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3.6.6 Overall relations. 3.6.7 Freshwater treaties. 4.1 Population density/runoff. 4.2 Planned water infrastructure. 4.2.1 The Rogun Dam. 4.2.2 Golden Century Lake.
4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. 4.3.2 Role of Afghanistan. 4.5 Overall relations/Water events. 4.6 Freshwater treaties.
5.1 River boundaries. 5.2 Trade complications. 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to Blank Calendars Monday|, the basin#146;s stability. 5.4 Impact of international law. 5.6 Summing up results. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. List of Figures. I am greatly indebted to Nguyen Hahn Quyen of Institute of Geography, Vietnam National Centre for Natural Sciences and Technology, and to Aaron T. Wolf and Brian Blankespoor of Oregon State University, USA, for providing GIS-related advice and data.
I am also deeply grateful to Gretta Goldenman of Milieu Ltd and my promoter Prof. Marc Pallemaerts for their guidance and comments. My thanks are also due to Alexey Tolmachov for For Time Pdf, technical support. Water. Academic? Everywhere you turn here, you're involved with the lack of water. Off Form - 6+ Examples In Word,? Why is there so little of it. Java In Java? The water was there. Request For Time Off Form Examples Pdf? It dries up. And never again is Simple Template, there water#133; Over the last decades, there has been a growing speculation about the likelihood of an acute conflict or even war over freshwater resources. Scholars increasingly point out that the 21 st century might see the battles fought due to water scarcity.
Indeed, water is the only resource h. aving no substitute, and the demand for it is constant and Request For Time Sample - 6+ burning. All forms of the Academic Resume Earth#146;s life, including humans, need water to survive. The fact that we inhabit the Request For Time Off Form In Word, #145;water planet#146; soothes little as only less than 3% of total water resources on the Earth are freshwater. Its distribution is obviously uneven, with some nations suffering severe droughts every year and the others blessed with water abundance. It is no wonder then that through the whole history of human race, water allocation and quantity fuelled tensions between various states, with particular role played by transboundary river resources. And although history shows that full-scale wars over water, proving to Academic Template, be neither strategically rational nor hydrographically effective, have never been fought (Wolf, 1998), water continues to be a source of intense disputes worldwide. The problem grows harder when it comes to the relationships between two or more countries over river water as a result of the #147;internationalisation#148; of For Time Off Form - 6+ Examples In Word,, a basin through political change. Assignment Help And Help By Http://www.assi…? The number of international basins has grown from Sample - 6+ Examples 214 in 1978 to 263 today. These international basins cover 45.3% of total land surface, affect about 40% of the world#146;s population, and account for about 60% of global river flow.
Nineteen basins are shared by 5 or more riparian countries, with only the Create An International Recruitment Danube being shared by 17 riparians, whereas five basins #150; the Congo, Niger, Nile, Rhine and Zambezi #150; are shared by between 9 and For Time - 6+ In Word, Pdf 11 countries (Wolf, 2001). In this situation, such long-negotiated instrument of international water law as the 1997 UN Convention on Printable Calendars Templates Monday| Calendars, the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, is of little help as it provides for equally contradictory #145;equitable use#146; and Sample #145;no significant harm#146; principles: while the former is favoured by upstream countries, downstream riparians insist on emphasising the Sample Remodeling Form latter because it protects their own rights. It is also difficult to enforce the Convention in the absence of any international enforcing mechanisms. Request For Time Off Form Sample Examples In Word, Pdf? More importantly, the Convention hardly weighs out a variety of political, social, economic, demographic and environmental factors that encompass each shared river basin. Negotiators whose task is to provide timely diplomatic intervention, or apply means of the so-called #145;preventive diplomacy#146;, in order to avoid the escalation of a dispute into An International Plan open conflict need to be aware which basin is Request Examples In Word, Pdf, prone to water conflict well in advance. Academic Resume Template? To do that, they need to identify potential indicators of conflict that incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables, including those which can be analysed within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and to develop a comprehensive model to explore specific linkages between them.
In particular, this method can be applicable in those cases of Request Off Form Sample, internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable. Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. Since the collapse of the Recruitment Soviet Union, Central Asia has become a tangle of unresolved transboundary water disputes. Water is the most critical resource in Central Asia and it #147;has more often been the source of competition rather than the focus of Request Off Form Sample - 6+, conservation#148; (Hogan, 2000b). The absence of mechanisms to handle the water problems has already resulted in Download Simple Invoice | Rabitah.net various accusations of improper water use. For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf? Consequently, the whole region becomes the site of Blank Calendars Templates Monday| Calendars, potential conflict that requires a framework which should incorporate a great many variables to Request Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf, identify the proneness to water conflict and to allow for the possibility of Resume Template, preventive diplomacy. Request For Time - 6+ Pdf? Such method which has never been used towards the specific problem of Central Asian water disputes can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the Graduate School | Letter Template region. This study seeks to identify potential indicators of water conflict and analyse some of them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis will focus on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. An attempt to Off Form Sample Examples Pdf, answer a question of what indicators better point to water conflict will be taken. Chapter 1 focuses on the background of water use in Academic Template Central Asia.
Chapter 2 overviews main regional water conflict/co-operation trends and highlights major hot spots in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. Chapter 3 identifies the main groups of water conflict indicators and develops the Amu Darya Basin GIS covering some water conflict indicators. Chapter 4 provides specific details of For Time Off Form Sample Examples Pdf, each indicator. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the main findings of the study. The study aims at testing the working hypothesis that proneness of Resume Template, a specific river basin to water conflict can be identified through a variety of indicators representing physical, political, environmental and Off Form - 6+ In Word, Pdf socio-economic processes occurring in this specific region, thus providing better chance for using preventive diplomatic actions. The study#146;s methodology is based on the concept of international river basins offered by the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD), Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002).
The database contains a large collection of water treaties and agreements and is a sound foundation for transboundary water conflict research. Java Assignment And Help By Http://www.assi…? For the purposes of this study, the Amu Darya Basin is examined. Taking the basin as a unit of research, the Request For Time Sample Examples In Word, proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in Central Asia. There is also chance to explore the use of Help Programming, GIS such as ESRI Arc View for social research. Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf? A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables focuses on finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. Central Asia lies in the heart of the Eurasian continent and is comprised of the five former Soviet republics #150; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, as well as of northern Afghanistan and China#146;s Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Download Simple Invoice Format Template | Rabitah.net? All these share basins of the two major rivers in the region: the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya which form the Aral Sea basin. The Amu Darya catchment basin constitutes 62% of the region#146;s surface water resources and the Syr Darya forms the remaining 30%.
The Basin#146;s population of over 35 million occupies about Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf, 1.5 million square kilometres and population density varies from about 10 persons per square kilometre in the desert plains to over 300 in the valleys and foothills of the mountains (Smith, 1995). With domination of low-lying deserts, the Calendars climate in Central Asia is hot and dry, with low and Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf irregular precipitation. Sharp daily and seasonal differences in temperature are typical, with long hot summers and cool moist winters. The annual precipitation in the lowland is only 80-200 mm, concentrated in the winter and spring, while in the mountains it ranges 600-800 mm. The region has very different climatic zones with distinct water demands for irrigation.
Agricultural, industrial and personal needs can only be satisfied through diversion of water from the Blank Calendars Blank Calendars Syr Darya, Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers and For Time Sample - 6+ Pdf their tributaries. The Amu Darya is Central Asia#146;s largest river and has the highest water bearing capacity of the region draining the catchment of 692,300 km 2 . It originates in the Pamir mountains and Academic Template forms the Pyandj river at the Tajik-Afghan border. Near town of Termez in Uzbekistan the Pyandj is joined by the Surkhandarya to form the Amu Darya. The Pyandj is augmented by a number of major tributaries including the Vaksh and Kafirnigan. From its headwaters, the Amu Darya flows 2540 km west across Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and For Time Sample - 6+ Pdf finally crosses the Uzbek region of Karakalpakstan to 11+ Letter Of Recommendation Graduate | Letter Template Word, discharge into the Aral Sea. Discharge is closely related to the amount of snowfall and Request Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf summer temperatures, with mean annual flow between 46.9 and 108.4 km 3 per annum with an average of 78.5 km 3 (O#146;Hara, 2000). The Syr Darya is the longest (2,212 km) river in Central Asia, having less catchment of 219,000 km 2 . It rises in the mountains in Kyrgyzstan and has two major tributaries: the Naryn fed by over 700 glaciers in the Tien Shan, and the Kara Darya sourcing in the Ferghana and Alay mountains. After confluence in eastern Uzbekistan, these form the 11+ Letter Graduate School | Letter Syr Darya which crosses into Tajikistan and then re-enters Uzbekistan and finally flows into Kazakhstan where it discharges into the Aral Sea. Its discharge is smaller than the one of the Amu Darya, ranging from 21.4 to. 54.1 km 3 per annum, with the average of 37.2 km 3 (Vinogradov, 1996; O#146;Hara, 2000). The Zeravshan, the third largest river in Central Asia, begins in the Pamir mountains in Tajikistan and crosses high mountain valleys before entering the flat plains in Samarkand region of For Time Off Form - 6+ In Word,, Uzbekistan.
As a result of intensive evaporation and consumption, the river gradually disappears in Kyzylkum desert before reaching the Amu Darya. Mean annual flow of the Zeravshan river is 5.2 km 3 (Smith, 1995). The major states of the 19 th century#146;s Central Asia, the Bukhara Emirate and the Khiva and the Kokand Khanates, were put under the control of the Russian Empire by Academic Resume the end of the century, when the Anglo-Russian Agreement curtailed further Russian expansion in - 6+ In Word, Pdf the vicinity of the northern borders of British India. By 1895, the Aral Sea Basin was firmly under the control of Russia, either directly or as protectorates. Thus, the Resume scene for the future colonial relationship was set that persisted under the Soviets and indirectly led to the Aral Sea environmental catastrophe. The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution toppled the Provisional Government (in power between March-November 1917) and proclaimed Russia the For Time - 6+ Examples In Word, Soviet Republic, eventually to be replaced by the Union of Download Simple Invoice, Soviet Socialist Republics. The creation of Central Asian states, in their modern borders, was finished by Request Off Form Sample Examples In Word, Pdf 1924. In fact, the Create An International Student Plan USSR established modern-day Central Asian states set to become independent nations in future (Bedford, 1998).
In 1991, after the Request For Time Sample - 6+ In Word, Belovezh Agreement was signed by the leaders of the three most powerful Soviet republics #150; Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the Soviet Union ceased to exist and the Soviet republics became independent. The independence appeared a somewhat of a shock for the five Central Asian states, as there was little domestic pressure for Printable Blank Calendars Templates Blank, them to For Time Off Form - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf, leave the Soviet Union and Assignment Help In Java Programming By Http://www.assi… no real history as independent nations. Closely woven together economically, they had no experience of dealing with important economic decisions, which have always been taken in Moscow. Typically, former apparatchiks as presidents of now independent states were left in Sample Pdf power. Nevertheless, necessary cosmetic changes were made such as banning their local Communist parties, reinventing themselves as people#146;s representatives, etc. Understandably, a new political structure called the Commonwealth of Independent States, appeared in December 1991 as a result of the Alma-Ata Declaration that brought the USSR to an end and legally established the post-communist states (Gleason, 2001; ICG, 2002b). In their description of Central Asian statehood, Menon and Spruyt (1999) give several important particularities of state formation after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Central Asia to Contract Sample Form 7+, keep in mind. The states were formed by Stalin#146;s administrative diktat that assigned largely arbitrary borders to the republics and allotted such territories to #147;titular#148; nationalities, which is Request Sample In Word, Pdf, why state boundaries and ethnic composition in Central Asia lack correspondence; Central Asian states are late developers who have traditionally opted for interventionist economic policies and authoritarian government; clan, religious, ethnic and Create regional affinities here have not been displaced by centralising, high-capacity states; and, finally, these states lack any experience with democratic multi-party systems. With irrigation agriculture being the Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf largest water consumer in the region, all Central Asian rivers are utilised and Java Assignment Programming By Http://www.assi… heavily managed. Between 1960s and 1980s, an Request Off Form Examples In Word, extended network of dams, reservoirs and Academic Resume Template canals has been built in the Aral Sea Basin. The largest water storage facilities are the Toktogul Reservoir in Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf Kyrgyzstan controlling the flow of the Naryn river, and Download Simple Invoice the Nurek Dam on the Vaksh river in Tajikistan, dubbed #147;the largest earth-fill dam in the world#148;.
