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In order to Lake Don Pedro Owners' make instructionally relevant observations, the observer must work from a conceptual model of Social Media Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org what the Don Pedro Owners' Board, writing process should be. Educators have reached little consensus regarding the number of steps in the writing process. Writing experts have proposed as few as two (Elbow, 1981) and as many as nine (Frank, 1979). Englert, Raphael, Anderson, Anthony, and Stevens (1991) provided a model of a five-step writing process using the Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, acronym POWER: Plan, Organize, Write, Edit, and Expert Supply Chain Professional, Revise. Each step has its own substeps and strategies that become more sophisticated as the students become more mature as writers, accommodating their style to specific text structures and purposes of writing. Assessment of the writing process can be done through observation of students as they go through the Social Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, steps of writing. Having students assess their own writing process is Lake Don Pedro Owners' Association Board also important for two reasons. First, self-assessment allows students an opportunity to observe and reflect on their own approach, drawing attention to important steps that may be overlooked. Second, self-assessment following a conceptual model like POWER is a means of internalizing an Template, explicit strategy, allowing opportunities for the student to mentally rehearse the Owners' Association Board Of Directors Meeting, strategy steps.
Figure 1 is a format for Social Template, both self-observation and teacher observation of the writing process following the POWER strategy. Similar self-assessments or observation checklists could be constructed for other conceptual models of the writing process. ____did the best I could. ____looked in a book. ____asked my partner.
____asked the teacher. Simple ways to assess the product. An effective writing process should lead to a successful product. A writing product fulfills its communicative intent if it is of appropriate length, is logical and coherent, and has a readable format. It is A Roadmap a pleasure to read if it is composed of well-constructed sentences and a rich variety of words that clearly convey the author's meaning. When various conceptual models of writing are compared side by side (Isaacson, 1984) five product variables seem to emerge: fluency, content, conventions, syntax, and vocabulary. Too often teachers focus their attention primarily on Media Tryprodermagenix.org, surface features of a student's composition related to the mechanical aspects of writing, or conventions. A balanced assessment should look at Planning: •, all five aspects of a student's writing. The following are simple methods for Social Media Strategy | |, assessing each product variable. In some instances quantifiable measures are used; in others, qualitative assessments seem more appropriate. The first writing skill a teacher might assess with a beginning writer is fluency: being able to translate one's thoughts into written words.
As concepts of print and fine motor skills develop, the student should become more proficient at writing down words and sentences into compositions of gradually increasing length. The developmental route of very young writers involves trying to understand what written language is Strategic A Roadmap To Success about as they look at books, become aware of environmental print, and put pencil to paper (Clay, 1982). Then children try to relate their experiences in writing using invented spelling. As they begin to construct little stories they explore spelling patterns and develop new language patterns. Clay (1979, 1993) recommends a simple rating scale for emerging writing skills that focuses on Social Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, language level (from only letters to sentences and paragraphs), message quality, and directional principles (Figure 2). 2. Word (any recognizable word) 3. Word group (any two-word phrase) 4. Sentence (any simple sentence) 5. Punctuated story (of two or more sentences)
6. Paragraphed story (two themes) 1. He has a concept of signs (uses letters, invents letters, used punctuation. 2. He has a concept that a message is conveyed. 3. A message is copied. 4. Repetitive use of sentence patterns such as Here is a… 5. Best Ideas | Ela? Attempts to record own ideas.
6. Media Template | |? Successful composition. 1. No evidence of directional knowledge. 2. Part of the directional pattern is known: start top left, move left to right, or return down left. 3. Reversal of the directional pattern (right to left and return down right) 4. Correct directional pattern. 5. Correct directional pattern and spaces between words.
6. Expert Senior Management Professional? Extensive text without any difficulties of arrangement and spacing of text. A simple curriculum-based measure of fluency is Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org total number of words written during a short writing assignment. Expert Supply Management? When fluency is the focus, misspellings, poor word choice, and faulty punctuation are not considered. Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org? Attention is only directed to the student's facility in translating thoughts into words. A baseline of at least three writing samples should be collected and the total number of words counted for each. Expert Senior Management Professional? For the purpose of evaluation, this total can be compared with those of proficient writers of the same age or grade level. However, total words may be used best in monitoring the student's progress, comparing performance with his or her own previous fluency. A resulting IEP objective might be written like this: After a group prewriting discussion with the Media, teacher, Daniel will write original narrative compositions of Resume Professional  words or more. A rough guideline for setting the criterion can be established from research reported by Deno, Mirkin, and Wesson (1984) and Parker and Tindal (1989): If the total number of words is less than 20, aim for doubling it by the end of the Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, school year.
If the number of • words is between 25 and 30, aim for a 50% increase. If the number of Media Strategy Template | | words is between 35 and 45, aim for a 25% increase. If the number of Lake Don Pedro Meeting words is greater than 50, choose another objective. Content is the second factor to consider in Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, the writing product. Charity And Fundraiser Post? Content features include the composition's organization, cohesion, accuracy (in expository writing), and originality (in creative writing). General questions the classroom teacher can ask regarding a composition's organization include: Is there a good beginning sentence? Is there a clear ending? Is there a logical sequence of Strategy Template subtopics or events?
Cohesion questions include: Does the writer stick to Project Resume Objective | Experience Resumes the topic? Is it clear what words like it, that, and Social Media Tryprodermagenix.org, they refer to? Does the writer use key words that cue the reader to the direction of the discourse (First… , Then… , Therefore… , On the other hand… )? Originality is assessed through questions like: Did the writer attempt humor? Did the writer present a unique point of view? Analytical scales are the best way to lend some objectivity to Writing Phoenix Professional evaluation of content. One can choose from a general rating scale, appropriate to almost any writing assignment, or one tailored to a specific genre or text structure.
Spandel and Culham (1993) developed an analytical trait scoring guide for six aspects of writing, three of which address content: Ideas and content, organization, and voice. (Voice refers to the author's own unique personality, style, and Social Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, honesty reflected in the writing.) Each of these traits is scored on a five-point scale. For example, organization is scored using the Senior Supply Chain Management Professional, following guidelines: 5 The organization enhances and showcases the central idea or storyline. The order, structure or presentation of information is compelling and moves the reader through the text. 3 The organizational structure is strong enough to Social | | move the reader through the Senior Supply, text without undue confusion 1 The writing lacks a clear sense of Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org direction. Ideas, details or events seem strung together in a loose or random fashion-or else there is no identifiable internal structure. (Spandel Culham, 1993) To promote agreement between raters, each of the guidelines above is Strategic A Roadmap further defined by specific criteria (or rubrics). A rating of 3, for example, requires these attributes: The paper has a recognizable introduction and conclusion.
The introduction may not create a strong sense of Strategy Template anticipation; the conclusion may not tie up all loose ends. Sequencing is usually logical, but may sometimes be so predictable that the structure takes attention away from the content. Pacing is fairly well controlled, though the writer sometimes spurts ahead too quickly or spends too much time on details that do not matter. Resume Services | Create? Transitions often work well; at other times, connections between ideas are fuzzy. The organization sometimes supports the Strategy Template | |, main point or storyline; at Anchor Charts On Pinterest, other times, the reader feels an urge to slip in a transition or move things around. (Spandel Culham, 1993) A composition that is Social Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org somewhat better organized than described by the guidelines for 3 but does not quite fit the Best 25+ Theme Anchor Charts Ideas On Pinterest | Ela Anchor, descriptors for 5 would receive a rating of 4. Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org? Similarly, a rating of 2 falls between the descriptors for 1 and 3. Analytical scoring guidelines such as these are used in many state writing assessments. There are two limitations to scales such as these. First, teachers must spend many hours learning the rubrics and discussing student compositions in order to establish any degree of integrater reliability.
Second, these scales may not be sensitive enough to measure growth in students with emerging literacy skills who are unable to achieve a rating above 1 or-at the Invitations Post, most-2. For many students, writing instruction begins with smaller units of discourse, such as a paragraph. Welch and Link (1992) recommended an informal paragraph assessment that focuses on each of a paragraph's three parts: topic sentence, supporting sentences, and clincher sentence (Figure 3). Each part can receive a point for its existence, its form (grammatical correctness), and its function (relevance to the topic). Both topic sentence and clincher sentence can earn only one point for each of the three criteria, but up to three supporting sentences can be scored for existence, form, and function. This scale could be used to evaluate almost any kind of paragraph. Source: Welch, M. Link, D.P. (1992) Informal assessment of paragraph composition. Intervention in Social Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, School and Clinic, 27(3), 145-149. The large cactus you see in pictures the desert is saguaro cactus. The Squaro cactus is very painfull if you toutch it.
But it isn't as painful as being stabbed with a knife. It is against Anchor Charts On Pinterest the law kill saguaros in the desert. I have seen som with about therty arms. Writing instruction for students with special needs also may focus on specific text structures. An example of a structure-specific scale is one that Isaacson (1995) devised for evaluating factual paragraphs written by middle school students (Figure 4). Isaacson's scale reflects the conceptual definition of fact paragraphs taught to the students: (a) A fact paragraph has more than one sentence; (b) The first sentence tells the Template Tryprodermagenix.org, topic; (c) All other sentences are about the topic; (d) Sentences tell facts, not opinions; and (e) The most important information is given first.
Judgments of factual accuracy and fact vs. Strategic Planning: A Roadmap? opinion make the scale specific to factual paragraphs. 1 = Some facts are questionable (content not covered in Strategy Template | |, source material. 2 = All facts seem accurate. 1 = Sufficient information is provided. 1 = Some improvement possible. 2 = Clear, logical order. Harris and Graham (1992) provided another example of a structure-explicit measure for assessing the inclusion and Strategic Planning: A Roadmap, quality of eight story elements in stories written by students with learning disabilities: introduction of the main character, description of the locale, the time in Social Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, which the story takes place, a precipitating event (or starter event), the goal formulated by the character in response to the starter event, action(s) carried out in an attempt to achieve the goal, the ending result, and the final reaction of the main character to the outcome. Each story element receives a numerical score for its inclusion and quality of development.
The validity of the scale was demonstrated by its correlation with Thematic Maturity scores on the Test of Written Language and Invitations, holistic ratings of story quality (Graham Harris, 1986). A resulting IEP objective for content might read: Using a story map, John will plan, write, and revise a story which includes a description of the character, setting, problem or goal, two or more events, and Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, conclusion. (A story map is a planning sheet that prompts students to Resume Writing Services Phoenix | Create think about and write down their ideas concerning the character, setting, and other components of a good story before they write.) In order to fulfill the communicative function of writing, the product must be readable. Writers are expected to follow the standard conventions of Social Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org written English: correct spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar and legible handwriting. Consequently, even if the Project Resumes, message is communicated, readers tend to be negatively predisposed to compositions that are not presentable in their form or appearance.
Teachers traditionally have been more strongly influenced by Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org length of paper, spelling, word usage, and And Fundraiser Post, appearance than by appropriateness of content or organization (Charney, 1984; Moran, 1982). Counting correct word sequences is one quantitative method of measuring and monitoring students' use of conventions. Correct word sequences (CWS) are two adjacent, correctly spelled words that are grammatically acceptable within the context of the phrase (Videen, Deno, Marston, 1982). Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org? Capitalization and punctuation also can be considered within the sequence. To calculate the proportion of CWS: Place a caret (^) over every correct sequence between the Best Anchor Charts On Pinterest | Ela, two words that form the sequence. Place a large dot between every incorrect sequence. Place dots before and after misspelled words. Example: o my ^ dog o chasd o the ^ ball^. The first sequence is not comprised of two words but marks how the sentence was begun. (Sentence beginning to first word my is marked as an Social Strategy Template, incorrect sequence because the M is not capitalized.) The last sequence is the last word to period, question mark, or other appropriate ending punctuation. To control for length of composition either (a) time the writing sample for 3 minutes (the student may continue writing after a mark is made indicating the last word written in the 3-minute period) and/or (b) divide the number of CWS by the total number of sequences (correct and Owners' Meeting, incorrect), which gives the proportion of Media Strategy | | CWS.
Proportion of correct word sequences, however, does not in itself pinpoint specific concerns about the student's spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, or handwriting. The diagnostic function of assessment will only be met if the teacher also notes the student's strengths and Chain Professional, weaknesses as in Figure 5. About Sell My Cow. I go to the Ranch at 5:30 in morning. I Ride my Horse with My Dad. Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org? get my Cow in the Barn. I Leave My cow and Calf.
My DaD gave Shot to Calf. We took My Calf to Downtown. My fReind ride my horse. Don Pedro Owners' Association Of Directors? My horse is Black. My freind have red horse. But I need my cow to Born in feB 1st 1992. I am sell my Cow to Media calf for Services Phoenix Arizona Professional, town But I have fun in Media | |, Ranch in town. But I Like my money Back to for sell my Calf.
But I need money Back to me. My Dad Siad no money back now Wait to little to me. Like the other assessments discussed in this article, these methods can be useful for instructional planning. A resulting IEP objective addressing conventions, for example, might read: Using a 4-step editing strategy, Kevin will reread his composition checking for correct capitals, punctuation, spelling, and overall appearance, writing a final draft with 2 or less mechanical errors. As discussed previously, a child's early attempts at writing move from writing single words to writing word groups and Resume Arizona, sentences (Clay, 1993).
Beginning writers often produce sentences that follow a repeated subject-verb (S-V) or subject-verb-object (S-V-O) pattern. The composition in Figure 5 was written by a ten-year-old female deaf student. The beginning of the composition reveals this typical repetitious pattern to a certain degree in its first few sentences: I go… I Ride my Horse… [I] get my Cow… I Leave My cow… A more mature writer will vary the sentence pattern and combine short S-V and S-V-O sentences into longer, more complex sentences. Powers and Wilgus (1983) examined three parameters of syntactic maturity: (a) variations in the use of sentence patterns, (b) first expansions (six basic sentence patterns formed by Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org the addition of adverbial phrases, infinitives, and object complements, and Strategic Planning: A Roadmap, the formation of simple compound sentences), and (c) transformations that result in relative and Social Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, subordinate clauses. Adapting Power and Wilgus's analysis of patterns suggests a simple schema for evaluating the syntactic maturity of a student's writing: Fragment : A group of words that does not make a complete sentence. Examples: His old shirt. Nina and Fred too. Level 1 Repetitious use of a single pattern (simple sentences)
Example: I like my horse. I like my dog. A Roadmap To Success •? I like my kitty. Media | |? I like to feed my kitty. Level 2 Use of a variety of simple sentence patterns. Examples: I have a new toy. (S-V-O) It is big. (S-Vbe -Adj) It came in the mail. (S-V-PP) Level 3 First expansions: (a) addition of an Resume Writing Services | Create, adverbial or gerund phrase, or (b) the making of a compound sentence by combining two simple sentences with the word and.
Examples: Our baby sitter sleeps all the time. To go faster, we push it. I ate the cookie and my brother ate the candy bar. Level 4 Complex sentences (transformations in which one sentence is embedded within another as a subordinate clause) Examples: The man wants to live where there is Social Strategy Template | | no pollution.
Since John was late, we had to start without him. Seldom does a student write sentences at only one level of syntactic maturity. One determines a syntactic level by analyzing all the sentences in the sample and A Roadmap, summarizing them according to the type most often used. Occasionally one might characterize a student's syntactic level as being a transitional Level 2/Level 3 or Level 3/Level 4. A resulting IEP objective for syntax might read: Daniel will plan, write, and revise a descriptive paragraph using mature sentences, at least half containing embedded clauses or adverbial phrases. The words used in Social Media Strategy Template, a student's composition can be evaluated according to Services Phoenix | Create the uniqueness or maturity of the words used in the composition. Social Media? Both quantitative and qualitative methods can be used to evaluate vocabulary. Quantitative methods include calculating the use of unrepeated words in relation to the total number of words, such as Morris and Crump's (1982) corrected type-token ratio. A simpler classroom-based method of 25+ Theme Charts Ideas | Ela Anchor looking at vocabulary is to simply make note of words used repetitiously (over-used words) as well as new and mature words the student uses.
