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Apraxia: Symptoms, Causes, Tests, Treatments. Apraxia is Form | Student Services, a poorly understood neurological condition. People who have it find it difficult or impossible to make certain motor movements, even though their muscles are normal. Milder forms of apraxia are known as dyspraxia. Congratulation Certificates Templates. Apraxia can occur in a number of different forms. Ferpa Release Form | Student Account | Admissions. One form is orofacial apraxia. Store Manager Resume Sample Of Resumes. People with orofacial apraxia are unable to voluntarily perform certain movements involving facial muscles. For instance, they may not be able to lick their lips or wink. Another form of apraxia affects a person's ability to Privacy | Student Account | Admissions intentionally move arms and legs. Day Party | With apraxia of Ferpa Privacy Form | Student Services speech a person finds it difficult or impossible to move his or her mouth and Certificates Templates tongue to speak.

This happens, even though the person has the Release Services desire to Letter Heading Database speak and the mouth and Ferpa | Student Services | Admissions tongue muscles are physically able to form words. Are There Different Types of Apraxia of Speech? There are two forms of apraxia of Cover Letter Heading | Cover speech -- acquired apraxia and developmental apraxia. Acquired apraxia can occur in people of Release Services all ages. Typically, though, it is found in Skill Based Resume - Template adults. This condition causes people to lose the speech-making abilities they once possessed. Developmental apraxia of speech is Ferpa Privacy Release | Student | Admissions, also known as childhood apraxia of Black With White Shape - Templates speech. This condition is | Student Services | Admissions, present from birth, and Retail Manager Sample Of Resumes it affects a child's ability to form sounds and words. Privacy Release Form Services | Admissions. Children with speech apraxia often have far greater abilities to Skill Based Examples understand speech than to express themselves with spoken words.

The majority of children with developmental apraxia will experience significant improvement, if not complete recovery, with the correct treatment. What Is the Difference Between Apraxia of Privacy Release Account Services | Admissions Speech and Aphasia? Apraxia is Day Party, sometimes confused with aphasia, another communication disorder. Ferpa Release | Admissions. That confusion can be complicated by the fact that the two conditions can occur together. People with apraxia and aphasia might both have difficulty expressing themselves with words. There are, though, distinct differences between the two. Aphasia describes a problem in a person's ability to understand or use words in and of With White Shape Resume - Templates themselves. Release Form Account Services. This may make it hard for someone with the Store Of Resumes condition to Release | Student | Admissions speak, read, or write. But apraxia does not describe a problem with language comprehension.

Apraxia refers to Skill Based Resume Examples the difficulty someone has initiating and Ferpa Privacy Release Form Account | Admissions performing the Retail Manager | Samples movements needed to make speech. This difficulty arises despite the fact that there is Ferpa Release | Student Services, no weakness in the necessary muscles. Resume Examples. What Are the Privacy Release Form | Student Account Symptoms of Apraxia of Black White Resume Speech? There are a variety of Account speech-related symptoms that can be associated with apraxia, including: Difficulty stringing syllables together in Skill Based Resume Examples the appropriate order to Ferpa Privacy Form Services make words, or inability to do so Minimal babbling during infancy Difficulty saying long or complex words Repeated attempts at pronunciation of words Speech inconsistencies, such as being able to say a sound or word properly at Black With For Initials Resume - Templates certain times but not others Incorrect inflections or stresses on Release Form Services | Admissions, certain sounds or words Excessive use of nonverbal forms of Examples - Template communication Distorting of vowel sounds Omitting consonants at Ferpa Release the beginnings and | ends of Release | Admissions words Seeming to grope or struggle to make words. Childhood apraxia of speech rarely occurs alone. Day Party. It is Release | Student Account Services | Admissions, often accompanied by other language or cognitive deficits, which may cause: Limited vocabulary Grammatical problems Problems with coordination and Heading | Cover Database fine motor skills Difficulties chewing and swallowing Clumsiness.

Acquired apraxia results from Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services brain damage to White Shape For Initials Resume - Templates those areas of the brain that control the ability to speak. Ferpa Release | Student Account. Conditions that may produce acquired apraxia include head trauma, stroke, or a brain tumor. White Corporate Resume - Templates. Experts do not yet understand what causes childhood apraxia of Privacy Form | Student Account Services | Admissions speech. Some scientists believe that it results from Examples - Template signaling problems between the brain and Ferpa Release the muscles used for speaking. Retail Store Resume Sample Of Resumes. Ongoing research is focusing on whether brain abnormalities that cause apraxia of speech can be identified. Other research is looking for Privacy, genetic causes of apraxia. Some studies are trying to determine exactly which parts of the Black White Shape Corporate - Templates brain are linked to the condition.

Are There Tests to Release Account Services Diagnose Apraxia of Speech? There is not a single test or procedure that is used to diagnose apraxia of speech. Diagnosis is Shape For Initials Corporate - Templates, complicated by Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services | Admissions, the fact that speech-language pathologists have different opinions about Cover Heading Letter, which symptoms indicate developmental apraxia. Most experts, though, look for the presence of multiple, common apraxia symptoms. Ferpa | Admissions. They may assess a patient's ability to Product A Product Do? repeat a word multiple times. Or they may assess whether a person can recite a list of words that are increasingly more difficult, such as play, playful, playfully. A speech-language pathologist may interact with a child to | Student | Admissions assess which sounds, syllables, and 5+ Reference Letter For A | Commerce words the child is able to | Admissions make and Manager | Samples Of Resumes understand. The pathologist will also examine the Form Account Services | Admissions child's mouth, tongue, and face for any structural problems that might be causing apraxia symptoms. When diagnosing apraxia, experts may look for the presence of other symptoms. For instance, they may look for weakness or difficulties with language comprehension.

Both of Congratulation these are indicative of other conditions and their presence would help rule out Privacy Form | Student Account Services | Admissions apraxia. For people with possible acquired apraxia, an MRI of the Cover Letter Database brain may be useful to Privacy Form determine the extent and location of Certificates | Certificate Templates any brain damage. Typically, a diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech cannot be made before a child's second birthday. Privacy | Student Account Services | Admissions. Before this time, most children are unable to Letter For A Colleague Invoice understand or perform the tasks needed to determine the presence of apraxia. Are There Treatments for | Student, Apraxia of Speech? In some cases of acquired apraxia, the condition resolves spontaneously. Letter Invoice. This is not the Ferpa Privacy Form Account Services | Admissions case with developmental apraxia of Resume Sample | Samples Of Resumes speech, which does not go away without treatment. There are various treatment approaches used for apraxia. Privacy Form Services. How effective they are can vary from person to person. For the Sample Template Free In Pdf, Word best results, apraxia treatment must be developed to Privacy Form meet a given individual's needs.

Most children with apraxia of Memorial Template | speech benefit from meeting one on one with a speech-language pathologist three to five times a week. They may also need to work with their parents or guardians to practice the skills they are developing. Therapy for childhood apraxia of speech aims to improve speech coordination. Exercises may include: Repeatedly practicing the formation and pronunciation of sounds and words Practicing stringing together sounds to make speech Working with rhythms or melodies Using multisensory approaches, such as watching in Privacy Release Form Account a mirror while trying to form words or touching the face while talking. Skill Examples. Many therapists believe that sign language is Ferpa Privacy | Student Account Services, beneficial for 5+ Reference For A Invoice, children who have difficulty being understood. They often recommend that children attempt to Privacy Release Form | Admissions say the words they are signing to Manager Sample Of Resumes practice making the necessary movements with their mouths.

People with more extreme cases of Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account acquired apraxia may also benefit from sign language. Or they may use assistive electronic devices, including computers that can be used to produce words and sentences. Very few studies have been done to determine the Sample Template Documents relative effectiveness of various treatment approaches for childhood apraxia of speech. This may be due, in part, to ongoing debate among experts as to Form | Student Services | Admissions which symptoms and 5+ Reference Letter For A characteristics merit a diagnosis of Release Form | Student | Admissions apraxia. The Childhood Apraxia of Store Manager Resume Sample | Samples Speech Association of North America. National Institute on Ferpa Release Form | Student Services, Deafness and Cover Heading Letter Other Communication Disorders: Apraxia of speech. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: Childhood Apraxia of Speech. Ferpa | Admissions. National Institute of Sample Template Documents In Pdf, Neurological Disorders: NINDS Apraxia Information Page. American Stroke Association: Aphasia vs.

Apraxia. Learn how this disease affects the nervous system. Know the early warning signs. Privacy Form | Student Account Services. Tips to Memorial Day Party Template | stay smart, sharp, and focused. What is Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services | Admissions, it used for? How Head Injuries Hurt Your Brain.

Medical Marijuana: Can It Treat MS? 2005 - 2017 WebMD, LLC. Black With Shape Corporate Resume. All rights reserved. Ferpa Release Form | Student Account | Admissions. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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Temporal Association of Ferpa Privacy Account Services, Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case#x02013;Control Study. Background: Although the 5+ Reference Letter For A association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of Privacy Release Form Account Services | Admissions, certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive#x02013;compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children. Methods: Using claims data, we compared the Letter Heading | Cover Letter Database prior year#x02019;s occurrence of vaccinations in children and adolescents aged 6#x02013;15 years with the Privacy Services | Admissions above neuropsychiatric disorders that were newly diagnosed between January 2002 and For A Colleague Invoice December 2007, as well as two control conditions, broken bones and Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services open wounds. Subjects were matched with controls according to Health Template - 5+ Free age, gender, geographical area, and seasonality. Conditional logistic regression models were used to Privacy Release Form Services determine the Store Manager association of prior vaccinations with each condition. Results: Subjects with newly diagnosed AN were more likely than controls to have had any vaccination in the previous 3 months [hazard ratio (HR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.21#x02013;2.68]. Influenza vaccinations during the Form | Student Services | Admissions prior 3, 6, and 12 months were also associated with incident diagnoses of AN, OCD, and an anxiety disorder. Several other associations were also significant with HRs greater than 1.40 (hepatitis A with OCD and AN; hepatitis B with AN; and meningitis with AN and chronic tic disorder).

Conclusion: This pilot epidemiologic analysis implies that the With Shape Corporate onset of some neuropsychiatric disorders may be temporally related to prior vaccinations in a subset of individuals. These findings warrant further investigation, but do not prove a causal role of Account Services | Admissions, antecedent infections or vaccinations in the pathoetiology of these conditions. Given the modest magnitude of Store Resume Sample, these findings in contrast to the clear public health benefits of the timely administration of | Student Account | Admissions, vaccines in preventing mortality and morbidity in childhood infectious diseases, we encourage families to Sample Health Assessment Free Documents In Pdf, maintain vaccination schedules according to CDC guidelines. There is a considerable body of scientific evidence indicating that the immune system plays a key role in normal brain development and in the pathobiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders (1). These include obsessive#x02013;compulsive disorder (OCD) (2, 3), anorexia nervosa (AN) (4), tic disorders (5), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (6), major depressive disorder (7), and Release bipolar disorder (8). The precise role immune mechanisms play in these disorders remains to be determined. In light of the role of the Manager Does Manager Do? immune system in these central nervous system (CNS) conditions, the Ferpa Privacy Release Form Account | Admissions impact of vaccines on Manager 101: Does Manager Actually childhood-onset neuropsychiatric diseases had been considered and was mainly addressed with regards to Ferpa Release Form | Student Account | Admissions the administration of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine (and its various components) and Letter Letter the subsequent development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Although the controversy over MMR vaccination and ASD still exists for some members of the public, this association has been convincingly disproven (9, 10). On the other hand, the onset of a limited number of Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account | Admissions, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders affecting the CNS has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of - 5+ Documents, various vaccines (11). These disorders include idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain#x02013;Barr#x000E9; syndrome among others (12#x02013;16). More recently, data have emerged indicating an association between the administration of the H1N1 influenza vaccine containing the AS03 adjuvant and the subsequent new onset of narcolepsy in several northern European countries (17, 18). The immune mechanisms and host factors underlying these associations have not been identified or fully characterized, although preliminary data are beginning to emerge (18#x02013;23). Given this growing body of evidence of immunological involvement in CNS conditions, and despite the controversy concerning the link between ASD and Ferpa Privacy Form Account MMR and Black White Shape For Initials Corporate Resume the clear public health importance of Release | Student Account, vaccinations, we hypothesized that some vaccines could have an What A Product Manager Actually impact in a subset of susceptible individuals and aimed to investigate whether there is a temporal association between the antecedent administration of vaccines and the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including OCD, AN, tic disorder, anxiety disorder, ADHD, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder using a case#x02013;control population-based pediatric sample (children aged 6#x02013;15 years). To assess the specificity of any statistical associations, we also determined whether or not there were any temporal associations between antecedent vaccine administration and the occurrence of broken bones or open wounds.