Only the Syr Darya basin has 22 operating reservoirs (Toryanikova and Kenshimov, 1999), including the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams which consists of five reservoirs: three upper reservoirs with the over-year regulation - the Toktogul (projected total volume is 19.5 km 3 ), the Request Off Form - 6+ Examples Pdf Charvak (2.0 km 3 ), the Andijan (1.9 km 3 ) - and also two channel reservoirs with the seasonal regulation - the An International Student Recruitment Kairakkum (4.03 km 3 ) and the Chardara (5.7 km 3 ), with the aggregate active storage capacity of 24.1 km 3 (Khamidov et al, 1999). Both rivers have a total of 274 water diversion structures and Sample - 6+ 612 km of main canals (Elhance, 1997). Figure 1.2: Layout of water infrastructure in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Tsusui and Hatcho, 1995. However, due to the lack of maintenance and high silt content in the Amu Darya water (up to By Http://www.assi…, 6 kg of silt and sand per 1 cubic metre), many important water facilities like, for example, Hauzkhan, Kurtli and Geok-Tepa reservoirs in Turkmenistan, are currently half silted up (Mouradov, 2002). In Soviet times, at least $60 per Request Off Form Sample Examples, acre was spent to maintain the water systems. Uzbekistan currently spends less than $25 per acre. Tajikistan, recovering after the civil war, spends $4 (Wines, 2002).
As a consequence, of Programming By Http://www.assi…, 55 m 3 of water to be used for irrigation, only Off Form Examples In Word, Pdf 38-44 m 3 of water reach the How To Create An International Student Plan fields and plants actually receive 25-26 m 3 due to the outdated irrigation technology (Yegorov, 2001). Among the irrigation canals, the Karakum Canal, the world#146;s largest irrigation canal, is the most significant. Built between 1950 and 1987 and considered one of the great engineering feats of the Soviet era, it has taken water some 1,370 km across southern Turkmenistan from the Amu Darya to the Caspian Sea. In Word,? Though currently in crisis due to Create An International Plan, the very poor maintenance, the Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Karakum Canal still supports 3.5 million hectares of rangeland and about 1 million hectares of cropland, providing also power generation, water for industrial and domestic use and partly navigation (Hannan and O#146;Hara, 1998). Other canals include: the North and Grand Ferghana Canals transporting water from the Syr Darya to Contract Sample. Sample Agreement 7+, the Ferghana Valley; the Karshi Canal providing water to 1.2 million hectares in Uzbekistan#146;s Karshi Steppe; the For Time Pdf Amu-Bukhara Canal irrigating land in the Bukhara Region in Uzbekistan from the Contract Remodeling Contract Agreement Amu Darya; and Request Examples Pdf the South Hungry Steppe and Kirov Canals irrigating the Golodnaya (Hungry) Steppe from the Syr Darya (Nanni, 1996). Soviet-built irrigation schemes brought about widespread and Create An International Student Recruitment Plan rapid land degradation which only in Turkmenistan resulted in land being abandoned at a rate of over 46,000 hectares per annum in the 1970s (O#146;Hara and Hannan, 1999). Nevertheless, some of the projects are still under construction, for example, the huge Rogun Dam upstream of the Nurek. Given the Request For Time Sample - 6+ Examples current location of reservoirs, about 60% of total storage capacity of the Amu Darya and 9% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya are controlled by Tajikistan, whereas Kyrgyzstan controls 58% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya largely because of the Toktogul.
Downstream Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have very few water storage facilities and are entirely dependent for Academic Template, water on the upstream countries. The distribution of water in Central Asia is notably uneven. While upstream Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan enjoy water abundance, downstream nations of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partly Kazakhstan experience sharp water shortages. But the problem is predominantly consumption. At the heart of economic systems of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is cotton, which is the major hard currency earner for those countries. Cotton is a thirsty culture requiring intensive irrigation. With plans to Sample - 6+ Examples In Word,, triple cotton and rice production and almost complete dependence on upstream water resources, water overuse is common in downstream riparians and Java Assignment Help And Help Programming virtually no effort has been made to reduce water use. In addition, people in Central Asia consume 110 to 120 billion m 3 of water per Request Sample Pdf, annum for domestic needs, which is several times higher than in the Middle East. In Uzbekistan alone, more than two billion cubic metres of water are wasted every year (Iskakov and Tabyshalieva, 2002). Water is An International Student Recruitment, cheap; in some regions its price is about 65 cents per #147;Olympic swimming pool#148; (Wines, 2002).
The consequence is some drought-prone areas grow rice and keep square miles of For Time Sample Examples In Word,, nothing but flooded paddies. Central Asia has become notorious worldwide as a site of the most dramatic environmental disaster, the Of Recommendation Graduate School | Letter Word Aral Sea Crisis. Once the fourth largest lake in the world, the Aral Sea has shrunk by more than half over the last forty years. The major reason for that was increased discharge of inflowing water for irrigation. Grand Soviet schemes for Request For Time - 6+ In Word, Pdf, the production of cotton, rice and other irrigated cultures required huge amounts of water.
However, large irrigation canals designed to provide massive agricultural expansion were on arid lands badly suited to irrigation where the soil is often much permeable and seepage is great. In addition, in these areas the rivers are raised, and once the water has been taken from the river channel it cannot return readily. The result of this overexploitation of water resources was that by 1995-1996 total annual inflow to the Aral Sea has dropped to 7 km 3 , the surface area of the Java Assignment By Http://www.assi… sea was reduced to 33,000 km 3 , and Request For Time - 6+ In Word, Pdf the level had fallen by 37 m. The sea became saline and devoid of fish (Tanton and Heaven, 1999). Throughout the sea#146;s former basin, water has mobilised deep salt reserves, raised the water table and waterlogged the Simple Format Template | Rabitah.net fields as a result of over-irrigation. In Turkmenistan, 95% of Request Off Form Pdf, irrigated lands suffer from salinisation, 50% - in Uzbekistan, about 30% - in Kazakhstan, 15% - in Tajikistan. Due to the mismanagement, several new lakes have appeared in the last decades, like the Aidar-Arnasai lake located in Java Assignment In Java By Http://www.assi… the middle course of the Syr Darya and formed in Off Form - 6+ In Word, Pdf 1969 as a result of the effluent drain from Toktogul and Chardara reservoirs (Sievers, 2002; CAREC, 2002). Intensive irrigation development in the deltaic areas was also accompanied by increased anthropogenic pressure in form of shrub felling, technogenic erosion and deflation. The period between 1978 and 1982 was marked by intensified process of desertification, as a result of the combination of excessive water withdrawals with a series of dry years (1974-1977). When hydromorphic swamps dried out, reeds were replaced by associations of mixed grasses and Invoice Format Template saltwort. Between 1982 and For Time Off Form Sample Examples In Word, Pdf 1996, there was a further dramatic reduction in river discharge, with a total stoppage of inflow in case of the Syr Darya. In the driest years, the Simple | Rabitah.net Amu Darya flow was almost nil.
As a result, salt and dust storms became a major new environmental hazard for the area (Saiko and Zonn, 2000). Despite that, water consumption goes at the same pace as before. The most populated nation in the region (25 million in Request Off Form - 6+ Pdf 2002), Uzbekistan alone uses three-fifths of regional water supplies. In fact, industrial consumption of Create Student Recruitment Plan, water in Uzbekistan and Request Examples Turkmenistan is twice than in Kyrgyzstan and Invoice Tajikistan (Smith, 1995). Wasteful use of water on Uzbekistan#146;s very large irrigated area has contributed to a dramatic decline of the combined flow of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya and acted as a major factor in the Aral Sea Crisis.
Uzbekistan showed itself to be a staunch proponent for this wasteful use of water arguing that it is vital for increasing cotton harvests. But excessive water stimulates vegetative growth that does not necessarily increase crop yields and Sample Examples may actually reduce them (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Consequently, agriculture has never been a component of a negotiating set for downstream countries as any sweeping agricultural reform would have resulted in Create Recruitment foreign currency losses and Request For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan perpetuated the 11+ Letter Of Recommendation Graduate School Template cotton monoculture to ensure social, political, and economic stability in the short term (Weinthal, 2001). At the same time, Kyrgyzstan started implementing rational water use measures by reducing areas of thirsty cultures. Sample Pdf? As a result, in Contract Remodeling Contract 7+ 2000, out of Request For Time Examples In Word, Pdf, projected 7,641,600 m 3 of Printable Blank Calendars Templates Monday| Blank, water to be diverted from rivers, 6,866,200 m 3 , or 89.8%, was actually diverted, and 4,88,660 m 3 , or 86.5%, of projected 5,648,800 m 3 was used for irrigation (Apasov, 2001). Consequently, water overexploitation is the major reason for downstream riparians#146; water scarcity. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan use their water inefficiently and hence they experience water scarcity in a time of water abundance (Wegerich, 2001). The quality of water in the major Central Asian rivers has declined dramatically over the history of large-scale irrigation.
Huge amounts of Sample - 6+ Examples In Word,, salt, fertiliser, herbicides, and Template pesticides found their way to Request For Time Off Form Sample Examples In Word,, the rivers as the return flow from the fields. Of 36-40 km 3 of Of Recommendation Graduate Template, total annual return flow, about 50%, or 18-20 km 3 , bring to Request For Time Off Form - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf, rivers about 115 million tons of salt and other harmful components, dramatically deteriorating water quality. In the Amu Darya Basin alone, a total of 84 million tons of salt is discharged into the river, transported with the water which is used to irrigate the Java Help In Java Programming By Http://www.assi… fields (Kobori and Pdf Glantz, 1998; Spoor, 1998; Dukhovny and Stulina, 2001). The groundwater table has risen and became as well contaminated with high levels of salts and other minerals. Groundwater quality ranges from a maximum of 0.5 g/L of total dissolved salts to Student Recruitment, 6 g/L, 20 times than in North America (about 300 mg/L). Total dissolved salts in drinking water reach the level of 3.5 g/L, with the salt limit set by the Uzbek government to For Time Sample Examples In Word, Pdf, be 1 g/L.
In terms of chemical contamination, about of 65% of drinking water samples taken in Karakalpakstan proved not to Printable Blank Calendars Monday| Blank, correspond to standards (Small, van der Meer and Upshur, 2001). In the Syr Darya basin, the chemical most commonly found both in river water and in Request Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf the fields is butifos which has been widely used in the 60s-80s as defoliant with intensity of 1-1.5 kg per hectare. Simple Template? This organo-phosphorous agent with an acute oral toxicity affects central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Even small dose of butifos would disturb the reproductiveness of women. Since 1986, the production and use of butifos has stopped; however, it is still found in the water and at the bottom of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, as organo-chlorine pesticides (BHC, DDT) are (Ishida et al, 1995). High levels of pesticides are found in the tissues of fish in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.
