could be the Sales Contract, corner stone of quantum gravity. I'm a post-doc worker at the German Aerospace Center. I received my PhD at Humboldt university. My research interests are wide-spreaded from evolutionary algorithms and quantum computing to quantum gravity.
Since more than 15 years I try to uncover the role of exotic smoothness in general relativity and quantum gravity. In physics we encounter particles in Calendar Online one of two ways. Either as fundamental constituents of the theory or as emergent excitations. These two ways differ by how the particle relates to the background. It either sits on the background, or it is an excitation of the Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, background. We argue that by choosing the former to construct our fundamental theories we have made a costly mistake.
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Sean Gryb worked on his PhD at the Perimeter Institute and is now enjoying a postdoc at Utrecht University. Flavio Mercati received his PhD from the University of Rome Sapienza and is currently starting a postdoc at the Perimeter Institute. Both are working on developing Shape Dynamics and are generally interested in Fertility Online the foundations and experimental tests of quantum gravity. The discovery that the Universe is accelerating in its expansion has brought the basic concept of cosmic expansion into question. An analysis of the evolution of this concept suggests that the paradigm that was finally settled into prior to that discovery was not the best option, as the Satisfaction Of Mortgage Form Templates, observed acceleration lends empirical support to an alternative which could incidentally explain expansion in Printable | Printable Online Calendar general. I suggest, then, that incomplete reasoning regarding the nature of cosmic time in Satisfaction Of Mortgage the derivation of the standard model is the reason why the theory cannot coincide with this alternative concept.
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She then worked as postdoctoral fellow in Understanding Your Contract the NSF/NASA Center for Chemical Evolution and the NASA Astrobiology Institute Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution based at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She is also member of the leadership council for the space science research and education nonprofit Blue Marble Space and a researcher at Printable, the Blue Marble Space Institute of Science. The assumption that classical information derives from underlying objects or things, with absolute properties, may be impeding progress in physics. Taking Wheeler's it from bit seriously requires placing informational systems in relational context to each other. Lake Owners' Association Board Of Directors? Doing so raises questions about the Fertility Printable, nature of the early universe, and suggests a possible simplest-case scenario for ultimate reality. An informational mechanics could describe the world as a compact, evolutionary system of information, where objects, spacetime, and physical laws emerge in Certified Assistant Improvement relation to topologically connected complex subsystems (observers). Under this program, interpretational concerns may be neglected, while recovering the full predictive power of 20th-century quantum mechanics. A desire to hobnob with rock stars led me to a career in music journalism out of college, but I've always stayed close to my science roots. I've been making music under the name Eddie Current since taking freshman physics at University of California Berkeley (BA Biological Science), and while I lost my top form long ago, I can still recite ? to 40 or 50 decimal places. My book The Frustrated Songwriter's Handbook has reportedly helped inspire recent songs by the British bands Keane and Doves.
Cosmology is the study of the origin and evolution of the universe – the one we all love and inhabit. In this essay, however, I argue that the basic assumption of a single universe shared by multiple observers is wrong. Synthesizing the implications of black hole radiation, horizon complementarity, dark energy, observations of the cosmic microwave background and quantum logic, I argue that moving toward a true theory of quantum gravity will require us to give up the notion that we all share the same universe. Instead, I argue, each observer has their own universe, which constitutes a complete and Printable | Printable singular reality. I am a science writer, consultant for Original Certificate New Scientist magazine and 2012-13 MIT Knight Science Journalism Fellow.
I have a master's degree in the philosophy and history of Calendar | Printable Online Calendar, science from the London School of Economics.
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2016 Resume Trends – The New, The Now #038; What You Must Know. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. Calendar Printable | Printable Online? The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. An interesting study was published by Microsoft in May of this year about Satisfaction Of Mortgage In Pdf Templates how our attention spans have changed over the past several years. In 2000 we had a 12-second attention span, and in 2013 a mere eight-second attention span. Calendar? We now, as a whole, have a one-second-shorter attention span than a goldfish. Isn’t that interesting?
Ok, shocking is probably more like it—and also not very comforting to know when you’re job searching and trying your hardest to get a hiring manager/employer/recruiter…someone…to pay attention to Lake Don Pedro Owners' your resume. So what exactly does this shortened attention span mean for | Printable, your job search—and more specifically, your resume? It means trends and times are changing and so should your resume. Here is my top-ten list of resume trends for Owners', 2016, which, as you’ll notice, will be largely impacted on this year’s findings. 2016 Resume Trend #1: Get In, Tell Your Story, And Get Out. Make every word count when you’re writing. In an article like this one I’ve chosen to use bold subtitles for Calendar Printable Online Calendar, those who like to Form In Pdf scan or skim an article to get the main points but don’t want to dig in Calendar Online, deeper for the details. And Complaint Form Plate? I’ve also provided my opinion and the extra details for Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable, those who like context and an explanation to go with the points in bold. Consider doing the same with your resume. Use short, tweet-sized sentences to communicate key accomplishments, your branding statements, facts you don’t want the employer to Satisfaction Form In Pdf Templates miss.
Ideally, you want critical information CALLED OUT on the resume. 2016 Resume Trend #2: Be A Ruthless Editor. Fertility Calendar | Printable Calendar? Create a master resume and Request Letter To Withdraw Original Certificate, then go back and edit it until you have a leaner draft. Printable | Printable Online? Then go back and Form - Power, cut even more out. When you write your resume ask yourself, “Is this critical to my story or what I’m trying to convey to the employer?” If it isn’t, cut it out. Save the discarded content in a master file so you have it if you decide later you really do need it. However, consider yourself a ruthless editor, evaluate every word, every sentence for how you can make it shorter and Fertility Printable | Printable Online, more concise—then slash and trash what you don’t need.
2016 Resume Trend #3: Write For Scanners/Skimmers. Write for scanners and skimmers. You know the Understanding Your New-Home Contract people who go through and only read the headlines of articles and newspapers or scroll through articles and only read the Online bolded bullet points to get the To Withdraw Original Certificate general gist of what it’s saying? This reason is exactly why newspapers and news articles start with a great headline, give the most critical facts/details first, and then gradually fill in Calendar Printable | Printable, the not-so-critical details further down in the story. They know you want the important information first and don’t want to wait for it. Do the same in your resume. Start with your branding statement and Certified Resume | Self, make it answer the decision maker’s questions: “Why should I care?” or “What’s in it for me?” When time is Printable | Printable Online Calendar, of the essence, answering these questions first gives readers exactly what they need to know up front; then they can choose to keep on reading for any details. I think the strategy of using a profile summary or career summary is now history. Instead, I think it should include a personal-brand snapshot. Give the reader newsworthy information in Satisfaction In Pdf Templates, short, effective statements so they can get the facts and move on.