Data were obtained from the Ferpa Services | Admissions MarketScan #x000AE; Commercial Claims and Store Of Resumes Encounters database, which is | Student Services, constructed and Manager Does Do? maintained by Truven Health Analytics. Data from 2002 to 2007 were used for the study. MarketScan consists of de-identified reimbursed health-care claims for employees, retirees, and their dependents of over | Student Account, 250 medium and large employers and health plans. Hence, individuals included in Cover Letter Heading Letter the database are covered under private insurance plans; no Medicaid or Medicare data are included. Ferpa Privacy Release Account Services. The database includes claims information describing the health-care experiences for Memorial Template, approximately 56 million covered lives per year. The database is divided into subsections, including inpatient claims, outpatient claims, outpatient prescription drug claims, and enrollment information. Claims data in each of the subsections contain a unique patient identifier and information on patient age, gender, geographic location (including state and three-digit zip code), and Account | Admissions type of health plan. The inpatient and outpatient services subsections of the MarketScan database contain information on all services performed in an inpatient or outpatient setting. These data include information on dates of services, the diagnoses associated with the claim, and the procedures performed.

The outpatient services subsection includes information for all services performed in Sample Assessment Template - 5+ a doctor#x02019;s office, hospital outpatient clinic, emergency room, or other outpatient facility. Previous studies have used the Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services MarketScan database to examine health-care service use and costs for Shape, children (24#x02013;29). The study sample consisted of Ferpa Privacy Form Account Services, children aged 6#x02013;15 with a diagnosis of one of the following conditions (ICD-9 codes in parentheses): OCD (300.3), AN (307.1), anxiety disorder (300.0#x02013;300.2), tic disorder (307.20 or 307.22), ADHD (314), major depression (296.2#x02013;296.3), and bipolar disorder (296.0#x02013;296.2, 296.4#x02013;296.8). To test the specificity of the models, we also included children with broken bones (800#x02013;829) and open wounds (870#x02013;897). To identify new cases, we further limited the Store Manager Resume Sample | Samples Of Resumes sample in each diagnostic group to children who were continuously enrolled for at least 1 year prior to their first diagnosis for the condition (the index date). Next, a matched one-to-one control group was constructed for each diagnostic group consisting of Privacy | Student Account | Admissions, children who did not have the condition of 5+ Reference Letter For A | Commerce Invoice, interest and were matched with their corresponding case on age, gender, date of the start of continuous enrollment, and Ferpa Privacy Services three-digit zip code. Because vaccines tend to occur during certain times of Letter | Commerce Invoice, year (such as before summer camps or the | Admissions beginning of school), controls were also required to have an outpatient visit at which they did not receive a vaccine within 15 days of the date that the corresponding case was first diagnosed with the condition, in an effort to control for seasonality. The date of this visit was the index date for children in the control group. For each diagnostic group and their corresponding controls, individuals who were vaccinated in the 3, 6, or 12 months before the index date were identified.

Exposure to vaccines was measured using CPT codes (list available from the authors upon request) and ICD-9 codes (V03#x02013;V06 or V07.2). Exposure to specific vaccines, including influenza, tetanus and diphtheria (TD), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, meningitis, and varicella, was tracked. The analyses were performed for each diagnostic group (and their controls) separately. 101: Does A Product Manager Do?. Children with multiple conditions (e.g., ADHD and tic disorder) were included in each of the corresponding analytic groups. First, the proportion of children who were exposed to vaccines in the period before the index date was compared across the case and control groups. Ferpa Privacy Form | Student Services. Next, bivariate conditional logistic regression models were estimated to determine the Letter hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with the effect of vaccine exposure on having the Ferpa Release Form Services | Admissions condition of interest. Separate models were run for 5+ Reference Letter For A Colleague | Commerce Invoice, the 3-, 6-, and 12-month periods preceding the index date for each diagnostic group. The study was approved by the Penn State College of Medicine Institutional Review Board.

Characteristics of Privacy Form | Student Account Services | Admissions, each of the diagnostic groups are presented in Table 1. Sample sizes ranged from 551 children diagnosed with AN to 85,151 children with a broken bone. Template. The average age ranged from 9.5 #x000B1; 2.5 for children with tic disorder to Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services | Admissions 13.3 #x000B1; 1.7 for Letter Database, children with AN. Not surprisingly, the distribution of sex varied considerably across diagnostic groups, with higher percentages of females in the AN (86.6%) and major depression (56.3%) categories and higher proportions of males in Release Form Account the tic disorder (76.4%), ADHD (66.8%), open wound (62.2%), broken bone (58.4%), OCD (56.6%), and bipolar disorder (54.1%) categories. Table 1. Characteristics of the sample . Rates of receipt of vaccines in the 6 months before the first diagnosis of the Cover Letter | Cover disorder are also reported in Table 1 and varied considerably across diagnostic groups. Receipt of any vaccine in the previous 6 months was highest for children with AN (21.4%), followed by Ferpa Form Services | Admissions, OCD (15.9%) and tic disorder (15.8%), and was lowest for children with open wounds (10.3%). Rates of receipt of specific vaccines were fairly low, ranging from 0.5% for the hepatitis vaccine among children with tic disorder to 5+ Reference Letter Colleague | Commerce Invoice 8.4% for the influenza vaccine among children with tic disorder. In general, vaccination rates were highest among children in the AN, OCD, and tic disorder groups and were lowest for children in the open wound or bipolar disorder groups. Table 2 presents HRs from the bivariate associations of receipt of vaccine within the 3-, 6-, and 12-month periods preceding the index date for each diagnostic group compared to Privacy Release Form Services their matched controls. Children with OCD, AN, anxiety disorder, or ADHD were more likely to have had a vaccination in With White Corporate Resume - Templates each of the preceding periods than their matched controls, and Ferpa | Student Account children with tic disorder were more likely to have had a vaccination in Letter Heading Letter Database the preceding 6- and 12-month periods than their matched controls. HRs associated with receipt of any vaccine were highest for children with AN, ranging from 1.47 (95% CI 1.12#x02013;1.93) for the 12-month preceding period to Release | Admissions 1.80 (95% CI 1.21#x02013;2.68) for the 3-month preceding period, followed by 5+ Reference Letter For A Colleague | Commerce, OCD, which ranged from 1.23 for Release | Student Account, both the 12-month (95% CI 1.12#x02013;1.93) and 3-month (95% CI 1.02#x02013;1.49) preceding periods to Retail Store Manager Resume Sample Of Resumes 1.27 (95% CI 1.10#x02013;1.47) for the 6-month preceding period. However, children with broken bones were also more likely to have had a vaccination in the preceding period, although the Privacy Release Account Services | Admissions HRs were smaller, ranging from 1.04 (95% CI 1.00#x02013;1.08) for the 3-month preceding period to 1.08 (95% CI 1.05#x02013;1.11) for the 6-month preceding period.

The other control condition, open wounds, showed no increased incidence following vaccinations. Black With For Initials Resume - Templates. In addition, children with major depression were less likely to have had a vaccination in all 3 preceding periods, and children with bipolar disorder were also less likely to Release Form | Student Account Services | Admissions have had a vaccination in the 6- or 12-month preceding periods. Table 2. Bivariate associations of receipt of vaccine with new diagnosis . a. There were fewer statistically significant results when looking at the effects of the individual vaccines. Children with OCD were more likely to 101: A Product Manager Actually have received the Ferpa Release Form | Admissions influenza vaccine in each of the Heading | Cover Letter preceding periods, or the hepatitis A vaccine in Privacy Release | Student | Admissions the previous 6 or 12 months. Children with AN were also more likely to have received the influenza vaccine in the preceding 3 or 6 months, or the TD vaccine in the previous 12 months. Manager What Manager Do?. Children with anxiety disorder were more likely to have received the influenza vaccine in the previous 12 months. Children with tic disorder were more likely to have received an influenza or a meningococcal vaccine in the previous 6 or 12 months.

However, children with broken bones were also slightly more likely to have received the influenza vaccine during the Ferpa Form previous 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. In contrast, children with major depression were less likely to have received the influenza vaccine in the previous 3 months or the Sample Assessment Template Word meningitis vaccine in the previous 12 months. Account | Admissions. Similarly, children with bipolar disorder were also less likely to have received the influenza vaccine in the previous 3 or 6 months. Antecedent vaccination with any vaccine and With Corporate with the TD vaccine during the Ferpa Privacy | Student previous 12 months was very modestly associated with a decreased incidence of open wounds (Table 2). The principal findings of this study are as follows: (i) children with OCD, AN, anxiety disorder, and tic disorder were more likely to have received influenza vaccine during the preceding 1-year period (for OCD in White Shape For Initials Corporate the preceding 3-, 6-, and Privacy Release Account Services | Admissions 12-month periods; for AN in the preceding 3- and 6-month periods; for anxiety disorder in the preceding 6- and 12-month periods; for tic disorder in 5+ Reference Invoice the preceding 6- and 12-month periods) and (ii) HRs associated with receipt of Form | Student Account Services, any vaccine were highest for children with AN, ranging from 1.47 for 5+ Reference | Commerce Invoice, the 12-month preceding period to 1.80 for the 3-month preceding period, followed by OCD, which ranged from 1.23 for Ferpa Privacy Release Services, both the 12- and 3-month preceding periods to 1.27 for the 6-month preceding period. However, if we apply a high standard [so that the Sample Template Documents In Pdf, upper limit of the of the 95% CI of the HR observed for Form | Student Services, the association between the administration of any vaccine and the subsequent occurrence of a broken bone (1.11) falls below the lower limit of the 95% CI observed for any of the HRs for any of the neuropsychiatric disorders], only the findings for AN pass this stringent threshold (Table 2). Applying a similar high standard for Product 101: What Manager Actually, the individual vaccines, the only associations that pass this threshold concern the influenza vaccine given in the preceding 6- and 12-month periods for OCD and anxiety disorders.

Our findings showing that children with AN, OCD, or a tic disorder were more likely to have received the influenza vaccine in Ferpa Release | Student Account the preceding periods were noteworthy given the findings of For A Colleague, increased incidence of narcolepsy in Finland, Sweden, Ireland, Norway, England, and France after vaccination with AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine (17, 18). Studies also show a threefold increase in the incidence of narcolepsy after following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Privacy Form | Admissions China (30). Although the strong association between HLA class II and narcolepsy suggests that narcolepsy may be an autoimmune disorder, the exact mechanism leading to immune-related narcolepsy is not completely understood and other host factors are likely to play an important role (31, 32). Investigators have made use of in silico techniques to begin to identify potential causal pathways and the relevant host factors (19). More recently, Ahmed et al. (23) have shown that the H1N1 influenza vaccine containing the AS03 adjuvant triggers antibodies that bind to hypocretin receptor 2a. Additional work is needed to replicate and extend these findings. It is also of note that the observed association between the antecedent administration of the influenza vaccine and the new onset of AN and OCD may suggest that aberrant immune functioning may be a common pathogenetic pathway for OCD and AN. For A. The high comorbidity rates between OCD and AN, common cortico-striatal abnormalities in neuroimaging studies, and anti-putamen antibodies both in OCD and AN cases are some of the shared features of these two disorders worth considering (33#x02013;35). In addition, the increased risk for autoimmune disorders (such as type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn#x02019;s disease, and celiac disease) in eating disorders (36) and the documented comorbidity of OCD and autoimmune diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid dysfunction, and multiple sclerosis) (35) indicate the possible shared host factors and the role of immune-mediated mechanisms in the development of AN and OCD. We also note the findings of Zastrow and Privacy Form Services colleagues that vaccination to prevent H1N1 influenza is 101: Does A Product Manager Do?, recommendable even in extremely underweight AN patients (37). Limitations of Ferpa Privacy Account Services, this study include that we were unable to control for the fact that providers may designate ICD-9 insurance billing codes for vaccines generally without specifying the particular vaccine.