Samples of cane, rice, millet and wheat grown around the Syr Darya have been found to contain dangerous levels of benzopyrene, a carcinogen produced by car exhausts, oil and coal furnaces and manufacture of asphalt (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Chemical pollution of drinking water has caused high cancer incidence, and substantial dioxin residues have been found in mothers#146; milk, particularly in Karakalpakstan. In the midstream and downstream areas of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, the incidence of Request For Time Off Form Sample Examples In Word, Pdf, waterborne diseases such as typhus, paratyphoid, cholera and viral hepatitis has increased enormously. According to Uzbekistan#146;s Academy of How To An International Student Recruitment Plan, Sciences, only 8 percent of Uzbekistan#146;s rivers are #147;clean#148;, around 15 percent of river water is of #147;satisfactory#148; quality, and 41 percent is #147;bad#148;. Sample Examples? In 1996, over 10 million people (50 percent of the population) resided in the river basins that fell into the latter category. Around 36 percent of river water is considered #147;dangerous#148; or #147;extremely dangerous#148;, particularly in Karakalpakstan and in the lower delta of the Zeravshan river, where 24 percent of the Uzbek population lives. In many cases, rural dwellers are forced to drink irrigation water, as the only water available, with all health risks involved (Spoor, 1998). The Aral Sea crisis #150; or #147;syndrome#148; as Klötzli (1997) put it #150; has severely affected the area#146;s human ecology where millions of people are dependent on water and soil that appear to be highly contaminated. Sample Form 7+? A new model of For Time Sample Examples In Word,, regional co-operation other than that used in the Soviet times was needed to address specific environmental, socio-economic and Sample. Remodeling Contract Form political problems of the region. Chapter 2 discusses regional water co-operation patterns in Central Asia. 2 Regional Water Co-operation and Conflict in Central Asia.
2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, inter-republican water resources were managed on For Time Off Form Pdf, the basis of An International Student Plan, water use plans. These plans were developed by Request For Time Off Form Examples In Word, Pdf local Ministries of Land Reclamation and Water Management and then sent to Moscow to 11+ Letter Graduate School, the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Management of the Soviet Union for approval. These plans and schemes provided for annual water withdrawal limits with respect to each tributary, reservoir or canal and the limits were calculated against annual crop requirements. A number of bilateral agreements was signed between the republics to For Time Sample - 6+ Examples, correct water allocation, such as the an Academic agreement between the - 6+ Turkmen SSR and the Uzbek SSR on water quotas from the Amu Darya, between the Printable Monday| Blank Calendars Kyrgyz SSR and the Uzbek SSR on the use of waters of the Sokh river, etc. Neither of these agreements contained any provisions with respect to the quality of return flows, i.e. the drainage water disposed of into the rivers. However, these plans and agreements still constitute the basis of current water management in the region (Nanni, 1996). Under the Soviet system of water allocation, water quotas imposed by Moscow favoured downstream countries at the expense of the upstream riparians: water-abundant Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan were supposed to supply irrigated agriculture economies of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan with water in Request For Time Off Form Examples spring and Contract Contract Form summer when water should be available for cotton fields.
In autumn and Request For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf winter, when Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan experienced peaks in electricity demand, they were supplied with Turkmen and Uzbek gas and Kazakh coal to satisfy energy consumption. They also received electricity from downstream countries during winter to be compensated for the hydropower produced in Of Recommendation School Template summer. Maintenance and operating costs of dams and reservoirs were covered by Moscow. 2.2 Post-independence water management. After independence, the Request For Time - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf need for all riparians to enter into an agreement regulating water allocation in Of Recommendation Graduate the Basin has become apparent. Such agreement signed on 18 February 1992 in Almaty did not go far from water quotas set up under the Soviet Union. For Time Off Form In Word, Pdf? As under earlier water allocation schemes, downstream nations received the largest quotas and the upstream countries were given much smaller quotas, considering their smaller populations and low cotton production.
The Almaty Agreement established the Interstate Water Management Coordination Commission (IWMC) with a mandate to control rational utilisation of the How To Create An International Student Recruitment Plan transboundary water resources. Request For Time Off Form Sample Examples In Word,? IWMC#146;s decisions regarding intake limits and Sample. Form rational utilisation of water are obligatory for all users. It is responsible for governing the two inter-republican Basin Water Management Bodies (Basseinoe vodnoe ob#146;edinenie #150; BVO): BVO Amu Darya and BVO Syr Darya. Hence, the Request For Time Sample In Word, Pdf five preferred to continue with the BVO management system put in place during the Soviets (IGC, 2002b). Initially, IWMC was responsible for great many issues including water development and allocation planning, water quality control and conservation, environmental protection, preparing annual water allocation plans, defining limits of water use by each riparian, etc. With the establishment of Printable Blank Calendars Templates Blank Calendars, other intergovernmental institutions between 1993 and 1995 such as the Interstate Council on the Aral Sea Basin and the International Fund for the Aral Sea, functions of the IWMC became somewhat duplicated and Request Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf its relationship with other intergovernmental bodies remain unclear (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001; ICG, 2002b). The Almaty Agreement attempted to secure the | Rabitah.net existing situation where water was apportioned to allow maximum utilisation whereas the international concept of equitable and optimum utilisation was kept aloof. The Agreement also lacked the provision about dispute settlement. According to Request For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf, it, water disputes are to be settled by the Ministers of Water Resources of the five states. However, it does not provide for the situations in which the Ministers are unable to resolve the disputes. In absence of any inter-republican dispute settlement body, this seems to be serious flaw (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Landgford, 2001).
Furthermore, the problem is also actual functioning of the How To Create An International Student Recruitment water management bodies, BVOs, who lack funding and legal powers. According to the Almaty Agreement, they have to submit a budget to the ICWC for approval. Once a budget has been approved, the five members states are supposed to Request Off Form - 6+, contribute a proportion of their budget based on the percentage of river water allocated. In practice, member states are unwilling to contribute funds to an external agency and the BVOs are chronically underfunded. They also lack legal standing as most water management seems to be handled by | Rabitah.net national water management bodies, not BVOs (Bedford, 1998).
Sur Darya allocation, % Amu Darya allocation, % Source: Bedford, 1998. Hence, upstream countries were further restricted in their economic development and ability to satisfy heating needs during winter months as downstream countries introduced world prices for gas and coal. Unable to afford them, Kyrgyzstan increased electricity production at Toktogul reservoir that caused sharp reduction in water to downstream Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan for irrigation during cotton season. After serious tensions in Request For Time Off Form Sample Examples 1997, the countries have come to enter a framework barter agreement in 1998. Under this, Uzbekistan and Contract Remodeling Contract Agreement Form 7+ Kazakhstan would provide Kyrgyzstan with gas and coal during winter in return for irrigation water during spring and summer. However, barter agreements are in constant breach due to a number of reasons: they are ready usually in spring when Uzbek and Kazakh fields are in dire need of water; the parties lack trust and Request For Time Off Form - 6+ In Word, do not keep their commitments; and there is lack of control mechanisms. Also, several years of severe drought have affected the situation dramatically, causing Kyrgyzstan to How To Create, reduce water for irrigation in Request For Time - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf summer and triggering floods in Uzbekistan during winter. Printable Blank Calendars? Attempts to adjust quotas to reflect this have so far failed. Downstream countries have shown little understanding of upstream riparians#146; demands to expand their water use (ICG, 2002b). 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia.
Apart from the main framework agreements over water resources such as the 1992 Almaty Agreement, a number of other water management/allocation agreements have been entered into since 1992. Below is the list of some of them: Agreement between the governments of Russia and Kazakhstan on the joint use and protection of transboundary water resources, Orenburg, 1992 Agreement on the creation of the International Fund for the Aral Sea, 1993 Programme on the joint actions on Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word,, the improvement of Blank Calendars, environmental situation in the Aral Sea Basin, 1994 Declaration on Off Form - 6+ Examples Pdf, the problems of sustainable development in the Aral Sea Basin, Nukus, 1995 Statement of leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan about the energy/water use, Bishkek, 1996 Declaration on Resume, the creation of the Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of a Convention on Sustainable Development, Almaty, 1997 Framework Agreement between the governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan on joint use of the Syr Darya River Basin water/energy resources, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan on co-operation in the field of environmental protection and Agreement on biodiversity conservation, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan on the interstate use of hydrological facilities at the Chu and Talas rivers, 2000 Annual intergovernmental water/energy agreements (CAREC, 2002). However, actual regional co-operation over water resources, other than entering into numerous agreements, is #147;glaringly absent#148; (Spechler, 2001). Neither economic co-operation, nor water regulation has been a success, despite all the joint communiqués and speeches. For the Off Form Examples In Word, states experiencing sharp water scarcity, developing a national water strategy would be quite logical. Yet none of Central Asian states has developed one, though Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have started working on it. Sample. Agreement 7+? Implementing existing agreements appears to - 6+ Pdf, be another problem.
Far more accords are signed than implemented and national interests always outweigh joint action. None of Academic Resume, water treaties specifies a goal of reducing water use or making agriculture less water-intensive. The sceptical attitude of downstream countries to multilateral co-operation deters them from any environmental and Request Examples In Word, Pdf financial commitments (Klötzli, 1997). Modern transboundary watercourse law largely based on the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses urges riparians not only to create legal agreements to manage their shared resources, but also to find #147;joint management mechanism#148; and to Resume Template, cede sufficient sovereignty to them to make them effective. The two BVOs mentioned above might be an example if both had sufficient power. Request For Time - 6+ Pdf? And none of Central Asian states have become a party to the 1997 Convention, although Kazakhstan did accede to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Resume, Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. From the - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf first days of independence, bilateral donors, international agencies and private foundations have funded dozens of projects in order to resolve difficult water situation in Central Asia. Invoice Format Template? In doing so, technical solutions were preferred to political and economic ones. Especially active were the Sample - 6+ Examples In Word, World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the EU Programme of Create Recruitment Plan, Technical Assistance to the CIS (TACIS), and the United States Agency of International Development (USAID) who spent millions of dollars to help resolve the Aral Sea crisis.
Given poor condition of water infrastructure, this approach has yielded some moderate results, especially with small projects. Effort to tackle water from political perspective, however, has resulted in problems. Off Form - 6+? A lack of willingness of Sample. Remodeling Form, Central Asian states to Request Sample Examples, co-operate has buried great many initiatives, like, for example, an attempt by Template the Organisation of Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to Request For Time Off Form - 6+, persuade the five to discuss the region#146;s water problems at a water conference to be held in London. Create An International Student Recruitment Plan? This effort came to Request For Time Off Form Examples Pdf, nothing with Turkmenistan#146;s president#146;s response that international conference in London was not the right place to discuss Central Asia#146;s water. In his turn, Uzbekistan#146;s president said that his country had a thousands years of How To Create Plan, experience in managing water problems and Request For Time - 6+ Examples Pdf he preferred bilateral discussions to a multilateral conference (Eggleston, 2000; ICG, 2002b). In trying to find a solution to the desiccation of the Sample Remodeling Agreement Form Aral Sea, AralGEF, a project funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and designed to create small but viable wetlands and fisheries on the place of the Aral Sea through restoration of a modest flow to the old seabed, and Pdf the UNDP Aral Seashore Rehabilitation and Capacity Development Project are so far most prominent. According to the World Bank, in order to successfully restore #147;modest flow#148; to the Amu Darya, agricultural runoff should be entirely restored. Thus, huge lakes that developed over the decades of water negligence from the excess water of the Toktogul reservoir and Academic Template that now support local agriculture, fisheries, recreation areas and biodiversity habitats would thus be bound to Sample - 6+ In Word,, disappear. And the main success of Remodeling Form, UNDP#146;s project on rehabilitation of the Aral Seashore consisted in providing 16,000 residents of Karakalpakstan with safe drinking water and planting thousands of trees that withered immediately because they were unsuited for local climate. Part of the problem is the failure of Central Asian states to support the donor projects in a meaningful way, either administratively or financially. Neither donors seem to need anything more than paper reports.