Example: Over-Used Words: New Mature Words. A resulting IEP objective for vocabulary might read: Diana will revise her expository compositions, substituting at least five over-used words (e.g., is) for Media Template, more interesting action words. Being skilled is not just knowing how to 25+ Theme Anchor Ideas On Pinterest | Ela Anchor perform some action but also knowing when to perform it and adapt it to varied circumstances (Resnick Klopfer, 1989, p. 4). Being a skilled writer requires knowing how to employ the writing process across a range of writing tasks and adapt the process to the specific purpose for writing. Instruction often begins with story structures because they represent the genre most familiar to Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org children. Children also use and depend upon Writing Services, narrative as their principal mode of thinking (Moffett, 1983). However, several educators (Hennings, 1982; Sinatra, 1991; Stotsky, 1984) have called for more emphasis on descriptive and Social Strategy, expository text structures which relate more closely to real life writing tasks.
Different purposes for writing call for different text structures. Writing a story calls for a narrative text structure that includes a character, setting, problem, etc. Lake Board Of Directors Meeting? Writing about one's beliefs calls for a persuasive text structure that includes discussion of the problem, statement of Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org belief, two or three reasons for the belief, facts and examples that support the reasons, etc. Assessment of writing skills, therefore, should take into account a variety of purposes and text structures. Lake Don Pedro Owners' Meeting? Purposes and genres to consider include: personal narrative (my trip to the state fair), story narrative, descriptive, explanation of a process (how to Social Media Strategy give your dog a bath), factual report, letter, compare-contrast (compare the Allegheny Mountains with the Rocky Mountains), and persuasive.
Simple curriculum-based assessments can be used to assess the writing process and products of students with learning disabilities, as well as take into account purpose. The assessments recommended in this article also adequately fulfill the Lake Don Pedro Owners' Association Board Of Directors, purposes of assessment as discussed at the beginning of the article: identifying strengths and weaknesses, planning instruction to fit diagnosed needs, evaluating instructional activities, giving feedback, monitoring performance, and reporting progress. A teacher might use these methods at the beginning of the year to Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org do a quick sizing-up of Resume Arizona | Create Professional student instructional needs. The process checklist in Social Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, Figure 1 gives the teacher important diagnostic information about the strategies a student does or does not use when writing. A quick assessment of product variables from the first two or three writing assignments also gives the teacher important diagnostic information about skill strengths and weaknesses. The teacher then should use the initial assessment to identify instructional targets.
Some students, for example, may do pretty well at planning their composition, but do little in the way of Manager Objective | Experience effective editing. Other students may have creative ideas, but need considerable work on conventions. Some students may do pretty well with writing stories, but need to Social Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org learn how to write factual paragraphs. All classroom-based assessment should involve the Invitations - Paperless, student. Social Strategy Template | |? Self-assessment helps students take ownership for their own writing and helps them internalize the strategies they are learning.
The teacher's feedback should be given judiciously: generous in the encouragement of ideas and improved skills, but cautious in correction. Corrective feedback should only focus on those few skill targets that have been addressed in instruction. Simple classroom-based methods also can be used to Project Objective Resumes monitor student performance and report progress. Figure 6 is an Social Template | |, assessment summary sheet that could be used to give a profile of a student's skills across a variety of writing purposes and genres. In an assessment portfolio the A Roadmap To Success, summary sheet would be accompanied by representative samples of a student's writing with both the student's and teacher's evaluations. After an Template, initial assessment of student strengths and weakness across fluency, content, conventions, syntax, and Charity And Fundraiser - Paperless Post, vocabulary, the teacher would not necessarily need to monitor all the product factors, just those that focus on the student's greatest challenges and priority instructional objectives. In conclusion, on-going assessment of writing is integral to | | effective teaching of writing. A teacher cannot make an appropriate instructional match between a student's skills and appropriate tasks without assessment. A teacher cannot ensure a student's success and make necessary adjustments in instruction without engaging in frequent assessment. Careful, thorough assessment of a student's writing requires that the teacher have a sound conceptual model of written expression taking into account process, product, and purpose.
Click the References link above to hide these references. Airasian, P. W. (1996). Assessment in the classroom. New York: McGraw-Hill. Charney, D. (1984). The validity of using holistic scoring to evaluate writing: A critical overview. Research in the Teaching of English, 18, 65-81. Christenson, S. L., Ysseldyke, J. E., Thurlow, M. Supply Chain Management? L. Social Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org? (1989). Critical instructional factors for Best 25+ Theme Charts On Pinterest | Ela Anchor, students with mild handicaps: An integrative review.
Remedial and Special Education, 10, 21-31. Clay, M. M. (1979). The early detection of reading difficulties: A diagnostic survey with recovery procedures (2nd ed.). Auckland New Zealand: Heinemann. Clay, M. M. (1982). Learning and teaching writing: A developmental perspective. Social | |? Language Arts, 59, 65-70. Clay, M. M. (1993). An observation survey of early literacy achievement. Auckland New Zealand: Heinemann. Deno, S., Mirkin, P. Strategic A Roadmap •? K., Wesson, C. (1984).
How to Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org write effective data-based IEPs. Don Pedro Board Of Directors? Teaching Exceptional Children, 16, 99-104. Elbow, P. (1981). Writing with power: Techniques for mastering the Social Strategy Template, writing process. New York: Oxford University Press. Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. Owners' Association Board Of Directors? E., Anderson, L. M., Anthony, H. M., Stevens, D. D. (1991). Making strategies and self-talk visible: Writing instruction in Social Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org, regular and - Paperless, special education classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 337-372. Frank, M. (1979).
If you're trying to teach kids how to write, you've gotta have this book! Nashville, TN: Incentive Publications. Graham, S., Harris, K. (April, 1986). Improving learning disabled students' compositions via story grammar training: A component analysis of self-control strategy training. Social Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco. Harris, K. R., Graham, S. (1992). Helping young writers master the Planning: A Roadmap, craft: Strategy instruction self-regulation in the writing process. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. Hennings, D. G. Template Tryprodermagenix.org? (1982). Manager Resume Resumes? A writing approach to reading comprehension - schema theory in action. Language Arts, 59, 8-17.
Isaacson, S. (1984). Evaluating written expression: Issues of reliability, validity, and instructional utility. Diagnostique, 9, 96-116. Isaacson, S. (February, 1995). Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org? A comparison of alternative procedures for evaluating written expression.
Paper presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference, Laguna Beach, California. Moffett, J. (1983). Teaching the universe of discourse. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Moran, M. R. (1982). Analytical evaluation of formal written language skills as a diagnostic procedure. Diagnostique, 8 17-31. Morris, N. Project Manager Resume Resumes? T., Crump, D. T. (1982). Syntactic and Social, vocabulary development in the written language of learning-disabled and non-learning-disabled students at four age levels. Learning Disability Quarterly, 5, 163-172.
Parker, R., Tindal. G. (1989). Lake Don Pedro Association Of Directors Meeting? Progress monitoring with direct, objective writing assessment for middle school students in special education (Resource Consultant Training Program Research Report No. 1). Eugene, OR. University of Oregon, Special Education Area. Powers, A. R., Wilgus, S. (1983). Linguistic complexity in the written language of hearing-impaired children. Volta Review, 85, 201-210. Resnick, L. B., Klopfer, L. E. (1989). Toward the thinking curriculum: An overview.
In L. B. Resnick L. E. Klopfer (Eds.), Toward the Social Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, thinking curriculum: Current cognitive research (1989 Yearbook of the Manager Resume Objective Resumes, Association for Social Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, Supervision and Curriculum Development). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Sinatra, R. (1991). Integrating whole language with the learning of text structure. Phoenix Arizona | Create? Journal of Reading, 34, 424-433. Spandel, V., Culham, R. (1993). Analytical trait scoring guide.
Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Stotsky, S. Media Template | |? (1984). Commentary: A proposal for improving high school students' ability to read and write expository prose. Journal of Reading, 28, 4-7. Videen, J., Deno, S., Marston, D. Project Manager Resume | Experience? (1982). Correct word sequences: A valid indicator of Social Media | | proficiency in written expression (Research Report No. 84). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities. Welch, M., Link, D. P. (1992). And Fundraiser Post? Informal assessment of paragraph composition.
Intervention in School and Clinic, 27(3), 145-149. Stephen L. Isaacson Portland State University This article is adapted for LD OnLine from a similar article by Isaacson published in The Volta Review, 1996, Vol. 98, No. 1, pp. 183-199. The note you developed is vital to realize the Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, fact related to assess writing. Expert Supply Chain Professional? My interest is to know more about the effect of task authenticity on Social Media Tryprodermagenix.org, students' writing performance.
Besides, what do we mean by when we say writing performance? What are the indicators of Best Anchor Ideas | Ela this performance? can we say accuracy, fluency appropriateness and Media Strategy Template | |, complexity? I want to get a clear demarcation. if you are willing please send me your information about the mentioned points via [email protected] Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on July 10, 2013 - 7:08am. realy i learn alot from this article it is very benificial and function i think its very rich resoure for resourse room teachers thank you. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 12, 2013 - 5:49am. Very explicit and specific.
Submitted by Cassie R (not verified) on Manager Objective | Experience Resumes, March 8, 2014 - 5:43am. Find the best apps for Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, building literacy skills. Pinpoint the problem a struggling reader is having and Project Manager Resume Objective, discover ways to help. What parents, teachers and child care providers need to know. Watch or listen to our classroom video, author interviews and Strategy Template | |, more. Real questions from 25+ Theme Anchor On Pinterest | Ela Anchor parents and educators, answered by Strategy Template experts. Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of research-based reading strategies, lessons, and activities designed to help young children learn how to Lake Don Pedro Owners' Association Of Directors read and read better. Social Media Strategy Template | |? Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and other educators in helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills.
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The Ethics of Media Strategy Lying: One Humanist’s View. EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the second of a three-part series on the morality of lying. Our first post came yesterday from Deacon Jim Russell . Today, we hear from atheist blogger James Croft . Manager Resume Objective Resumes! And tomorrow we'll hear from Patheos Catholic blogger Leah Libresco . The UK's Guardian newspaper once relayed a well-known Broadway legend regarding a theatrical version of Anne Frank's diary: When the play was revived in New York some years back its lead actress, Pia Zadora, was frankly not adequate in the title role. So poor was she that one exasperated theatregoer, when the Nazi troops finally invaded the Frank family's hiding place, allegedly cried out: She's in the attic! This legenda favorite of my father, who joyfully retells it after almost every terrible theatrical performance we seeneatly highlights the Social Media Strategy, difficulty of devising a simple rule to 25+ Theme Anchor Ideas On Pinterest | Ela Anchor, govern the ethics of lying. Social Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org! It seems intuitively clear that the audience memberhowever we might sympathize with their plightwere they in Lake Don Pedro Association Board Of Directors the position to actually reveal Anne Frank's location to the Nazi troops, would have done a clear moral wrong by condemning someone to death, even though they told the truth . In such a situationwhen telling the truth to Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, those who mean another harm would lead to Phoenix Arizona | Create, terrible harm being causedit seems obviously wicked to say that lying (in the commonly-used sense of Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org purposefully not telling the truth) would be morally wrong. The ethics of lying are complex, and the view of St. Charity And Fundraiser - Paperless Post! Augustine as glossed by Deacon Jimthat all spoken falsehood with intention to deceive is immoralseems immediately inadequate.
Deacon Jim, intriguingly using Star Trek , a Humanist 'scripture', as his starting point, raises similar complexities in his piece. He points out Social Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org that, For two thousand years, the Phoenix Arizona, Catholic Church has left this question somewhat unsettled: whether or not all falsehoods spoken with the intention to deceive are immoral acts of lying. Humanists are quite happy with unsettled questions of this sort. Strategy Template | |! The Humanist approach to Objective Resumes, morals and ethics does not seek to offer a set of settled rules for conduct which will guide a person easily through every quandary. Recognizing the complexity of our moral lives, and the infinite potential situations which might be faced by any given person, or by a society, Humanists prefer to construct robust moral and ethical principles to guide action, and are quite unsurprised when these principles collide in Media Strategy | | interesting and challenging ways. There are principled reasons to avoid ethical dictums which the idea of settling ethical questions brings to Strategic Planning: A Roadmap To Success, my mind: consider, for Media, instance, the extraordinary harm which has been caused by the Catholic insistence that artificial forms contraception not be used. As our technology, our conceptions of human sexuality, and our knowledge regarding how diseases can be spread through sex have all advanced, this teaching should certainly be revised, but its status as a settled ethical issue prevents progress and causes significant suffering. Seeking to settle the question of lyingby determining some fixed rubric by which we would decide whether, for instance, (to use Deacon Jim's example) all falsehoods spoken with intention to deceive are immoral acts of “lying,” or notwould, in a similar way, be to deny the inherent complexity of human relationships and to close down opportunities for future growth in our moral and ethical understanding. The position of judgment Catholics are placed in by the unsettled nature of Catholic teaching regarding lying is a good positionit's the position we should be in Association Board regarding all judgments which affect others (I will leave aside the highly dubious claim that The Church completely recognizes and respects the rights of conscience of its Catholic members). Having said this, what might be broad moral and ethical principles which should guide human conduct in Strategy Template this area? I think Deacon Jim gives us a way to approach this question when he raises what he calls the 'societal' or 'common-good' aspect of truth-telling:
The stability of human society really depends on the good will that ought to Strategic Planning:, exist among individuals, and Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org that common good can only be realized by truthfulness. While I certainly agree that many other societal goods depend on good will between members of a community, there is good reason to And Fundraiser Invitations, doubt that common good can only Social Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, be realized by truthfulness. Indeed, the Strategic A Roadmap •, apocryphal anecdote with which I began speaks against this view: the audience member imagining themselves to Media | |, be revealing Anne Frank's location, though speaking truthfully, is not promoting the common good or improving good will between members of the society. Rather, their truth-telling breaks down the fabric of social trust required for communities to operate to the good of their members. How so? Because good will is a more expansive and complex concept than truthfulness. And sometimesperhaps oftenwe demonstrate our good will toward others by not telling the truth . Project Manager Resume Objective! This is perhaps why the Social Strategy | |, Eighth Commandment charges people not to bear false witness, rather than simply never to lie: it is the harm caused to another by Best 25+ Theme Anchor Charts Ideas | Ela, lying which is the object of primary condemnation, and Media Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org often we will demonstrate more good will toward our neighbor by Charity And Fundraiser Invitations - Paperless, being equivocal (rather than ruthless) with the truth.
Ultimately, to Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, live happily in society among others, we do not want to Invitations - Paperless, live with ruthless truth-tellers who always tell the full truth regardless of Media Strategy any contextual factors. Rather, we want to live beside people who have our good in A Roadmap To Success • mind, and Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org who act to maximize our goodeven though this may lead them to be equivocal with the truth at times. Humanists accept the many ethical complexities such a position places us in, and recognize that all ethical reasoningjust like the Catholic position on lyingis ultimately a work in progress. Felix Adler's ethical maxim should be the | Experience, guiding principle, not some ossified rule regarding truth-telling: “Act so as to elicit the best in others, and Media thereby in Expert Supply Professional thyself.”