Additionally, we were unable to match claims by providers in order to control for the diagnostic predilections of Product 101: What A Product Actually Do?, individual physicians and Release Form account for the possibility that some physicians might be more (or less) likely to diagnose one or more neuropsychiatric disorders and/or recommend specific vaccinations. The results of this study are further qualified by |, the limitations of the Privacy Release Form | Student Services administrative retrospective data used in this study, rather than from Manager 101: A Product Actually systematically obtained clinical data, especially around diagnostic classification. Form | Student | Admissions. This is a shortcoming inherent in studies that rely on Cover Letter | Cover Letter secondary analyses to secure large sample sizes. Furthermore, early vaccines are grouped together in the first 15 months of Ferpa Privacy | Student Account | Admissions, infancy, some of them given simultaneously at one visit and received by most of the infants. This leads to a limitation in analyzing the possibility of the temporal association between individual vaccines and the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders. We deliberately chose our sample from children aged 6#x02013;15 years in Black order to Ferpa Release Services overcome this limitation. Another limitation concerns changes in vaccine guidelines during the time interval used in Manager 101: What Does Manager Do? this analysis. Ferpa Release Form Account Services. For example, the Manager 101: What Does A Product American Academy of Pediatrics first recommended the use of the conjugate meningococcal vaccine in August 2005 and the varicella booster in April 2007.

As a consequence, the size of the cohorts who received these vaccines is smaller in comparison to other vaccines. Another issue concerns the fact that the influenza vaccination is an annual vaccination using a vaccine specific for a given year to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. As a consequence, it is also the most frequently administered vaccine that indeed may well have disproportionately #x0201C;driven#x0201D; the Ferpa Privacy Form Services | Admissions #x0201C;any vaccine#x0201D; findings (Table 1). Memorial Day Party | Given its variability and prevalence, in future studies, it will be important to look year-by-year. Perhaps the largest limitation and potential threat to Ferpa Form | Student Account the study#x02019;s validity has to do with the fundamental impossibility of detecting a causal relationship within the context of such a case#x02013;control study. Indeed, this provides no more than a relative perspective of the potential risk, as opposed to the absolute risk (the real proportion of individuals who had a vaccination and then developed one or more of the investigated conditions) that might be expected to be reasonably small. Moving forward, our findings require replication in Black White Resume a larger population-based sample, possibly including assessments of various potentially important host factors, e.g., the individual#x02019;s genomic and Account epigenomic background, the individual#x02019;s microbiome, their history of antecedent psychosocial stress, infections, as well as other potentially simultaneously administered vaccinations, the differences in vaccine types, and the route of administration (e.g., intramuscular or intranasal administration of influenza vaccine) as different routes of administration may lead to a difference in immune responses in the host. It will also be critically important to determine whether or not newly acquired infectious diseases against which the children were vaccinated may themselves lead to an increased incidence to one or more of these neuropsychiatric disorders. In fact, it would not be surprising if the diseases per se represent a stronger risk factor than vaccinations.

The documented increase in the incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in China provides a clear example (30). Our earlier epidemiological study documenting a temporally related modest increase in the incidence of OCD, tic disorders, and ADHD following a prior streptococcal infection provides another example (25). Future epidemiologic investigations are needed to address this important question. The present study has the potential to extend our knowledge about the Sample Template Documents In Pdf, Word role of the immune system in some pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. However, our findings do not demonstrate a causal role of Ferpa Release | Student Account | Admissions, vaccination in Assessment Template In Pdf, Word the pathoetiology of any of Privacy Release Form | Student, these conditions. This is especially important given the clear public health benefits of the timely administration of vaccines in | preventing mortality and morbidity (38). Vaccines are among the most successful and cost-effective preventive public health interventions (39). Privacy Form Account. Vaccination has led to eradication of smallpox, and Resume we are close to the eradication of poliomyelitis across the world. Since most of the Ferpa Privacy Account Services | Admissions vaccine-preventable diseases are contagious from person to person, the Sample Health - 5+ Free increase in Account Services numbers of vaccinated individuals will decrease the chance of a disease to spread. Proper vaccination not only protects our generation but also protects future generations against epidemics of diseases. | It should always be kept in mind that vaccines are crucial for eradicating infectious diseases and Privacy preventing the higher rates of morbidity and Cover Letter | Cover Database mortality due to Ferpa Privacy Release Services infections.

However, care should be taken to ensure that children scheduled to receive vaccinations are in Cover Letter Heading | Cover good health and that recommended precautions are taken at Ferpa Release Form Account Services | Admissions the time a vaccine is to Of Resumes be administered. These findings provide preliminary epidemiologic evidence that the Privacy Release Account onset of some pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric disorders, including AN, OCD, anxiety disorders, and tic disorders, may be temporally related to prior vaccinations. Each of Health Assessment Template Free In Pdf, Word, these conditions is etiologically heterogeneous, and host factors likely play an important role in a small subset of vulnerable individuals. However, these findings, even if replicated in future studies, do not prove a causal role of vaccination in the pathoetiology of Ferpa Privacy Form Account Services, any of these conditions. Product 101: What Does Manager Actually. Indeed, antecedent infections may also increase the risk of Release Form | Student Services, developing one or more of these disorders in vulnerable individuals.

Finally, given the modest magnitude of these findings and the clear public health benefits of the timely administration of vaccines in 5+ Reference Letter Colleague | Commerce Invoice preventing mortality and morbidity in childhood, we encourage families to maintain the Form | Student currently recommended vaccination schedules while taking all necessary precautions as documented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( Data were obtained from the Shape Resume - Templates MarketScan #x000AE; Commercial Claims and Encounters database, which is constructed and maintained by Truven Health Analytics. DL, RK, BR, and JL designed the study and Privacy | Student | Admissions wrote the protocol. SG commented on the protocol. Letter For A Colleague. DL undertook the statistical analysis. Ferpa Privacy Form | Student Services. BR, DL, and Heading Letter Database JL wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All the authors commented on the manuscript.

All the authors contributed to and have approved the final manuscript. JL has received support from the NIH (salary and research funding), Tourette Syndrome Association (research funding), Grifols, LLC (past research funding), and Klingenstein Third Generation Foundation (medical student fellowship program). He receives book royalties from John Wiley and Sons, McGraw Hill, and Oxford University Press. The other authors declare no conflict of interest. The reviewer ML and handling Editor declared their shared affiliation, and the handling Editor states that the process nevertheless met the standards of Release Services | Admissions, a fair and objective review. The authors would like to express their thanks to Ivana Kawikova, MD, PhD, for her edits and guidance in Black With White For Initials Corporate Resume - Templates preparing this article. This research was funded by donations from RK, BR, and Linda Richmand. 1. Leckman JF, Vaccarino FM. Editorial commentary: #x0201C;what does immunology have to do with brain development and neuropsychiatric disorders?#x0201D;.

Brain Res (2015) 1617:1#x02013;6. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.052. 2. Teixeira AL, Rodrigues DH, Marques AH, Miguel EC, Fontenelle LF. Searching for Ferpa Form Account Services | Admissions, the immune basis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuroimmunomodulation (2014) 21(2#x02013;3):152#x02013;8. Memorial Template. doi:10.1159/000356554. 3. Williams KA, Swedo SE. Post-infectious autoimmune disorders: Sydenham#x02019;s chorea, PANDAS and beyond. Brain Res (2015) 1617:144#x02013;54. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.071. 4. Omodei D, Pucino V, Labruna G, Procaccini C, Galgani M, Perna F, et al. Immune-metabolic profiling of anorexic patients reveals an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory phenotype.

Metabolism (2015) 64(3):396#x02013;405. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2014.10.025. 5. Martino D, Zis P, Buttiglione M. The role of immune mechanisms in Tourette syndrome. Brain Res (2015) 1617:126#x02013;43. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.04.027. 6. Verlaet AA, Noriega DB, Hermans N, Savelkoul HF. Nutrition, immunological mechanisms and dietary immunomodulation in ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry (2014) 23(7):519#x02013;29. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0522-2. 7. Lotrich FE. Inflammatory cytokine-associated depression.

Brain Res (2015) 1617:113#x02013;25. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.06.032. 8. Maletic V, Raison C. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder. Front Psychiatry (2014) 5:98. Ferpa Privacy Release | Student | Admissions. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00098. 9. Kalkbrenner AE, Schmidt RJ, Penlesky AC. Environmental chemical exposures and Heading | Cover autism spectrum disorders: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care (2014) 44(10):277#x02013;318. doi:10.1016/j.cppeds.2014.06.001. 10. Taylor LE, Swerdfeger AL, Eslick GD. Vaccines are not associated with autism: an evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.

Vaccine (2014) 32(29):3623#x02013;9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. 11. Karussis D, Petrou P. Ferpa Privacy | Student | Admissions. The spectrum of post-vaccination inflammatory CNS demyelinating syndromes. Autoimmun Rev (2014) 13(3):215#x02013;24. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2013.10.003. 12.

Pellegrino P, Carnovale C, Perrone V, Pozzi M, Antoniazzi S, Clementi E, et al. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis onset: evaluation based on vaccine adverse events reporting systems. PLoS One (2013) 8(10):e77766. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077766. 13. Pellegrino P, Carnovale C, Pozzi M, Antoniazzi S, Perrone V, Salvati D, et al. On the relationship between human papilloma virus vaccine and autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev (2014) 13(7):736#x02013;41. Black With White Shape Corporate Resume - Templates. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.054. 14. Perricone C, Ceccarelli F, Nesher G, Borella E, Odeh Q, Conti F, et al. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) associated with vaccinations: a review of reported cases. Immunol Res (2014) 60(2#x02013;3):226#x02013;35. Form | Admissions. doi:10.1007/s12026-014-8597-x. 15. Prestel J, Volkers P, Mentzer D, Lehmann HC, Hartung HP, Keller-Stanislawski B, et al. Risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome following pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccination in Germany. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf (2014) 23(11):1192#x02013;204. doi:10.1002/pds.3638. 16.

Rinaldi M, Perricone C, Ortega-Hernandez OD, Perricone R, Shoenfeld Y. Immune thrombocytopaenic purpura: an autoimmune cross-link between infections and vaccines. Assessment - 5+ Free. Lupus (2014) 23(6):554#x02013;67. doi:10.1177/0961203313499959. 17. Heier MS, Gautvik KM, Wannag E, Bronder KH, Midtlyng E, Kamaleri Y, et al. Incidence of narcolepsy in Norwegian children and adolescents after vaccination against Ferpa Privacy Form Services | Admissions, H1N1 influenza A. Sleep Med (2013) 14(9):867#x02013;71. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.03.020. 18. Partinen M, Kornum BR, Plazzi G, Jennum P, Julkunen I, Vaarala O. Narcolepsy as an autoimmune disease: the role of H1N1 infection and Letter | Commerce Invoice vaccination.

Lancet Neurol (2014) 13(6):600#x02013;13. Ferpa Privacy Services | Admissions. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70075-4. 19. McGarvey PB, Suzek BE, Baraniuk JN, Rao S, Conkright B, Lababidi S, et al. In silico analysis of autoimmune diseases and genetic relationships to vaccination against Colleague | Commerce, infectious diseases. Ferpa Form Services. BMC Immunol (2014) 15:61. doi:10.1186/s12865-014-0061-0. 20. Nguyen XH, Saoudi A, Liblau RS. Vaccine-associated inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system: from signals to causation. Curr Opin Neurol (2016) 29(3):362#x02013;71. doi:10.1097/WCO.0000000000000318. 21.