2016 Resume Trend #4: Use A Formula To Help Flesh Out Your Story. In resume writing we call them CAR or SAR statements. I’ve also seen the acronym PARI. Essentially, you’re sharing a challenge/situation/problem, the action you took to address it, and what the Fertility Calendar Printable Online result was. Ideally you want to Of Mortgage In Pdf frame the result by Calendar Printable Calendar, sharing how it positively impacted your employer or client. Customer And Complaint Form? These are the kinds of statements that make impact and tell a story but also give the reader context. Fertility Calendar | Printable? Remember to keep it short; mercilessly edit it down to Customer Feedback - Power Plate the least common denominator. In resume writing it’s also a wise practice to lead with the result/impact to the client or employer because this is usually quantifiable.
Here is a quick example of what I mean by a S.A.R. statement: Situation/Challenge/Problem: Company operated at a loss of $960,000 in Calendar Printable | Printable, 2014. Action: Personally vetted by CEO for company turnaround. Cut costs by 30%, revamped hiring practices to reduce turnover, overhauled budget and spending practices. Result/Impact: Delivered $650,000 profit in 2015. Now you can take the Don Pedro Owners' Board Of Directors Meeting content from the answers to these three questions and put together a great bullet point for your resume. Fill in each with your own experiences and expertise. 2016 Resume Trend #5: Neuroscience Says Pictures Win. Ninety percent of information transmitted to the brain is Calendar | Printable, visual, and Don Pedro, visuals are processed 60,000X faster in the brain than text. (Sources: 3M Corporation and Fertility, Zabisco) and 40% of people will respond better to visual information than plain text. Request Letter To Withdraw Certificate? (Source: Zabisco). Use graphs, charts, and visual presentations whenever possible to share content with your audience.
If it’s quantifiable you can almost always create a visual to communicate it. On social media platforms, images or photos are shared or liked more than text. In this article they share research that states photos on Facebook are shared 75% more than articles, links or text. Although this isn’t research on resumes in particular, it does speak to how much our brains and eyes are drawn to visual stimuli. I wrote an article this autumn on what employers see when you apply on LinkedIn. The content was revelatory for many job seekers and Fertility Printable | Printable Online Calendar, received great praise for And Complaint Form - Power, its insightfulness. Be that as it may, when I created an Fertility | Printable Online infographic of the same content within the article and posted it on LinkedIn it was shared significantly more than the article itself. The article was published by LinkedIn on Understanding Contract, several of Fertility Printable Online Calendar its channels, but was shared only Don Pedro Owners' four times and Calendar Printable | Printable Online Calendar, viewed 700. The infographic was never published on any of LinkedIn’s channels, yet it was shared 53+ times and Satisfaction Form In Pdf | Sample Templates, has been viewed 2,000+ times. Fertility Printable | Printable Online Calendar? Evidence that visual content gets more attention. 2016 Resume Trend #6: Personal Branding IS Visual TOO.
In resume writing (and the Request Original Certificate job search business in general) we tend to get hung up on the idea that our brand is all about the words we use—and it is. As career expert Deb Dib calls it, your personal brand is your “why buy ROI”. Fertility Calendar | Printable? However, it’s also communicated visually—not just in words but with word pictures and with images. Certain colors have specific meanings to Form In Pdf Templates your personal brand! Check out this video from Personalbranding.tv to find out what your personal branding color is and consider that it may be time to include your color brand in your resume: As a side note that’s not resume related, your LinkedIn profile is also a good place to incorporate visual branding and your personal brand color. 2016 Resume Trend #7: Bite-Sized Sentences.
Funny how twitter causes us to Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable communicate our thoughts in 140 characters or fewer. Sample Improvement? Even Twitter knows our attention spans are waning in the digital age. Our brains have adapted to new ways of Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable Calendar absorbing content and interacting with the Internet. Now you’re forced to keep your point short and sweet. For a superfluous person like me who loves the details, I used to get so mad at Twitter for making me convey my thoughts in such short, bite-sized portions, but it really has become the necessity of our society.
With ever-decreasing attention spans, writing tweet-sized resume sentences is a sound strategy. And it’s not a trend I see fading away in the coming years either. The next time you write a sentence for your resume, see how many characters are included. And then see if you can get it down to 140 characters or fewer without losing impact. Consider what is essential and what is Nursing Assistant Resume Sample Improvement, critical. Ditch the Fertility Calendar Calendar essential and run with the Understanding Your Contract critical. 2016 Resume Trend #8: Money, Money, Money. How you made it, generated it, contributed to, saved, or helped someone else in the process—it’s all about the almighty dollar. A great example for a direct contributor is how their actions impacted the bottom-line profitability of the company. For an executive assistant it may be how her initiative and foresight allowed her boss to save money or increase billable hours.
Whatever you do, find the connection to dollars and share it. Fertility Printable | Printable Online? If nothing you did in some way affected costs savings or revenue generation, find the Certified bleeding need your target company/audience has and communicate how what you’ve done in the past has stopped the bleeding! 2016 Resume Trend #9: Infographic Resumes. Infographic resumes are growing in popularity! Don’t believe me? Just search them on Pinterest. Does an infographic resume replace a traditional resume? No. Calendar | Printable? Does it work for Letter Certificate, everyone? No. In some situations—and for many job seekers—there is a time and place to use an infographic resume.
I’ll let you in on a little secret too—you can make your own! There is a plethora of sites you can use to Calendar | Printable Online design your own infographic resume, including Visme, Visually, Venngage, Piktochart, Infogr.am, and easel.ly. Don Pedro Owners' Association? I’m confident you could use these sites to create graphics to incorporate into your resume too. There are some important points you need to consider when you’re evaluating whether an infographic resume is right for you. They’re not for every industry or position. However, they can work very well for industries like marketing, sales, technology, social media, graphic design or telecomm. You may find that innovative companies, smaller organizations, or start-ups are even drawn to infographic resumes. I can see infographic resumes being a great tool when tapping into Fertility Calendar Printable, the hidden job market as you’re bypassing traditional HR departments. A January 2015 survey stated 68% of people would look at an infographic resume, 32% said it depends . Interestingly enough, not one person said they wouldn’t look at Contract, one. 2016 Resume Trend #10: Say Goodbye To ATS.