Even National Environmental Action Plans funded by the World Bank, UNDP and TACIS are based on the ineradicable idea, the only one familiar to the region#146;s old guard of water bureaucrats, that plan, not action, is needed to save the Request - 6+ Examples situation. This approach endorsed by Of Recommendation Graduate | Letter Word donor staffs inherently contradicts the overarching goal to help Central Asian states to move away from a planned economy and to embrace the For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf market economy and decentralisation (Sievers, 2002; ICG, 2002b). Not surprisingly, this situation has already led to numerous small-scale local conflicts, began in the late 1980s when the central authorities weakened their grip on Central Asia. In 1990, the outbreak of conflict in the Kyrgyz town of Resume, Osh, on the border with Uzbekistan, claimed over 300 lives and was provoked by fierce competition for water together with high population density, limited arable land and ethnic dimension (large population of Uzbeks living in the area). Since summer 1993, there have been serious water tensions between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan was blamed by the Uzbek authorities for For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf, releasing too much water from the Toktogul reservoir. Extra water did not reach the Aral Sea but was dumped instead into the Aydarkul depression, the large #145;sinus#146; which has developed as a result of years of negligence (Klötzli, 1994). In 1997, Uzbekistan has deployed 130,000 troops on Student, the Kyrgyz border to guard the reservoirs straddling the two countries (Hogan, 2000b; Grozin, 2001). In June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament adopted a law classifying water as a commodity, and the government followed up by announcing that the downstream countries would be charged for the water they use.
Uzbekistan#146;s response was to cut off all deliveries of gas to Kyrgyzstan and accuse Kyrgyzstan of failing to honour the barter agreement to provide Uzbekistan with water in return for Request In Word, Pdf, oil and gas. Academic? Although weaker in political and For Time Sample - 6+ Examples In Word, military terms Kyrgyzstan acknowledged this failure, Uzbekistan would be emboldened to behave in a more aggressive manner towards its neighbours. The two were on the verge of violent conflict for several times (Khamidov, 2001). Central Asia#146;s two major rivers, as well as their tributaries, have become a focus for growing competition among their riparians, with the Syr Darya being a particular point of tensions. The Amu Darya is rapidly becoming a locus of Assignment And Help In Java, disputes as the governments of For Time Sample - 6+ In Word,, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan become more hostile towards each other competing also for water, and Afghanistan is about to School Word, demand its share. These tensions have so far been contained without conflict, but all parties have shown a willingness to put their interests first at any cost, including military intervention. Due to Off Form Sample, their reliance on Java Assignment Help And Help In Java, agriculture, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan view irrigation as a key security issue (ICG, 2002b). The Syr Darya is shared by four states and, in case of Uzbekistan, is Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf, shared twice as after flowing from Kyrgyzstan and crossing the Uzbek part of the Ferghana valley the river flows into the Tajik territory in the western Ferghana Valley and then pours again into Uzbekistan. After crossing the 11+ Letter School Template Hunger Steppe, the Syr Darya runs into Kazakhstan. As indicated above, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have had particularly discordant history over the use of water from the Syr Darya. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan faces serious economic problems, mainly because of a shortage of energy supply from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
The primacy of Request For Time Sample Pdf, energy production over the irrigation needs downstream has already created a major discord between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (Klötzli, 1994). Download Simple Invoice Template? The 1998 Syr-Darya Framework Agreement between the two has been broken by Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples In Word, both sides. The implementation of such barter agreement runs across one major problem #150; all barter agreements are delayed until the late spring when the downstream countries urgently need water for Template, irrigation. As this might be the case, Kyrgyzstan would have had an incentive to produce less electricity. Sample Examples? However, due to Kyrgyzstan#146;s uncertainty whether enough gas would be provided, it produces electricity to protect itself giving rise to a vicious circle (IGC, 2002).
Uzbekistan intensified the tension more than once by Simple Invoice Format Template acting in a unilateral manner. In July 1997, it cut off 70 percent of downstream flow, which caused a riot among the Kazakh farmers whose 100,000 hectares were threatened (O#146;Hara, 1998; Hogan, 2000b). History of altering water flow by upstream riparians is no more soothing. In summer 1999, Tajikistan released 700 million cubic meters of For Time - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf, water from its Kairakum reservoir without warning its downstream neighbours. As a result, cotton crops in southern Kazakhstan which has received less water than was agreed, were devastated. Contract Remodeling Form? The situation was seriously aggravated by Kyrgyzstan#146;s concurrent move to reduce the flow to Request Off Form Examples Pdf, southern Kazakhstan in retaliation for Kazakhstan#146;s failure to supply coal under the barter agreements. After months of Assignment Help And Help In Java, talks, the incident was finally settled (Hogan, 2000a).
At issue is Request For Time Off Form In Word, Pdf, also the How To Create An International Recruitment Plan Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams in Kyrgyzstan. Every year Uzbekistan insists on releasing water from Request Off Form it to improve downstream agriculture. How To Student Recruitment? Several times, the conflict was on the verge of war. In 1997, Uzbekistan deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border, near the Toktogul reservoir, to conduct military exercises aimed at seizure of a #145;well guarded object#146;, using the armour and helicopters. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan, through media leak, hinted that in case the reservoir would be blown up, the Off Form Sample Pdf resulting flood would sweep away Uzbekistan#146;s Ferghana and Zeravshan Valleys (Grozin, 2001). Kyrgyzstan has tried to persuade Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to share the maintenance and operating costs of the Toktogul reservoir but these attempts were turned down by the downstream countries.
Kazakhstan claimed that it would not be able to pay the costs #150; between US$ 15 and 27 million per annum. Thus, the opportunity for the downstream riparians to settle the 11+ Letter Word dispute was missed. However, by adopting Law on the Interstate Use of Water Objects, Water Resources and Water Management Installations on Examples, 29 June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament left the door open to push the Printable downstream countries into negotiations regarding the Request Sample In Word, Pdf maintenance costs of the Contract Contract Toktogul reservoir as later Kyrgyzstan stated that in fact it demanded to pay only for the water passing through Kyrgyz reservoirs, i.e. share maintenance costs. This was welcomed by Kazakhstan who agreed to pay for the maintenance of the Kyrgyz water installations, but initially opposed by Uzbeks. However, in March 2002 Uzbekistan reached the agreement with Kyrgyzstan that it would share some costs in return for the guarantee that it would receive water for irrigation. Request For Time Off Form Sample Examples Pdf? Had more attention have been paid to the barter agreements working properly, the main step to resolving the Syr Darya dispute between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan would be taken (ICG, 2002b). Shared water storage facilities, like the Andijan reservoir located in the Uzbek part of the Ferghana Valley but supposed to re-channel some water back to Kyrgyzstan, also represent an inter-state problem (Chait, 1998). The Amu Darya is shared by four countries #150; Tajikistan as the upstream riparian, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and How To Student Recruitment Turkmenistan #150; and forms the border in Request For Time Off Form Pdf some stretches between Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, and between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya is much less regulated and has fewer dams and Of Recommendation School Template Word reservoirs to Request - 6+, cause potential problems. However, there are serious tensions along the flow of the river not only between the upstream and Create An International Student Recruitment downstream riparians, as, for example, between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, but also between the middle and lower riparians, for example, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. According to the 1992 water quota agreement, Tajikistan is Request For Time Sample - 6+, entitled to 9 m 3 of about 75 m 3 of Academic, annual flow of the Amu Darya, or 12 percent.
This is considered low by Tajikistan who needs to expand its agricultural output to supply the growing population with food. Tajikistan#146;s agriculture is underdeveloped since the Soviet times, and the irrigation system is derelict and in need of urgent repairs. For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf? Tajikistan sees the only way out as using more water either by increasing its water quota from the Amu Darya or by diverting the Zeravhsan river. As 95 percent of the latter are used by Uzbekistan, this would cause serious tensions with Tajikistan#146;s much powerful neighbour. In contrast, increasing the Amu Darya quota seems to be quite easy, since Tajikistan has an upper hand in distributing water resources of the Amu Darya. In principle, nobody could prevent Tajikistan from taking more water than was allocated by the water quota agreement. It is very hard to monitor Tajikistan#146;s performance, as most equipment needed has been destroyed during the civil war in Printable Templates Blank Calendars 1992-1997.
But even Tajikistan were to Request For Time Off Form Examples In Word,, increase its water quota moderately, this would have an immediate impact downstream. The same water/energy complex as with Kyrgyzstan has developed between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan#146;s central and southern parts are well provided by electricity from the Nurek hydro plant, and northern Tajikistan having no grid lines with the rest of the country relies on Of Recommendation Graduate School | Letter Template Word, Uzbekistan#146;s intermittent supplies of electricity and For Time - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf gas in winter. In return, Tajikistan provides power to southern Uzbek provinces and often requests that Uzbekistan switched off electricity to northern Tajikistan to keep imports within the agreed limit not to pay higher price. This causes serious discontent as Tajikistan is forced to Java Assignment Help And Help In Java By Http://www.assi…, have electricity rationed in many provinces due to poor state of Tajikistan#146;s grid lines.
The country desires to develop its hydropower resources to break dependence on Uzbekistan. But increasing hydro consumption would seriously affect the downstream access to seasonal water supplies and to Request Off Form Examples, create further discord along the Amu Darya course. The most dramatic conflict over the Amu Darya water resources is between downstream nations of Contract Contract Agreement Form 7+, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both equally depend on their cotton production and irrigation agriculture and Off Form both claim that each of them exceed their water quotas. 11+ Letter Of Recommendation | Letter Template Word? Due to the very poor state of Turkmenistan#146;s water infrastructure, most water received by Turkmenistan is wasted.
The country does not want to spend huge funds for Request Off Form - 6+ In Word,, the expensive rehabilitation of Resume Template, crippling Turkmen canals and For Time Off Form - 6+ Examples draws off more water from the Amu Darya instead. The relations between two countries dramatically worsened in the late 2002 when the Uzbek ambassador has been declared persona non grata in Turkmenistan on accusation of Sample. Sample Contract 7+, participating in the conspiracy to oust and kill President Niyazov. Uzbek-Turkmen relations over water can grow even worse, given Turkmenistan#146;s ambitious plan to complete a huge reservoir in the Karakum desert, called the Golden Century Lake. Another point of contention is the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in the delta of the Request For Time Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf Amu Darya divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both sides feel displeased with the wasteful use of water, and this led to an outbreak of Simple Invoice Template | Rabitah.net, violence in 1992 over the re-direction of drainage waters and For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, raids by Academic Resume both sides to cut off pipes and irrigation canals (Smith, 1995). Today, the Tyuyamuyun remains one of the several disputed areas in continuing water dispute with Uzbekistan. Throughout the independence period, rumours have circulated of a small-scale secret war between the two states over For Time Examples In Word, the river resources, Uzbekistan troops taking control of water installations on the Turkmen bank of the Amu Darya, and even of a massacre of a large number of Uzbekistan troops in Turkmenistan in 2001. While these reports seem to be unsubstantiated, they are very indicative of simmering tensions between the two (Sievers, 2002).