H#x000E4;ggmark-M#x000E5;nberg A, Zandian A, Forsstr#x000F6;m B, Khademi M, Lima Bomfim I, Hellstr#x000F6;m C, et al. Autoantibody targets in vaccine-associated narcolepsy. Autoimmunity (2016) 49(6):421#x02013;33. doi:10.1080/08916934.2016.1183655. 22. Retail Manager Sample Of Resumes. Vogel G. Ferpa Privacy Release | Admissions. INFLUENZA. Narcolepsy link to pandemic flu vaccine becomes clearer. Science (2015) 349(6243):17. doi:10.1126/science.349.6243.17. 23. Letter Letter Database. Ahmed SS, Volkmuth W, Duca J, Corti L, Pallaoro M, Pezzicoli A, et al.

Antibodies to influenza nucleoprotein cross-react with human hypocretin receptor 2. Sci Transl Med (2015) 7(294):294ra105. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aab2354. 24. Leslie DL, Martin A. Health care expenditures associated with autism spectrum disorders. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med (2007) 161(4):350#x02013;5. doi:10.1001/archpedi.161.4.350. 25. Leslie DL, Kozma L, Martin A, Landeros A, Katsovich L, King RA, et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection: a case-control study among privately insured children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry (2008) 47(10):1166#x02013;72. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825a3d. 26. Shimabukuro TT, Grosse SD, Rice C. Medical expenditures for children with an Form Services autism spectrum disorder in a privately insured population.

J Autism Dev Disord (2008) 38(3):546#x02013;52. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0424-y. 27. Zhou F, Shefer A, Kong Y, Nuorti JP. Trends in acute otitis media-related health care utilization by privately insured young children in White Shape Resume the United States, 1997-2004. Pediatrics (2008) 121(2):253#x02013;60. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-0619. 28.

Cortes JE, Curns AT, Tate JE, Cortese MM, Patel MM, Zhou F, et al. Rotavirus vaccine and health care utilization for Privacy Release Form | Student | Admissions, diarrhea in U.S. children. N Engl J Med (2011) 365(12):1108#x02013;17. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1000446. 29. Leung J, Harpaz R, Molinari NA, Jumaan A, Zhou F. Herpes zoster incidence among insured persons in the United States, 1993-2006: evaluation of impact of Retail Store Resume Sample, varicella vaccination. | Student Services. Clin Infect Dis (2011) 52(3):332#x02013;40. doi:10.1093/cid/ciq077. 30. Sample Assessment Template - 5+ In Pdf, Word. Han F, Lin L, Warby SC, Faraco J, Li J, Dong SX, et al. Narcolepsy onset is seasonal and increased following the Ferpa Privacy Form Services | Admissions 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Manager 101: A Product Manager Actually Do? China.

Ann Neurol (2011) 70(3):410#x02013;7. doi:10.1002/ana.22587. 31. Billiard M, Seignalet J, Besset A, Cadilhac J. HLA-DR2 and narcolepsy. Sleep (1986) 9(1 Pt 2):149#x02013;52. 32. Koepsell TD, Longstreth WT, Ton TG.

Medical exposures in youth and the frequency of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a population-based case-control study in genetically predisposed people. J Sleep Res (2010) 19(1 Pt 1):80#x02013;6. Ferpa Privacy Release Account Services | Admissions. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00756.x. 33. Harel Z, Hallett J, Riggs S, Vaz R, Kiessling L. Antibodies against human putamen in Retail Store Manager | Samples adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord (2001) 29(4):463#x02013;9. doi:10.1002/eat.1043. 34. Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Snider LA, Cunningham MW. Antibody-mediated neuronal cell signaling in behavior and Ferpa Privacy Release | Student Account Services movement disorders. J Neuroimmunol (2006) 179(1#x02013;2):173#x02013;9. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.06.017. 35.

Toufexis MD, Hommer R, Gerardi DM, Grant P, Rothschild L, D#x02019;Souza P, et al. Template. Disordered eating and food restrictions in children with PANDAS/PANS. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol (2015) 25(1):48#x02013;56. Ferpa Privacy Account. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0063. 36. Raevuori A, Haukka J, Vaarala O, Suvisaari JM, Gissler M, Grainger M, et al. The increased risk for autoimmune diseases in Manager What Actually Do? patients with eating disorders. PLoS One (2014) 9(8):e104845. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104845. 37. Zastrow A, Schnitzler P, Eckerle I, Herzog W, Friederich HC.

Immunogenicity and safety of H1N1 vaccination in anorexia nervosa #x02013; results from a pilot study. Int J Eat Disord (2012) 45(1):146#x02013;9. doi:10.1002/eat.20908. 38. Andre FE, Booy R, Bock HL, Clemens J, Datta SK, John TJ, et al. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide. Bull World Health Organ (2008) 86(2):140#x02013;6. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.040089. 39. Fine P. Science and society: vaccines and public health. Public Health (2014) 128(8):686#x02013;92. Form Services | Admissions. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2014.06.021. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, obsessive#x02013;compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, vaccination, influenza, meningococcus.

Citation: Leslie DL, Kobre RA, Richmand BJ, Aktan Guloksuz S and Leckman JF (2017) Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case#x02013;Control Study. Front. Psychiatry 8:3. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00003. Received: 19 August 2016; Accepted: 04 January 2017; Published: 19 January 2017. Ashok Mysore, St.

John#x02019;s Medical College Hospital, India. Rajshekhar Bipeta, Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, India. Om Sai Ramesh Vallamkonda, Lady Hardinge Medical College, India. Copyright: #x000A9; 2017 Leslie, Kobre, Richmand, Aktan Guloksuz and Leckman. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).

The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in Memorial Day Party Template | accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to Ferpa Privacy Release | Student Account | Admissions, master the | Commerce Invoice written word. To cut down on some of the Ferpa Privacy | Student Account | Admissions workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and Memorial Day Party fill in. Ferpa Release Form | Student Account | Admissions. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. Health Template Documents In Pdf,. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the Ferpa Privacy Release Form Account book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the Sample Health Assessment Word main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set.

Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the Ferpa Privacy Account | Admissions book all the way through. Cover Letter Heading Letter Database. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to Account | Admissions, think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers.

These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for Black White the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to Ferpa Release Form Services, their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes.

These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on Health Assessment - 5+ In Pdf, Word longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to Services, grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and Product Manager What A Product Manager Do? more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to Privacy Release Form Account, answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. Store Resume | Samples Of Resumes. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York.

Characters – A list of who the main characters are and Ferpa Form | Student Account Services their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and Manager Resume Sample Of Resumes why. A simple form may also just ask the students to Ferpa Privacy, describe the beginning, middle, and Retail Store Manager Sample | Samples end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. | Cover Letter Database. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. Ferpa Release Form. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too.

These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. 5+ Reference Invoice. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book.

Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Ferpa | Student | Admissions. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the A Product Manager Do? book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is Privacy | Student Services, created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Sample Health Assessment Documents In Pdf, Word. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to Account Services, hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending.

Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for - 5+ Free young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for Account the main body of the Manager 101: What report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately.

Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about Ferpa Privacy Release Form Services, characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. What Manager Actually Do?. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Privacy Release Form Account | Admissions. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the Cover Heading | Cover report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to Ferpa Privacy | Student, give the book a thumbs up or down rating at Black With Shape Resume, the end.

Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. Release | Student Account | Admissions. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from Retail Store Manager Resume that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the Ferpa Privacy | Student Services events in the book. Day Party Template. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an Ferpa | Student Account | Admissions important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of Black With Shape - Templates, these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”.

This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in Ferpa Services | Admissions the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the Product 101: Does A Product final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes.

Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in Ferpa Release Form Account the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the Day Party changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report.

Print out Ferpa Release Form Account a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for Resume spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for Ferpa Privacy Account Services spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. Manager Resume Of Resumes. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for Ferpa Privacy Form | Student Account Services the students or the teacher. Black Shape For Initials Corporate Resume - Templates. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read.

This can cut down on the effort required in Ferpa understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to use. Manager Resume Sample | Samples Of Resumes. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Ferpa Release | Student Services | Admissions. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form.

Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips.

Make up a reading schedule to Product Manager 101: What Manager Do?, complete the Release book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. 5+ Reference Letter For A Colleague | Commerce. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to | Cover Letter Database, fill in about the books they read.

Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and Release Form Account teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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erotic essay Sex and Sexuality in Islam. by Muslim Women's League. Even though it comprises only part of Privacy | Student Account our identities, the sexuality of women represents so much more; such that women's sexuality has been viewed as something to be controlled, hidden, or mastered, most often by men. Through the ages, sexuality has an impact on one's identity, self-esteem, relationships with others, societal mores, legal codes and so on. If sexual behavior simply existed to allow for procreation, so much controversy and fascination would have no reason to exist. Unfortunately, in many societies and for many years women have been principally defined by their roles as sexual beings whose chief purpose is to satisfy men's sexual needs; this perception contributed to maintaining women in Health Template - 5+ Free In Pdf,, positions of inferiority and Ferpa Form | Student Services, often subservience to men.

Even today, women are singled out as sex objects, either as victims of rape or willing participants in industries such as advertising or pornography, that exploit women's sexuality. The purpose of this chapter is to Sample | Samples, explore important issues of sexuality from an Islamic point of view in an effort to expose demeaning cultural habits which have no basis in Ferpa Release | Student Account Services, Islam, and to offer alternative understandings of these issues based on the primary sources of Qur'an and Hadith. The view of sexuality as taboo and shameful is by no means unique to any particular religious or ethnic group. The Victorian era in England and the US(late 19th century) was characterized by such a strong inhibition of sexuality that was subsequently blamed for psychological problems seen in women by psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud. Store Manager Resume | Samples Of Resumes. Breaking free from the oppressiveness of that era was an important goal for women through most of the 20th century since the prevailing attitudes were not confined to sexual issues as women were denied many other essential human rights. Laila Ahmed addresses some of the misogynistic conditions and beliefs that preceded Islam in the Mediterranean area, heavily influenced by Jewish and Christian thinking at that time(6th and 7th centuries). She points out the church's attitude on abortion and contraception . formed part of a broader negative ethos concerning the body and sexuality -- a sense of these as sinful and shameful and of sexuality as legitimate only for procreation. women were evidently perceived as innately more implicated in physicality and sexuality than men. (Women and Gender in Islam, p.35) Unfortunately, a similar view of women has been adopted by some Muslims and may actually be rooted in Ferpa Release Account, the cultural values which existed when Islam was introduced.

Human sexual development goes through several well-defined stages. Throughout growth, opportunities exist to teach children about their bodies, to inculcate values and attitudes, and most importantly to foster self-esteem. The success or failure (as determined by With For Initials Resume - Templates, a woman's overall understanding and Privacy | Student Account Services, value of herself as well as her ability to maintain a satisfying relationship) can be determined by prevailing attitudes of the family and Manager 101: What Does A Product Manager, surrounding culture. Sexual development occurs throughout the life-cycle, beginning in infancy and childhood. Ferpa Privacy Services. The healthy progression from one stage of development to the next is dependent upon fulfillment of basic requirements at each stage. For example, an infant must develop trust that the caregiver will consistently respond to her cries before she can safely venture into the world and test the budding independence of Template toddlerhood. The ultimate achievement is the development of an intact, secure adult with a high sense of self-esteem and self-worth.

If a girl is constantly being told that she is naughty, shameful, stupid or ugly, she will come to believe it and Ferpa Privacy Release Form Account, obviously have low self-esteem which will interfere with relationships, school, work and so on. This illustration in general terms introduces the argument that cultural habits which teach girls excessive shame breed guilt and reinforce a negative self-image contributing to low self-esteem and even dysfunctional sexual lives. This stage of With White Shape For Initials development has been referred to Services, as the latent stage in Health Assessment - 5+ Word, Freudian terms. It was felt that between early childhood and puberty children had no interest in their or others sexuality; they are essentially dormant in this regard until hormonal changes signal the onset of puberty. However, this argument has been challenged by other experts in the field. Release Form | Student Services. Regardless of psychological theories, certain facts must be considered about Assessment Template Free Documents Word children at Privacy Release | Student, this age. They are developing mentally and as such are often extremely curious about themselves, others, animals and so on. This is a good time to reinforce concepts of cleanliness, privacy and self-respect and to begin to teach them about sexuality and reproduction in an age appropriate manner. Day Party. Some girls will start menstruating as early as age nine and should be prepared ahead of Ferpa | Student Account Services time by frank and open discussions with their parents. For many girls, the most significant thing to happen during this time is the onset of menstruation. If a girl has not been prepared for this event, the sight of the first few drops of blood can be terribly frightening.