James Croft is a candidate for an Ed.D in Human Development and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE). He works alongside Greg Epstein as Research and Education Fellow at the Humanist Community at Harvard, trying to create a true Humanist fellowship in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org! James is an experienced actor and singer, having performed in many locations around the world. A committed Humanist and Services Arizona | Create a Humanist Celebrant, he's also an Assistant Editor at Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, The New Humanism and a Contributing Scholar for State of Formation. His blog at Patheos is Ideas On Pinterest | Ela Anchor titled Temple of the Future . Note: Our goal is to cultivate serious and respectful dialogue.
While it's OK to disagreeeven encouraged!any snarky, offensive, or off-topic comments will be deleted. Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org! Before commenting please read the Commenting Rules and Tips . If you're having trouble commenting, read the Commenting Instructions . Only thing I would criticize in this would be that I would say humanist principles do guide us through all complex situations, but they don't always provide clear paths. In other words, the principles are not abandoned in difficult circumstances. In contrast, one would expect followers of the just and Expert Supply Management Professional true God to Social Template Tryprodermagenix.org, be able to do better. That the Project Resume Objective, infallible church would not need to | |, take 2000 years to interpret the eighth commandment. Resume Writing | Create! That it does not is by no means proof the god is fake, but it is Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org another missed opportunity for the God to prove himself.
That the infallible church would not need to Strategic To Success, take 2000 years to interpret the eighth commandment. This is a quibble, since I agree there is something remarkable about a basic question remaining open in the Catholic Church for 2000 years. It seems to me pointless and wrongheaded to try to cram all moral precepts into the Ten Commandments. You shall not bear false witness against Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, your neighbor did not prohibit all lying when it was promulgated, and Best 25+ Theme Anchor Charts Ideas | Ela it doesn't today. You're right. Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org! But Christian belief usually places lying as so incredibly bad that God could never ever do it, he couldn't even want to. This is unlike killing in which God often does it and Best On Pinterest | Ela helps others in. There seems to be something about lying that they need it to be completely banned but recognize this is also immoral to not lie in all circumstances. In my opinion, in the story of Adam and Eve, God does not tell Adam the truth about eating from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Social Media Strategy | | Evil. And Fundraiser Invitations - Paperless! The serpent tells the truth, and after Adam and Eve eat the Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, forbidden fruit, God confirms what the serpent said word for word.
I agree and the equivocation from apologists on death is ridiculous. There is a Reasonable Doubts episode where they try to Supply Management, show where God has lied or condones lying. The response from theists is illuminating. You're gonna have to explain this one. You're gonna have to explain this one. It is Social Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org plain as day right there in Genesis 3. But the serpent said to the woman: You certainly will not die! No, God knows well that the moment you eat of it your eyes will be opened and you will be like gods who know what is good and what is Senior Supply Management bad. Adam and Eve don't die.
And God echoes the serpent's very words, saying, See! The man has become like one of us, knowing what is Template | | good and what is bad! To assume that what God meant was that Adam and Eve would die someday if they ate from the tree is necessarily to assume that Adam and Eve were either created immortal or were going to be allowed to eat from the Tree of Senior Supply Professional Life. But that is nowhere in Social Media Strategy Template | | the text. The Christian interpretation is that the sin of Adam and Eve brought death into the world, but that is certainly not in Writing Services Phoenix | Create Professional Genesis. Any person who reads Genesis 3 will have to interpret it. I have to reject any interpretation which attributes a lie to Media Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, God and truth telling to the serpent. ..necessarily to A Roadmap •, assume that Adam and Eve were either created immortal. If they were in fact initially created immortal, but died someday and brought death into the world because they ate from the tree, in Social Strategy Template | | your mind what are some of the challenges this would pose, i.e. how would it show God to have lied?
I think it is interesting to Invitations Post, contrast the issue of lying as an open question in Catholicism with the issue of contraception, which many would consider to be settled and final (although I personally don't think Humanae Vitae comes close to Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, being infallible by the criteria set by the Church for | Experience, infallible pronouncements). The absolutist position on Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, contraception seems to Expert Supply Professional, me to Social Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org, be very similar to the absolutist position on Expert Senior, lying. The position on contraception is that sex is for reproduction and anything that gets in the way of its reproductive purpose renders it immoral. The absolutist position on lying is that speech is for communicating the truth, and anything that gets in the way of its purpose of Social Template | | communicating truth renders it immoral. These absolutist positions strike me as being illustrations of the 25+ Theme Charts Ideas | Ela Anchor, principle, Man was made for the law, not the law for man.
I just wanted to Social Media | |, clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for Chain Professional, reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well. Template Tryprodermagenix.org! you cannot take one without distorting the other. This is why the church is against both in Project Resume | Experience vitro fertilization and contraception. One tries to achieve reproduction without uniting the husband and wife in Social Media Strategy the sexual act, and Charity Invitations Post the other tries to remove the gift of giving oneself to the other fully and be open to participating in God's creation in order to pleasure oneself. There is a difference in Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org that matter, and that is the church gives us solutions to the problem of contraception. Abstinence is seen as impossible in today's culture, which is not true.
I just wanted to clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for Planning: A Roadmap •, reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well. I agree that is what the Church teaches, which is why I said sex is for Media Template, reproduction, not sex is only for reproduction. For a very long time in the Church, the unitive purpose of sex was not recognized, and someone as influential as St. Augustine said. It is one thing to lie together with the Association Of Directors, sole will of generating: this has no fault. It is Media Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org another to Best 25+ Theme Anchor Charts Ideas | Ela, seek the pleasure of flesh in Social Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org lying, although within the Expert Supply Professional, limits of marriage, this has venial fault. To attempt to derive pleasure from sex, even for married people, was a sin. This is not, of course, the Social Media, position of the Lake Of Directors Meeting, Church today. Nevertheless, it seems to me that all the rules about sex in Catholicism are about sex within marriage being procreative.
I am not aware of any encyclical or major Church document that is to the unitive nature of sex what Humanae Vitae is to the procreative nature. For a very long time in the Church, the unitive purpose of sex was not recognized. To attempt to derive pleasure from Media Strategy, sex, even for married people, was a sin. David, your interpretation of St. Augustine doesn't quite prove what you claim about the Church not recognizing unitive purposes way back when. Resume Services Phoenix Arizona! His statement on the manner can be interpreted to be in accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to merely seek the pleasure of flesh using the Social Strategy | |, other. In other words, yes, it is still a sin to objectify anyone - even a spouse.
St. And Fundraiser Invitations! Augustine seems to be making distinctions of culpability. His statement on Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, the manner can be interpreted to be in accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to merely seek the pleasure of flesh using the other. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in sexual intercourse for Lake Don Pedro Association, pleasure as long as they leave the Social Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, sex act open to procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. There is Don Pedro Board Of Directors Meeting nothing in Media Strategy the quote I reproduced to indicate that Augustine was talking of Strategic Planning: one partner seeking pleasure by using the other. You are forcing an interpretation on the quote to try to make it consistent with contemporary thought. I am not sure why you find that necessary. Augustine is Media Strategy a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in Charity And Fundraiser - Paperless harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the Strategy Template | |, sex act open to procreation.
As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. . in Augustine's opinion. But this has never been the A Roadmap To Success, official teaching of the Catholic Church. In an effort to accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of every major theologian, even her more gifted. In an effort to accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the Strategy | |, Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of every major theologian, even her more gifted ones. You seem to be objecting to what I said, but what you are saying is precisely the point I made! I said:
Augustine is a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is Post completely. unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in Social Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. As I understand it, Catholic married couples today are mostly free to sexually reproduce (a biological process which is Planning: A Roadmap • prefaced by sexual intercourse). We know that sexual intercourse is sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved. The point is that the natural purpose of sexual intercourse is sexual reproduction - a purpose which is not to be severed from the act that achieves it. You are forcing an interpretation on the quote to try to Social Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org, make it consistent with contemporary thought. I am not sure why you find that necessary. Augustine is a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching.
No more than you are forcing an interpretation on the quote to make it inconsistent with contemporary thought. I found it necessary in order to show that your quote doesn't necessarily prove what you claim. I do agree about the harmony thing. So yes, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything some towering figure said. If you recall, you tried to use Augustine's quote to show that the Church in Augustine's time did not recognize unitive purposes of sexual intercourse.
If we agree that not everything needs to be harmonized (and then you suggest that this statement by Augustine fits that condition), one cannot claim that the Church did not recognize unitive purposes in Augustine's time, only Resume Services Phoenix Arizona, that Augustine did not: for Augustine is not the Church! In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of Social Media Strategy Template today. So without any further information, are we agreeing that St. Augustine may have been at odds with the Church's past recognition on this matter? We know that sexual intercourse is Don Pedro Owners' Association Board Of Directors sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved. Sexual intercourse is only sometimes —and maybe only rarely —pleasurable? Really? So without any further information, are we agreeing that St.
Augustine may have been at odds with the Church's past recognition on Social Media, the pleasure vs generation issue? St. Strategic A Roadmap! Augustine died in 430 A.D. I think it probably wouldn't even make sense to claim that the Church in the 5th century had an Media Strategy Template | |, official position on the relationship between the unitive and procreative purposes of sex. Supply Management! I think it is fair to say (and universally acknowledged) that St. Augustine's views on sex were very influential, and that Augustine believed that sex for pleasure, even for Social Media, married couples, was sinful (but not seriously so—that is, not a mortal sin). It is only in the 20th century that the Church began making official pronouncements on such teachings. Pius XII in Casti Connubii officially recognized a unitive purpose for marital sex, and he regarded it as secondary to procreation. Catholic thought developed further between then and now, to the point where the procreative and unitive purposes are both essential. So, in brief, I would say no, St.
Augustine wasn't at odds with the Chain Professional, early Church on the matter of sexuality. He was in on the ground floor in shaping the Church's view on sexuality. But his idea that in marriage, sex for pleasure (but open to procreation) is sinful is against Catholic teaching. Sexual intercourse is only sometimes—and maybe onlyrarely—pleasurable? Really? I do not recall using the term, only, but even if we substitute sometimes with often the implication is still achieved: that sexual intercourse need not be pleasurable to achieve sexual reproduction. I'm sorry if I wasn't clear. Perhaps it would be more clear if instead of pleasure I would say sexual gratification?
I suppose some pleasure (happy to be pregnant) could be derived in Social Media the consequences of Best Ideas On Pinterest | Ela sexual intercourse that was not sexually gratifying. I'm trying not to equivocate so bear with me. It is only in the 20th century that the Church began making official pronouncements on such teachings. I appreciate you sharing your historical knowledge. I now understand that by sharing what St. Augustine thought on unitive purposes you support your claim that the Template | |, Church didn't always officially teach what She teaches now. (Presumably we agree that by 25+ Theme Anchor Ideas On Pinterest Anchor, no means in this case would this be contradictory given organic development of Social Media Strategy Template doctrine.) But his idea that in marriage, sex for pleasure (but open to procreation) is sinful is against Catholic teaching.
This speaks to my original point that his quote doesn't necessarily prove your claim: your parenthetical, but open to procreation is not in the original quote by St. Owners' Association Of Directors Meeting! Augustine. I maintain there is Social Media Template exegetical cushion to 25+ Theme Anchor | Ela Anchor, harmonize his ideas with. 20th century teachings, even if the Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, harmonization isn't completely necessary. This isn't to deny your interpretation that it could be opposed to. 20th century teaching, only that it could go both ways without affecting the development of the current teaching as you stated it. I maintain there is exegetical cushion to harmonize his ideas with.
20th century teachings, even if the harmonization isn't completely necessary. I think what you are saying is that if someone is clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to say about the sinfulness of deliberately deriving pleasure from sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the way he sounds, and Resume Writing Phoenix Arizona that his views are fully consistent with the view that developed in the 20th century that the Template Tryprodermagenix.org, procreative and unitive purposes of To Success sex are co-equal. I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at harmonization, although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to try to demonstrate someone from the Strategy | |, fifth century, because he is 25+ Theme Anchor Charts Ideas | Ela Anchor a great saint, had a 21st-century view of Social Template sex and marriage. The Church has never claimed the infallibility of the saints, and I think such exercises in Services Arizona | Create trying to make long-dead saints in the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. It is Media one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes. It is quite another thing to claim no important Catholic of the past every held a view that is now no longer accepted.
I think what you are saying is Strategic To Success • that if someone is Social Media clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an Expert Senior Supply Chain, argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to say about the sinfulness of Social Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org deliberately deriving pleasure from sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the way he sounds. David, the issue between us is that you are convinced you are interpreting him correctly and | Create Professional then accuse me of interpreting him as though it's some huge stretch to interpret him in harmony with current Church teaching. The fact that St. Augustine said sole will regarding generation makes me believe he wanted to carry that context when he contrasted sexual intercourse for pleasure. The way it sounds to me is obviously not the way it sounds to you; the difference is that you think you interpret him correctly, and I think either of our interpretations are reasonable.
I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at harmonization. I didn't know we were talking about the attempts of others. . although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to try to demonstrate someone from the fifth century, because he is a great saint, had a 21st-century view of Social Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org sex and marriage. Although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is Senior Supply Management necessary to demonstrate that someone from the fifth century had a 5th century view of Social Tryprodermagenix.org sex and marriage. Would you like to keep playing that game or do you want to actually add to the discussion?
Please refrain from assuming that you know what my intentions are. The Church has never claimed the infallibility of the saints. and I think such exercises in trying to make long-dead saints in the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. Ok, but weren't we simply talking about one view of one saint? Besides, I already agreed that it wasn't necessary to harmonize a particular view, just showing that your interpretation isn't the only possible explanation. It is one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes. Objective | Experience Resumes! It is quite another thing to claim no important Catholic of the Social Media, past every held a view that is now no longer accepted. Are you attributing these claims to me? I deny that I have made or hold to such claims.
Are you attributing these claims to me? No, I am not attributing any particular claims to you. | Ela! But there is among some Catholics a tendency to want to homogenize the complete history of the Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, Church and argue that there have never been changes of any significance from the time of the apostles to the present. For example, although sacramental theology took well over a thousand years to develop into the form we recognize today, I have been in Lake Don Pedro Board discussions in which people have insisted that Augustine thought of marriage as a sacrament the Social Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org, way we think of Post it today. That is Social Media Strategy simply not true. Strategic Planning: A Roadmap •! The concept of sacrament was very different Augustine's time (5th century) than it was in Aquinas's (13th century).
It is | | just mistaken to read the Manager Resume, sacramental theology of the 21st or the 13th century back into Augustine's writings of the 5th century. I don't think it makes much sense to Media Strategy Template, continue this without going much more deeply into Augustine's thoughts on sex and marriage than plucking a few quotes here and there. I do not pretend to be an Strategic To Success, expert on the life and thought of Aquinas, but it is my opinion that if we could send, say, Benedict XVI back to the 5th century in a time machine to Social Media Template, discuss marriage and sexuality, there would be some rather fundamental disagreements between them. As you say, it should be no surprise that even one of the greatest minds in the Church who lived in the 5th century would have a 5th century understanding of marriage and sex. Befitting of a positive note on which we end this discussion: St. Augustine, pray for us. I cannot help but bring up Jacob and Esau.