The complicated water situation in Central Asia forced the Resume governments of the five states to consider alternative plans for developing water infrastructure to gain better control over water resources. Several giant projects are being considered now in an attempt to find the way out. Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word,? With little exception, all of them date back to the Soviet planning system, and several projects have been frozen in the 1970s-1980s due to the lack of funds. Having been revived, they immediately raised considerable anxieties among neighbouring countries. Among those projects are: the Rogun reservoir able to Download Simple Invoice Template, give Tajikistan full control over the Amu Darya, Golden Century Lake in the middle of Turkmenistan#146;s Karakum desert, the project of diverting Siberian rivers of For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples In Word,, Ob and Printable Blank Monday| Blank Calendars Irtysh to help replenish the Aral Sea, etc. The former two are discussed in Chapter 4. The idea to divert Siberian water to Central Asia was abandoned in the late 1980s when it has become clear that the In Word, project would cause irretrievable damage to the environment. In recent years, however, the project has been revived by Uzbekistan. The main argument of the project#146;s proponents, among whom is the How To Create An International Student Plan mayor of For Time Sample - 6+ Pdf, Moscow Yury Luzhkov, is that the Siberian rivers frequently flood and Monday| Blank hence have excess of water to share with water-deficient Central Asian countries. Yet in reality floods are the integral part of a river system and there is no any #147;excess#148; water. In projecting a huge canal 2,500 kilometres long, 200 metres wide and 15 metres deep from Request For Time Off Form Examples Pdf Western Siberia to Central Asia, it was estimated that 23 cubic kilometres of water would be diverted, of which 2 cubic kilometres would be lost due to the filtration.
Independent experts estimated that the filtration losses would be 12 cubic kilometres, i.e. half of the Create Student Recruitment water to be diverted, which is normal, given that such a cyclopean structure would reach enormous levels of filtration, water-logging and salinisation. One expert put the idea of a miscalculating the project like this, #147;In the Soviet times, we would have been given the task of calculating a project cost of a bridge to the Moon, and we would have calculated that. For Time Off Form Sample Examples In Word, Pdf? But nobody would care about the consequences#148; (Radio Liberty, 2002). Java Assignment Help And Help Programming By Http://www.assi…? Huge, economically not viable and environmentally dubious Siberian water diversion project has already contributed to the difficult water situation in Central Asia. It is doubtful, however, that member countries of the Arctic Council, which Russia is a member of, would consent to threatening common water resources in the Arctic. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. Water disputes contribute to the broader complex of problems across the region, including border disputes, Islamic extremism, high population growth, ethnic tensions, clan competition, human rights and political instability. The desiccation of the Aral Sea has been the important factor to the worsening socio-economic conditions in the area, fuelling nationalist ideas among the population of Karakalpakstan, the Uzbek autonomous republic adjacent to Request Off Form In Word, Pdf, the disaster zone, and aggravating water situation in the region. Contract Agreement? Lack of public participation, particularly in authoritarian Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and attempts of Request Off Form - 6+ Examples Pdf, those governments to find military decisions in already difficult relationships between those countries and upstream states makes the whole situation white-hot.
Ethnic dimension is extremely important for ethnically diverse Kyrgyzstan and 11+ Letter Of Recommendation Graduate School | Letter Uzbekistan. As it happens, local conflicts here have been more serious than wider ones. Disputes over land and water resources provoking wider ethnic conflict have led to hundreds of victims in Kyrgyzstan in 1990. Poverty, rising costs and crumbling water infrastructure are adding to Request For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf, strains in local water system. Water affects the poor who end up paying the large proportion of Contract, their income for the resource. Especially vulnerable to violent eruptions over water and ethnicity is the Ferghana Valley shared by Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan which has already seen the outbreaks of violence, like it was in For Time - 6+ Examples 1990, when bloody clashes between inhabitants of the Kyrgyz town of Osh claimed over 300 lives, or earlier, in Contract Remodeling Contract Form 7+ 1989, when hundreds of the For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported to Central Asia by Template Stalin in the 1940s, were killed in the Uzbek town of Ferghana in For Time Off Form Examples In Word, Pdf what was called one of the most dramatic episodes of inter-ethnic relations in the Soviet Union. The roots of any future ethnic strife in Central Asia lie in the unresolved social and economic problems, competition for scarce water and grazing resources and contentions over discriminatory land allocations (Elhance, 1997). Download Simple Template | Rabitah.net? Potentially explosive ethnic cleavages tear apart many countries in the region. Kyrgyzstan is divided between northern and Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ southern part, with the latter gravitating towards Uzbekistan and inhabited by large proportion of ethnic Uzbeks who have repeatedly demanded to give the Calendars Templates Monday| area more autonomy. For Time Sample - 6+ Examples? Uzbekistan#146;s headache is the Of Recommendation School Word large Tajik population living in Samarkand and Bukhara.
Over the last years, Uzbekistan#146;s policy was to suppress Tajik ethnic identity by not allowing schools to learn in Request Sample In Word, Pdf Tajik language and forcing many Tajiks to call themselves ethnic Uzbeks in their Uzbek passports. The same situation is in Tajikistan where a lot of ethnic Uzbeks live. In the late 1990s, after the Simple Invoice relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have worsened, the Tajik government expelled many Uzbeks to neighbouring Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan in an attempt to get rid of #147;extremist elements#148;. Ethnic minorities have often been viewed by authoritarian governments as potential provocateurs, separatists and extremists (ICG, 2002a). Historic competition between peoples of Central Asia is fuelled by the fact that their leaders do not seem to like one another. There is a great personal competition between the three former Communist leaders, Uzbekistan#146;s Islam Karimov, Kazakhstan#146;s Nursultan Nazarbaev and Turkmenistan#146;s Saparmurad Niyazov.
Each wants to show that his country is the region#146;s most powerful and he therefore should be viewed as the most prominent political figure in Central Asia. As a consequence, the leaders of the region does not see their countries to be the part of a functioning regional subsystem and are rather isolationist in their policies. For all this, they regularly meet to discuss their common problems (Olcott, 2001). Territorial claims and border disputes complicate the situation even further. Given complex ethnic mosaic in Central Asia, Soviet planners did not build administrative units along ethnic lines and took great care not to construct republics with strong ethnic identity which would allow them to eventually secede from the Soviet Union. As a result, thorny disputes as to whose territory was initially whose have occurred, burdened by the territorial exchanges. For example, Karakalpakstan began life in 1924 as part of Kazakhstan but in 1938 had been given away to Uzbekistan. Sample Examples? Moreover, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan all have small enclaves on each other#146;s territory which are nominally a part of their country but are geographically isolated. Java In Java By Http://www.assi…? Only Kyrgyzstan has two Tajik enclaves, with population of Request - 6+ In Word,, some 30,000 people, and five Uzbek ones, with population of about 50,000 people. Issues related to them are highly divisive, and solving this problem appeared to be very difficult (ICG, 2002a).
However, the Academic Resume Template process of delimitation of the borders has already begun. In 2000-2003, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed a number of Off Form - 6+ In Word,, border delimitation agreements and Contract Sample. Agreement Form 7+ started works on delimiting the borders. By 2001, Kazakhstan and Examples In Word, Pdf Uzbekistan have finally settled the border problems and exchanged disputed territories. Of Recommendation Graduate School? Yet many issues, like the problem of the Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan, still remain unresolved. In this context, the growing need to take into account all factors surrounding water disputes is apparent. Chapter 3 will try to Request Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf, analyse variables that may serve as indicators of Contract Sample. Sample Remodeling Contract Agreement, water conflict potential in Central Asia.
3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. Water is the In Word, Pdf most politicised of all natural resources and it is How To Create An International Student, more likely to become a source of armed conflict. It is no wonder therefore that such possibility has been widely discussed (see, for example, Gleick, 1993; Gleditsch, 1997; Just and Netanyahu, 1998; Wolf, Yoffe and Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Pdf Giordano, 2003). Despite the growing literature on water and conflict, little work has been done to provide arguments for Create, the common thesis that #147;growing conflict over water looms ahead#148; (Samson and Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf Charrier, 1997). Generally, the Jordan and Nile basins are cited to give an example of international conflict prone basins. On the other hand, Wolf (1998) gave a historic evidence of co-operation between riparians and stated that the Simple only recorded war over water was fought 4500 years ago between two Mesopotamian states, Lagash and Umma, in what is For Time - 6+ Examples, now southern Iraq. The same author pointed out at Academic Template, the #147;loose definitions#148; in the terminology of the literature about water and conflict where #147;terms such as conflict, dispute, tensions, and war are regularly used interchangeably#148; (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Nevertheless, in order to provide indication of potential water conflict, combinations of variables, or indicators, have to be developed.
Undoubtedly, the practice of establishing various sets of Request Off Form In Word,, indicators, including those for sustainable development, over the past decade has greatly influenced this idea. However, unlike indicators of sustainable development designed to communicate with the public at Academic Resume, large to provide clear picture of a country#146;s progress towards sustainable development, indicators of Request Sample Examples, water conflict proneness are meant to serve as a #145;yardstick#146; for decision makers who are involved in negotiations regarding specific river basin management. Yet such #145;limited#146; value does not impede the indicators of being used by international scientific and political community able to translate them into a pressure on the governments of the School Word riparians involved in a dispute well before this would turn into a violent conflict. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) makes such analysis even more effective by bringing together spatial and non-spatial variables, thus facilitating identification and interpretation of potential indicators. One of the frequently cited instruments which could serve as a model for developing a set of water conflict indicators is the Index of Human Insecurity (IHI) developed to For Time Sample - 6+, facilitate identification of vulnerable or insecure regions. It is considered an #147;aggregate measure of human welfare that integrates social, economic, and political exposures to and capacity to cope with a range of potentially harmful perturbations#148; (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). The IHI identifies four #147;key system components#148; #150; the environment, the economy, society, and institutions. Java Help And Help By Http://www.assi…? Within each of these four indicator categories are four variables, each of which measure either a key structural relationship (e.g., linkages, defining characteristics) or a key functional relationship (e.g., processes, flows) of the system.
Where data in a time series are missing, IHI developers utilize statistical techniques to establish a complete time series for all indicators and all countries, where there is sufficient initial data. However, the index for For Time Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf, each year is specific to that year, making it difficult to compare changes in a country#146;s IHI from across years (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Another water-specific indicator is water stress measured by Falkenmark#146;s (1992) Water Stress Index (WSI) which divides the volume of a country#146;s available water resources by Sample. Sample Contract Form its population. For Time Off Form Sample In Word,? This measure, however, does not account for a country#146;s ability to School | Letter Template Word, adapt to water stress, such as with more efficient irrigation technology. Ohlsson (1999) has developed a Social Water Stress Index (SWSI) to Sample Pdf, incorporate a measure of a country#146;s adaptability. The SWSI is a water stress index (freshwater availability per capita) divided by UNDP's Human Development Index and then divided by 2 (rounded to nearest wholes). Both these global level indices are usually derived and applied at the country level. Several other potential indicators were also mentioned in the literature, including overall population growth rates within a country, population density within and outside a basin, relative power and riparian position of countries within a basin (Wolf, 1999), the degree of democratisation of countries sharing a river basin and so on. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. The methodology for establishing indicators of international freshwater conflict and co-operation was developed under Basins At Risk (BAR) project at Oregon State University, USA (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). BAR which has spanned for 4 years effectively developed and created legal and spatial framework to An International Student Plan, further evaluate international river basins at potential risk for future water conflict.
All 263 international river basins were delineated and For Time Sample a database documenting historical incidents of Assignment Help In Java Programming, international water conflict and co-operation between 1948 and 1999 was set up. Off Form In Word, Pdf? Finally, indicator variables were created and the river basins in need of more detailed investigation with regard to water conflict were identified. Indicators have been selected in Java Assignment Programming By Http://www.assi… accordance with the following criteria: relevance to the selected framework; general availability of the data; existence of Off Form Examples In Word,, a theoretical or empirical link with security issue; and an adequacy of spatial and temporal coverage allowing for effective representation and Download Format Template | Rabitah.net modelling (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). Emphasis was made on the regional and basin scale indicators rather than on indicators of potential water conflict at global scale. Internationalisation of Request Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples, a basin was at special focus. Assuming that there is a causal link between the internationalisation of a basin and incidents of conflict among the states that now share that basin, the presence of ethnic minorities with nationalistic aspirations becomes a potential indicator (Wolf, 1999).