The demise of applicant tracking software is upon us. Employers are discovering that computer software systems may be great at scanning keywords on a resume, but they’re not so great at Printable | Printable Calendar, discerning talent, loyalty, dedication, hard work, and most importantly FIT. While I understand ATS has its usefulness (there’s no way an HR representative can feasibly read thousands of Certified Sample Improvement resumes that pour in Calendar | Printable, every day) their practicality and Letter, validity are waning. Resumes, which used to Calendar Online Calendar function as your “first impression” to an employer, are now quickly becoming the second or third thing an Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005 employer will see about you. With the | Printable rise of Certified Nursing Assistant Improvement social media sites such as LinkedIn, website resumes, portfolios, video resumes, and job-search strategies allowing job seekers to tap into the hidden job market and bypass sending a resume as a first introduction, the human eye is quickly becoming the #1 gatekeeper. Keep these trends in mind when you sit down to Printable Online Calendar write your resume, and you’ll be ten steps ahead of your competition. Having a hard time writing your own resume?
Let’s chat! Visit my website, call my office at 1.800.991.5187, or connect with me on LinkedIn to New-Home Contract discuss how I help busy job seekers create interview-winning resumes, cover letters, and Fertility | Printable Online Calendar, LinkedIn profiles that cut their job search time by 50% or more and secure interviews in two weeks or less. I’d love to know what you think the most important resume trends for Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, 2016 will be! Share your thoughts! In the meantime, let’s network! Feel free to send me an invitation to connect on LinkedIn. Jessica Holbrook Hernandez, CEO of Fertility Online Great Resumes Fast is an Original expert resume writer, career and personal branding strategist, author, and presenter.
Want to work with the best resume writer? If you would like us to personally work on your resume, cover letter, or LinkedIn profile—and dramatically improve their response rates—then check out our professional and Fertility Calendar Printable Calendar, executive resume writing services at GreatResumesFast.com or contact us for Request Letter Certificate, more information if you have any questions. Disclosure: This post is Calendar Printable | Printable Online, sponsored by a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about expert posts here .
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ACT/SAT Essay Prompts and Sample Essays with Comments Grades. ACT and SAT essays are scored on a scale of 1 to 6 (6 being the Fertility Calendar | Printable Online, best) by at least two graders. The scores are then added together for a final composite score. If the scores of the graders differ by more than one point, then a third grader grades the essay, providing a score which is then doubled to Owners' Meeting, compute the final composite score. The following are examples of ACT and SAT essays written by our students and the comments they received from our Expert On-Line Essay Graders. All essays are graded according to the College Board and ACT essay scoring rubric.
Review sample essays, critiques, and grades. As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims; reasoning to develop ideas and to Printable | Printable Calendar, connect claims and evidence; and stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. Adapted from Paul Bogard, “Let There Be Dark.” ©2012 by Los Angeles Times. 1 At my family’s cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in Request Certificate, which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars.
But now, when 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days’ gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the Calendar Calendar, irreplaceable value of darkness. 2 All life evolved to the steady rhythm of bright days and dark nights. Today, though, when we feel the closeness of nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at night, spells trouble for Customer - Power all. 3 Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable “light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at both the national and Sample | Self, state levels.” Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from Calendar Calendar, developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep. Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and Customer And Complaint - Power, depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of “short sleep” is “long light.” Whether we work at Calendar Printable | Printable Calendar, night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to Don Pedro Board Of Directors, bed, there isn’t a place for Fertility Calendar | Printable Online Calendar this much artificial light in our lives. 4 The rest of the Request To Withdraw Original, world depends on darkness as well, including nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, insects, mammals, fish and Printable Online, reptiles. Owners' Of Directors. Some examples are well known—the 400 species of birds that migrate at Fertility Calendar Online Calendar, night in North America, the sea turtles that come ashore to lay their eggs—and some are not, such as the bats that save American farmers billions in pest control and Of Mortgage Form In Pdf | Sample Templates, the moths that pollinate 80% of the world’s flora. Ecological light pollution is like the bulldozer of the night, wrecking habitat and disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. Simply put, without darkness, Earth’s ecology would collapse. . . Calendar. . 5 In today’s crowded, louder, more fast-paced world, night’s darkness can provide solitude, quiet and stillness, qualities increasingly in short supply.
Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for Request Letter To Withdraw Original Certificate a soulful life, and the chance to witness the Fertility Printable Online Calendar, universe has inspired artists, philosophers and everyday stargazers since time began. Don Pedro. In a world awash with electric light . . . Calendar | Printable Online. howwould Van Gogh have given the Lake Don Pedro Board Of Directors Meeting, world his “Starry Night”? Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in Fertility Printable | Printable Online, each of Nursing | Self us, in our children or grandchildren? 6 Yet all over Fertility Printable Online Calendar, the world, our nights are growing brighter. In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Satisfaction Of Mortgage Form In Pdf | Sample Templates. Computer images of the United States at night, based on NASA photographs, show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. Much of this light is wasted energy, which means wasted dollars. Those of us over 35 are perhaps among the last generation to have known truly dark nights. Even the Calendar Calendar, northern lake where I was lucky to spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish.
7 It doesn’t have to be this way. Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. Already, many cities and towns across North America and Europe are changing to LED streetlights, which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light. Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of their public lighting after midnight. Even Paris, the famed “city of And Complaint light,” which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to Fertility Calendar | Printable, turn off lights after 2 a.m. Though primarily designed to save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing. Write an essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. In your essay, analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Bogard’s claims, but rather explain how Bogard builds an Calendar, argument to persuade his audience.
Paul Bogard’s “Let There Be Dark” employs a wide range of rhetorical techniques to craft one important message: humans must initiate efforts to preserve natural darkness before darkness’ extensive list of benefits is permanently lost. Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005. Bogard’s argument is built upon his appeal to the broad spectrum of benefits offered by Fertility Printable, natural darkness, including those pertaining to Owners' Association Board Of Directors, health, the environment, and the economy. Utilizing outside sources to back the validity of these benefits, Bogard completes his message with a tone of hope, imploring his audience to Fertility Calendar | Printable Online, join him in Certified Assistant Sample, his course. Bogard begins his argument with a personal anecdote to juxtapose his personal experiences with the beauty of darkness against the modern trend of children never witnessing true natural darkness. Fertility Printable | Printable Online. His powerful image of “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes” captivates his audience with a striking visual. Also, Bogard’s use of the statistic of “8 of 10 children… never know[ing] a sky dark enough for the milky way” reinforces the sense of urgency for preserving darkness that he builds through out the passage.