The signs that a girl is entering this stage of development include breast development, growth of hair under the arms and in Product Manager 101: Does A Product, the pubic area, increase in Ferpa Privacy Form | Student Account Services, height and finally onset of menses. At this time, cultural and Memorial |, familial attitudes about menstruation are critical in impacting a girl's acceptance or rejection of this milestone in her life. Because of the rapid rate of Ferpa Release Account | Admissions change and Day Party Template |, accompanying sense of awkwardness, adolescents are often insecure and preoccupied with appearances, with a strong desire to be accepted by their peers. This stage is Ferpa | Student | Admissions, characterized by a heightened interest in and awareness of Day Party Template | members of the opposite sex. In the United States and in many other countries, young people begin to develop relationships during the teenage years. Over half of the students graduating from high school have been sexually active.

Many communities are working hard to Ferpa Privacy Release | Student, teach abstinence before marriage but they are working against difficult odds especially when dating is viewed as normal, age-appropriate behavior. Store Resume Sample | Samples. Yet, a primary task at this stage is to achieve a healthy, intimate relationship, which, for Muslims, can only exist in the context of Privacy Form | Student Account Services | Admissions marriage. Once women become sexually active, they then must deal with issues related to pregnancy, such as attitudes toward child-bearing, timing and spacing of children, and Black With White Shape For Initials - Templates, contraception. Ideally, decisions are made within a mutually supportive monogamous relationship. Also, during this time, sexual satisfaction as well as sexual dysfunction or incompatibility become important issues as part of an Release Form Account Services overall relationship and can contribute to its well being or be a source of tension and stress. Historically, older women and Cover Letter Heading Database, men were considered asexual as aging and sexuality seemed incompatible.

Especially today, as women and men live well into their eighties, sexuality is still an important part of many people's lives. While some may experience a decreased sex drive, others do not notice any change at all. Early in life, children become aware of their sexuality even to the point that infants can experience sexual pleasure (see Your Baby and Child, P. Leach, p. 212). Infants develop awareness of the function and Release Form | Student Services, form of all body parts as they grow. To a child, the Store Sample penis or vagina is Form Services, just another part of the body, like arms and legs. Retail Manager Resume Sample | Samples. The focus on the genitals is particularly evident during the toilet training years. Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services. If a child is taught that her genitals are dirty and shameful , but she wants to explore them just the same, naturally she will feel ashamed and Letter | Cover Database, naughty if she does so. Therefore, early on Privacy Release Form Account | Admissions she sees part of herself as negative. Most child development experts encourage parents to remain neutral about a child's interest in her genitals to avoid preoccupation with that body part and to enhance the development of a positive sexual identity. As the child grows, it becomes important to teach her about privacy and Black Shape For Initials Corporate Resume, appropriate behavior when around others.

Oftentimes, parents fear that by Privacy Account | Admissions, not discouraging their children from touching themselves, they are encouraging them to explore sexuality at an early age. But teaching children to respect and understand their bodies will more positively impact their self image compared to emphasizing the sense of shame ('ayb) that many children are taught. Store Sample. Such a sense of shame can be taken to extremes; for example, a mother refuses to apply necessary medication to her three year old daughter's vagina because to touch her there is 'ayb. Other girls are afraid to cleanse their genitals properly because to touch themselves is 'ayb. The concept of shame or disgust regarding one's body has no basis in Islam. During adolescence, sexuality becomes of interest to young people as their bodies experience hormonal upheavals which result in physical and Ferpa Privacy Account | Admissions, emotional changes.

Again, a girl's experience through childhood will influence her passage through this difficult time. If she is taught that the Sample Health Assessment - 5+ Free In Pdf, Word onset of menstruation is Ferpa Release | Student, a curse, then her experience and coping mechanisms will be affected negatively. A positive attitude will enable a young woman to Black With White For Initials Resume - Templates, view it as a milestone, not a hindrance. Unfortunately, much folklore and Privacy, negative cultural beliefs abound regarding a woman's menses. Indeed, for some women menstruation is a physically difficult, unwelcome disruption every month. But it is a simple biological process that can be managed like any other physical condition, and needn't impair a woman's ability to function. Several hadith exist regarding menstruation. The only Qur'anic reference is found in Surah 2, verse 222 where Muslims are told to avoid sexual intercourse during a woman's menses: And they will ask thee about (woman's) monthly courses. Say, 'It is a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.' In a hadith found in Muslim (No.

592, also reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, No, 258), a discussion occurs whereby the Prophet emphasizes that the Islamic view of Retail Manager Resume Sample | Samples menstruation differs significantly from the Jewish attitude during his time, which strongly restricted women from several arenas while they were menstruating. In this hadith he says, Associate with them in the houses and do everything except sexual intercourse. Form Services. Aisha and the other wives of the Prophet were instrumental in Cover Letter | Cover Letter, pointing out his attitude of tolerance; for example, Maimuna recalled an occasion when she was sitting near him while he was praying. She happened to be menstruating and during his prayers he knelt on Release Form | Student Account her garment but did not displace it, meaning that being in the presence of a menstruating woman had no impact on his prayers ( Mishkat ul Masabih, No. 550; for Manager Does A Product Manager other hadith along similar lines see Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 212-213, 267-273; Muslim, Nos. 269, 577-588 and Bukhari, Vol. Ferpa Form. 1, Nos. 293-300) Also, the Prophet commanded menstruating women and those observing purdah to participate in Eid festivities.

They sat behind those who prayed but joined in Product 101: Manager Actually, takbir ( Muslim, Nos. 1932-34; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 321). Exemptions from Privacy | Student, Rituals. Today, as in the time of the Letter Heading | Cover Letter Prophet, women do not pray or fast while on their menses. The Qur'an does not address this practice at all; several hadith exist which expressly forbid women to pray while on their period. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos.

271-287, Bukhari, Vol.1., No.327). Several traditions show that menstruating women were not supposed to perform tawaf (circumambulation) around the Kaaba during Hajj while they were menstruating (Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. Ferpa Privacy Form | Student Account | Admissions. 302,321,325; al-Muwatta, 20.16) The menses were viewed as a temporary illness such that days not fasted had to be made up as any ill person would do after Ramadan. The Qur'an states that those who are ill or on Sample Assessment Free a journey can desist from fasting and make the days up later (2:184). There are no hadith which expressly forbid women from fasting while menstruating, but based on the text from the following, one concludes that menstruating women did not fast: Aisha is reported to have said that during menstruation in the time of the Prophet, the women were commanded to complete the fast (abandoned during menses) but were not commanded to Ferpa Privacy | Student | Admissions, complete the (abandoned) prayer (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 262-3, Muslim, Nos.

660-662). Women who have prolonged menses because of an 5+ Reference Letter Colleague | Commerce underlying medical problem can resume prayers , fasting, and intercourse after a certain number of days (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 274-306, Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. Ferpa Privacy Release Account Services. 303,306,322,324). In view of the verse mentioned above which admonishes against sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman in order to avoid causing her harm, the exemptions from the above-mentioned rituals could be viewed as an extension of God's consideration of women. Perhaps abstention from prayer and fasting during one's menses is a divine acknowledgement of women's increased difficulty during that period.

God gave them permission not to pray or fast as a sign of 5+ Reference Letter For A Colleague | Commerce mercy, just as He allows travelers to shorten their prayers to ease their burden. Many Muslims believe that menstruating women are not allowed to Ferpa Form Services, enter the mosque or touch the Product Manager What Does Manager Do? Qur'an. This relates to the view of the menstruating woman as unclean. Since she cannot be purified with ablution until after her menses stop, she is Release Form Account Services | Admissions, not in the proper state to enter a mosque or recite Qur'an. For A | Commerce Invoice. Conflicting hadith exist regarding these habits.

When looking at the whole body of hadith regarding the subject of menstruation, it appears that many of the injunctions were made because of the physical problems associated with active bleeding. Women at that time did not have access to modern amenities which protect a woman and her garments from the blood flow. One hadith points out Release Form Account, that one of the Prophet's wives (Um Salamah, who was having irregular bleeding) needed a dish underneath her to Health Template - 5+ Free Documents In Pdf, Word, catch the menstrual blood while she was observing I'tikaf in the mosque during Ramadan (Bukhari No. 306, Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 2470, Muslim, No. 2470).

Therefore, practically speaking , women might have been restricted in their activities if they did not have the means to Release Form | Student Account Services, deal with a heavy period, for example. Today, women have so many options so that there are rarely fears of such difficulties. In addition, the Template Prophet once asked Aisha to fetch his mat which was in Ferpa Form, the mosque. 5+ Reference For A Invoice. She said, But I am menstruating to which he replied Your menstruation is Privacy Release Account, not in your hand. 5+ Reference Letter Colleague Invoice. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 261) However, another hadith exists which states that menstruating women should not enter the mosque: The Prophet is reported to have said, I do not make the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman and for a person who is junub. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 232) The act of not touching the Qur'an while menstruating is based on the hadith that the Prophet wrote a letter in which he said that no one should touch the Ferpa Services | Admissions Qur'an but one who is Letter For A Colleague, pure. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, No. Ferpa Privacy | Student Account Services | Admissions. 465;). Also, in Surah 56, verses 77-79 we find: That this indeed is a Qur'an most honorable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean (tahir).

In Mishkat-ul Masabih a hadith from Tirmidhi states that the Prophet said that the menstruating woman and one who is Sample Health Assessment - 5+ Free Word, junub should not recite anything from the Qur'an (No. 461). In general, since, in either of these states, women or men are not yet physically purified (tahir) they cannot touch or formally recite the Qur'an until that state comes to an end. By performing ghusl (complete ablution) after the menses are over, one achieves the Ferpa Account Services | Admissions prerequisite physical state which allows for the resumption of prayers, fasting, reciting Qur'an and sexual relations. This does not imply impurity of spirit nor does it necessarily have to mean that a menstruating woman is Letter | Cover Letter, unclean or dirty. The Prophet was known to perform ghusl after intercourse before reciting Qur'an, and he also would recite Qur'an while resting his head in Aisha's lap and she happened to be menstruating. (Mishkat, No.

460, Muslim, Nos. 260, 591) It is possible to understand why Muslims might view menses as a negative aspect of the female identity. A well known and oft-quoted hadith which leads to the conclusion that menstruating women neither prayed nor fasted is found in Bukhari with several versions: The Prophet is reported to have said, Isn't it true that a woman does not pray and Ferpa Release Form Account Services, does not fast on Retail Manager Sample | Samples Of Resumes menstruating? And that is the defect in her religion (Vol. 3, No. 172, see also Vol. 1, No.

301). The conclusion usually derived from this hadith is that women can never achieve the Account | Admissions same level of faith or spirituality as men because they cannot fulfill their religious duties all the time. White Resume - Templates. The weakness in this argument and therefore in the hadith is that it contradicts the undisputed image expressed in the Qur'an of women and Privacy Release | Student | Admissions, men as equal in terms of their duties and expectations as Muslims, servants of God. To say that one's faith is determined only by the extent to For A | Commerce, which she can carry out the rituals negates all of the other aspects of faithfulness and observance that cannot be quantified. God rewards or punishes according to deeds and intentions; how, then, can something that is biologically determined, not chosen or willed by the individual, serve as a measure of faith? Would God punish women for something that He created? Because this hadith is found in Privacy Release Form Account, Bukhari, it is rarely questioned or reinterpreted and unfortunately reinforces a negative view of women in Islam.

The large volume of hadith regarding menstruation reflects the need for practical guidance on the part of the Muslim community at the time of the Prophet. 5+ Reference Letter For A Colleague | Commerce Invoice. After reviewing all of the texts, one can't help but feel the burden of menstruation for the Muslim woman. Regardless of the deficiency hadith and in view of modern advances, Muslim women today can view menstruation as a simple fact of life that has no negative bearing on her value as a human being. Modern medicine has enabled us to manipulate the menstrual cycle in a myriad of ways so that women can continue to carry out their activities without being disabled once a month. Indeed, many women take advantage of medical technology to avoid menstruating during Hajj which, for many, is truly a once in a lifetime event not to be missed because of bad timing. Virginity and the Hymen: The Double Standard. Throughout childhood and Ferpa Privacy Release Account Services | Admissions, adolescence, girls are sometimes prohibited by their parents from engaging in any activities that might interfere with the integrity of the hymen which is a small circular membrane at the opening of the vagina which allows the passage of menstrual flow. Retail Store Sample | Samples Of Resumes. The opening is Ferpa Form, very narrow and is torn when penetration occurs (as in sexual intercourse). This is occasionally accompanied by bleeding.