A key question regarding the above variables is Printable Calendars, whether they are relevant to indicating water conflict. Yoffe (2001) provides a good account of statistically testing indicators previously cited in the literature. As main statistical tool, linear regression was used to Request - 6+ Examples, assess the relative strength of various independent variables in explaining the variability of the event data. Also, other statistical methods such as two-sample t-test were employed. Linear regression has been chosen because #147;it offered a concise summary of the mean of the response variable as a function of an explanatory variable#148; (Yoffe, 2001). Sixteen indicators, including GDP per capita, population density, number of dams, water stress, HDI, hydropower have been tested using linear regression, three indicators such as freshwater treaties, adjacency and riverine contiguity have been analysed using two-sample t-test, and four indicators such as dam density, freshwater treaties, climate and Simple Format precipitation had no statistical tests conducted on them due to Off Form Examples In Word, Pdf, structure of data. Yoffe#146;s most important finding was that most of the commonly cited water conflict indicators proved to be unsupported by the data. Neither government type, climate, IHI, water stress or number of dams, nor agricultural dependence on water resources and energy needs showed a significant relevance with water conflict. Based on Printable Monday| Blank, the assessment, river basins are at Request For Time Off Form In Word, Pdf, potential risk of freshwater conflict if: population density exceeds 100 people per 1 km 2 per capita GDP is less than $765 overall unfriendly relations (-1 at water event intensity scale) there are politically active minority groups that may lead to the internationalisation of a basin large dams or other water development projects are planned no or limited number of water treaties is available (Yoffe, 2001). This study will employ these indicator variables as the research framework.
A number of the attribute data mentioned above can be effectively represented within a Geographic Information System (GIS), such as ESRI ArcView, designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse and visualize disparate sets of geographically referenced data. Moreover, some spatial information such as runoff and slope would be extremely difficult to analyse without the use of a GIS. However, GIS has its limitations inherent to the technology, including problems of multiple scales and data interpretation. The examination of indicators at an international, national and Resume sub-national level introduces questions of scale that will need to Request For Time Sample Examples In Word,, be further addressed. There is also a lack of distinct frameworks to analyse the Format Template interaction of human and environmental systems (Yoffe and For Time Sample - 6+ In Word, Ward, 1999). Linked to Form, the problem of frameworks is the problem with interpreting non-spatial matters using spatial analysis. For instance, the degree of democratisation of a country might be difficult to represent if one assumes that different areas have different levels of Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf, democratisation. Special problem regarding Central Asia#146;s GIS is the lack of data; several important databases located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, contain a lot of vital information but this information is virtually closed for external use.
3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. Previous attempt to apply potential indicators of water conflict to Central Asia#146;s water disputes has been made by Myers (1993) who created a water scarcity index using population and per capita water availability data. Assuming that water stress is to occur when more than 2,000 people share every unit of one million cubic meters of available water, the author calculated water indices for each of Central Asia#146;s countries by comparing 1991 population data with all available water and the amount of water available solely from indigenous sources (i.e. that available from Contract Sample Contract Form 7+ precipitation within the borders of a country). In 1993, all the countries appeared to have sufficient water resources per capita. Both downstream countries of Turkmenistan and Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples In Word, Uzbekistan relied on water flowing in from outside and indigenous water resources stress was high (2,180 people per one million m 3 of indigenous water in Assignment And Help In Java Programming Uzbekistan and 3,287 people per one million m 3 of indigenous water in Turkmenistan). Klötzli (1994) used a number of indicators for vulnerability to Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf, water scarcity developed by Gleick (1993), including the ratio of Create An International Student Recruitment, water demand to supply, the per capita availability of water, the dependence on imported surface water and the importance of hydroelectric production.
Having calculated these, the Request For Time Off Form Examples author came to a somewhat obvious conclusion that #147;these indicators#133; show a distinct difference between the water-rich republics of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and Assignment Help And Help In Java By Http://www.assi… the republics not controlling the sources of water courses like Uzbekistan and#133; Turkmenistan#133; The vulnerability indices not only express different access and Request For Time Sample Examples Pdf pollution control opportunities, but also different, often contradictory modes of water utilisation (hydropower vs. agriculture)#148; (Klötzli, 1994). Similar method based on Gleick#146;s findings was used by Smith (1995) to determine the relative degree of dependence of particular regions on water resources and to identify those regions that may become potential focal points for future intra- and interstate conflicts. It is argued that high population growth can be more damaging to the environment than high population density and southern Uzbekistani provinces as Surkhandarya and Kashakdarya and several regions in the Ferghana Valley that experienced some of the highest population growth rates in Download Invoice Template the region between 1981 and For Time - 6+ 1991 are most likely to Academic, become a scene of a resource-related conflict. The author points out that the Request - 6+ Examples areas combining high population growth and no indigenous water supplies (Andijan and Ferghana in eastern Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan in the west) are of prime concern. As Turkmenistan#146;s Dashhovuz region and Uzbekistan#146;s Karakalpakstan share the water of the lower Amu Darya, future water-induced conflicts may occur in this region. Printable Calendars Blank Calendars? Each region was ranked according to the basic characteristics believed to affect the Request For Time - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf water conflict potential (population growth rate/density, per capita water availability from total and indigenous sources, share of Contract Sample. Form, water derived from external sources, minority population share of - 6+ Examples In Word,, total population). Java Assignment Help In Java? Eight of ten regions having the Request Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf highest rankings for water-resource vulnerability are located in Uzbekistan, with top of the top four located in the Ferghana Valley. Thus, the regions constituting the Ferghana Valley and those occupying the lower Amu Darya appear to School, be the most sensitive to potential water-induced conflicts. Carney and Moran (2000) examined the interstate affect in Request For Time Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf Central Asia toward Russia, i.e. #147;the current discernable feeling of a government toward another government#148; which is expressed #147;#133;in all behaviour whether it takes the form of word or deeds#148;, and developed #147;scale of affectivity#148; ranging arbitrarily from -2 to Assignment Help In Java By Http://www.assi…, +2. Although different in Request For Time Off Form In Word, goals, this study employed the similar technique in scoring and coding news reports from Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) as discussed below. Also mentioning the Aral Sea Basin#146;s famous conflict potential, Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) argue that the basin countries tend to negotiate current conflicts.
However, none of the Remodeling Contract Form treaties signed recently include all the Request - 6+ Pdf basin riparians, and therefore potential for continued disputes, at least in the nearest future, is likely. Given global scale of BAR project, considering and spatially interpreting all physical, social, economic and political variables for Central Asia becomes even more vital and can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) recount of compiling a systematic database for Blank, water conflict/co-operation worldwide, in an attempt to - 6+ Examples, gather every reported interaction between two or more nations, where water was the driver of the How To Create Recruitment Plan event. Using various international news databases, like FBIS and its online version, World News Connection (WNC), the authors developed #145;a friendship-hostility scale#146; #150; a ratio of all co-operative to In Word,, conflictive events between nations over Format water, having modified a scale created by Conflict and Peace Databank (COPDAB) project directed by Professor Edward E. Request Off Form Sample Examples In Word, Pdf? Azar. COPDAB#146;s scale ranges from level 1, representing the most co-operative events, to level 15, representing the most conflictive events, with level 8 representing neutral events. To make it water-specific, the authors inverted it so that neutral events were centred on Sample. Contract Agreement, zero, to make it ranging from -7 to +7, with -7 denoting the most conflictive events, 0 denoting neutral events, and +7 denoting the For Time Off Form - 6+ Examples most cooperative events. The new scale also included the addition of water terms (italicised in Table 3.1), and a new category, formal declaration of war. To accommodate this category, which is not part of the original COPDAB Scale, category 13 (Small scale military acts) and 14 (Limited war acts) were merged into one category, number 13.
Category 14 was given the heading and description of category 15 (Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic costs), and Category 15 was changed to indicate a formal declaration of war (Yoffe, 2001). RE-CENTERED BAR SCALE. Formal declaration of Assignment Help And Help In Java By Http://www.assi…, war. Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost: Use of nuclear weapons; full scale air, naval, or land battles; invasion of territory; occupation of Off Form, territory; massive bombing of civilian areas; capturing of soldiers in battle; large scale bombing of Contract Sample Remodeling Agreement 7+, military installations; chemical or biological warfare. Small scale military acts: Limited air, sea, or border skirmishes; border police acts; annexing territory already occupied; seizing material of Request Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word,, target country; imposing blockades; assassinating leaders of target country; material support of subversive activities against target country. Political-military hostile actions: Inciting riots or rebellions (training or financial aid for An International Student Plan, rebellions); encouraging guerrilla activities against target country; limited and sporadic terrorist actions; kidnapping or torturing foreign citizens or prisoners of war; giving sanctuary to terrorists; breaking diplomatic relations; attacking diplomats or embassies; expelling military advisors; executing alleged spies; nationalizing companies without compensation.
Diplomatic-economic hostile actions: Increasing troop mobilization; boycotts; imposing economic sanctions; hindering movement on land, waterways, or in the air; embargoing goods; refusing mutual trade rights; closing borders and blocking free communication; manipulating trade or currency to cause economic problems; halting aid; granting sanctuary to opposition leaders; mobilizing hostile demonstrations against Request In Word, Pdf target country; refusing to support foreign military allies; recalling ambassador for emergency consultations regarding target country; refusing visas to other nationals or restricting movement in country; expelling or arresting nationals or press; spying on Printable Blank Templates Monday| Blank, foreign government officials; terminating major agreements. Unilateral construction of water projects against another country#146;s protests; reducing flow of For Time Off Form Examples, water to another country, abrogation of a water agreement. Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction: Warning retaliation for acts; making threatening demands and accusations; condemning strongly specific actions or policies; denouncing leaders, system, or ideology; postponing heads of state visits; refusing participation in meetings or summits; leveling strong propaganda attacks; denying support; blocking or vetoing policy or proposals in the UN or other international bodies. Official interactions only. Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction: Low key objection to policies or behaviour; communicating dissatisfaction through third party; failing to reach an agreement; refusing protest note; denying accusations; objecting to explanation of goals, position, etc.; requesting change in policy. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of protest. Neutral or non-significant acts for the inter-nation situation: Rhetorical policy statements; non-consequential news items; non-governmental visitors; indifference statements; compensating for Of Recommendation Graduate Template, nationalized enterprises or private property; no comment statements. Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions - mild verbal support: Meeting of high officials; conferring on problems of mutual interest; visit by lower officials for talks; issuing joint communiqués; appointing ambassadors; announcing cease-fires; non-governmental exchanges; proposing talks; public non-governmental support of regime; exchanging prisoners of war; requesting support for policy; stating or explaining policy. Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime: Official support of policy; raising legation to Request Sample - 6+ Examples In Word,, embassy; reaffirming friendship; asking for help against third party; apologizing for Academic Template, unfavorable actions or statements; allowing entry of press correspondents; thanking or asking for aid; resuming broken diplomatic or other relations. Cultural or scientific agreement or support (non-strategic): Starting diplomatic relations; establishing technological or scientific communication; proposing or. offering economic or military aid; recognizing government; visit by head of state; opening borders; conducting or enacting friendship agreements; conducting cultural or academic agreements or exchanges.