After opening with his sensory story, Bogard pivots to assemble the bulk of his argument, barraging the reader with examples of the benefits of darkness. His first piece of evidence involves the health benefits of natural darkness, particularly its role in preventing cancer. After beginning his point by including the support of two highly reputable health organizations, the WHO and AMA, to provide a sense of validity to his argument, Bogard highlights the benefits of darkness and Satisfaction Of Mortgage In Pdf | Sample, a good night’s sleep. He then moves from the health of humans to the health of nature and the natural environment. Appealing to a desire for ecological preservation, Bogard lists animals that depend on Fertility Printable | Printable Online Calendar, darkness, then explains the critical role these animals play in Association Board Of Directors Meeting, our lives, such as bats that assist in pest control and moths that polinate the world’s flowers. The utilization of the simile relating light pollution to “the bulldozer of the night” encapsulates the Fertility | Printable Online Calendar, destructiveness of light pollution that Bogard wishes to convey. Bogards next piece of evidence revolves around the economic benefits of darkness preservation. First using NASA as a source for backing the rate at which darkness is being lost, Bogard’s logic of excess light being “wasted energy, which means wasted dollars” provides the reader with a simple benefit of reducing light pollution: saving money. After stringing together his extensive range of benefits of preserving natural darkness, Bogard turns to the future, Including current efforts for Don Pedro Board Of Directors preservation such as those in Paris.
His final line completes his argument with his original appeal, that to the “beauty of the darkness”. Overall, Paul Bogard’s argument is carefully constructed, consisting of support from a wide range of sources, examples of the many benefits of darkness, and the interweaving of techniques such as similes to embellish his argument. Overall, this excellent essay displays that the writer did a very close reading of Bogard’s essay and understood the central ideas as well as the Calendar Printable Calendar, interrelation of ideas as Bogard builds his argument. The student discusses most of the persuasive and Satisfaction Of Mortgage Form In Pdf, stylistic elements Bogard uses, with a few exceptions—paragraph 5 is Calendar | Printable Calendar never addressed, which addresses the more meditative, soulful aspects of darkness: for example, as a source of Nursing Assistant Sample | Self inspiration for art (Van Gogh’s “Starry Night”). Although the Fertility | Printable Online, use of a simile is noted, the Customer Feedback Form Plate, almost magical language Bogard uses to Fertility | Printable Calendar, describe a night sky (“meteors left smoky trails across sugars spreads of stars”) could have been explored in more depth. Finally, the student quotes fairly effectively from the text to support his claims. In terms of analysis, the two main weaknesses in this essay are the omission of the analysis of paragraph 5 from Request Letter To Withdraw Certificate, Bogard’s essay and the student’s lack of analysis in Printable Online, the second-to-last paragraph (beginning with “After stringing together…”) about why Bogard turns toward the Request To Withdraw Original, future. It’s not enough just to | Printable, say that the Your New-Home Sales, author “turns to the future.” What is Fertility his purpose in doing so? What effect does that have on the reader?
What emotion is he trying to tap in the reader? This second-to-last paragraph consists of just two sentences and Of Mortgage In Pdf | Sample, basically paraphrases rather than analyzes. This student displays an excellent command of Fertility Calendar Printable language and is very adept at guiding the reader through most of the salient points in Bogard’s essay. There is a precise central claim presented in the introduction and Form, a fairly strong conclusion. Fertility Printable Calendar. There is a lot of Satisfaction Form In Pdf sentence variety, and the student’s word choice and tone strike the right chord for a formal essay. Transitional phrasing is used effectively between paragraphs and to bridge ideas. Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable Online. A few typos appear in the essay that don’t detract from meaning (e.g., in the first sentence, possessive form should be “darkness’s”; in paragraph 2, “throughout” is one word; in paragraph 3, the correct spelling is “pollinate”; in the first sentence of paragraph 4, the Feedback And Complaint - Power Plate, possessive form is Fertility Printable | Printable “Bogard’s”; in Request To Withdraw Certificate, paragraph 5, “Including” should not be capitalized). In our modern day society we think of light polution as a side effect of living.
However, Paul Bogard makes the compelling argument that light polution is Online actually destroying our sleep. Bogard takes from NASA and other trusted organizations to prove his point, though not all of Bogards refrences are strickly based on information. Bogard tells stories of sleeping under starfilled skies during his childhood. These nostalgic stories bring out emotion in readers, causing them to rethink their stances. To Withdraw Certificate. Bogard uses facts, figures and emotions to Calendar | Printable Online, build a touching and compelling argument against light polution in Original, our society. The human body is not a machine that can function perfectly during both night and day. In the thrid paragraph of Paul Bogard’s essay “Let There Be Dark,” it is Fertility Calendar | Printable Online stated that the lack of darkness can lead to cancer. “Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep.” (3) Without darkness, the body cannot sleep. Some people have tried to work around that fundamental rule, but failed. Feedback Form. Bogart brings up the point that a lack of Fertility | Printable Online Calendar sleep can cause some sevear medical problems, such as: depression, diabetes, obesity, and Lake Owners' Board Meeting, cardiovascular disease. Printable | Printable Calendar. Read big, threatening words like diabetes and depression are enough to snap any reader into Letter To Withdraw attention. Fertility Calendar | Printable Online. fear always has, and always will be a great motivator for the human race.
Bogard uses these threatening medical facts as a way to Customer Feedback - Power, grab the reader’s attentions through their emotions. There is Fertility Calendar | Printable Online Calendar constant talk of how our society is ruining the world, and themselfs, through technological advancements. In the seventh paragraph of “Let There Be Dark” Paul Bogard mentions that light polution is not an unstoppable force. “Light Polution is readily within our ability to Lake Owners' Of Directors, solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights.” (7) Bogard brings up his ideas on how to stop the light epidemic. Rarly do you find someone ready with well thoughtout ideas to solve the Calendar | Printable Online, very problem they are complaining about.
Bogart proves to his readers that he is more that just a man with hatred rooted inside of him. Letter To Withdraw Original. Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him. Bogard gains the trust of Calendar Printable Online Calendar his readers, by showing them there is a way to fight the Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, light epidemic. As more advancements are made by our society more problems arise as well. For the most part, technological advancements have made day to Printable | Printable Online Calendar, day life easier Though, our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet.
It can be hard for Customer Feedback And Complaint Form the average person to understand how technology is affecting our planet. Fertility Calendar | Printable Online Calendar. Paul Bogard tries to explain to Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, the public the new challenges we face, in a comprehensible way. In the third paragraph of Calendar Printable | Printable Online “Let There Be Dark”, Bogard explains how we keep ourselfs from sleep by spending too much time on Form In Pdf, technology. “Weathe we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives.” (3) Nowadays, almost everyone obtains some sort of “smart” device that they like to use before bed. Fertility | Printable. Breaking down problems into everyday life is what makes them understandable to the public.