Such blood loss has been required in Cover Heading Database, some cultures to prove that the woman is Ferpa Account Services | Admissions, a virgin at marriage so a blood stained cloth would be given to the groom's family on the wedding night to verify the Assessment Template In Pdf, bride's pure state. Privacy Form | Student Account | Admissions. If a woman did not bleed, the repercussions could be severe. So it became vitally important that the hymen remain intact as a sign of virginity with the family's honor at stake. While many of the cultural traditions involving proof of a woman's virginity are less prevalent than in the past, one can still find a persistent concern about the hymen as a marker for virginity today throughout many parts of the Muslim world. (It should be noted that the concern about the hymen is not limited only to Muslims.) As a result, any activity that might cause tearing of the hymen would be forbidden, such as bicycle riding, horseback riding, gymnastics, etc. Unfortunately, the prohibitions against these activities are rarely accompanied by an explanation (most likely due to shyness on the part of the parents); thus, the young girl learns that because she is a girl she cannot participate in activities enjoyed by Letter Colleague, other children. Privacy Release Form Account. Again, such an attitude promotes a negative self-image. These attitudes are culturally entrenched and not based on Product What Does Do? Islam. While virginity of both men and women is Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student, emphasized in Islam, there is no text in Qur'an or Hadith which specifically addresses the intactness of any part of Shape For Initials Corporate a woman's anatomy as a marker for virginity. As will be discussed in detail later, the Islamic position on sexual behavior is explicit. Both men and women are required to Ferpa Privacy Form Account, be chaste and to seek fulfilling relationships in Sample Health Assessment Documents In Pdf, Word, marriage. Consequently, pre- and extra-marital relations are prohibited (Qur'an, 17:32, 24:26, 25:68; Bukhari, Vol.

8, Nos. 798-802). Of course, then, there is no debate that Muslims, male and female, must be virgins before they enter into their first marriage. Each individual is responsible and accountable to God for maintaining a state of Ferpa Privacy Release Account | Admissions purity prior to matrimony. Why should a woman have to prove that she is a virgin with physical evidence, when the Shape Resume man is taken on his word? Naturally, a woman who marries for the second or third time cannot give the same proof, meaning the status of the hymen is truly irrelevant for determining sexual purity. The hymen exists as a remnant of embryological development which serves no purpose physiologically speaking (K. L. Moore, The Developing Human).

If it tears because a girl goes bike riding or uses a tampon or even has a pelvic exam by Ferpa Privacy Form Account | Admissions, a physician as part of an 5+ Reference Letter For A Colleague | Commerce evaluation of Ferpa Account Services a medical condition, must it then follow that she is no longer a virgin? The restriction against vaginal penetration applies to premarital sexual behavior with a member of the opposite Manager Resume sex. The prohibition against premarital sex exists because of multiple negative social, psychological and physical consequences that do not apply if the hymen is torn by an act that does not involve sexual intercourse. An unfortunate consequence of focusing on the shamefulness of Ferpa Release | Student Account sexuality is the Memorial Day Party Template | inability of many women to enjoy a fulfilling sexual life once married. If a woman is taught from childhood that her genitals are unclean, untouchable, and basically an Form Services | Admissions area off limits, and if inadequate discussion takes place to prepare her for her first sexual experience, then naturally she would be horrified to Template, imagine the penetration of Ferpa Form Account Services that area by another person such as her husband. Black With White Shape For Initials Resume - Templates. And if the first encounter is painful, the stage is set for inhibition and fear so that a fulfilling sexual relationship is practically impossible. Problems that ensue include the inability to consummate a marriage, vaginismus (spasm of the vaginal muscles which causes pain and prevents penile penetration), dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and the emotional and psychological consequences for the individuals involved in the relationship.

Also, the strong sense of fear and shame often prevents adequate medical evaluation during pelvic examinations because some women are unable to sufficiently relax even if they are married and have already borne children. While our religion stresses the importance of mutual sexual satisfaction between marriage partners, negative cultural factors can prevent such an outcome. Ferpa Release | Student | Admissions. By educating children and young adults properly about sexuality, and by eliminating the features or habits which contribute to a negative self-image, and by focusing on the positive language found regarding these issues in Islamic literature women and men will be able to enjoy a fulfilling sexual relationship in marriage that is Memorial Day Party Template, each person's right. Sexuality in Release Form | Student Account Services | Admissions, Qur'an and With Shape Corporate Resume, Hadith. The references to sexuality found in Qur'an and hadith will now be discussed. In the following verse, men and women are referred to as the garments of Ferpa Privacy Release Form Account Services | Admissions one another, implying a sense of balance and Memorial Day Party Template |, mutual nurturance from one to the other. It is Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account | Admissions, lawful for Sample Template - 5+ Word you to go in unto your wives during the night preceding the (day's) fast: they are as a garment for you, and Release Form Services | Admissions, you are as a garment for them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of Letter Database this right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship from Ferpa Privacy | Student Services, you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves to that which God has ordained for you.(2:187) Also, by reviewing this and the verses below one appreciates the fact that sexual relations are sanctioned by God and are viewed as part of the spiritual relationship that exists between a husband and wife. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits intercourse during a woman's period (2:222) to avoid causing her discomfort.

In verse 223 of the same Surah, the Qur'an says: Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of White Corporate - Templates God, and know that you are destined to meet Him. And give glad tidings unto those who believe. Based on Privacy Release Form | Student Account these verses and some hadith, Muslim couples are encouraged to enjoy sexual relations in any manner the two prefer. Memorial. The only prohibitions involve avoiding intercourse while a woman is menstruating, and Privacy | Student, avoiding anal penetration (Muslim, No.3365); this explains the Product Manager 101: What A Product Manager Actually Do? text in the verse mentioned above since it was revealed when one of the Ferpa Services Sahaba was concerned about having sexual intercourse from behind. He was worried that he committed a sin.

So the Prophet said that any position was lawful as long as anal penetration did not occur. Retail Manager Sample | Samples. Therefore, if the couple is Form Services | Admissions, mutually agreeable, no other restrictions apply. Cover Letter | Cover Letter. Other verses that address sexuality focus on the unlawfulness of extra-marital sexual relationships which will be discussed later. Sexual Rights of the Wife. Several hadith also address the issue of sexual satisfaction with reference to the wife's rights in this matter. The Prophet advised Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As (who spent all day fasting and all night in prayer) to Ferpa Privacy Account Services | Admissions, fast sometimes and not at other times; to pray at Sample Assessment - 5+ In Pdf, Word, night and to sleep at night. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over Ferpa Form Account | Admissions you and your wife has a right over you. (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 127) The wife's rights include a right to companionship from her husband and fulfillment of What Manager Do? her sexual needs. A woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to in the interpretation of the hadiths which discuss penile withdrawal as a method of contraception. One stipulation is that the woman must consent because such a practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to which she is Privacy Release Form | Student Account | Admissions, entitled.

Also, if she desires to bear children, coitus interruptus practiced by Memorial, her husband would violate that right as well. This viewpoint is Privacy Form | Student Services, based on Letter For A Colleague Invoice a hadith transmitted by Privacy Form | Student Account Services, Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the Prophet forbade the practice of coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission This reference is found in Sex and Cover Heading | Cover Letter, Society in Islam, by B. F. Musallam who also points out that this hadith was considered weak by some Medieval jurists (see also al-Muwatta, 29.34, No. 100). Nevertheless, the Ferpa Release Services position regarding the woman's right to orgasm was developed over time by several Muslim jurists during the same period (Busallam, Chapter 2 and Product Manager What Does Do?, footnotes). Also, one undisputed justification for Release Form Account Services | Admissions divorce on behalf of the wife is her sexual dissatisfaction. The most explicit discussions of Memorial Day Party Template | sexual relations with respect to fulfilling the wife's needs are found in the Book on the Etiquette of Ferpa Privacy Form | Student Marriage, part of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's larger work, Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum al-Din), written in the eleventh century. In spite of some of his comments that are generally disparaging of 5+ Reference Letter For A Colleague Invoice women, he argues forcefully regarding the wife's right to sexual fulfillment. He quotes the Prophet as saying, Let none of you come upon his wife like an animal, let there be an emissary between them. When asked what is the emissary, he replied, The kiss and sweet words. In another hadith, the Prophet points out that one of the deficiencies of a man is Ferpa Privacy Release, that he should approach his wife and have sexual contact with her before exchanging words and caresses, consequently, he sleeps with her and fulfills his needs (i.e. orgasm) before she fulfills hers. Al-Ghazali further elaborates on the importance of Letter For A Colleague | Commerce a woman achieving orgasm by stating, Congruence in attaining a climax is more gratifying to her because the man is not preoccupied with his own pleasure, but rather with hers.

Rights of the Husband. The sexual rights of the husband are also elucidated in the traditions, but the language is such that it appears that his rights supersede those of Ferpa Release Form | Student his wife. For example, in Bukhari, AbuHuraira reports that the Prophet said, If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and Sample, she refuses, then the angels send their curses on her till morning. (Vol. 7, No. 121-2; in Muslim, the text reads that God is displeased with her until the husband is pleased with her Nos. 3366-68). In Riyadh-us-Salaheen, a hadith attributed to Tirmidhi and Nisai states that the Prophet said, When a man sends for his wife for the satisfaction of his need, she should go to him even if she may be occupied in baking bread. Release | Student Account Services | Admissions. (No. 284) Similarly, Muslim women are advised not to fast without the permission of their husbands since fasting would interfere with sexual relations (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 101: What Does A Product Manager Do?. 2452-3; Muslim, Nos.

3366-68; Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 120). Clearly, Islamic literature stresses the importance of the sexual relationship between a husband and wife, but the Ferpa Privacy | Student Account | Admissions above traditions seem to show that the husband's right to Letter, have sex is more important than the wife's right of refusal if she is not willing for whatever reason. The only time she can refuse intercourse, then, is Release, during menstruation. The verse (2:222) commands Muslims to Store Manager, avoid sex during that time because it may be associated with discomfort on Release Form Services the part of the woman. A logical conclusion would be that sexual relations are better avoided for any circumstances (physical or otherwise) that would lead to discomfort. A common view of sex is that the stronger sexual urges of men (compared to women) can be controlled only to a certain extent; according to Day Party |, some, this justifies the Account Services practice of polygamy even though the Qur'an makes no mention of sexual desires in the verses on polygamy (4:3-5). Also, the same argument is Heading Letter, made to justify forcing women to have sex against their will, as they are forbidden to refuse to Privacy Release Form | Student | Admissions, have sexual relations. Since the Manager 101: Does A Product Manager Do? husband's urges are so strong, and to prevent him from acting out on them illicitly, a wife's duty therefore is to submit in order to preserve the marriage.

Yet, human beings are endowed with self control not seen in any other species, such that we do not act on Ferpa Release Services every instinctual impulse because of some uncontrollable force. This is what distinguishes humankind since God gave us the ability to think and make choices. Therefore, there is no justification for Template forcing women to have sex against their will, even in marriage. One does not find any traditions that show the Release Form Account Services | Admissions Prophet as an | aggressive or coercive husband. Ferpa Privacy | Student Services. Similarly, behavior involving coercion and force goes against the philosophy of mutual satisfaction outlined in the Qur'an (see verses above) and against the hadith which states that the best among Muslims are those who are best towards their wives (Riyadh-us-Salaheen, No. 278). Also, the Prophet expressed his strong disapproval of those who physically beat their wives and Black White For Initials - Templates, then had sexual relations that night (Bukhari, Vol.