Jacob clearly lies to Isaac in order for personal gain. This deception is Expert Supply Chain rewarded and Social | | Jacob goes on to be immensely rewarded. What possible good moral point could there be in this story? I am still only up to Exodus, but this story was one that was incredibly confounding. Was lying for Lake Association Board Of Directors, personal gain okay then? Both you and St. Augustine have had to Social Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, struggle with the Jacob/Esau story. Indeed, in Augustine's case I don't think he ever adequately addressed it--rather, he had already made up his mind about never being able to lie and Writing Phoenix then could only Social Template | |, conclude that some greater and prophetic truth was served by the deception of Jacob, basically. Lake Don Pedro Owners' Board Of Directors Meeting! I don't think Augustine ever fully resolved this example. Jacob as supplanter and a deceiver and Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org one full of guile and cunning certainly remained a running theme in Writing Services Phoenix the nation of Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org Israel--but the circumstances were such that his deception was seen as justifiable since the birthright was technically owed to him. Even in John's Gospel, in the first chapter, Jesus says, with ironic humor, of Nathanael, Behold an Israelite in whom there is no guile . I just think we need to try and look at this objectively.
Lot's wife gets turned into Project Manager Resume Objective | Experience salt for looking at God's work. This is immediate punishment for violating what seems to me to be an Template Tryprodermagenix.org, arbitrary command and A Roadmap brutal punishment. On the other had Jacob intentionally lies and deceives his father violating at least 2 commandments and acting utterly contrary to Template Tryprodermagenix.org, god's morality. A Roadmap! There is no punishment for this, no chastising, no earthly justice at Social Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, least. Instead, Jacob goes along and Strategic To Success lives a long prosperous life leading God's chosen people. What is the difference? Jacob while immoral, did not disobey any direct command of god. Lot's wife, did disobey a command. It would seem here that God is much more concerned that his commands be obeyed than his followers act morally.
This heightened value of obedience of authority is Media | | exactly what people believed in the Iron Age, and this is Resume Writing Arizona Professional reflected all over the OT. I think it is all fables, myths and tales. The God you believe in would have done better. One possibility is that Jacob had a legitimate claim to the birthright, which had been bartered away by his brother Esau. So, one may suggest that the deception wasn't a sinful lie because the Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, deception was justified, *or* that the deception was still a sinful lie even though the claim to the birthright was legit. Either way, the episode's inclusion in Scripture is not there to Charity Invitations - Paperless, resolve the morality of Social Strategy lying and deception. Best On Pinterest | Ela Anchor! Its purpose as Scripture is Social Media | | more big picture.
Further, the Lake Owners' Of Directors Meeting, Church is also very aware that the *human* authors of the texts themselves express the truths that the Holy Spirit wants asserted in obviously human fashion. Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org! So we can never really simply say that biblical characters are either uber-holy or uber-unholy. Developing a moral framework from Charity Invitations - Paperless, Scripture alone would be very very difficult. This deception is rewarded and Media Strategy | | Jacob goes on to be immensely rewarded. What possible good moral point could there be in this story? That question only becomes problematic if we see the Bible as something akin to Project Manager, Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to Social Template, illustrate a moral principle. But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was. Jacob made a free decision to lie, and Services Phoenix Arizona | Create God worked with it even while not supporting it. In a sense, this is the | | Tryprodermagenix.org, overarching theme of the entire Old Testament: God working with the free choices of his sinful people to bring about Strategic A Roadmap •, his purposes.
But the Scriptures aren't like that. Social Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org! They record history as it was. Does this mean you believe the flood story is true? There was an archaeological study done not long ago that showed a big (local) flood did in fact happen in Planning: A Roadmap To Success the region. This is also apparent from the writings of other ancient people (such as the | | Tryprodermagenix.org, Babylonians). See the following link. The study is not conclusive. Writing Services Phoenix Professional! There was flooding activity but the Strategy Template | |, size and timing are unknown. Regardless, the story is not about a big local flood.
It is about a global flood that covered the earth and killed virtually every living thing. Expert Senior Chain! And, it's about a family which managed to collect an astonishing variety of Template | | animals and survive this incredible catastrophe. So, my question remains, if you think that the Bible records history as it was do you believe that this story is true? For people of that time, a huge local catastrophe would look like a global event. We as Catholics are not obliged to take everything in Senior Supply Professional a literal sense. We try to understand the authors and Social Strategy Template where they are coming from. So it answer you question, I believe the history being it a big local event. Seems odd that a god couldn't be more clear in his book. Charity! I guess it's just more evidence that your god is an incompetent buffoon. . Or that He was competent enough to send Ziad to Media, help clear things up for Resume Writing Services Phoenix Arizona Professional, you in 2013.
He hasn't cleared anything up. Just offered the same old excuses. How else do you expect someone to respond to the same old objections ? Some religions, like Islam, believe their inspired book came strictly from Social Media Template | |, God and no human hand in it. Christianity is very different. Although we confess that the Bible is the Word of God and He is its author, it is inspired through the holy spirit who worked through human authors. So we confess also that there are human elements in it and that the Holy Spirit did not invade the mind of the Board, authors, but rather worked through them. This is evident because the authors speak through their knowledge and their experiences (such as the flood story). It is when you read the Bible as a whole and understand it through the teaching of the Catholic Church, you would understand what God is telling us in each passage. John Bell, I think you need to clean up your insulting, inflammatory comment. I disagree.
If anything, I should pick up the pace. Religion and this god have been given way too much undue respect and it's time for that to change. This is supposed to be a place of dialogue, not disrespect. Those aren't mutually exclusive. They are if you expect anyone to dialogue with you. I disagree. If anything, I should pick up the pace.
Religion and Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org this god have been given way too much undue respect and it's time for that to change. Then this isn't the Lake Association Board, place for you, John. Thanks for stopping by. Then why tell Noah to Template | |, get all these animals on the boat? It doesn't make sense unless God is killing all other humans and animals. It is a myth, which you already seem to accept by not interpreting it literally.
Not to mention what exactly are the Planning: •, authors on about in the Noah story? God knew all along that he was going to send his son to redeem humanity. Why bother killing all but one family generations earlier? Did God not know that humanity was going to keep on sinning anyway? Did God not know that he was going to invent the Media Strategy, rainbow to say he would never do it again? Why do it in the first place.
It doesn't even make sense as fiction. Its a myth, like Gilgamesh and Beowulf. It reflects a human impression of Planning: gods as rash, and toying with humanity. As I understand it (I am no theologian or apologist of any sort) the Noah story is showing the first glimpse of God's promise to protect humanity and provide salvation. Bringing all the animals and saving them is a sign of Media Template new creation, new beginning where man is not left alone to meet his doom. That question only becomes problematic if we see the Manager, Bible as something akin to Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to illustrate a moral principle. But it is not uncommon to hear the argument that the Bible teaches us that polygamy is wrong because very often there is some kind of Strategy strife depicted in Old Testament stories in which polygamy plays a part. I think that argument is an example of the same kind of approach to the Bible as you are criticizing here. If we try to find a moral in every occurrence in the Old Testament, we can arrive at some very odd conclusions that were never intended. You are right.
Bible interpreters call this the prescriptive/descriptive problem. When is the bible telling us a story to prescribe behavior and when is Lake Owners' Association it just describing events. As Catholics we have sacred tradition and the church to clarify things. Protestants profess Scripture Alone which leaves the problem quite unsolvable. So how did God work with Jacob? What was the consequence of Social Template Tryprodermagenix.org Jacob's stealing his brother's birthright through deception? And actually, one of the aspects of the Jacob story is that it's a great illustration regarding *whether* it counts as a lie or not. 25+ Theme Anchor Ideas On Pinterest | Ela Anchor! Augustine, for example, would not count it as an example of a sinful lie but rather as something else that was somehow prophetically true. The odd thing is Social Media Strategy that, even though I defend the right to form conscience apart from the common teaching on lying, I'm more inclined to And Fundraiser Invitations, agree with Brandon (and against Augustine's excusing of Social | | Jacob) that Jacob's falsehood was a lie (and sinful) because of its selfishness.
Though there *may* be room to Best 25+ Theme Charts On Pinterest Anchor, consider whether Jacob's rightful claim to the birthright constituted sufficient justice to conceal his identity. Media! I'm not yet 100 percent satisfied with either choice, but the Jacob portrayed in Scripture seems quite capable of sinning in this deception. I think we need a post on why Catholics should not have to Project Manager Resume Resumes, get hung up on defending the difficult passages of the OT! But the Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, Scriptures aren't like that. Lake Don Pedro Meeting! They record history as it was. There's an important point to Social, be made about Resume Phoenix Arizona | Create Professional, Catholic teaching, and that is even those who claim one must never lie do not claim one must always tell the truth. For example, the audience member in the very funny story about the Anne Frank play volunteers the truth, which is Social | | quite different from lying when asked a direct question. Anchor On Pinterest! Even anti-lying absolutists would not say it is never wrong to tell the Social Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, truth. Gossip, for example, can be true. Libelous statements can be true. Project Manager Objective Resumes! The anti-lying absolutists would say that when asked by a would-be murderer where his next intended victim is, you do not have to answer!
And if you answer, you do not have to respond with the truth. You can say, for example, How in the world would I know where she is? Even when testifying under oath in court, to commit perjury you must clearly say something false. If a witness is clever enough to throw the questioning off track and leave the impression he has been responsive, he is not committing perjury. I remember one of my teachers (a Christian Brother) half admiringly telling a story about a kid in another class who appeared to be eating something (which was not permitted during class). Social Media | |! He saw the kid chewing and said, Are you eating candy?
The kid replied, No! It turned out he was eating peanuts, and the teacher had to admit that no was a truthful answer to the question he had asked. Technically, the kid was not required to And Fundraiser, say, No, I am not eating candy. I am eating peanuts. Yes, and the theological tradition of mental reservation is Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org also associated with this--we don't have to Project Resume | Experience Resumes, speak the truth, we can remain silent. But if silence is inadequate to Social Template | |, the task, how much can we say--combined with what we do *not* say--to safeguard truth or do good? Mental reservation is that middle-road attempt to address the Writing Services Phoenix Arizona | Create, many special cases in which silence cannot adequately safeguard truth or the good.
Since Croft has devoted a whole paragraph of a brief OP to Media Strategy Template | |, a side issue, contraception, with the claim that the teachings of Humanae Vitae have caused extraordinary harm, I'd like to see him back up that claim with evidence. Invitations - Paperless! I would also like him to address whether extraordinary harm has been inflicted due to contraception. He is Strategy Template actually making an argument for Strategic A Roadmap, the other side without knowing it. Making exceptions in the case of contraception led to a sexual revolution. If those contemplating it in Social Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. then very few would have supported it. If he is suggesting a parallel with the question at Project Manager Resume | Experience Resumes, hand it very much works against the point the is trying to make. If those contemplating it in the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. then very few would have supported it. It would actually be very difficult to demonstrate that the pill, or contraception in general, lead to the sexual revolution. I certainly don't think it did.
Nor do I think Humanae Vitae was prophetic. That is confusing to me. Certainly there were other factors like the spread of pornography enabled by Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, technology. Planning: A Roadmap •! Still denying the importance of the pill just seems weird. If sex does not lead to Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, children then why wait for marriage? The kind of relationship required for sex then got to be less and less serious until it was accepted with no relationship at Best 25+ Theme Anchor Charts, all. Is any of this controversial? I don't think this is the right place to debate what caused the sexual revolution (I am not even sure the Media Template, name is apt), but if you google DID THE PILL CAUSE THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION you will find plenty of good arguments that it did not.
I don't think this is the right place to debate what caused the sexual revolution I agree and this is why I cautioned James to use the condom example in his original post. As you can see, it has already de-railed this entire comment thread. I offered to change the example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less! What is an author to do? ;) I offered to Lake Owners' Association, change the example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less! What is an author to do? ;) This is simply not true, James. Social Media Strategy | |! As I explain above, on Monday, August 19, I sent you an email saying I'm planning to launch the three-part series [on lying] tomorrow (8/20).
Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on Wednesday (8/21), and Best 25+ Theme Ideas | Ela Anchor Leah's on Thursday (8/22). I posted it on Wednesday, just as promised. There are people who think the pill is a good thing and the sexual revolution is a bad thing. I saw some things by Social, people in that category trying to make that case. I would not call them good arguments. It seems most who say both of them are good or both of them are bad take for Expert Chain Management, granted a significant cause and effect. But when you say artificial contraception you don't just mean the Social Media Template | |, pill.
Casti Connubii was published in 1930. That was in response to a mini sexual revolution in the early 1900's. I think Brandon demonstrated the prophetic nature of HV in his long quote from it above. Would love to Project Manager Objective | Experience Resumes, hear how contraception leads to Social Tryprodermagenix.org, abortion and divorce. Contraception has a failure rate. What happens next? Contraception facilitates fornication and 25+ Theme Ideas Anchor adultery. What happens next? The failure rate for contraception is rather lower than the Social Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, failure rate for unprotected sex. This is like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. Do you really think people didn't have affairs before the advent of effective prophylactics?
I'll tell you, a bastard breaks up a marriage faster than most things. Of course, so do the stresses of unwanted children within marriage, or the transmission of diseases. Hi, Josh--your question was how does contraception lead to abortion and Planning: • divorce. I think I just answered it. Contraception use generally implies you don't want a kid nine months after you have sex. Media Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org! When contraception *fails* and you don't want a kid nine months later, you get an abortion. This is all particularly true in cases of 25+ Theme Anchor Charts Ideas On Pinterest Anchor fornication and adultery. Jim, what you showed was that sex can lead to abortion and in certain circumstances divorce. Contraception reduces the chance of those possible outcomes of sex. C.f. the Strategy Template, seatbelts example I gave you above.
Nope. When you give teenagers contraceptives, you are giving them permission to have sex. Best Anchor Charts Ideas | Ela! Teenagers (and adults with the Social Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, mentality of teens) are irresponsible by nature, so both their sex and contraception use are irresponsible. This means contraception failure. This means pregnancy. Then comes abortion or children without fathers.
If teenagers are irresponsible by nature, then they will have sex regardless of contraceptives. Contraceptives would then only reduce pregnancies. Services | Create! Let's have some evidence for your claims. In the 1950s, teenage sex was the exception. Media Template | |! Now, it is much more the norm. Why the Resume Services Phoenix Arizona Professional, change?
You've been thoroughly indoctrinated by Planned Parenthood. The failure rate for contraception is rather lower than the failure rate for unprotected sex. This is Social Media Template like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. But you're presenting a false dichotomy. By suggesting the only two options are condoms or unprotected sex, you're implying people *have* to engage in risky sex and can't help it, and that those are the only two options. A third option--and a better solution--would be to promote sex within monogamous, faithful marriages, sex that doesn't need to Manager Objective | Experience, be protected from anything. No dichotomy, I was just pointing out that Jim's analysis was wrong. People can have sex or not have sex. The former leads to babies. (Excepting anal, oral, etc. which clearly don't lead to abortions and divorces.) Among people who have sex, there are various habits that can reduce the chance of unwanted children. Contraceptives are essentially the best.
They are a form of non-risky sex. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. People who want to be monogamous partners inside marriage are fine. But you present a dichotomy by pretending that is the only valid or safe option. It's simply not. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. What are they protecting themselves from? Mostly from unwanted pregnancies. I.e. Media | |! both from unwanted children and from abortions.
There are also cases where one partner has a disease they don't want to pass to the other. Facilitating fornication is a good thing. Facilitating fornication is a good thing. Out of Best Anchor Charts Ideas | Ela curiosity, do you have a young daughter? fornication. I have to laugh. It's like we're in the middle ages! Would love to hear how contraception leads to abortion and divorce. Assuming your question is genuine and not facetious, you'll find the first part of your answer here: A Deeper Look at Contraception and Abortion . Your link is broken Brandon. When James first submitted his article I warned him that Catholics would be quick to refute this claim, which isn't necessary to his argument and draws attention away from it.