Bogard is able to connect with his audience by using everyday examples for his argument. Most members of the average public are not science or english majors. It is important to realise that when making an argument, even everyday people should be able to understand. Paul Bogard perfects the Association, idea of Fertility Calendar Printable Online crafting an Customer Feedback And Complaint - Power Plate, complex argument that is Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable Online easy to understand. By making different thoughts and ideas more accesible, more people can join in on Certified Assistant Resume Improvement, changing the Fertility Printable Calendar, world. This essay shows some understanding of the original text but lacks a strong thesis to really hook ideas onto. The writer starts off by saying the author’s argument is that “light pollution is destroying our sleep,” but, by the end, the Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, student is Fertility Printable | Printable Online down to “more people can join in on changing the world,” which shows that he’s lost the thread of the Original, argument in an effort to use evidence from the Fertility Printable Online, text. Although it has a few strong quotes, the explanations tend to drift into vagueness: “big, threatening words;” “Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to Understanding Sales, solve the problems that lay before him.” (this is an empty platitude and says nothing about the text); “our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet” (filler; off topic to the essay).
Additionally, the introduction gives an example of an emotional appeal to which the essay never returns. The writer should avoid giving examples in the introduction; he can list the types of techniques the author uses to do his job but should wait for the body for the examples. In terms of Fertility | Printable Online Calendar formatting, the Original Certificate, student does not need to start a new paragraph before every quotation. Most of the very short introductory paragraphs can lead right into the quotes that follow without a paragraph break. Transitions between the paragraphs need some work; the essay jumps from one idea to the next. The essay could benefit from phrases like “in addition,” “another technique the author uses,” or “in the next few paragraphs of the passage.” “Pollution” is misspelled every time.
A writer should be extra careful about Fertility Calendar Printable Online Calendar, correct spelling of words used in the prompt. “Themselfs” and “ourselfs” should be “themselves” and “ourselves.” The write should have left time at the end to And Complaint, read over his essay and Fertility | Printable, check for minor errors. READING: 2, ANALYSIS: 2, WRITING: 3. critiques, and Satisfaction Of Mortgage In Pdf Templates, grades. Parental Expectations Based on Gender. For every 10 Google searches about Fertility Printable Online Calendar, boys being overweight (Is my son overweight?) there are 17 about girls (Is my daughter overweight?). Request To Withdraw Original. For every 10 Google searches about daughters being gifted, (Is my daughter gifted?), there are 25 for Fertility Calendar Online Calendar boys (Is my son gifted?).
This recent study of Internet search data suggests that parents may hold different expectations for their children based on gender; it appears that parents may be want their girls thinner and Satisfaction In Pdf | Sample Templates, their boys smarter. The data on the search is accurate, but is the explanation? Do parents hope for different things for their sons and daughters? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about parents' expectations of their children. Even though parents are more worried more about Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable Online, their daughters being overweight than their sons, it doesn't mean they want less for their daughters.
They just realize that kids can be crueler to girls than boys when it comes to weight. Because teachers are more likely to recognize giftedness in girls than in boys, who can appear to be less studious in school, parents aren't searching about girls. Boys are often underestimated in the classroom, so parents have to pick up the slack. As a whole, parents hold different standards for their kids based on gender, but it's not done consciously. Since society places so much pressure on To Withdraw Original, girls to be thin and boys to be smart, those stereotypes get absorbed without the parents knowing it. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on parents' expectations for their children based on gender. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and Calendar, evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given.
Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in Form In Pdf | Sample, partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. You may wish to consider the Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable Online Calendar, following as you think critically about the task: Strengths and weaknesses of the three given perspectives. What insights do they offer, and what do they fail to consider? Why might they be persuasive to others, or why might they fail to Certified Nursing, persuade? Your own knowledge, experience, and values.
What is your perspective on this issue, and what are its strengths and weaknesses? How will you support your perspective in your essay? Parents may expect things from their children, depending on their genders. Genders have become stereotyped and it leads people to have expectations for each one of them. Sometimes, parents expect these things so that their child could be happy, but it could make the child upset and feel unwanted. Society can put so much pressure on a girl’s weight and a boy’s intelligence that parents start to take in these thoughts.
The pressure and expectations on a girl’s weight differs from the pressure on boys. Parents only Calendar | Printable Online, expect girls to be thinner to avoid seeing their daughter get bullied. Peers can be more harsh to fat girls than they can be to Letter To Withdraw Certificate, fat boys. Because of Calendar Printable this, parents might force their daughters to excersize more or eat less. Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005. These kind of treatments from society and parents could lead to anorexia or depression, even if the girl may not seem fat. I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. People should only pay attention to themselves. Having different expectations about weight, boys have another quality that concerns parents. Seeming less studious in class, parents underestimate their sons and push them to Fertility Printable Online, do better. Teachers can see intelligence in girls because of their behaviour in class. Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005. The stereotype that boys do not behave as well as girls in Fertility Printable | Printable Calendar, class leads teachers to Form | Sample, think that boys do not seem very smart.
Parents could see this too, but they may not consider how the teacher treats their students. I think people should not judge someone’s intelligence based on their behaviour. There are many people who are very smart, but they may also like to have a good time. Fertility Calendar Online Calendar. Expecting one’s son to do better in school could lead to stress and anxiety. It is the stereotypes and pressure from society and peers that adds to the expectations from Request Letter Original Certificate, parents.
Parents can absorb thoughts from others without realizing it. Their standards start to hurt the child because of what peers think. The child could develop depression, but the parent would not realize because they are too focused on the standards. Parents should take the time to talk to their child and figure out any problems the child faces. Parents tend to put pressure on their children because of the way society thinks of fat girls and boys who have low grades. Parents want girls to be thin to avoid having the girls hurt, but it only leads to more trouble. A boy’s intelligence is Printable | Printable Calendar pushed by parents so much and it becomes a bigger problem. These are because of the way one’s peers thinks, and the ideas start to be pushed into other people’s heads.
IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. Overall, this essay discusses the issues presented in Request Letter To Withdraw, a fairly simplistic way and does not analyze the Calendar Printable | Printable Calendar, issues in depth or put forth the writer’s own viewpoint in a cohesive way. Each perspective is touched on, but the analysis of the third perspective especially veers off track because it focuses more on discussing one possible repercussion (depression) of pressuring one’s children (both genders) rather than focusing on Board Of Directors, whether parents hold gender-based expectations. Calendar Printable | Printable Online. The final paragraph doesn’t feel like a conclusion, and the final sentence digresses into talking about peers rather than parents. Stay on message. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. There is some attempt on the part of the writer to develop his ideas (e.g., that parents’ pressure on children to maintain a healthy weight could lead to eating disorders or depression, and that boys’ seeming less studious is not necessarily a true indicator of their actual intelligence), but the reasoning is also simplistic at times: e.g., “I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. Understanding. People should only pay attention to themselves”—this statement is too extreme and doesn’t take into account the parental duty of monitoring their child’s health.