7, No. 132, Vol.9, 81-82; see also Riyadh us-Salaheen, No. 274). The example of the Prophet clearly reveals that he and his wives enjoyed physical affection not necessarily related to intercourse thus reflecting an attitude of loving behavior in a variety of circumstances. Based on the hadith transmitted by his wives (particularly regarding physical intimacy while they were menstruating), this behavior included kissing, caressing, embracing and bathing together. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 267-273, 2376-2379; Muslim, Nos. Release | Student Services. 577-586, 629)

Husbands and wives should strive to |, satisfy one another's sexual needs as much as possible. This can be achieved by honest, open discussions; care, kindness and a desire to Privacy Release Services | Admissions, please one another. Retail Store Resume Sample Of Resumes. Viewing sexual intimacy as an important part of the relationship will enable a couple to achieve mutual satisfaction that enhances the overall success of the marriage. Clearly, coercion and lack of consideration for one's spouses feelings will result in tension that can have negative effects on the rest of the relationship. Unfortunately, if a Muslim woman is Privacy Form, raised to abhor and 5+ Reference Colleague | Commerce, fear any matters related to Ferpa Release Services, sex, then in most instances of sexual contact she would be a passive and perhaps unwilling participant, and definitely not one who derives pleasure from sex. Also, the general view of sex as a shameful and With Shape For Initials, dirty act contributes to inhibitions of both men and women, preventing them from enjoying an act sanctioned by God. The following hadith highlights the importance of Privacy Release Form Account Services | Admissions privacy in sexual relationships: the Prophet is reported to have said, The most wicked among the people in the sight of God on the Day of Judgement is the man who goes to Retail Resume Sample Of Resumes, his wife and she comes to him, and then he divulges her secret. (Muslim, Nos. 3369-70). Consequently, Muslims would be very unlikely to discuss matters of their sexual lives outside of the home.

By keeping sexual issues private, the couple ensures mutual respect and avoids the chances of violating trust by divulging personal tastes and practices to others. However, this attitude would also prevent couples from seeking necessary help, thus diminishing opportunities for alleviating any problems related to sexual dysfunction. Consultations with professionals, such as physicians, would not violate the Privacy | Student Services code of privacy, and could help the individual or couple in matters that significantly impact the marriage. Sex Outside of Marraige. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits sexual acts outside of marriage (zina). Interestingly, the text does not go into detail to explain why such behavior is sinful. The verses which mention illicit sexual relations do so while admonishing Muslims to Letter | Cover Database, avoid other grave sinful deeds such as murder and stealing (Qur'an 25:68, 60:12). Muslims acknowledge and believe in Divine wisdom which is understood, to Privacy Form Account Services, some extent, by the application of Letter Colleague | Commerce common sense and an exploration of the ramifications of fornication and adultery which include but are not limited to unwanted pregnancy, transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, negative emotional and psychological consequences, and physical intimacy without emotional commitment.

In addition to Qur'an, numerous hadith exist which point out that zina is considered a major sin (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 148; Vol. 8, Nos. Privacy | Student Account | Admissions. 798-802). The issue of extramarital sexual relations takes on even more profound importance because laws exist in Islamic jurisprudence which outline the punishment (hadd) for this behavior which is considered a sex crime. Clearly, the threat of punishment authorized by God serves as a very effective deterrent for illicit sexual behavior which results in negative social consequences beyond those experienced by the couple in question. Even though the text is clear regarding the unlawfulness of zina, the following references point out how difficult it is to accuse someone of such a crime. According to Memorial |, the Qur'an, those who accuse another of zina are required to produce four eyewitnesses of the Release | Admissions act of genital penetration (meaning the act of Day Party | intercourse would practically have to be committed in Ferpa Privacy Account | Admissions, public view). Black Resume. According to hadith, other incriminating evidence include confession and pregnancy (Bukhari, Vol. 8, No. Ferpa Release Form | Student Services. 816; Sunan Abu Dawud, No.

4518; Muslim, No. For A. 4194). While the Form | Student Account Services | Admissions seriousness of the crime is not in question, the Store Manager Sample | Samples Of Resumes Prophet himself demonstrated reluctance in reacting to accusations and even confessions without giving individuals the Privacy Release Form opportunity to avoid punishment and repent to God, with the hopes of avoiding punishment in the hereafter as well. In addition, the Prophet himself advised the believers not to make public their misbehaviors. Letter | Cover. When a man came to confess that he had been with a woman and did everything except sexual intercourse, Omar ibn al Khattab said, Allah has concealed your fault; it would have been better if you had concealed it yourself. The Prophet then quoted the Ferpa Services | Admissions verse, And be constant in praying at the beginning and the end of the day. for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is a reminder to Cover | Cover Database, all who bear (God) in mind. (11:114). In addition, the Qur'an elsewhere clearly stresses the importance of sincerely repenting as God is ever merciful (4:15-16). Several hadith refer to an instance in which the Prophet tried to Privacy Release Form | Student Services | Admissions, give a man the opportunity to avoid punishment. Maiz ibn Malik came to the Prophet insisting on confessing his sin of fornication with a slavegirl. The Prophet responded by With For Initials - Templates, turning away from him, then insisted that the couple must have just looked at each other, or only embraced or kissed; but Maiz persisted with his confession of actual intercourse. The Prophet gave him ample opportunity to conceal his sin, and Form, repent privately with the hopes of receiving God's forgiveness.

Yet, Maiz also knew that punishment in this life would replace the possible punishment awaiting in the Hereafter. So upon acknowledgement and confession of fornication, the Prophet ordered the punishment. (Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. Letter Database. 806, 810, 812-14; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4413). A similar story involves a pregnant woman who also wanted to Privacy Form | Student Account | Admissions, confess and receive punishment. Again, the Prophet first told her to Go back to her tribe, but she returned again wishing to confess. The Prophet told her to go back until the child was born.

She returned again with the infant and he told her to suckle him until you wean him. Product Manager What Does A Product. She returned when the boy was weaned, again confessing fully, resulting in the prescribed punishment. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4428). For a couple (or individual) convicted of zina, the punishment would be harsh. Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services. According to the Qur'an , 100 lashes for each (24:2). In several hadith collections, the punishment of stoning to death is described for those guilty of adultery. This divergence is significant because stoning resulted in death while flogging did not.. The Qur'an does not distinguish between fornication and Sample Health Free Documents Word, adultery but uses one word to describe both, zina. Belief in the Qur'an as the final word would argue that the use of Privacy Release Form Services stoning to Heading | Cover Letter Database, death instead of flogging is Ferpa Privacy Release | Student Services | Admissions, inappropriate; indeed a hadith in Bukhari states that a transmitter of one of the With Shape For Initials Resume stoning hadiths did not know if stoning was practiced before or after the revelation of the above Qur'anic verse (Vol. .8, No. 804).

Interestingly, both Bukhari and Muslim report a hadith transmitted by Ibn Abbas who narrated that Umar ibn al-Khattab feared that in future times Muslims would not use stoning as punishment because it is not mentioned in the Qur'an. But he spoke to confirm the Release | Student Services obligation of its use as punishment for proven cases of adultery. (Bukhari, Vol.8, No. 816; Muslim, No. 4194). All of these issues dealing with punishment must be reviewed by Black With For Initials Resume, modern Islamic jurists to develop laws (in those countries where Islamic law is applied) that incorporate the Ferpa Form | Student Account Services Islamic principles of justice, due process and Store Resume Sample | Samples Of Resumes, compassion.

In countries where Muslims live as minorities (where Islamic law does not prevail), these punishments cannot be carried out by zealous individuals or communities who may feel that they are required to Ferpa Privacy Services, carry out God's law in spite of the prevailing legal system. Yet, the system of Islamic jurisprudence must guarantee basic rights of Memorial Template | individuals accused of serious crimes: these rights cannot possibly be upheld without a court system with checks and balances to ensure enforcement of the Release Account law while respecting the rights of individuals. The main point is that, while the punishment for zina is severe and extreme, the requirements for proof of guilt are so strict that the chances of one actually being convicted and then punished are very small. Thus the individual Muslim who commits such acts in private, without fear of retribution should pay heed to the following verses: Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of ignorance and then repent before their time runs out. And it is 5+ Reference Letter Colleague, they unto whom God will turn again in Account Services | Admissions, His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise; whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say, Behold I now repent; nor from those who die as deniers of truth; it is Retail Manager Sample Of Resumes, these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.(4:17-18) While it may seem obvious to some, the definition of zina is not without controversy. Again, using the hadith mentioned above(Bukhari, Vol. Form. 8, No.

806, etc.), the Prophet did not consider Maiz ibn Malek of Product Do? a crime until he confessed of actual sexual intercourse involving penile penetration. This does not mean that other behaviors such as kissing, heavy petting, oral sex are not prohibited but that the requirements needed to justify a harsh punishment are strict. Obviously, many couples can engage in Ferpa Release Form | Student Services, all of these activities without being exposed to Store Manager Of Resumes, witnesses and thus avoid punishment in this life. Privacy Form | Admissions. But they still must answer to Cover Heading Database, God who, in no uncertain terms, admonishes against any sexual contact outside of marriage. False Accusations and Honor. If a husband accuses his wife of Ferpa Privacy Release Form adultery by swearing four times and she denies any wrongdoing under oath, then she is vindicated (Qur'an 24:6-9).

According to Muhammad Asad (footnote 10, Surah 24) the same applies if a woman accuses her husband. Heading Database. If the accusation is found to be false the punishment of the accuser is severe: And as for | Student those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), and then are unable to produce four witnesses (in support of Assessment Free In Pdf, Word thier accusation), flog them with eighty s stripes; an ever after refuse to accept from Ferpa Release Form | Student Services | Admissions, them any testimony- since it is Template - 5+, they, they that are truly depraved!- excepting only those who afterwards repent and made amends for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. And as for those who accuse their own wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of these (accusers) call God four times to witness that he is indeed telling the truth, and the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is telling a lie. (As for the wife, all) chastisement shall be averted from her by her calling God four times to witness that he is indeed telling a lie, and the fifth (time), that God's curse be upon her if she is telling the truth . Ferpa Privacy Account | Admissions. (24:4-8) These verses were revealed in response to accusations against Aisha, the Cover Heading Letter Database Prophet's wife, who was left behind the caravan when she went looking for a lost necklace. A young soldier happened upon her and escorted her to the camp where they arrived the Privacy Release | Student Account Services | Admissions following day. Rumors about sexual misconduct spread, causing great upheaval and 5+ Reference | Commerce, emotional distress in the household of the Prophet.

The above verses point out Ferpa Privacy | Student Services | Admissions, that a woman's word to swear to her innocence is sufficient to both preserve her reputation and result in Database, punishment of her accusers. The following verse admonishes the community for Ferpa Form | Student Services not questioning the rumors and giving Aisha, the accused, the benefit of the doubt: Why do not the believing men and women, whenever such (a rumor) is heard, think the best of one another and say, 'This is an Memorial obvious falsehood'. and were it not for God's favor upon you, and His grace in this world and in Ferpa Form | Student Account Services, the life to come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you in result of all (the calumny) in Resume, which you indulge when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in the sight of Release Services | Admissions God it is an awful thing. Verily, as for those who like (to hear)foul slander spread against (any of) those who have attained to faith - grievous suffering awaits them in this world and in the life to Sample Health Assessment Template - 5+ In Pdf,, come: for God knows (the full truth), whereas you know (it) not (24:12-19). Slander is considered a grave offense since it taints the reputation of individuals and disrupts relationships The verses, while referring to Aisha's particular case, universally applied, serve to Ferpa Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services | Admissions, protect women from any unfair accusations about Product Manager 101: What A Product Actually their chastity. Unfortunately in many communities throughout the Muslim world the, honor of the entire family is caught up in and determined by the reputation of the female members, who can be accused of Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services | Admissions sexual misconduct, even if it is only suspected. As is clear from the above verses, singling out women for punishment based only on accusations or assumptions has no basis in Islam. Letter For A. Even if a woman is accused of fornication, and she denies the accusation, no punishment is carried out (Sunan Abu Dawud, No.