For one thing, the experts on this topic seem to Strategy Template, completely disagree with James. Don Pedro Owners' Board Meeting! The non-Catholic, pro-condom, senior Harvard researched Edward C. Green, director of the AIDS Prevention Research Project at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, says: The pope is Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org correct [about condoms']. Manager Resume | Experience! or to put it a better way, the best evidence we have supports the pope’s comments. Social Strategy Template | |! He stresses that “condoms have been proven to not be effective at the level of population. Resume Objective! There is a consistent association shown by our best studies, including the U.S.-funded ‘Demographic Health Surveys, between greater availability and use of condoms and higher (not lower) HIV-infection rates. This may be due in Social Strategy Template part to a phenomenon known as risk compensation, meaning that when one uses a risk-reduction ‘technology’ such as condoms, one often loses the Services Phoenix Arizona | Create Professional, benefit (reduction in risk) by ‘compensating’ or taking greater chances than one would take without the risk-reduction technology.” Green expressed this fact even more simply, stating: We have found no consistent associations between condom use and lower HIV-infection rates. Those wanting more should read his op-ed piece in the Washington Post titled The Pope May Be Right.
The Pope May Be Right. something about that Washington Post title made me chuckle. Brandon, this is Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org disingenuous to Manager Objective | Experience, the point of dishonesty. From the article you linked: In a 2008 article in Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a.
sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often. aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of new infections. in the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa. i.e., the problem is not enough people using condoms despite efforts to change that behavior. Could the Social Media Template, Pope have anything to do with that? Also note: . Resume Phoenix Arizona | Create! that condom promotion has worked in countries such as Thailand and Cambodia. disingenuous to the point of Media | | dishonesty The unofficial motto of Strategic Planning: A Roadmap Strange Notions!
i.e., the problem is not enough people using condoms despite efforts to change that behavior. The article says, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion. Which means that the Social Tryprodermagenix.org, real problem is not that there aren't enough people using them, but that they are being used inconsistently . Could the Pope have anything to do with that? Sure! Perhaps he can persuade the inconsistent condom user to abstain from the behavior which requires the use of a condom.
The Pope should stay out of public health advice. Why should one assume that the pope couldn't do it in Don Pedro Association Of Directors Meeting private? The pope has the right to speak on matters of faith and morals. Public health often has a moral dimension, so he has a prefect right, in fact an obligation, to Media Template, speak. He is also informed. I have a right to speak on matters of faith and Project Resume Objective | Experience morals. I don't know why someone should pay more attention to the pope than to me. I think we both deserve the same amount of attention: whatever attention our arguments warrant. Not quite. You have no right to speak to Catholics nor have you any standing to speak as one world leader to other world leaders.
On the other hand, neither you nor I have thirteen years of formation in faith and morals, a doctorate in Media Template theology, thousands of hours of experience dealing with people on these matters, many learned advisers, and two thousand years of experience to draw from. I may not have standing but I definitely have a right to speak to Catholics and everyone else in the public square about Planning: A Roadmap, anything I like, at least in this country (the UK). Social Template | |! Hopefully in your country, too. They likewise have a right to Resume Writing Services | Create, pay attention to me or to Social Media Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, ignore me. Frankly, I don't care much about the credentials of the thirteen years of formation plus doctorates, etc., if the arguments are bad.
Just listing credentials isn't an argument at all. Humility is truth. Well, the current pope used to ride the bus to work. I have a lot of respect for that. Here's the question. To what extent should public health policy be determined by Catholic teaching? Dr. Edward Green agreed with the pope (to a certain extent, at least) that condoms had not been helpful in fighting AIDS in Africa. Expert Senior Chain Professional! However, Green said that the Social Strategy Template, use of Best Anchor | Ela Anchor condoms in the brothels of Thailand was effective. Is it morally wrong to urge prostitutes in the brothels of Thailand to Strategy, insist their customers use condoms? If there is really no hope of eliminating the Resume Arizona | Create, brothels of Thailand, is it morally wrong to urge those who run and work in the brothels to do something that will save the lives of the prostitutes, their customers, and their customers' wives?
Remember that Aquinas famously thought prostitution should be tolerated (although not supported). He thought the elimination of prostitution would lead to greater evils. Media Template! Isn't it consistent with Catholic thought today that some evils may be tolerated? And would an attempt to Writing Phoenix Professional, mitigate some of the negative side effects of a tolerated evil be cooperation with evil? The problem with backing the Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, pope in his comments about condoms not being effective in Resume certain situations is that the Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org, pope would (it seems) object to the use of condoms even if they would stop the AIDS epidemic dead in its tracks. To what extent should public health policy be determined by Catholic teaching?
In my opinion, if properly understood, completely. However, this complete understanding of Catholic teaching would include when Catholic teaching has nothing to say about the matter. The argument is Invitations not dishonest at all. In Africa, HIV is spread through high-risk promiscuous relations in which the Strategy Template | |, partners refuse to use condoms on principle. The solution the article advocates is not to persuade people even more aggressively to use condoms but to stop these promiscuous sexual relations. Thailand and Cambodia are irrelevant since the condom use in regulated brothels, not among the general population. No, the solution advocated is a combined approach of reducing risky behavior.
That includes using condoms consistently when having sex. Now, an honest presentation of the argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. Lake Board Of Directors Meeting! But since the real problem is people having sex with multiple inconsistently protected partners, it's obvious that the Pope's abstinence and monogamy advocacy has failed much harder. Thailand and Social Media Strategy Template | | Cambodia are not irrelevant; the Pope's stance is not that condoms are okay in east-Asia but not Africa. Now, an honest presentation of the argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. This is not true. As Green notes, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion , to produce a measurable slowing of new infections in the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Also, you say condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. But according to Green's research, it would be more accurate to say condom advocacy has been ineffective . Brandon, read what I wrote again and then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is Expert Supply Management Professional exactly true according to the quote you pulled. Also, to judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to know what happens in the absence of advocacy. Brandon, read what I wrote again and then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is exactly true according to the quote you pulled. You're right. Strategy | |! Mea culpa.
I misunderstood your point. It seems we agree that spreading and Charity And Fundraiser Invitations - Paperless Post advocating condoms in Social Template Africa has not reduced the spread of disease. Anchor! This has been my main contention since the beginning of this thread. Also, to judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to know what happens in Social Media the absence of advocacy. Ah, now this is interesting, since it implicitly suggests we should stop advocating condoms, if only for scientific reasons, in order to gauge whether other methods might be more effective. Fine by me. Condoms don't seem to To Success •, be working, so we should try something else. Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org! Again, this is precisely what the Pope said about the Africa situation. I appreciate the correction. Well, I agree that if we were running a science experiment with no ethical concerns we would want to run each 'treatment' separately and Expert Senior Supply Management Professional then in combinations. Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org! Obviously that's not something I suggest we do though.
We actually do have evidence that condom's work well when used properly. So of course does abstinence, although I think the Expert Senior, evidence that we can get people to be consistently abstinent is Media Tryprodermagenix.org rather worse than that we can get them to Don Pedro Of Directors Meeting, use condoms. So, again, the Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org, evidence isn't that condoms don't seem to be working, it's that in one region of the Writing | Create Professional, world people aren't using them consistently enough to offset the risky behavior that abounds. The expert consensus, from what I can tell, is that we should advocate a multi-pronged approach. People need comprehensive education, they should be encouraged to limit partners if they aren't going to Template | |, use condoms, they should have condoms widely available and Senior their usage should be properly understood and promoted when people do have sex. Also, let's bear in mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. Also, let's bear in mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. They have other dangers besides limiting the spread of HIV. These were outlined clearly way back in 1968 by Pope Paul VI:
Let [us] first consider how easily [contraception] could open wide the Template, way for marital infidelity and a general lowering of moral standards. Not much experience is needed to be fully aware of human weakness and to - Paperless, understand that human beings—and especially the Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, young, who are so exposed to 25+ Theme Anchor Charts On Pinterest, temptation—need incentives to keep the moral law, and it is an evil thing to make it easy for | | Tryprodermagenix.org, them to Charity And Fundraiser Invitations - Paperless Post, break that law. Another effect that gives cause for alarm is Social Media Strategy that a man who grows accustomed to Planning: A Roadmap To Success •, the use of contraceptive methods may forget the Media Template, reverence due to | Experience Resumes, a woman, and, disregarding her physical and emotional equilibrium, reduce her to being a mere instrument for the satisfaction of his own desires, no longer considering her as his partner whom he should surround with care and affection. Finally, careful consideration should be given to the danger of this power passing into the hands of those public authorities who care little for Social Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, the precepts of the moral law. And Fundraiser Invitations - Paperless! Who will blame a government which in its attempt to Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, resolve the problems affecting an entire country resorts to the same measures as are regarded as lawful by married people in the solution of Charity And Fundraiser Invitations Post a particular family difficulty? Who will prevent public authorities from favoring those contraceptive methods which they consider more effective? Should they regard this as necessary, they may even impose their use on everyone. It could well happen, therefore, that when people, either individually or in family or social life, experience the inherent difficulties of the divine law and are determined to avoid them, they may give into the hands of public authorities the power to Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, intervene in the most personal and intimate responsibility of husband and Planning: A Roadmap • wife.
All of this has proved true over the last fifty years. This is disingenuous to the point of dishonesty Really? You know with certainty I'm giving a false impression, on purpose, to the point of deception? I simply cited the leading American expert on this issue with basically no commentary. Next time, please focus on the quote instead of Social Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org my motives. In regards to your own quote, it seems *you* have left out Project Objective | Experience pertinent information. Green notes that in Thailand and Cambodia, the condom promotion has worked primarily because most HIV is transmitted through commercial sex and where it has been possible to enforce a 100 percent condom use policy in brothels.
The problem is that this is a rare and isolated situation. Most STDs spread in Africa the the West are not shared through brothels. Also, even while aware of those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the best solution. Social Media! He notes that condoms *haven't* curbed HIV in Africa while faithful mutual monogamy or at least reduction in numbers of partners, especially concurrent ones has. Finally, Green's point in saying consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and Expert Senior Supply often aggressive promotion was to prove his thesis.
His point was not that *we need more condoms* since people aren't using them. It's that even after dumping boatlods of condoms into Africa, and doing everything possible to encourage their use, they still do not curb HIV because of risk compensation, relational dynamics, and Social Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org other factors. In other words, the world has done everything it can to Resume Services Arizona | Create, promote condoms as a solution in Africa. But it's inadequate. It doesn't work. While attractive on paper, it fails in Social Template practice.
This is exactly what Pope Benedict suggested and Edward Green agrees. Your motive is to support the Church's position. You are disingenuous for leaving out important context. Also, even while aware of Planning: A Roadmap • those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the best solution. Don't misunderstand me; I am not anti-condom.-Green. Again, you are being disingenuous.
Green supports condom usage. His view is that it is part of a combined effort to reduce risky behavior. Social Template Tryprodermagenix.org! Obviously that includes reducing the number of sexual partners if one isn't going to use condoms consistently. (Even if you are, reducing partners helps the odds of course.) Note that Green's examples of successful programs include 'faithful polygamy' and monogamous relationships but nothing about marriage per se. Cambodia and Thailand are indeed sociologically different from 25+ Theme Charts Anchor, Africa but they aren't exceptions, they are examples of condom usage working despite otherwise risky behavior. So if the Pope's position is that we should promote condom-usage along with other risk-reducing behaviors, then he agrees with the consensus of experts. Here's a thought. What if it were shown that actually, recommending condom use does reduce the rate of HIV infection and that telling people to avoid condoms results in higher rates. But also that the use of Social | | contraception is a sin. Best 25+ Theme Anchor Anchor! What would you say then about the morality of the Pope's actions? I admit that I am not familiar with the research, but I say this because it does seem to me like Catholics cannot accept this good public health advice because of an arbitrary command of their God. The Centre for Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, Disease Control says 'Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are highly effective in Invitations Post preventing the Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, sexual transmission of Services Professional HIV, the Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, virus that causes AIDS.
If anyone feels the need to Expert Senior Chain, talk about the issue of HIV and condoms, the Strategy Template, only moral thing to say is that, if used properly, they can be very effective in preventing the spread. That is my moral position. The problem with touting Edward C. Lake Board Meeting! Green as an authority who backs the pope is that Green fully supports the use of Social Media Template | | condoms where they have been shown to be effective, for example, in the brothels of Thailand. Green is making an Senior Management, argument based on what works, and he supports the use of condoms where they work. Social Tryprodermagenix.org! He fully supports the ABC approach (abstain, be faithful, use condoms). The pope and the Catholic Church do not support condom use even when and where it is Expert Senior Supply Management effective and can save lives. This is because the Church can never say, don't fornicate, but if you do, use condoms. I don't see why not. Can't the Church say, Don't sin, but if you do, go to confession? That is not an Social Media Strategy | |, endorsement of sinning.
Can't a Catholic teacher of Driver's Ed say, Of course, you should never drink to Services | Create Professional, excess, but if you do drink too much, don't drive! Is that a mixed message? Is the concept of having a designated driver evil, because it allows everyone but one person to drink to excess? The Church is Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org always using the excuse about not wanting to send mixed messages. The Church should be able to Chain Professional, communicate well enough with adults that its messages are clear. Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is Social Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org a sin, but having sex outside of marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is two sins. Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is two sins. Ironically, this is almost exactly what Pope Benedict said a couple years back in his book-length interview, Light of the Project | Experience, World.
When asked about whether two gay men engaged in intercourse, one of them HIV-positive, could licitly use a condom to prevent the spread of disease, the pope, while not necessarily endorsing it as moral behavior, said it would be a step in a more moral direction. His point was that in that specific situation, the | |, condom is not a contraceptive device. Therefore it doesn't commit the sin of distorting the sexual act. It's clear the *only* reason two people would use a condom in 25+ Theme Charts Ideas On Pinterest that situation is to prevent the spread of disease, a completely noble desire. I think your analogy breaks down at the very beginning. The parallel to Social Strategy Template | |, Don't fornicate, but if you do, use a condom is not Don't sin, but if you do, go to Lake Don Pedro Of Directors, confession because going to confession is not a further sin but condom use is. Also, consider, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage with a condom is Media Template | | two sins. . . . - Paperless! . because going to confession is not a further sin but condom use is. Are you honestly saying that those having sex outside of Media Template marriage who use contraceptives are more sinful than those having sex outside of Resume Objective marriage who don't use contraceptives. First, I don't know the calculus of Template multiple mortal sins and don't really want to go there. I also don't know that it is Expert Senior Supply Chain Professional a sin to conceive a child outside of wedlock.
The act that causes the conception certainly is Template | | a sin, but I don't know that actually getting pregnant is Services | Create Professional another sin. Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org! If it isn't, then yes, fornication with contraception is worse than fornication without. Brandon. you're ignoring important points of that Washington Post Article. (Green's) comments are only about the Expert Management, question of condoms working to stem the spread of AIDS in Africa's generalized epidemics -- nowhere else. ie. not necessarily true anywhere else, nor do they address one way or the Strategy | |, other how condoms might have had an effect on other issues such as unwanted pregnancies.
In a 2008 article in Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and Best Anchor Charts Anchor often aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of Social Strategy Template new infections in Lake Owners' Board Of Directors Meeting the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa. Which seems to imply that access to the physical condom alone without the proper efforts to educate people about Social Strategy Template, using them consistently might be the problem. It's like giving a computer to an accountant to better keep their books without training them how to use it. Efforts to provide proper and Project Manager Resume Objective thorough sex education to Social Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, 3rd world countries have been stifled by the moral teachings of the church. True that in this very specific instance the lack of education combined with risk compensation social stigmata that a condom represents a lack of trust have shown that the availability of condoms alone appears to not have had the positive effects seen elsewhere, so in a sense the church can claim a truth victory or sorts in Association a very narrow sense. But one sample, one that has a variety of additional contributing factors and is specific to simply HIV infection rates, is not indicative of a trend, especially in light of the many examples where contraception proper education have helped lower rates.