Agreements to set up cooperative working groups. Non-military economic, technological, or industrial agreement: Making economic loans, grants; agreeing to economic pacts; giving industrial, cultural, or educational assistance; conducting trade agreements or granting most favoured nation status; establishing common transportation or communication networks; selling industrial-technological surplus supplies; providing technical expertise; ceasing economic restrictions; repaying debts; selling non-military goods; giving disaster relief. Request For Time Off Form In Word,? Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation. Military economic or strategic support: Selling nuclear power plants or materials; providing air, naval, or land facilities for 11+ Letter Of Recommendation School | Letter Template Word, bases; giving technical or advisory military assistance; granting military aid; sharing highly advanced technology; intervening with military support at Off Form Sample Pdf, request of government; concluding military agreements; training military personnel; joint programs and An International Student Recruitment Plan plans to initiate and pursue disarmament. International Freshwater Treaty; Major strategic alliance (regional or international): Fighting a war jointly; establishing a joint military command or alliance; conducting joint military manoeuvres; establishing economic common market; joining or organizing international alliances; establishing joint program to Request For Time, raise the global quality of life.
Voluntary unification into one nation: Merging voluntarily into one nation (state); forming one nation with one legally binding government. Source: Yoffe (2001) For the purposes of this study, BAR global Water Event Intensity Scale is adapted to the Amu Darya basin countries in Central Asia to determine overall relations and identify focal points for the future conflicts while concurrently applying GIS-based variables of water conflict. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. In creating ArcView data coverages for the Amu Darya Basin, data for international river basins kindly provided by Dr Aaron T. Wolf was used which was then matched to the US Geological Service Hydro1k (USGS, 2000) dataset, a global coverage of streams and drainage basins derived from digital elevation data. The data collected fell into roughly two categories: biophysical (e.g. runoff, population, dams) attributes suitable for the spatial analysis and economic/political (e.g. GDP per capita, overall relations, ethnic minorities) attributes. Although some of the variables used are quantitative and can be measured, the Java Help And Help indicators comprising political category are qualitative in nature (internationalisation of Request For Time Examples In Word, Pdf, a basin, future water infrastructure, water treaties). The full description of the attributes and techniques employed is given below.
In pulling various water-related attributes together in Sample Agreement order to draw a picture of a basin#146;s specific conflict proneness, population growth is among key factors for assessing water scarcity. The relation of water access to population distribution should therefore be assessed. As a river basin rarely follows political borders, per Sample In Word, Pdf, basin population density instead of per region population density was evaluated. In doing so, the Landscan gridded population of the world (Landscan, 2001) was used to approximate population distribution. Download Invoice Format Template? Building on the Landscan data proved very effective as the Landscan team used remotely sensed slope, land cover, road proximity and night time lights to refine the GIS-based gridded population cell values, providing the best accurate dataset. Gridcell values for the Aral Sea Basin were summed to combine this table with the Amu Darya Basin, thus calculating a population density for that area, as described by Yoffe (2001) (Figure 4.1). Runoff is Request Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf, considered the How To Create Student Recruitment total amount of surface flow in Request Off Form a given area. Any assessment of a water resource related issue would be incomplete without some approximation of water availability within the study area (Yoffe, 2001). Data for the Amu Darya runoff were obtained through a spatial resolution grid of composite runoff fields based on observed river discharge and Printable Templates Monday| Blank simulated water balances (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000). The project was the outcome of a joint effort of the Complex Systems Research Centre at the University of New Hampshire and the Global Runoff Data Centre in Off Form - 6+ In Word, Koblenz, Germany. Blank Blank? The project combined #147;#133;two sources of information (observed discharge and simulated runoff) to estimate continental runoff#148; which was #147;the most reliable assessment at present#148; (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000).
To estimate the composite runoff for Request For Time Pdf, the Amu Darya, runoff data for the eight gauging stations located in the Amu Darya basin were used. The cell values in mm/yr were multiplied by the area of the associated grid cell in sq. Create An International Student Recruitment? km to Request For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf, produce a runoff volume grid (mm*km 2 /yr) (Figure 4.3). The third key factor in assessing water scarcity is the Academic Resume Template number and Examples In Word, density of dams in a study area. According to Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), when statistically testing potential water conflict indicators, dams themselves did not appear to be a potential indicator for water conflict, yet in basins without water treaties lower dam density basins tended to exhibit slightly less conflict. With negative overall relations between countries and absence of Resume Template, a transboundary institution, unilaterally setting a large dam or diversion project can provide a context for the conflict over water, while positive relations and presence of a transboundary institution can mitigate the situation. To determine the - 6+ In Word, Pdf number of Academic Resume Template, dams and dam density for the Amu Darya Basin, global dataset provided by Wolf was used, based on the Digital Chart of the World data and International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) World Register of Dams (Figure 4.4). More importantly, large proposed water infrastructure projects that proved to have significant influence on the whole water situation in the basin were identified (e.g. the Request For Time Off Form Pdf Rogun Dam in Of Recommendation | Letter Word Tajikistan, etc.). Internationalising a basin provides an important setting for future water conflict (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Request Pdf? Those basins whose management institutions were developed under a single jurisdiction and then became divided among two or more nations when that jurisdiction suddenly collapsed, showed much higher levels of conflict (Yoffe, 2001). In order to check for the active nationalist movements who might cause future internationalisation of the Amu Darya Basin, data from Java In Java two major sources have been analysed: Minorities At Risk Project, at the University of Maryland#146;s Centre for International Development and Conflict Management (Gurr, 2000) and Request For Time Off Form Sample Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO, 2002).
Low per capita GDP ( $765/person according to Resume Template, the World Bank lowest income country definition) was identified to be one of the indicators of conflict over water (Yoffe, 2001). As Wolf, Yoffe and For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples Giordano (2003) put it, #147;the higher the per capita GDP, or the lower population density, the greater the co-operation #150; barely#148;. To establish macro-economic data for the Amu Darya Basin countries, the World Bank data for 2000 were used. It is pointed out (Yoffe, 2001) that countries that co-operate in Blank Calendars general also co-operate over For Time Off Form In Word, Pdf water, and countries with overall unfriendly relations are also unfriendly over water issues. To construct a #145;friendship-hostility scale#146; as appeared in Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), a rough water event intensity scale was built employing the technique described in Section 3.5. In gathering country-to-country events and interactions, two major sources were used: the WNC and Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database. Both build on the reports about Central Asia by the two leading Russian news agencies #150; ITAR-TASS and Interfax, as well as on the news coverages by Eurasianet and the Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Tajikistan news). Notably, the water event data are based on public reports and Simple Invoice therefore lack reports on Off Form Examples In Word, Pdf, non-public co-operation (#147;picnic table talks#148;, non-official visits, etc.) Generally, freshwater treaties mitigate conflict, and no or limited freshwater treaties for a basin increase the likeliness of Create Student Plan, conflict over water.
To analyse existing freshwater treaties for the Amu Darya Basin, the International Freshwater Treaties Database at For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word,, Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002), containing a full text of over 400 international freshwater related agreements, was used. Next chapter discusses these and other potential indicators of conflict over freshwater in more details. 4 Water Conflict Potential in the Amu Darya Basin. The Amu Darya#146;s population is extremely unevenly distributed. Invoice Template | Rabitah.net? Only in Uzbekistan which has the region#146;s highest population density (average 50 people per km 2 , with total population of Request Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf, about 25 million in 2002), 80 percent of land is desert. In 1990, the rural population occupied a total of 4.5 million hectares of arable land, or about 16 percent of all available agricultural land in the country, and thus the effective density of How To Student, rural population was 2.7 people per hectare of arable land. Given the rate of Off Form Sample In Word,, natural population growth in Uzbekistan being one of the highest among the former Soviet republics, rural population steadily increased from 1984 to 1994 to 61 percent, while the arable land and cultivated area remained practically unchanged (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Population distribution in the Amu Darya Basin varies accordingly, from 20-30 people per km 2 in the downstream sections of the river (except for the river stretch just before flowing into Resume Template the Aral Sea that runs across the Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Uzbek territory and where population density is Resume Template, about 40-50 people/km 2 ) to 25-40 people/km 2 in Request For Time Sample Examples In Word, Pdf the middle course and to 20-35 people/km 2 in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya (Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1: Population density in the Amu Darya Basin (1995) The population pattern in Central Asia has remained the same over thousands of years.
People tend to inhabit fertile oases and valleys rich in water. Many human habitats can be found located along the rivers (Figure 4.2), and almost all of them date from the | Rabitah.net pre-Islamic times. Figure 4.2: Population density in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Akmansoy, 1998. In terms of runoff (Figure 4.3), the Amu Darya can be divided into three sections: an Off Form Sample In Word, upstream section, a middle course section, and a downstream section. The upstream section extends from the point of confluence of the Academic Resume Template Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers up to the town of For Time Off Form Sample, Kerki, the middle course is between Kerki and the Tyuyamuyun Gorge, and the downstream section is confined to the mouth of the river. Simple Invoice Format? In the upstream section, the flow of the Request For Time Off Form Sample Pdf Amu Darya steadily increases due to the Kunduz, Kafirnigan, Surkhandarya, and Sherabad tributaries.
Figure 4.3: Estimated Annual Runoff in the Amu Darya Basin. The reverse situation can be observed in the middle course and in the downstream section: the flow gradually declines due to natural losses of runoff and Format | Rabitah.net huge water diversions for agricultural needs. Request Off Form In Word, Pdf? It is quite difficult to evaluate those natural and anthropogenic losses as the data from Academic Resume many gauging stations for the last two decades are not available. Average annual runoff at the town of Kerki (upstream section) between 1957-1987 was 1903 m 3 /s, together with water diverted to Karakum and Karshi canals, 1351 m 3 /s in the Tyuyamuyun Gorge (middle course) in For Time Off Form - 6+ In Word, the same period and 656 m 3 /s in the downstream section (Ivanov and Izmaiylov, 1995). Of Recommendation Graduate School? Figure 4.4 represents total number of dams per Amu Darya riparian. Figure 4.4: Number of Sample In Word, Pdf, dams per country in the Amu Darya Basin. Unilateral decisions to embark on new water projects are not uncommon in Simple Format Central Asia. While providing for national solutions, such decisions and further actions are among key drivers of potential water conflict. Trying to find a way out of the existing situation, some Central Asian governments were forced to develop plans for building more infrastructure to Request For Time Sample - 6+ Pdf, get control over Download Simple Invoice Format water resources.
Two projects which are the legacy of the Soviet-style gigantic undertakings and which caused extremely negative reaction among neighbours are discussed below. Started in Request For Time Off Form - 6+ 1976, the Rogun Dam, on Blank Calendars Templates Blank Calendars, the Vakhsh river, was projected to For Time Off Form - 6+ Examples Pdf, be 335 metres high #150; the Remodeling Form highest in the world - with the Request Off Form Sample Examples Pdf capacity to produce 3,600 MW of Programming By Http://www.assi…, energy. The dam was expected to begin operation in Request Off Form Sample Examples 1993. However, in 1990 the construction was halted due to the escalating political situation which turned into a 5-year civil war in Tajikistan. In 1993, a massive flood destroyed most of what has been already built. By that time, $802 million was invested into the project, with the total cost of $2.3 billion (Dyuzheva, 2002; Yerofeeva, 2002).
Figure 4.5: Power stations in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya. Source: Dyuzheva, 2002. Tajikistan already controls 40 percent of the flow of the Amu Darya through the Academic Resume Template Nurek reservoir. The Rogun would put it firmly in control of the - 6+ In Word, river, allowing to control the flow into Uzbekistan#146;s Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya Provinces that already experience sharp water shortages. Knowing Uzbekistan#146;s opposition to Download Simple Invoice Format, the project, Tajikistan continues to Request Off Form In Word,, press with the completion of the Rogun Dam that would need $700 million to $1 billion to complete. Most international finance institutions are reluctant to put any money into the project, claiming that it would cost more than any benefit it might offer. They are also aware that the project would seriously strain relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
However, getting Tajik government concentrate on more feasible, realistic and low-cost project yielded no fruits. Calendars Blank Calendars? On 29 October 2002, the Baltic Construction Company, one of the Request For Time Sample Examples In Word, biggest Russian investment/construction groups, became a contractor and investor for completion of the Rogun Dam project (Dyuzheva, 2002; ICG, 2002b). In October 2000, Turkmenistan began work on a huge artificial lake in the Karakum Desert, which was pompously called Golden Century Lake. The lake is 11+ Letter | Letter Template, being built in the Karashor natural depression in the north-western part of the For Time Sample - 6+ Pdf Karakum desert. Academic Template? The depression covers 3,500 to 4,000 km 2 and has a maximum depth of 70 to 100 metres.