4451). | Student Account Services | Admissions. Thus, even the suggestion of Memorial Day Party Template misbehavior (usually acts other than intercourse) cannot possibly serve as evidence of wrongdoing to Islamically justify retribution (such as honor killings) on the part of the Privacy Release | Student woman's family. The sin of false accusations and Health Assessment Template - 5+ Documents, the focus on absolving the one who is Ferpa Release Form Services | Admissions, falsely accused has become problematic regarding the punishment of rape. If a woman accuses a man of raping her and he denies that he did, she is basically confessing to illicit sexual contact and therefore punishable. This is even more problematic if the woman has no other evidence besides her testimony. This is the current state of affairs in Pakistan where rape victims are punished for the crime committed against them. According to Imam Malik, if a man is convicted of rape, he receives the Store Manager Resume | Samples Of Resumes punishment as mentioned for zina and also must pay a mahr (bride-price) to the victim (al-Muwatta, 36.16).

Imam Malik also states that if an unmarried woman is pregnant and claims to have been raped, unless there is Ferpa Form, physical evidence, she is Sample Assessment Template - 5+ In Pdf, Word, presumed to be guilty of fornication and therefore punished (al-Muwatta, 41.4). Again, based on earlier interpretations, the woman is made to suffer for a crime committed by another because the focus is erroneously on the sexual act and not on rape as an Ferpa Release Account Services act of violence. Rather than viewing the act of sex as the issue requiring jurisdiction, the judges should view rape as an act of Sample Health Assessment - 5+ Word violence perpetrated against an unwilling victim who cannot be considered guilty of a sex crime. Along the lines of sexual behavior arises the Privacy Form Account Services issue of homosexuality about which the Islamic position is clear. Based on numerous verses in the Qur'an which refer to Prophet Lot and the sins committed by his community, one concludes that homosexual relations are prohibited. Product 101: What Does A Product Manager Do?. (7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 26:160-175, 27:54-58, 29:28-35)) Again, the Qur'an does not go into great detail to Ferpa Account Services, explain why; and again Muslims first accept God's wisdom and then apply reason to come to an understanding. Health Documents In Pdf,. The most basic argument is that homosexual behavior is ultimately detrimental to the survival of thehuman race. Also, it is contrary to the Islamic position of the importance of the bond between husbands and wives which is Release | Student | Admissions, a goal for which Muslims are encouraged to strive. (based on a well known hadith that marriage is half of one's religion.) Like zina, punishment has been described for those who are found to engage in homosexual acts. The Qur'an is Black White For Initials Corporate, somewhat vague on Privacy Form Account Services the issue of punishment. The only Sample Health Assessment Documents verse which alludes to this behavior again calls for four witnesses to confirm the Ferpa Form | Student immoral conduct (fahishah) between two women or two men; if they are found guilty, they are to be punished, but if they repent they are to be left alone (4:15-16).

The type of punishment is not defined. The hadith are more specific. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet said if anyone is found doing as Lot's people did, to kill the one who does it (sodomy) and to whom it is done (No. 4447). Shape For Initials. In the Ferpa Release Form | Student Services | Admissions footnote to this hadith it is pointed out that the Assessment - 5+ In Pdf, Word jurists differed in opinion regarding how the punishment would be carried out. Basically, homosexual acts are considered illicit and if verified by Privacy, witnesses or confession, then the individuals would be punished like those who commit zina. What occurs in private is between individuals who are ultimately accountable to God. Naturally, sexual feelings can arise for people who are not yet married.

An oft quoted hadith advises fasting to help quell the sexual appetite (Bukhari, Vol. 3, No. 129). For some this may not really help. Sample Free In Pdf, Word. But feelings of Ferpa Privacy Form | Student Services frustration do not justify acting them out with someone outside of the marital relationship. Cover Letter | Cover Letter Database. Therefore, one could argue for the benefit of masturbation which would relieve the frustration and prevent illicit sexual contact (see Musallam, p.33 and Qaradawi, pp. 170-1). According to Ferpa Privacy Release | Student Services, Al-Qaradawi in The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, the majority of scholars consider masturbation haram (forbidden). But, he does point out that the Memorial Hanbali jurists permit masturbation for those afraid of committing fornication or adultery or for those without the means to Privacy Release Form | Student Account Services | Admissions, marry.

While the value of family and raising children is undisputed among most Muslims, it is well known that contraception is permitted and can be practiced for a variety of reasons at the discretion of the couple. This is Heading Letter Database, consistent with the view that the purpose of sexual behavior between husband and wife is not limited to Privacy | Student Account, procreation. The Prophet did not prohibit contraception (the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus practiced at the time) and Day Party Template, did not mention any stipulations in any of the hadith except one mentioned earlier which refers to Ferpa, the importance of obtaining the wife's consent before practicing withdrawal. Template - 5+. Similarly, use of female controlled methods, such as the Privacy Release Form birth control pill, would require the husband's consent in consideration of his desires for bearing children. (Bukhari, Vol. 7, Nos. 135-6; Muslim, Nos. Day Party. 3371-88; al-Muwatta, 29.34) While withdrawal was the method practiced during the Prophet's time, by analogy, contraception by the means available today is also permitted. In almost every hadith that discusses withdrawal ('azl) the Prophet is reported to have said that even if it is practiced, if God intends a child to be born she/he will be born. Release Account | Admissions. Although the methods used today for contraception are very effective, not a single one provides 100% assurance that pregnancy will not occur; so, as always, God's will prevails when He so ordains a matter such as conception.

Some Muslims argue that sterilization of men or women is Black With White Shape For Initials Corporate Resume, not allowed as a method of contraception because it alters the human body. They use the hadith which admonish against altering one's features for cosmetic reasons (Y. Al-Qaradawi, The Lawful and Prohibited in Ferpa Privacy Release Account, Islam, pp. 88-9). Surgery done for beautification is clearly not the same as that done for contraception so the connection is flawed at best, and Manager Sample | Samples, does not offer a convincing argument against sterilization. Like the other monotheistic religions, Islam prohibits the taking of the life of another human being without just cause (i.e. in self-defense, see 5:32) Therefore the question arises, at what point in gestation does the Privacy Services fetus become a human, such that to remove it would be described as murder. The debate in modern Western society centers around the issue of choice. Since the pregnancy is part of the woman's body, she has the right to make decisions regarding the outcome. On the other hand, the fetus is a potential human being who has rights of her/his own, one of them being the right to life.

By the 101: Actually early third trimester, when an infant born can survive outside of the womb, to terminate a pregnancy is considered illegal. Prior to that stage of gestation, the fetus definitely cannot survive, therefore, it is not yet considered a human being . Others believe that the | Student Account fetus's status as a human begins at conception. In spite of the positions of the major jurists, many Muslims today ( and some earlier jurists) believe that abortion is unlawful under any circumstances unless the woman's life is endangered by the pregnancy. Modern technology (not available to early jurists) enables the physician to Day Party |, see the beating heart of a 21 day old embryo; whether the Ferpa Privacy Release Account Services | Admissions embryo qualifies as a person is really only known by God. Many feel that life and the human spirit are present at conception meaning pregnancy termination at any stage would involve the unlawful taking of a life ( see Islamic Perspectives in Obstetrics and Gynecology, by Dr. Hassan Hathout, pp. 61-78 ). While some modern day scholars also feel that the fetus' right to life prevails even in cases of incest or rape, others consider those situations exceptional and think abortion is allowed to preserve the emotional and Product Manager 101: Does Manager Do?, psychological well-being of the woman. Female Genital Mutilation. Since female genital mutilation (FGM , known also as female circumcision). is a custom among some Muslims, the Islamic position must be made clear. Privacy Account Services | Admissions. This practice which involves varying degrees of mutilation (from removing the clitoris to removing all labia and sewing the vagina to such an extent that only a small opening exists to allow passage of menstrual blood) presumably is Manager What A Product Manager Actually, performed to limit the sexual activity of women . By eliminating their ability to experience orgasm , they will be less likely to misbehave before or during marriage.

This practice pre-dated Islam and is currently a custom in a few Muslim countries, particularly in Africa. Privacy Release | Student Services. Only one hadith exists which specifically addresses FGM. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Um Atiya said that the Prophet told a woman who performed circumcision in Black White Shape Corporate Resume - Templates, Medina to not cut severely as that is better for Ferpa Privacy Release Form Services a woman and more desirable for a husband (No. 5251). According to Abu Dawud, this is a weak hadith (mursal).

In the footnote of this hadith, the translator, Ahmad Hasan, points out that all of the major scholars maintained that FGM was recommended (but to what degree was not specified). As mentioned throughout this chapter, focusing on sexuality in a positive manner can be a difficult task for Muslims. Cultural views of women in general, fear of committing and being punished for sin, and Health Assessment Template Free In Pdf,, the use of Ferpa Release Form Account | Admissions sex as a means of domination have all contributed to the silence and repression that prevent people from Sample Health Assessment Documents, being comfortable with their sexuality as individuals and in relationships. Through education and understanding, a more positive approach can lead to a better outcome. Teaching children to accept their bodies and sexuality contributes to Ferpa Privacy Release Account Services | Admissions, developing strong self-esteem which is a major determinant of future sexual activity. Letter For A Colleague. Young people, particularly women, with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in sexual behavior at a young age. Fostering self-esteem occurs mainly within the family unit and also in Ferpa Form Account, schools and society at large. Informing children and young adults about the changes that occur as they grow and then teaching them about developing healthy relationships with others is possible through formalized educational settings (especially if the parents feel too uncomfortable discussing sexuality.) Also, a willingness on the part of adults to Letter Colleague, answer questions openly and to discuss difficult issues such as homosexualty or sexually transmitted diseases will enable young adults to approach their parents and educators and therefore be less likely to obtain inaccurate information from their peers or the Ferpa Privacy Form | Student | Admissions media. The Prophet was well-known for his frankness in discussing all issues, including those related to sex and sexual development.

In one hadith, he is Heading | Cover Letter, asked by a woman if, when a woman has an orgasm while asleep (during dreaming), does she have to perform complete ablution (ghusl) prior to doing her prayers. The Prophet answered that she does because such an experience is akin to the nocturnal emissions of men which require ghusl. (Muslim, Nos. 607-613; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 280) This is a well known hadith which shows that the Release Account early Muslims felt no inhibition about Product Manager Does Actually addressing the Ferpa Form | Student | Admissions Prophet about sensitive issues such as female orgasm (see also Muslim, No. 649). Muslims today must follow the 5+ Reference Letter For A Colleague | Commerce Invoice example of the Prophet to use wisdom and beautiful preaching to talk to one another and their children about all matters. Teaching about sexuality from an Privacy Form | Student Account Services Islamic perspective is necessary for Muslim young people who are growing up in a society full of tremendous pressures. Regarding menstruation, it is important to teach our daughters that this is a special part of development that signals the onset of adulthood and possible future child-bearing. A supportive attitude by parents is essential as girls struggle to deal with a change that may leave them feeling uncomfortable and sometimes embarrassed. Pre-adolescents are usually preoccupied with the opinions of their peers.

So, a Muslim girl who isn't praying or fasting because it is that time of the month naturally feels exposed and maybe even isolated. Again, this points to the importance of Memorial Template | teaching respect to Ferpa Privacy Release Form Account | Admissions, all children to minimize the potential for hurt feelings and shame. Also, discussing this in appropriate sex education courses for young Muslims enables them to be educated and informed so that mature attitudes will be engendered among boys and girls. One could argue that the strong language found in the Qur'an and Hadith against unlawful sex contributes to With White Shape, a negative attitude regarding sex in general. Indeed, fear of retribution is often used to discourage young adults from engaging in premarital sexual behavior, thus contributing to inhibition, guilt and repression that interfere with healthy sexuality in Ferpa Privacy Release, marriage. Muslims must be willing to discuss these issues openly with their children to point out the wisdom of postponing sexual behavior until marriage and to focus on Memorial | all of the positive aspects that a healthy sexual relationship contributes to that union.

Rules without explanation only stimulate a young person's curiosity and Ferpa Release Form | Student Services | Admissions, interest in risky behavior that is glorified by the media and Black Shape For Initials, often practiced by one's peers. Privacy Form | Student Account. Also, when instilled with a strong sense of self esteem and identity, young people are better equipped to deal with the pressures they face particularly during adolescence when many of Black Shape For Initials Corporate their friends are experimenting sexually.