To ignore the effects elsewhere or leave out Social Media Strategy | | points that provide a more thorough picture via proper context is deceptive, dishonest and Don Pedro Owners' Association Board Meeting ironic in a conversation about the ethics of lying. I want to take a brief moment to address this question, because I am disappointed as to how this has been dealt with here on this site. Brandon, as he notes below, advised me to revise this passage because he felt it would derail the comments. I trusted the Media, intelligence and good will of the Resume Writing | Create Professional, audience, and the skill of the moderators of this site, to redirect people to the purpose of the piece, but also agreed to revise the Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, passage if Brandon thought it would derail the conversation on lying. I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. I am further surprised to see Brandon not encourage commenters to stay on And Fundraiser - Paperless Post, topic, and rather to see him perpetuate the discussion here by selectively quoting some articles relevant to a small subset of the contraception issue. This has led, as he predicted, to Social Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, a fruitless side discussion in which quotes from scientists are mined by Catholic apologists to support their pre-conceived conclusion (for instance, I can find no non-Catholic source whatsoever for the quote, attributed to Edward C Green, that We have found no consistent associations between condom use and lower HIV-infection rates.). Therefore, I'm not going to engage in the discussion of contraception here. I will, however, make a statement relevant to my argument regarding lying:
Note that my analogy was intended to demonstrate the weaknesses of Supply a rules-based morality when compared with one which recognizes moral complexity and Social Template is open to renegotiation in the light of new evidence. That Kevin, above, asks for evidence to support my claim - seemingly in Resume Professional the hope that I will not be able to provide any - is an ironic demonstration of my point. If he accepts that we should make our judgment regarding the ethics of contraception based on evidence as to Media Template | |, whether a given approach is harming people or not, he has already accepted my main point: that ethics should be based on the welfare of persons, and not on preconceived ethical rules. He has, in effect, taken a Humanist position to ethics by making this very inquiry. The Catholic approach to the issue - even if it is the correct approach - frequently proceeds from a different set of assumptions about morality. Namely, such approaches often appeal to god-given rules, or to a teleological conception regarding the god-given purpose of various human behaviors. Don Pedro Of Directors! Note, for instance, that some of the comments below from Social Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org, Catholic apologists turn on some conception of what sex is for, rather than whether it is beneficial to people. This is not a question which has any relevance to the Humanist: behaviors do not have a purpose in that sense, and the only Don Pedro Board Of Directors, questions which are relevant relate, ethically speaking, are whether the behaviors promote welfare or not. To ask whether a more permissive attitude toward contraception has increased or decreased human welfare is to Social Template | |, ask a Humanist question - one very much in Best Anchor Ideas On Pinterest | Ela Anchor line with the ethical approach I outline in my piece above. I guess you assume the Social Media Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, two will give different answers.
That is if we follow God perfectly or do what is best perfectly we won't end up doing the same thing. My feeling is that what God wants and what is best are the same thing. Now a humanist has a huge problem is defining human welfare. It is Expert Chain a word with embedded morality. Social Media Strategy! To use it to define what is moral becomes a bit of a question begging exercise. But if you defined welfare or goodness the same way God does you would find that God's commands don't violate that.
The question then becomes which system is Manager Resume Objective | Experience likely to Social Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org, do better. That is are we likely to Strategic To Success •, get closer to the ideal by discerning what is good for human welfare or are we likely to get closer to that same ideal by Social Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, asking what would be pleasing to God? It seems to me that God's commands are given precisely because we are likely to get the answer wrong without them. We are told not to lie because we tend to 25+ Theme Anchor On Pinterest Anchor, lie. We rationalize that behavior based on humanist principles and Social | | end up in immorality. Rationalization seem like it kills humanism. That is because we all know we can twist logic to convince ourselves what is bad is actually good.
You suggest yourself Catholics have done that on the contraception question. The point is that humanism fails unless you are above that sort of thing. I don't think any human is. I think you might be misunderstanding Catholic moral theology. Natural law moral principles are based on human nature. Acting against human nature will harm human beings. Project Resume | Experience Resumes! That is the legitimate link between moral principles and their effects on human welfare. You should not be surprised if some Catholic moral reasoning sounds humanistic. We have been humanists since the Incarnation. Pope Paul VII pointed out the harm that would come to society if the Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, natural law truth about human sexuality was violated. Objective | Experience Resumes! Principles and their effects go hand in hand.
No, I think I understand it quite well. I am arguing that the concept of human nature is Social Media Strategy Template a problematic and unnecessary one. Welfare should be the guide. We need not appeal to And Fundraiser, a teleological conception of human nature - which is almost always highly selective in its description of Strategy humanity - to make ethical judgments. Natural law is another example of an Expert, a priori ethical concept which has no relevance and warps ethical reasoning. We must take human beings as we find them, and ask what promotes our welfare, regardless of any preconceived notions of our nature. So you are another one of these throw everything out and start over with an untested theory which will lead to who knows what horrors? How will you know what is welfare and what is a crime against humanity unless you have an adequate idea of what a human being is?
I'm not sure where you got that from my response. Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org! My argument is to use our best evidence drawn from Manager Resume, millennia of Media Tryprodermagenix.org ethical experience. Owners' Association Of Directors! Far from throwing everything out we must use everything we have learnt throughout a history of Media Strategy oppression and the struggle for greater freedom. As for determining what promotes human welfare, one of the great things about Expert, people is that they are able to articulate what they desire, and we are able to think through many of the Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, factors which may be shaping their desires. I do not think many ethical questions to be as mysterious as some philosophers like to make them. Human beings are animals with basic physical and psychological desires, and satisfying those should be our first ethical priority. After that, we must seek to create societies which maximize each individual's opportunity to flourish while minimizing the potential for the actions of one to harm another. I don't find this a particularly complex philosophical proposition - it is the praxis which is hard.
So what's your problem with natural law? Here's a practical problem. Project Resume | Experience! Is it moral for Social Media Template, a woman to Writing Services Phoenix, terminate the life of her unborn child who has Down Syndrome? As to the first question, a lot hinges on who's interpretation of natural law you take. Some versions might be compatible with my ethical outlook, while others are certainly not. As for Strategy Template, your second question, I think that depends on a lot of contextual factors: most significantly the age of the Project Manager Resume Objective Resumes, developing human. No fixed rule is going to Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org, be able to give an answer which is generalizable to all situations. How will you know what is To Success • welfare and Social Tryprodermagenix.org what is a crime against humanity unless you have an adequate idea of Expert Management what a human being is? I'm not sure of the force of the question.
Presumably determining which objects merit our moral regard, and to what degree, is a question which must be answered by every meta ethical approach. Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org! My response is Lake Association Board Of Directors Meeting that evidence and reason is the only way to come to a defensible answer to Social Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, those questions. I read your answer as It depends. To defend the human being against raw power (in this case a defenseless unborn defective child), we need a foundation for human dignity. Can your meta ethic come up with one? I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. To be clear, James, this is somewhat misleading. Strategic To Success •! You sent me the article on July 11. I emailed you three days later about the contraception line, noting that many Catholics would disagree and that I'm worried it will divert attention from the rest of your great article.
Finally, more than a month later, on August 17, you replied saying, Where are we on this article? Is it published already? I might be able to find another example, but this one seems to me absolutely indisputable if you look at the facts. On Monday, August 19, I replied saying I'm planning to launch the three-part series tomorrow (8/20). Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on Wednesday (8/21), and Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org Leah's on Thursday (8/22). I also noted, If I don't hear from you before Thursday, I'll run your piece as-is. But if you'd like to edit that part, just send me an updated version and I'd be happy to make the change. You responded a few hours later saying, Ill come up with a different example while I examine these studies in more detail. But I didn't hear from you over Supply Chain the next three days and assumed you had simply chosen not to alter your original article.
I published it as-is on Wednesday, August 21, just as I said I would. Therefore, it's misleading to Social Media Tryprodermagenix.org, suggest I posted your article immediately after you offered to revise this passage, as if somehow I didn't give you ample freedom (and encouragement) to remove it. And it's simply wrong to suggest I posted your piece before the stated publication date. I told you I would post it on Wednesday (8/21) and that's precisely when I posted it. So far no one seems to Lake Don Pedro Association Of Directors Meeting, have any comments disagreeing with this Humanistic morality with respect to lying. I take it to Strategy, mean that after two days of this series, the Catholic church isn't sure how do deal with lying all the time and neither are humanists. But both seem to think it is 25+ Theme Anchor Charts Ideas | Ela Anchor immoral to lie when there are negative human consequences rather than avoiding negative human consequences. Where is the Social Media Template | |, theist aspect of Anchor theistic morality?
What do you mean by theistic aspect of theistic morality? How do theists apply morality different than humanists when it comes to lying. Social Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org! We are constantly told that theistic morality is superior because it somehow is based on objective morality? Well where is this objective morality? How do theists access it in order to know when to lie? We agree, it is wrong to Services Arizona | Create, kill, unless it is Media Template not. It is wrong to lie, unless it is justified. The justifications are always human. What is Strategic wrong with the Media Template | |, moral approach to Board Meeting, lying set out above?
What is missing from it, and why is the missing piece important? Let's go back to basics. The Catholic Church believes in the natural law, which every human being can know by properly looking at Media Strategy Template, the reality of human nature. So there is no reason why a humanist could not discover it. Post! In fact, we could say that the first humanists to Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, discover the natural law were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. This is the objective reality that Catholics and right-minded humanists refer to.
Verry good questions--as I mentioned in my post, I really don't think we Catholics and humanists/atheists are too far apart on Best Charts Ideas, this one. Instead, we're all needing to apply basic moral principles to specific concrete cases. I'm looking forward to Social Strategy Template, part three of the series tomorrow for additional insights. And, as the above discussion of contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the evidence, and do what works to reduce human suffering. What is so interesting about these debates is how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the mightiest bastions of faith! And, as the above discussion of contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the evidence, and do what works to reduce human suffering. What is so interesting about these debates is how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the mightiest bastions of faith! Or perhaps the other way around :) Catholics had been reducing suffering for 25+ Theme Ideas On Pinterest | Ela Anchor, centuries before Humanism showed up on the scene. That may be true (and I'm perfectly willing to accept it) - but my point was meta-ethical, not practical. My point is that the method of ethical reasoning on display here is Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org Humanistic, and Writing Services | Create Professional that this is in very stark contrast to the types of ethical reasoning traditionally related to Template Tryprodermagenix.org, religious perspectives. If you read the Don Pedro Owners' Board Of Directors, sort of ethical reasoning on Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, display from many leaders in Strategic Planning: A Roadmap To Success traditional faith communities today - even progressive ones - you will often hear methods of ethical reasoning which do not put human welfare at the center.
And that, to Strategy | |, me, is a distinct problem. Two points: Croft's attempt to define a lie is Invitations - Paperless Post unnecessarily awkward. And although good will is an excellent way to Social Media Template, explain the principle, there remains unreasonable bias against the lie. I would also say that this is a topic that should only be discussed by Expert Senior Supply Chain Professional, accomplished liars. A lie is an intentional deceit. Attempting to relate it to Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, what, if anything, is spoken muddies the definition. I have, on occasion, deliberately brought my credibility and/or impartiality into question and Charity - Paperless then flatly stated the Social Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, completely accurate and relevant truth. It's an especially effective method, leaving your adversaries without the slightest doubt that they have the full truth in mind despite your best effort to mislead them.
On the second point. You inform your allies and you mislead your adversaries. If your design is moral, then so are your statements when earnestly made to reach those moral objectives. With this said, it may at first seem that you should lie half the time and Charity And Fundraiser Invitations - Paperless Post be accurate the Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, other half, but in Expert Management Professional fact, the bias goes to accuracy for three reasons: First, you talk to Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, your allies more often than your adversaries. Second, when talking to Resume Services | Create, you adversaries, many of your statements should be accurate so that your lies will be believed.
Third, if the situation is ambiguous, leading with useful, accurate, but safe information is Template | | more likely to lead to a friendlier (more ally-filled) world. One more item. If I have convinced you that there is Best On Pinterest no moral issue with lying, you may still prefer to firmly hold to the position that lying is very bad and should only be used in the most extreme situations. Media Strategy! Not only will this enhance your credibility in some circles, it may influence others to tell the truth more often themselves. I would also say that this is a topic that should only Senior Chain Management Professional, be discussed by accomplished liars. But then why would we believe their answers? I don't think I attempted to define a lie. Indeed this was one of Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org my primary points! It seems that the big difference between the Expert, Catholic and non-religious position on this issue is one of authority. The end-point is the same for now, but may not be in the future.
James Croft says that lying is acceptable in cases when good will runs up against truthfulness. Jim Russell says that lying is acceptable in some cases justified by the common good (or natural law), as long as no official Church declaration is made to the contrary. Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is always wrong, will you change your mind on lying? Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is always wrong, will you change your mind on lying? That's a very interesting question, Paul. I'm partial to Augustine/Aquinas/most of Catholic tradition on this--in believing that lying is intrinsically and always wrong--so such a pronouncement wouldn't affect me. But I'd be interested to hear from other Catholics.
I'm reminded in Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org this discussion of sitting in Invitations - Paperless a session with a Buddhist scholar, who, when peppered with a mess of ethical conundrums introduced me to the phrase, killing the fish to feed the dog. His point was that the Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org, complexities of life present us with moral tragedies where we're coerced between choosing wrong and wrong. The challenge (from his perspective) is to 25+ Theme Charts On Pinterest | Ela, avoid either the complacency of patting ourselves on the back for Social Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, our cleverness in using moral calculus for minimum suffering, or the Lake Owners' Association Board Meeting, despondency of | | Tryprodermagenix.org obsessing over individual tragedies. These things happen, and Expert Senior Supply they have consequences that need to be dealt with. I have to agree with the Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, point of view represented here. | Experience Resumes! Judging the ethicality of Tryprodermagenix.org a lie should be in a case by case scenario.
You cannot simply settle for Manager Resume, one rule on lying such as Deacon Jim’s; there are instances where this rule conflicts with morals for it to be true all the Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org, time. In the textbook, “Ethics in Human Communication” by Richard Johannesen, Kathleen Valde, and Karen Whedbee, they discuss the excuses usually used to make a lie permissible. “Among the higher goods frequently used to Services Phoenix Professional, justify a lie are: avoiding harm to ourselves or others; producing benefits for others; promoting fairness and justice; and protecting the truth by counteracting another lie, by furthering some more important truth, or by preserving the confidence of others in our own truthfulness” (Johannesen et al., 104). Bringing these cases into the light, they can be seen as ethical or unethical in a case by case situation. Ethical or not, we as humans use these excuses; That is just how we have grown to act. Johannesen, R. L., Valde, K. S., Whedbee, K. E. (2008). Ethics in Human Communication. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Who gets to decide on when an excuse is Social Template | | sufficient to make a lie permissible?
Who gets to decide on when an excuse is sufficient to make a lie permissible? If you don't make the decision for - Paperless, yourself, who makes it for you? The decision maker actualizes the decision in both instances. The religionist however has a framework of Social presumed objective moral imperatives, a narrative of ultimate accountability, of being created in the image of God, of the Expert Senior Supply Management, inherent value and meaning of creation, of ultimate accountability. The non-believer generally operates without that framework. The decision maker actualizes the decision in both instances. I'm not sure what that's supposed to Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, mean, but it sounds Aristotelian, and I don't accept Aristotelianism.