The essay uses a five-paragraph structure—an intro, three body paragraphs discussing each of the three perspectives, and Printable | Printable, a conclusion. There is very little attempt to transition between paragraphs or to link or contrast perspectives. Each body paragraph seems to stand alone. There are some grammar errors: a dangling modifier in Satisfaction Of Mortgage Form | Sample, the 1 st sentence of the 3 rd paragraph, subject/verb agreement error in Printable | Printable Online Calendar, last sentence of 3 rd paragraph. Certified Resume Sample Improvement. A few typos, but they don’t distract from meaning—here are the correct spellings: behavior, exercise, stereotype. More generally, some word choices could be more precise (“may expect things” and “parents expect these things”—what things?) or more sophisticated (“parents start to take in these thoughts” and “ideas start to be pushed into other people’s heads”). Avoid wordiness. There are too many instances of vague pronouns or pronouns that don’t agree with the antecedent. More sentence variety is needed—too many start with “Parents…” The overall tone of the Calendar Printable, essay is appropriate.
I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on Your New-Home, gender, however these standards are subconscious and Printable | Printable Online Calendar, are more influenced by todays society. It’s evident in Request To Withdraw Certificate, our everyday lives that girls and boys are held to different standards. We see these different standards on magazines, tv, and in Calendar Printable Online, everyday interactions. Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005. When you pick up a magazine it’s usually a model who has the “perfect body”; the Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable Online, perfect body in todays society is someone who is thin and tuned. We also see the Sales Contract, standard for boys to be smart in our everyday interactions. It’s mainly men who dominate the math and science fields, and those two subjects are seen as harder than English and social studies.
Also, even though times have changed it’s more common and “acceptable” to have the man at the house be the main provider. Fertility | Printable Online. To be the main provider you must have the better job, which in theory if you have the better job you are smarter. Parents want the best for Customer Feedback And Complaint their kids so they unconsciously hold their children to different standards based on society. As stated above today’s society places great emphasis on girls being thin. From even before your child is born they are already being prejudiced based on their gender. If your expecting a girl you automatically decorated your childs room pink, princesses, ballarinas; a “girly” room. So as your little girl is growing up, she already has expectations if she looks on her walls she will see princesses and ballrinas on her walls, and Calendar Online Calendar, of course they are all thin; nno has ever seen a “fat” princess or ballarina? So even before they have time to think for themselves they have a preconcived idea about what they should look like. This “perfect image” continues on all throughout their lives; on billboards, magazines, and Request Letter Original Certificate, t.v. all the girls are thin and pretty. Girls don’t consider all the photoshopping that took place in Printable | Printable Online Calendar, order to produce that image. Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005. All they are focused on is what they can do to Fertility Calendar | Printable Calendar, look like that.
And since parents are influenced by Satisfaction In Pdf Templates, these images they will do whatever they can to facilitate their child “living up” to that image. In parents eyes they are helping that child if she is worried about her weight because if she’s thin she automatically won’t get picked on and will have great self esteem. Just like girls boys are held to different standards too, however these standards vary. Printable. Unlike girls, boys are held to higher academic standards. Nursing Assistant | Self. As your son is gowing up he will probably see more men in charge than woman.
In America’s society it is still expected that men will be the C.E.O’s at companies, bosses, and Calendar, the man in charge of the house. So it isn’t a surprise that while raising your child you emphasis these standards. You want your child to be happy and successful.Therefore you will pressure the idea that boys should be smart, and obviously boys should be smarter than girls. This idea is not done in a cynical way, in fact it’s quiet the opposite. Parents don’t mean to belittle their daughter, or any girl, by assuming their son is smarter, they do it subconsciously to Feedback And Complaint Form - Power, coinside with societies standards. Boys are expected to excel in Fertility Calendar Printable | Printable, the harder subjects in school, like math and science.
All parents just want whats best for their kids so they will pressure their son to do better in school. Before a child is born the parents will place them in appropiate stereotypes, however this is not done consciously. Parents already know societies expectations, so they will subconsciously inforce these stereotypes on the children. Parents are not cynically trying to oppress their children by placing them in sterotypes. Instead they are looking out for Board Of Directors their children. It’s a harsh and critical world in todays society. So the more your child is conforming the less problems your child will have. No parent wants their child to stand out negatively or get picked on Fertility Printable | Printable Online, so they see it has in Lake Owners' Association Of Directors Meeting, their childs best interest to have them match up with societies expectations. Although the writer addressed point three, she neglected to address points one and Printable | Printable Online, two. Failure to address all three points will not result in a high scoring essay; the writer must find some way to include the other two points in Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, her argument. The ACT essay is not simply a persuasive essay but an argumentative essay.
The writer should consider how she would argue these points if she were doing an in-class debate. Printable Online. The whole essay is spent defending why parents adhere to stereotypes. Are there parents who don’t? Why don’t they? Is every girl focused on her looks and uninterested in math and To Withdraw Original Certificate, science?
Do all mothers stay home? The writer could improve her analysis and Online, support scores by broadening her response and thinking about the other side of the issue. The essay is organized with a clear introduction and conclusion and sufficient transitions, but it contains many language errors. Comma splices and Sales, semicolons need to Calendar Printable | Printable Online Calendar, be reviewed (e.g., the first sentence: “I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on Your New-Home Contract, gender, however these standards are subconscious and Fertility Calendar, are more influenced by todays society.”) as well as possessive apostrophes (“todays society,” “childs room,” or “societies expectations”). “Ballerina” is Request Letter To Withdraw Original Certificate spelled three different ways and “quiet” was written instead of “quite.” The writer should leave time to reread her essay and check for Calendar Printable Online these small errors. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. Essay Prompts used with the permission of Summit Educational Group, College Prep Tips, Study Hints, Education News for Letter the Parents and Students in the Philadelphia Area. Sign up to receive weekly article updates . Improve your odds of a better SAT or ACT score today! Find out more about our test prep and skill builder programs.
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Discussing The Knife Crime In Britain Criminology Essay. Section 1: The Problem of Knife Crime in Britain. In June 2006, 15 years old Alex Mulumbu after celebrating the end of Printable Calendar, his GCSEs exams became one more victim of Britain's knife culture. The victim after he got off a bus with friends in Lambeth, south London had an argument with a larger group of Nursing Assistant | Self, teenagers (Woolcock, 2006). During the Calendar Printable Calendar, dispute members of the gang disappeared and returned armed with knives, baseball bats and hockey sticks. Alex was stabbed in the heart and was left lying in Certified Assistant Sample | Self, a pool of | Printable Calendar, blood on the pavement (Verkaik, 2006). His father visited the scene of his son's killing where he stated to the media that Alex was a good boy and And Complaint Plate, had nothing to do with knives and gangs (Sturcke, 2006). The case vignette above is a clear example of how knife crime is portrayed by the media.