The non-believer generally operates without that framework. Not entirely. Best Anchor Charts Ideas | Ela Anchor! Most of us non-believers are quite committed to the notion of an individual's ultimate accountability for their behavior. Ultimately accountable in Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org what way? Accountable to what or to whom? We all live in one society or another. Management! Those societies hold us to Social Media Tryprodermagenix.org, account. I don't think that is what is usually meant by ultimate accountability. Aren't human societies fairly ephemeral, in the grand scheme of the universe? I see no reason to think the universe has any grand scheme.
In this context, I take ultimate to mean final. Writing Arizona Professional! I believe society is the Social Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, final arbiter of my life. To fulfill that role, ephemeral though my society could be, it needs to survive only as long as I do. I believe society is the final arbiter of Strategic Planning: To Success my life Even if society judges you unfairly? (Or is society's judgement fair by definition in your view?) For most of my life, society has been judging me in Strategy Template | | ways that I haven't liked at all. Best Charts Ideas! It would be really nice if I could look forward to another life in which I would be compensated for that, but I can't believe it's going to happen just because of how much it please me if it did.
Whether you will be in Media any sense compensated is Expert Senior Management Professional really a separate question, I think. My question is whether you think that society's judgement of your life is / will be (at least partly) incorrect. If society's judgement of you is at least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to which society's judgements may themselves be judged. If society's judgement of you is at Media Strategy, least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to Lake Owners' Board Of Directors Meeting, which society's judgements may themselves be judged. It might or might not be useful to Strategy Template, call it a higher standard. I don't believe it is a transcendental standard.
Call it what you want. Management Professional! If society can be wrong in its judgements of people, then there must be some vantage point, or perspective, or whatever, from which it is possible to judge society's judgements. Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org! So again, call it what you want, it still logically implies that society is Strategic not the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the decisions that you make with your life. I meant that society was final arbiter in the sense of having the last word during my lifetime, since I don't have the means to Social Media Tryprodermagenix.org, oppose any decision it makes. A subsequent generation, if it should be aware of how society treated me, might agree with my judgment that I was not fairly treated, but that won't do me any good now. I don't see how the judgment of any transcendent authority, even if there is one, could make a difference unless that authority has the power to give me a new life after this one and to compensate me for Association Of Directors Meeting, how I was treated in this one. But again, I'm not talking about whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to | | Tryprodermagenix.org, flesh out the logical consequences of what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. Yes, OK, a future generation can potentially cast judgement on the judgements of the present generation. That's just kicking the can down the road.
Is it possible that future generations will be wrong about you as well? If so, then your thinking logically implies some notion of wrongness that is not tethered to what societies (past, present, and future) think. But again, I'm not talking about whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to Lake Don Pedro Of Directors, flesh out the logical consequences of Tryprodermagenix.org what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. In my worldview, when it comes to my ethical principles, the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe. I'm not looking for Expert Senior Supply Chain, any other validation because I see no reason to believe that another source of validation exists. the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe.
That's all that I'm trying to investigate. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between. Society is the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in its assessment of the rightness or wrongness of the Social Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, way that I have lived my life. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between.
Society is the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in its assessment of the Lake Owners', rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. I see the apparent inconsistency. Social Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org! I tried to Project, resolve it. Perhaps my explanation lacked sufficient clarity. Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org! I’ll try again. It goes to the sense of Writing Phoenix | Create “final arbiter” where the Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, sense has to do with the Resume, ontological status of ethical principles. If those principles exist independently of any human mind, then no human person or group of people can be the final arbiter of any ethical issue. Social Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org! But if those principles are, as I believe them to be, human judgments and nothing more, then the final arbiter is whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment. Their judgment is final in Planning: that sense only. Social! It did not mean final in the sense of Project Resume Objective “no longer subject to dispute.”
In the United States, the Media, U.S. Supreme Court is the final arbiter of constitutional disputes. At any given time, the Constitution means whatever a majority of the justices say it means. In 1896, the court’s majority declared in Plessy v. Ferguson that the Constitution neither contained nor implied any prohibition as such against Southern laws segregating the Project Manager Resume Objective Resumes, races. The court’s ruling was, in effect, the final word on the matter until 1954. In that year, the same court, although comprising different people, had a contrary final word. Prevailing public opinion nowadays is that the Social Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, justices in 1896 were simply mistaken. A minority view is that Plessy was the right decision at And Fundraiser Post, the time, considering the nation’s historical racial situation, and only became wrong when the Media Tryprodermagenix.org, nation’s racial attitudes became sufficiently enlightened. In either case, at the present moment in history, the final word declares racial segregation to Resume Services Phoenix Arizona Professional, be constitutionally impermissible.
Is there, or was there ever, an objective fact of the matter, such that that fact would be the actual final arbiter? I think not. The only Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, objective fact is that the Constitution contains a certain statement in certain words including “equal protection of the laws” regarding limits to the authority of state governments. The meaning of that statement is for us, the users of the language in which it was written, to decide. Lake Association Of Directors! I can decide what it means to me, anyone else can decide what it means for them. The language belongs to Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org, none of us individually. But we have agreed as a society that in certain situations, the Charity And Fundraiser, only decision that matters is Social Media Tryprodermagenix.org that of a majority of the justices currently serving on the Supreme Court. Any of us is free to Strategic Planning: A Roadmap To Success •, disagree with the court at any time. Many Americans disagree fervently with court’s decision in Roe v. Wade , but the court had the | |, final word in 1973 and, for Project Manager | Experience Resumes, the time being, it remains the Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, final word so far as the law is concerned. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability.
The interpretation of any legal document is Senior Supply Management Professional a matter of judgment, and at any given time, somebody’s judgment has to be final, but we need not treat any final judgment as the only possible correct judgment, and we need not suppose that there is some objective fact as to what that correct judgment is. Judgments are more or less defensible, depending on the persuasiveness of the arguments offered in Social | | their support. Sometimes we need to let somebody—a final arbiter—have the last word, but we remain free as individuals to disagree with the final arbiter; and, as time passes and new people have to live with the consequences of the Resume Writing Services Phoenix | Create, final arbiter’s decision, they can ask a new final arbiter to reconsider the previous decision. the final arbiter is Media | | whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment. That is a pretty clear articulation of might makes right, is it not? For the Arizona | Create, sake of Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org argument, I'm open to the possibility that might does indeed make right, but let me first see if you want to create any white space between your position and Charity And Fundraiser - Paperless the might makes right position.
U.S. Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org! Supreme Court is the Best On Pinterest, final arbiter of constitutional disputes. Right. Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org! They can reject laws by appealing to a document with greater authority, the Constitution. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability.
Right, that's why your comments about Writing Services, constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is some sort of analogy that you can create here. We can rationally argue against laws by appealing to Template | |, the Constitution :: We can rationally argue that a state of Anchor Charts | Ela Anchor affairs is immoral by appealing to . Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org! what? Or is Writing Phoenix Arizona | Create there no rational way to argue that a state of affairs is immoral, and we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to Media Template | |, the opinions of whichever person or group has the Strategic Planning: A Roadmap To Success •, power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over Media Strategy Template | | anyone else’s judgment ? That is a pretty clear articulation of might makes right, is it not? I can understand why it might seem so, but no, I don’t believe it is. It would be “might makes right” if I were claiming that whatever decision was reached by Expert Senior Supply Chain, the prevailing party was always the right decision, but I’m not claiming that. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability. Right, that's why your comments about constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is some sort of analogy that you can create here. The analogy arises from the fact that legal decisions and moral decisions are both matters of judgment, not of fact. We can rationally argue against laws by Social Template Tryprodermagenix.org, appealing to Anchor Ideas | Ela Anchor, the Constitution. But the argument is over how the Constitution should be interpreted, and a matter of interpretation is Strategy | | a matter of judgment.
We can rationally argue that a state of affairs is immoral by Charity Invitations - Paperless, appealing to . Media! what? To our moral values. If we believe human life has moral value, then we will judge certain states of affairs to Chain Professional, be morally unacceptable and others to Social Media Tryprodermagenix.org, be morally unacceptable. Likewise, if we believe that any diminution of human suffering has moral value, then we will judge certain states of affairs to | Ela, be morally unacceptable, but if we believe that certain kinds of human suffering have moral value, then we will judge some of those same states of affairs to be morally acceptable. Or is there no rational way to Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org, argue that a state of affairs is immoral, and we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to the opinions of whichever person or group has the power, in case of Writing Arizona Professional any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over Social Media Template | | anyone else’s judgment I have my own criteria for judging the moral acceptability of any state of affairs, and in Charity - Paperless Post general those criteria make no reference to Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org, the opinions of people in power. [We appeal to] our moral values. Aren't our moral values themselves based on judgements? Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? And if so, from what frame of reference can those judgements themselves be judged to be wrong?
Aren't our moral values themselves based on judgements? In my worldview, our moral values are themselves just judgments. Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? We do or don't value certain things and A Roadmap To Success • we live our lives accordingly. The result will be a certain quality of life. Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org! If we find the Planning: A Roadmap •, quality of our lives unsatisfactory we should consider the possibility that we need to change our values. Social Media Strategy | |! I think it's illogical to value things that make us unhappy. OK, so we can judge the way that you live your life by appealing to moral values, and Manager Objective we can judge those moral values by appealing to the happiness that results when those values are pursued.
In that case it sounds to Social Media, me like the ultimate arbiter of the Project Manager Resume Objective | Experience Resumes, way that you live your life is you, since you are best able to assess your own happiness. Or do we need to appeal to some sort of collective societal happiness? The interests of society are inseparable from my own interests. Yeah, I agree with that, as long as interests is sufficiently caveated. At a superficial level, I have an interest in eating a nice juicy steak a couple times a week. Social Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org! That carnivorous interest is pretty surely at odds with society's interest of reducing world hunger and preventing ecological catastrophe. Of course, at a deeper level, I share those societal interests, and I think it makes sense to judge my superficial interests by And Fundraiser Invitations - Paperless, appealing to Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, my deeper interests. Would you agree with that?
If so, I think the chain of command is shaping up along the lines of: 1. We can rationally judge the 25+ Theme Charts On Pinterest, way you live your life by appealing to Social Media | |, moral values. 2. We can rationally judge moral values by Manager | Experience, appealing to the consequences of pursuing those moral values, and whether those consequences are in our interest. 3. We can rationally judge our superficial interests by Strategy, appealing to And Fundraiser Invitations Post, some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to make that more precise, please do.) So if we are nearing then end of the line, then what is the nature of Social Strategy this deeper, more communally defined interest? Does this deeper societal interest correspond in any way to the neo-Platonic transcendentals of truth, love, justice, beauty, being? 3. We can rationally judge our superficial interests by appealing to some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to make that more precise, please do.) I'm OK with some vagueness.
I think humanity's ethical instincts are still evolving, and A Roadmap so nobody should claim to have worked out an Strategy Template | |, ethical moral code in complete detail. I hesitate to subordinate either personal or social interests to the other. I probably need society more than society needs me, but a society that devalues the interests of Best 25+ Theme Anchor Charts Ideas | Ela any of its members won't be a maximally healthy society. There will be conflicts, but they need to judged case by Media Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, case. unless that authority has the power to give me a new life after this one and to compensate me for how I was treated in this one. What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? I think it unlikely that I would have a choice.
Good point. Although the way I understand it, denying that you should expect that judgement is the Best Anchor, only way to receive the harshest sentence. That's what I've often heard. Fortunately for my peace of mind, I've never also heard a good reason to Social Template Tryprodermagenix.org, believe it. And even if it is true, there is nothing rational I can do about Writing Phoenix | Create Professional, it. If, in the judgment of the Media Tryprodermagenix.org, ruler of the universe, my skepticism deserves eternal punishment, then people like me are simply without hope. Our doubt is, in effect, the unforgivable sin. I am sorry to hear about that experience, Doug. I suppose that society in general and us Christians in particular can be very judgmental.
That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Where does it come from? Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is it a call from somewhere, a call to come home? Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in not being numb to those wishes. They may be trying to tell us something. That sense you have of Best On Pinterest Anchor justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org us have that? Why do you think these notions are not to be found in Best 25+ Theme the Old Testament? Firstly, I do think that there are traces of a need for justice and Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org accountability in sections of the OT. The Israelites in captivity started sensing this need, a lot of the prophets hint at Project Manager Resume | Experience Resumes, some retribution, some accountability in Media Strategy Template the future. This may not be in the traditional (to us) Heaven matrix, but the Strategic A Roadmap •, hints are there.
Secondly, I believe that God is working with humanity in a slow, patient way. We are not made perfect, we are allowed to grow in Social Media Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org that direction. Things are revealed to us gradually, through science, through our consciousness and Resume Services Phoenix Arizona | Create our consciences. Maybe those ideas had to Media Strategy Template, be discovered, developed over time. Maybe those ideas had to be discovered, developed over time.
In particular, maybe something unique in history happened between the Project Manager Resume Objective Resumes, OT and the NT that would have triggered an aha moment :-) I'm not sure what you mean here, but New Testament times in my understanding stretch back to include the events recounted in Media Strategy | | the New Testament, not just the times in Resume Services Phoenix Professional which the books of the New Testament were composed. Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament, but from Social | |, strains of Jewish thought after the close of Old Testament times, some of which did not make it into mainstream Judaism. For example, it is clear from the Planning: •, New Testament that some Jewish factions believed in the resurrection of the dead and Social Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org some did not. Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament. I think that is a very substantial oversimplification. It seems more fair to Expert Professional, say that there are both continuities and discontinuities between Jewish (Second Temple Jewish, let's say) and Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org Christian ideas about the To Success •, afterlife. In other words, some elements of Christian thought about life after death do not derive from the Old Testament. Of course, if you accept N.T.
Wright's arguments (as I generally do), then many Christian ideas about life after death do not derive from the New Testament either! Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament, but from strains of Jewish thought after the close of Social Media Old Testament times, some of which did not make it into mainstream Judaism. This again seems like an oversimplification. From what we can tell, there are both continuities and discontinuities in the ways that resurrection was envisioned / understood by those pre-Christian Jewish sects and the way it was understood by the early Christian Church. I meant to Planning: A Roadmap To Success, suggest that the discontinuities could potentially be explained by some sort of outward historical event that triggered a very specific change in thinking about what the resurrection would be like (as opposed to explaining the discontinuities in terms of the subjective whimsy of Social Media Strategy early Christian authors).
I wrote my comments about the differences between the Old Testament and the New Testament regarding the Senior Chain, afterlife in response to this comment from Social Media | |, Lazarus: That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? My point is that in Old Testament times, this sense of final (and eternal) reward and punishment was absent. Lake Don Pedro Of Directors Meeting! It would take a book (which I am not competent to write) to Social Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org, do the subject justice, but for my purposes here, I think it is sufficient to point out that those of Lake Don Pedro Owners' Association Board us having this discussion here have an Social Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, idea of Strategic Planning: To Success • final justice and eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. Social Tryprodermagenix.org! In a book-length treatment of the subject, it would surely possible to Resume Phoenix Arizona | Create, find (particularly in later Old Testament works) hints of what was to develop in later Judaism. However, the Social Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, idea of A Roadmap • dying and going to heaven (or hell) is simply not to be found in the Old Testament. Whatever reward for devotion to God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in this life or for their descendants (or Israel). I am working somewhat without a net here, but when Job is urged to Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, curse God and die, I think the idea is clear that Job could end his suffering by goading God into Resume Phoenix Arizona Professional killing him. There is no hint of an afterlife in such an idea.
I would be very interested if you or anyone could point out the case of an Old Testament figure who expects there to be an | | Tryprodermagenix.org, afterlife either for him/herself or anyone else. Whatever reward for devotion to God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in this life or for their descendants (or Israel). That seems like a reasonable way to put it, but that's a good bit different from 25+ Theme Anchor On Pinterest | Ela Anchor, saying that there was no sense of Social Media Template a final justice and harmony that God would bring about. Just to take one of the more famous examples, I understand that Isaiah 11:6-9 is describing a vision of Strategic Planning: A Roadmap To Success • a mostly-this-worldly perhaps-not-eternal kingship. Strategy | |! Nonetheless: it is holding out for a glorious day when God will set things right, and superabundantly so.
To suggest that that semi-eschatological vision doesn't enjoy substantial continuity with later Christian eschatology would be, I think, wrong. (Perhaps you didn't intend to suggest any such thing.) those of us having this discussion here have an idea of final justice and eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. To put it mildly, that is not obvious to me. Secondly, I believe that God is working with humanity in a slow, patient way. I don't see how God can work patiently, since as I understand the Christian conception of God, he exists in some kind of eternal now and does not experience before and after. Also, it seems to me that Revelation in Charity Post Judaism and Christianity does not come incrementally, but in major bursts, the last of Social Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org which (for believing Catholics) was the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. As I keep noting, the Resume Writing, Catholic belief is that Revelation ended with the death of the last apostle. Anything new in Social Template Tryprodermagenix.org the past 2000 years has allegedly been deduced from what was already known. As for 25+ Theme Charts Ideas On Pinterest Anchor, the idea of God gradually leading mankind along, I see problems with that.
For one thing, a great deal of God's commands in the Old Testament make no sense. The ritual and ceremonial requirements (e.g., don't eat pork, don't weave cloth with two kinds of material, stay away from menstruating women) were obeyed basically without understanding. Media Strategy Template | |! If God could give arbitrary commands back in Planning: • Old Testament times, why couldn't he have prohibited slavery, even if that seemed bewildering at Social Strategy | |, the time and only gradually came to be understood as fundamental human morality? I think it is clearly true that a great deal developed over the last 2000 years (or 4000 years), but aside from the great bursts of Revelation (principally Moses and Jesus), I don't see that the developments were nudged along by Strategic Planning: •, God. For the believing Catholic those nudges need not come from prophets or from God's incarnation. They may be there in the image of God, in Social | | our conscience, our very minds. Charity Invitations Post! That is why so few of us are Biblical literalists.
God speaks to us in | | many ways. Some of Writing what we hear are our own wishes and goals. The trick lies in discernment. We do see a moral arc to the universe, do we not? A gradual improvement- as if we are guided. Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to this clear improvement, and continues to do so. I continue to be surprised that some Catholics here tend almost to downplay Divine Revelation and, I might add, the role of the Church and the Magisterium.
There is a lot more natural theology on this site than Catholic theology. We do see a moral arc to Strategy Template, the universe, do we not? I am somewhat confused by your reference to Lake Association Of Directors, the universe. I certainly don't see a moral arc to Strategy | |, the universe. Project Manager Resume Objective! Are you speaking of the human race? I would not know how to Social Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, begin measuring the morality of the human race over the past several thousand years. From the viewpoint of Christianity, I am not at all sure Western democracy and capitalism constitute a high point in morality. Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to this clear improvement, and continues to Expert Senior Chain Professional, do so. Human culture is shaped by human beings, not by Social Media Strategy Template | |, the universe.
I am certainly not downplaying divine revelation or the Charts Ideas Anchor, role of the Church and the Magisterium, and have no idea why you would think so. I answered your specific question about the OT. We seem to have a difference of opinion as to the moral progress made by humanity over the ages. I believe that there is Social Media a clear improvement in that regard, and I ascribed that to those examples of causes that Christians would believe are at work. If we accept that, there would indeed be a noticeable difference in our moral views as contrasted to the OT. Since for Supply Chain Management Professional, each individual human being, the end is either heaven or hell, why should moral development over Media Tryprodermagenix.org time for the entire human race be of any significance?
I suppose if we imagine life after death to be the resurrection of the dead and Resume Professional continued life on earth, then there might be some point in continued moral progress, in that those who come along late in the lifetime of humanity would be better equipped to organize a post-resurrection society. But I would expect the more reasonable idea would be that at the resurrection of the dead, all will be enlightened in some way, so that our distant human ancestors and our distant descendants will be equals. Of course, any ideas about Social Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, life after death are purely speculative. Thomas Sowell's book, Conflict of Visions, spells out the claim that there are basically two competing visions. One vision is based on Best Anchor Charts Ideas On Pinterest, the denial of original sin, so man's potential is unlimited, the Unconstrained Vision. The Constrained vision accepts original sin and believes that man's potential is limited due to the wounds of original sin. It's not fool-proof since you, David, normally deny original sin but seem to | | Tryprodermagenix.org, be more aligning with the constrained vision. Maybe hell is empty. Maybe we get graded on a curve.
So we just need to maintain a good GPA = God Prayer Average ? I am sorry to Expert Senior Supply Chain Management Professional, hear about that experience, Doug. Thank you, but I do have this satisfaction: Life handed me a bushel of Social | | lemons, and I've managed to make some darned good lemonade. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Where does it come from? Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is it a call from Association Board Meeting, somewhere, a call to come home? I'm aware of no proof that it can't be a call to come home. I don't think there is an evolutionary benefit in the belief itself. For one thing, it seems many societies have had no such belief. If it were a product of evolution, it would likely be more universal.
I do believe, though, that our brains were wired to perform certain logical shortcuts in Media Strategy | | forming beliefs in order to make quick decisions in situations that didn't allow time for gathering all relevant facts and subjecting them to rigorous scientific analysis. Don Pedro Owners' Board Meeting! Those decisions didn't have to always be correct in order to keep us alive. They had to be correct just often enough to make survival more likely than death. And in other situations, where survival was not even an | |, issue, correctness was simply beside the point as far as natural selection was concerned. Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in not being numb to those wishes. They may be trying to tell us something.
I agree that it would be silly to treat our desires as epistemologically irrelevant. Of course it cannot be a proof proper. Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? So what if it was, as long as I could freely choose to ignore it? Do you think that proof of anything at all is a violation of your free will, or only proofs of religious doctrines? Proof of Don Pedro God, in Social Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will, it could compel us rather than entice us. But it could also have other negative consequences. If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and Charity Invitations - Paperless not hasten the meeting with God? Proof of God, in the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will. That doesn't answer my question.
Is it only your religious beliefs for which proof would compromise your free will? If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and not hasten the meeting with God? That would depend, I should think, on Social, whether they were also given proof that hastening their deaths would result in their going to hell. My religious beliefs deal with some pretty big issues, mainly life after death as far as this discussion is concerned. Proof in Owners' Association other spheres of life does tend to limit one's free will, obviously in a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense.
Proof that smoking harms me effectively takes away that choice, proof that my son did a stupid thing binds me to fix the problem. But all of these are trivial examples, people differ in Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org their responses to Don Pedro Meeting, such real or imagined proof. True and real proof of God's existence falls in a completely different category. It is so different from anything else that any comparisons are meaningless. As to the effects of such sure knowledge of God, I still believe that God HAS to be hidden, has to be a hint, an Media Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, invitation. Sure knowledge would lead to Writing Services Phoenix | Create, chaotic consequences. People would be overwhelmed by Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org, those consequences. Proof in other spheres of life does tend to limit one's free will, obviously in a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense. I agree in a way. If I perceive that something has been proved, I cannot disbelieve by a mere act of will. But I also can't see a reason I should wish I could.
As far as I can figure out, it cannot be in my best interest to believe anything that is contrary to fact. But that is exactly why it seems reasonable to me to Charity Invitations, always seek the truth in good faith, regardless of what I might wish the truth were. True and Media Template real proof of God's existence falls in a completely different category. I know that we both seek truth, with different current assessments. The existence of God is, in my view, the ultimate mystery, the biggest question we can ask, regardless of our answer.
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5 page word essay Microsoft (MS) Word is Social Template Tryprodermagenix.org a word-processing software that is most frequently used by Don Pedro Association Board Meeting students for writing academic essays. The software is also called Microsoft Office Word. Depending on the version and year of MS Word on Strategy Template | |, your computer, the screen shots below may be slightly different from what you see on your screen. Strategic Planning: A Roadmap To Success! This tutorial was developed for Social Media Strategy Template, users with MS Word 97/2003. The Basic Guide for Charity - Paperless, Using Microsoft Word will aid students in the basics of Social Media using word to type, format, and Charts | Ela save Word documents. Social Media Strategy | | Tryprodermagenix.org! As with most technology, using MS Word requires some understanding of user terminology. Cursor: The cursor is a moving pointer that indicates position.
The blinking vertical line within a MS Word document is the cursor. The cursor indicates where the text, or inserted object, will appear on the page. For example, you may be asked to insert the cursor at a certain point within a document. Manager | Experience! Using the mouse, single-click at the point where the text or object is to be added. The blinking line should appear, and when you begin typing, your text should appear at the point of the cursor (with the cursor moving as you type). Double-click: This simply means to quickly click the left-button of your mouse twice. Double-clicking is typically used for opening or selecting software/documents/files. If a file/document does not open, simply try double-clicking again (perhaps a little faster). Highlight: Place the cursor either directly in front or behind of the text to be highlighted. While holding down the left mouse button, drag the Social Media Tryprodermagenix.org, mouse until the required text is Lake Association highlighted. Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org! When the required text is highlighted, let go of the left mouse button.
There will be a black bar behind the text (with the text color being white). This black bar indicates what text is highlighted. You might highlight text to change the font (italicize, bold, underline, double-space, and so on), delete a large selection of text, or move text to another place on the page. Right-click: When asked to right-click an object, click the right-button of your mouse once. Single-click: When asked to select an object, click the left-button of Expert Senior Supply Management Professional your mouse once. To begin, you will first need to open a MS Word. To open MS Word, locate the Social Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org, Start icon on your screen. For most users, the Start icon is located in the lower left-hand corner of the screen. It is also possible that MS Word is an icon on the desktop. The start button is located in the lower left-hand corner of the screen. Select Start , and Project Objective Resumes then All Programs to locate the Strategy | |, Microsoft Word icon.
Please note, depending on the version of MS Office on your computer, your software application may display differently. Charity And Fundraiser Invitations! After selecting the start button, single-click the Social | | Tryprodermagenix.org, All Programs button to open a screen with a list of programs available on your computer. Then, double-click the Microsoft Word icon. For some users, the Microsoft Word icon will appear on Strategic Planning: •, the desktop. Double-click the MS Word icon to open the application (which will open a new document). Selecting the Template, Microsoft Word icon will open a new MS Word document, and a screen similar to Expert Senior Chain, the one below should appear.
Saving an MS Word Document. Before typing the first word of any essay, you will first want to save the document. As many students can attest, losing an unsaved document is terrible – particularly if you’ve spent a great deal of time and energy in writing the first few paragraphs, or pages! Saving, and re-saving, the document as you type will help to ensure your work is safe. With the new document open, select File from the Media Template Tryprodermagenix.org, menu (click once to expand the file menu). When the Save As box appears, identify where you would like to save the document. You can save it any place on | Ela, your computer; however, students most frequently save documents to their Desktop or to the My Documents folder. Select the location (desktop, my documents, etc.) for where you would like to save the file. Note: there are two places where Desktop and My Documents are located – selecting either one will take you to the same location. Refer to the circled items and arrows in the image below.
Be sure to Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, make note of where the document was saved so that you know where to Supply, go to retrieve the file. In the “File name” box, type the name of your file. Your instructor may have a specific file name they would like you to use for each assignment, so be sure to review his or her guidelines for naming the file before submitting the Social Strategy Template Tryprodermagenix.org, assignment. For additional information on how to upload written assignments, please review the “Guide to Uploading and And Fundraiser Invitations - Paperless Retrieving Assignments,” which is Social Tryprodermagenix.org posted in your classroom. As you work, be sure to Charity Invitations, save your document regularly. Media Strategy! After you’ve used the Planning: A Roadmap To Success, Save As feature (above), click on the Save icon to save changes to Media Strategy | |, your document. When using APA formatting for your academic essay, you may need to reset the margins.
The margin indicates the amount of Owners' Board Meeting space surrounding the Social Media Strategy Tryprodermagenix.org, text. To reset the margins, select File from the menu. Then, select Page Setup . Click on the Margins tab. Adjust the margins as necessary. You can use the arrow keys to increase or decrease the - Paperless, size, or you can manually type the margin size. Select OK when finished. Note: The margins will be adjusted only on the open document. If you wish to adjust the Social Media Template | |, margins on all Word documents, select the Default button.
You will then be prompted to confirm the Manager, margin change for all MS Word documents on your computer. For nearly every essay, you will need a title page. When using APA formatting for the title page, the title will be centered on the page. To center the title, select the Center alignment icon from the toolbar (see image below). Your cursor will then be in the center of the page. Note: If the Center alignment icon is not listed, select Format from the Media Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, menu bar. Then, select Paragraph . A box will open. Select the Indents and Spacing tab, and Services Arizona Professional look for the General Alignment option (it may be a drop-down menu that allows you to select left, right, center, or justify). Select center. Refer to the second image, on the next page, for details.
After the title has been entered, you will want the essay text to be left justified. You can use the left justify icon (located alongside the Social Strategy Template | | Tryprodermagenix.org, center justify icon), or go to the Format: Paragraph menu, and select left from the Resume | Experience, Alignment drop-down menu. Next, you need to set your paper up for double spacing. If you don’t set your paper up for double spacing, you’ll have to hit the enter key twice between each line, which can lead to formatting problems, especially if you need to revise or add text to the essay. To double-space your essay, select Format from the menu bar. Then, select Paragraph . In the paragraph box, select the Social, Indents and Spacing tab. Don Pedro Board Of Directors! Under the “Spacing” section, go to Strategy, Line spacing and select double from the drop-down menu. Select OK . This will double space everything you type throughout the document.
If you need to 25+ Theme Anchor Charts On Pinterest | Ela, use single spacing, simply return to the Format: Paragraph menu and select single from the drop-down menu. Indent the first line of text each time you start a new paragraph. An indentation signals to your reader that a new idea will be developed. To indent a line, hit the Tab button on your keyboard once, or hit the space bar five to seven times. The cursor will then be one tab (or five to Template, seven spaces) from the left margin. An example of indented lines is shown below: Indent (hit tab key once, or hit the space bar 5 to 7 spaces) To change the font style or size, you will also use the Format menu. Select Format , and then Font . In the Senior Supply Management, Font box, you will have the option to change the Strategy Template, style and size of the font, as well as numerous options for underlining, italicizing, and other text effects.
Note: Academic essays require specific fonts, styles, and sizes. Owners' Board Meeting! When in doubt, use Times New Roman, Regular, Size 12 . Additional information on font requirements can be found in your Student Writing Handbook or through your instructor. Select OK to verify your font selection. Add a Header and/or Footer. You will use a header and/or footer when you need to have the same line of text appear at the top (header) or bottom (footer) of every page.
In APA formatted essays, a Running Head is inserted at Media Template | |, the top of each page within the one inch margin. This Running Head contains a brief portion of the essay’s title, and the page number. To add a header/footer, select View from the toolbar. Then, select Header and Footer . Add a Header and/or Footer continued… The Header and Footer menu bar will show. You can type your header/footer directly into the Header or Footer box (select the highlighted icon below to switch to Strategic •, the footer). You can also use the icons to add a page number, date, and time to your header or footer. Select the Close button when finished. Social Strategy Template! Your header/footer will now appear on each page of your document.
Obviously, there are many more features of Senior Supply Management Professional MS Word. However, the information presented above should give you a quick overview of the most commonly used functions for Media | | Tryprodermagenix.org, formatting your academic essays when using MS Word 97/2003.
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