A teenager who is getting off a bus and it happens to get stabbed by Fertility Printable Online Calendar, the perpetrator. However, the reality of knife crime is not simply a black-white issue of good versus bad. The nature of such a problem is complicated and the responses towards it must therefore be multi-faceted (House of Commons). After all, if knife problem was that easy, it would have been solved already. One complexity is that the Certified Assistant Resume | Self, victims are not always good honest citizens who were in the wrong place at the wrong time. The victims are often victimized before and are also those who are carrying knives in the first place (and actually their own knife is Calendar Online Calendar, used against them). (www.direct.gov.uk). Furthermore, the offender's and victim's status in Form In Pdf Templates, not always differentiated, since the Fertility Calendar Printable, victims carry knives because they are often linked to gangs or have some kind of affiliation with street culture. This, in turn, could mean that a significant proportion of stabbings relate to street violence (www.docstoc.com), and as Professor Brohi claims a very small proportion of knife crime victims are innocent people walking down the Request To Withdraw Certificate, street who are stabbed (House of Commons).
The media make knife crime even more complex as they often cloud people's perception by generating moral panic and by giving the impression that knife crime is out of control (Albertazzi, 2010:473). This moral panic, in turn, leads to fear of crime and social disorganization. Knife crime is also complex in itself as it is a symbolic of lack of social control within societies. Printable | Printable Calendar! Knife crime looks unsolvable and as there is Request Letter To Withdraw, no connection between adults-teenagers (Hume, 2008), although it involves young people and shatters lives. Fertility Calendar Printable! In particular, knife crime in itself gives the Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, impression that somehow it is a matter of young people's world since teenagers are on their own, surviving on the streets (Asthana, 2008).
Thus, those who do not live in that kind of environments (outsiders) can never understand. Finally, knife crime is Printable | Printable Calendar, complex because there is Original Certificate, no answer to the question why teenagers carry knives. | Printable Online! We do not know whether teenagers carry knives for self protection and because of the growing lack of trust in Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, the ability of adults to protect them (Kelbie, 2003), or whether carry knives for things like respect knife carrying is Fertility | Printable Online, thought to be largely driven by a concern for Understanding Your New-Home Sales Contract self protection or to enhance status (Muncie, 2009:36). Continuing the Printable, study I am going to Don Pedro Owners' Association Board produce a report divided into three key sections. The first will be the extent of knife crime in Britain. The second will look at the causes of knife crime and finally the third will produce some initiatives dealing with knife crime. Section 2: The Extent of Knife Crime in Britain. Furthermore, knife crime is Printable | Printable Online Calendar, very complicated in terms of defining whether it is a predominantly black problem.
The media often give the impression that all crimes are committed by black people and therefore, make people adopt misconceptions (Wright, 2008). Hence, it is important to note that even though the issue looks like it is black in London and the South-East (www.london.gov.uk), at the same time there are evidence that suggesting that in the North-East (i.e. Glasgow, Scotland, Manchester) the problem is white (House of Commons). As a result, it might be predominantly a black issue in London but certainly not in other places. Given that, I have concluded that the issue of carrying knives has little to do with being black or white, but on the contrary, it has to do with being young and male (Muncie, 2009). Also, knife crime is complicated in terms of definition, since there is no clear Home Office clear definition of 'knife crime'. According to that, the phrase 'knife crime' was adopted by the media and is now popularly used to refer primarily to stabbings but also to the illegal carrying of knives by young people (House of Commons). Hence, since there is no clear definition, then, it is likely for the numerous to Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005 use different definitions in order to create statistics and | Printable Online Calendar, therefore generate more complexity.
Furthermore, knife crime is also complicated because there are too many different types of statistics (too much statistical data). In particular, there are statistics for knife crime from the hospital, the Contract, police, the British Crime Survey and Printable Online Calendar, finally the MORI (House of Commons, 2009). Each of these sources, measure different samples and different places (regions) in the country and therefore, it is too complicated to understand what is happening (Summers, 2008). Of Mortgage In Pdf | Sample Templates! For example, hospitals define knife crime when somebody has severe internal injuries as a result of knife penetration, whereas police define it when someone is carrying a knife (House of Commons) Furthermore, trying to measure knife crime is, again, difficult because there is also the dark figure of crime.
Therefore, this hidden crime makes statistics themselves problematic (Messerschmidt, 1993). However, above all else, the complexity of knife crime is Printable | Printable Online, related to the media. Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005! The media manipulate the statistics and distort people's perceptions about Fertility Calendar | Printable Online Calendar, knife crime, since they are powerful and so pervasive in terms of their ability to create views (Jewkes, 2004). One distortion is that knife crime is predominantly a black issue. Given that, even though evidence suggest that knife crime is also a white problem (in other areas), yet, the media continue the misrepresentation constantly accusing blacks (scapegoats). According to that, I believe that this misrepresentation leads to Understanding Sales moral panic which, in turn, somehow makes the statistics go up. In other words, since teenagers interfere with the media (moral panic), then, they may feel fear of the streets and therefore through self fulfilling prophecy, start carrying knives for self protection. Hence, there is an interaction-interrelationship between the statistics and knife crime (Newburn, 2007). Regarding to the problems associated with knife crime measurement, I believe that data should be collected through a regional setting and this is for two reasons. Firstly, because as indicated, knife crime is not a specific cultural issue of Blacks, and secondly, because the measurement of such a complex issue through national settings, inevitable will generate too many complicated statistical data. Furthermore, and as Young (1988) argues, national settings tend to miss some important elements in the distribution of | Printable Online, victimization (Newburn, 2007).
Hence, I suggest a regional setting both in areas with the highest knife-crime rates, but also to areas where crime rate is low. This, in turn, we will help us understand why it is black issue in some places whereas white in other. Equally important is to collect data using qualitative approaches, since it would be more beneficial to Request Original understand the lived experiences of Fertility, those who carry knives (rationale behind knife crime) instead of how many carry a knife (What would be the Satisfaction Of Mortgage | Sample Templates, point of Calendar Calendar, knowing that 4000 are carrying knives after all?). For example, it would be very interesting to Feedback - Power understand how knife crime is perceived and interpreted by Calendar, the juvenile delinquents (ethnography research) and thus, find out why they carry knives. Association Board Of Directors Meeting! This way, more evidence will come up such as whether knife crime relates to Fertility Calendar London's (for example) rates of poverty, neglect, unemployment and deprivation (House of Commons). Section 3: The Causes of Knife Crime in Britain.
The social learning theory is one of the most enduring approaches among the criminological theories that underscore the nature of Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, people's involvement in social relationships. Sutherland, considered previous criminological theories and argued that anyone in society can be trained to adopt and follow patterns of Printable Online, crime and deviation (Colombo, 2009). In accordance to Sutherland's 'differential association' conception, the prestige of criminals, the duration of contact between offenders-potential offenders and the frequency of Feedback And Complaint, interactions with criminal offenders, are all contributing factors in Fertility | Printable, an individual's likeliness to occupy criminal activities. Sutherland also suggested that attendance with the development of criminal behaviours in Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, social groups, for instance 'rough and Fertility | Printable Calendar, tough' attitudes, 'boosts' the Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, individual's propensity to interiorize criminal attitudes. Social learning therefore, links to the causes of knife crime as well as links to masculinity and rational choice perspectives. According to differential association concept, boys are growing up to be men. This process of affirming masculinity promotes boys to Fertility Printable develop a public persona (an exterior) of being tough, macho and fearless. In the In Pdf | Sample Templates, context of | Printable, knife crime this means that men have to be risk takers, aggressive and support their competitive nature (i.e. territoriality). Boys, if lose their reputation in Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, front of peers and someone undermines their masculinity, in Calendar | Printable Calendar, turn, have to regain this reputation by carrying knives and using them in front of Satisfaction Of Mortgage Form Templates, their mates.
Thus, since they learn masculinity (via social learning), they learn to behave accordingly to this social role (masculinity) and therefore, act out like men (tough, aggressive). Finally, in terms of applying that to a knife crime, they make the Fertility | Printable Online, ultimate decision (rational choice) on whether to carry knives by weighing the benefits (status, respect) against the risks (get stabbed, get caught). To conclude, I believe that there is a link between masculinities and social learning as what seems to be happening today, is that street culture (knife crime) is becoming masculine culture (i.e. through rap music) (Newburn, 2007). However, even though differential association theory is one of the most enduring theories about crime, yet, there are some difficulties in explaining knife crime. First of all, according to the first principle of differential association theory, criminal behaviour is learnt (Colombo, 2009). If that is the case, I believe that we have to critically question, how did the first teacher learnt the knife techniques (i.e. hide a knife, disposal once used), so that to pass this 'knowledge' to others? Hence, differential association theory fails to explain the Feedback And Complaint - Power, origins of Fertility Printable | Printable Online Calendar, knife crime, since there are no origins.
Furthermore, there are no real empirical evidence of links between learning and knife crime. New-Home Contract! For example, differential association theory does not explain why in similar circumstances, (balance of favorable-unfavourable definitions) some individuals choose to carry a knife whereas others do not. Moreover, social learning theory fails to Fertility Calendar Calendar explain why teenagers develop to Owners' Of Directors Meeting associate with those who carry knives. Printable Calendar! Instead, it focuses more on the peer influence and not on peer selection. Additionally, differential association, supports that all criminal acts are rational (maximase profit-minimise loss) and systematic.
However, it fails to Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005 explain the spontaneous, wanton acts of violence, which have little purpose or utility (Siegel, 2004). Finally, it is very difficult for social scientists to measure such vague variables like excess of definitions favourable to law violation (Colombo, 2009). Section 4: Towards the Reduction of Knife Crime in Fertility Printable | Printable Online, Britain. The Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) is Lesson-Plan-In-Music-1-638.jpg?cb=1498118005, a multi-million-pound venture, against knife crime. Its main purpose is to limit the carrying of Printable, knives and serious stabbings among teenagers aged between13-19. It involves five government departments and 16 police forces (www.homeoffice.gov.uk). However, Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) has some important limitations in relation to Customer And Complaint Plate the data, since the Fertility Calendar Printable Online, recorded crime, especially the less violent, can be affected by changes in police activity and public reporting to the data. Furthermore, there is a lack of comparison statistics in many areas. Finally, TKAP faced the In Pdf | Sample Templates, heterogeneity of the forces (www.homeoffice.gov.uk).
Another anti-knife policy that has been introduced is via legislation to forbid the sale of knives to anyone under the age of 18. Additionally, Police Operations like Blunt and Shield involve the rapid and random deployment of metal detectors in public places such as stations, schools and so forth. The aim of the policy is to identify and arrest anyone carrying a knife (www.insight-security.com). However, both the restriction of knives sales under- 18s, as well as the deployment of metal detectors fails to tackle the problem, since kitchen knives for instance, would still be widely available. Hence, it is more a problem of Fertility Printable | Printable Online, education, rather than access to knives. Furthermore, metal detectors may be not detecting all knives, as knives can be easily hidden and disposed once used. My opinion about tackling of Don Pedro Owners' Board Of Directors, knife crime is that one organization alone cannot end this issue. Given that, I suggest that the main aim of all anti-knife crime initiatives should be to increase the definitions against knife-crime (rational choice theory) so that young people understand that carrying knives is immoral but most of Fertility Printable Online, all, it is risky (maximize cost, minimize benefit). Furthermore, I support that the best anti knife-crime policy would be to educate the Certified Assistant Sample | Self, teenagers about this problem (social learning theory). Hence, young people could learn about the Online Calendar, consequences of carrying knives at an early age through a mandatory module (i.e. weapon awareness) at Request Original Certificate, schools.
Furthermore, I believe that the best initiative to Calendar stop knife culture would be if parents (especially the fathers) could show their boys that carrying knives has nothing to do with being a man (masculinity theory). As a conclusion, I argue that Alex's case highlights the Sample, need for the authorities to recognize that educating both teenagers and families from an early age is Calendar Printable | Printable, crucial in order to tackle knife crime. Concisely, I have concluded that knife crime is very complex issue because of many reasons. The main one surely is because there are lots of Feedback Form Plate, statistical data. Additionally knife crime is complex because the media create moral panic and thus does not help. Moreover I have concluded that knife crime is not a black issue but a knife issue and thus, anti knife policies should redirect their focus on the rationale behind knife crime. Ultimately, I would like to Fertility Online try to give an explanation of what could have might happen in the case vignette. Alex could have been probably to And Complaint - Power Plate the enemy's territory and Fertility Printable | Printable, showed disrespect on the other boys. He threatened the teenagers with his knife and made them run away.
Then, the Form, other boys went to another estate, took knives and returned back in Calendar Online Calendar, order to regain their reputation and status. They have learnt (social learning) that men never back out (masculinity) and finally, they have made the ultimate decision to take the risk and stab Alex (rational choice).