Once completed, the lake would contain some 132 to 150 km 3 of water. Drainage water is to be diverted to the lake from the five provinces through two major collector-canals. The project cost is up to $6 billion, and Off Form - 6+ Examples In Word, it will be financed from state budget. The first stage is to be completed in 2004 and the entire project covers 10 years. There are rumours that special nuclear power station will be built nearby to use a lake as a cooling pond. The government holds that only drainage water will be used to Resume Template, supply the lake (Pereverten, 2000; ICG, 2002b). The project raised immediate concerns in Request - 6+ Examples In Word, neighbouring Uzbekistan that the lake cannot be sustained by drainage water alone and about 10 cubic kilometres of water from the Simple Invoice Format | Rabitah.net Amu Darya will be needed to Request Off Form - 6+ In Word, Pdf, maintain its level. Uzbekistan argues that drainage water has a high salt content and will gradually evaporate in Download Template the terrible heat of the Karakum desert creating a new Aral. By increasing the Request For Time In Word, water use from the Amu Darya, Turkmenistan would leave the southern Uzbek provinces without any water. If Ashgabat will go ahead with the project, it will inevitably lead to tensions with Uzbekistan (Insarova, 2002).
Just like the Toktogul reservoir on the Syr Darya, this ambitious and costly undertaking risks becoming a source of conflict with Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan also threatens to resettle about one million ethnic Uzbeks from the southern province of Dashhovuz to the Karakum desert once the lake is completed (ICG, 2002b). 4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan is one of the 13 provinces, or oblasts, in Uzbekistan. Its history began in 1925, when the Karakalpaks (a Turkic-language Muslim group whose name literally means black hat) were given their own territory, declared the Autonomous Oblast, within the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). Create Student Recruitment? In 1930, the Request Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf Karakalpak AO was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Printable Blank Monday| Blank Calendars Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, where it remained until 1936, when it was joined to the Uzbek SSR and elevated to the status of the Autonomous SSR (Hanks, 2000). After Uzbekistan#146;s independence, Karakalpakstan received autonomous republic status within Uzbekistan.
Since that time, the central government in Tashkent has maintained pressure and tight economic ties that have kept the Sample republic from Contract Sample Agreement exerting full independence. Figure 4.6: Uzbekistan#146;s administrative units (including Karakalpakstan) Today, the population of Karakalpakstan is about 1.3 million people who live on For Time Off Form Examples In Word, Pdf, a territory of about 168,000 km 2 . Academic Resume Template? Located in the fertile lower reaches of the Amu Darya where the river empties into the Aral Sea, Karakalpakstan has a long history of irrigation agriculture. However, because it is a tail end of the Amu Darya, Karakalpakstan received all the pollution the river has accumulated along its course. The health statistics (morbidity and Request mortality data) collectively reflect the poor and deteriorating health of the people downstream. My personal experience of work for the Eye Cancer Register Project at the Institute of Oncology and Radiology in Tashkent showed that while eye cancer incidence in Printable Karakalpakstan was relatively low, mortality rate was the highest in Uzbekistan (2.2 people per 100,000 people, compared to 0.2 to 0.3/100,000 in other provinces of Uzbekistan) (Mouratova, 1992). More generally, the Karakalpaks showed one of the highest rates of cancer, comparable only to Kazakhs living in Muynak area of Karakalpakstan. Even in the Soviet times, nationalist sentiment and identity among the Karakalpaks were stronger than scholars believed and Uzbekistan#146;s independence marked by the rise of Uzbek nationalism has seen the Karakalpak national movement too. However, this group known as the Khalk Mapi was quickly suppressed and driven underground.
Although the Karakalpaks never demonstrated publicly for the formal independence and the republic is Request For Time Sample - 6+ Examples, not a member of UNPO, the Recruitment Uzbek authorities view a possible nationalist tendency in Karakalpakstan as seriously threatening Uzbekistan#146;s integrity. In the meanwhile, little study has been undertaken to go deep into the question of a possible disintegration of Uzbekistan. Various researchers have briefly pointed out that Karakalpakstan has the potential to For Time - 6+ In Word,, claim its independence from Uzbekistan (Klötzli, 1994; Baechler, 1998; Lietzman and Vest, 1999). The only weighty study on the subject, Hanks (2000), runs counter to the common belief that Central Asia has become firmly established in its current boundaries. Simple Invoice | Rabitah.net? Hanks supports that there are four factors that may contribute to the Karakalpak nationalism, notably: (1) a separate cultural identity; (2) a history of territorial identity and autonomy; (3) economic underdevelopment; and (4) severe environmental damage, resulting in For Time Examples drastic decline in human conditions. Indeed, Karakalpakstan is the only Uzbek province where Uzbeks are not the majority. Unlike Tajiks in Samarkand and Bukhara, the Karakalpaks are allowed to learn in their native language in schools and 2.6% of the school-age population are enrolled in Karakalpak schools which means that most Karakalpaks are insistent that their children be educated in their mother tongue. And the Karakalpak language is quite different from the Uzbek one being linguistically closer to the Kazakh language just as the Agreement Form 7+ whole Karakalpak culture is.
Historically and ethnically, Karakalpaks, with their nomadic culture, would show best in Kazakhstan where such culture is persistent and where Karakalpaks are still considered oralman , i.e. Request Off Form - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf? members of the Kazakh community living abroad. Of Recommendation | Letter Template? During the past 12 years, as much as 270,000 Karakalpaks, or 20% of the Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf population, left Uzbekistan for Java Assignment And Help, Kazakhstan and Russia, largely due to the unbearable human and For Time Off Form Sample environmental conditions in the Aral Sea area (Glantz, 2002). Contract Sample? Small, van der Meer and Upshur (2001) quote the study showing that 48.8% of respondents wanted to leave their homes because of the environment, and one half of Off Form, those wanted to move out of the Download Format Aral Sea area. In economic terms, Karakalpakstan represents a remote geographical hinterland, absent from global economy, with virtually no industrial development and soaring unemployment rates. Agricultural sector is on the verge of collapse and fisheries, once a profitable sector, disappeared along with the whole Aral Sea. Due to the fact that most imported goods are shipped to Tashkent, 1000 kilometres away from Nukus, capital of Karakalpakstan, fewer goods are offered there, adding to the general quality of life being the lowest in the country.
Officially, 100,000 people were unemployed in 2002 as a result of the multi-year drought that began in 1999 and by 2001 reduced cotton production in Karakalpakstan by 75% of the norm. Rice production was only Request For Time Off Form - 6+ Examples Pdf 0.25% of the Graduate Template norm (Glantz, 2002). The situation aggravated so much that people are slaughtering livestock because animals started dying of Request For Time Sample Examples Pdf, thirst. How To Create An International Student Plan? In a region where cattle have implications for Request Sample - 6+ Examples, the future, killing cows means losing a major asset (Kohn, 2001). All this resulted in the fact that most Karakalpaks began viewing themselves as the environmental victims and hostages of the central power, first in Moscow, then in Tashkent. Why don#146;t Karakalpaks revolt? #150; ponders Bissell (2002). So far, only what can be called #147;a foot vote#148;, i.e. the exodus of the Karakalpak population to neighbouring Kazakhstan, has happened.
ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official as saying that people of Karakalpakstan #147;#133;are patient and Create Recruitment Plan put their hope in God and the President#148;. Indeed, an independent Karakalpakstan may be unlikely in Sample - 6+ Examples In Word, the future. Poor state of Academic, economy and environmental degradation undermined the region#146;s development so much that an Request For Time Off Form Sample Examples independent Karakalpakstan would have a little chance for survival. Printable Calendars Blank Calendars? But this in no way lessens the potential for the region to Request For Time Sample - 6+ Examples, destabilise Uzbekistan and eventually the whole Central Asia (Hanks, 2000). Possible is also the Indonesian scenario #150; when the central regime grows weak, nationalist claims in Java Assignment Help And Help In Java Programming the provinces become stronger and may eventually lead to a secession. Northern Afghanistan belongs to the Amu Darya Basin. Until recently, before the US-led campaign against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, this area was de facto independent from the rest of the country, remaining firmly under control of the Uzbek and Tajik warlords opposing the Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf regime in Download Invoice Format Kabul. Request Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf? Today, when the Sample. Sample Contract 7+ central government of Sample - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf, Hamid Karzai is trying to spread its authority on the rest of the Sample. Remodeling Contract Form 7+ country, the question of separate northern provinces is For Time Sample - 6+, less important in light of the emerging Afghanistan integrity. Before 2001, Afghanistan was itself the factor of risk for the Basin.
It is still unclear what share would Afghanistan#146;s agricultural sector require from the Amu Darya water and when. It is clear though that Afghanistan will demand its share and that it is entitled to that share under the international agreements signed between the USSR and Afghanistan in 1946 ( Frontier Agreement between Afghanistan and the USSR , 13 June 1946) and 1958 ( Treaty concerning the How To Create An International Student Recruitment regime to the Soviet-Afghan frontier , 18 January 1958, and For Time Sample Examples Pdf Protocol between the Sample. Remodeling Contract 7+ USSR and Afghanistan concerning the For Time Off Form In Word, Pdf joint execution of works for Academic Resume Template, the integrated utilisation of the water resources in the frontier section of the Amu Darya , 25 June 1958). The 1946 Agreement subjects all matters associated with the water use to specific agreements between the two countries and provides for the establishment of a joint commission. Under it, Afghanistan is entitled to use up to 9 km 3 of water from the For Time Off Form Sample Pyandj river. Under the Treaty of 18 January 1958, the two countries commit themselves to take joint measures to How To An International Plan, prevent changes in the course of Request - 6+ In Word, Pdf, frontier rivers, streams or canals and to correct the effects of Calendars Blank, such changes and share the costs equally. Furthermore, they commit themselves to Request Sample Examples In Word,, prevent water pollution, to exchange regular information on the level and volume of water and meteorological data and to adopt a flood warning system. Finally, the 1958 Protocol envisages the joint integrated utilisation of the frontier sections of the Amu Darya (Nanni, 1996). Since #147;localisable#148; international agreements (i.e. Invoice Format Template? those relating to identifiable parts of the territory of states) are subject to For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples In Word,, state succession under international law, these agreements remain in force for Academic Resume, the newly independent Central Asian states (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Until now, Afghanistan has used only about 2 km 3 of the 9 km 3 of water it is entitled to use under the treaties. For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf? Meanwhile, the Pyandj river has the Sample. Remodeling Agreement annual flow of Off Form - 6+ In Word, Pdf, 19 km 3 , and Afghanistan#146;s fresh involvement into the process of water use would radically change the Amu Darya flow if the new Afghan government decides to develop agriculture in the North.
Plans of Afghanistan to increase its water share caused the respective reaction in neighbouring countries. ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official quotes as saying, #147;God forbid that we should give water also to Blank Templates Calendars, Afghanistan. What will then become of us?#148; Given that the rehabilitation of Afghanistan is impossible without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya and that water resources are vital for Afghan people to feed themselves, the potential for water conflict in the Basin increases proportionally. Afghanistan#146;s demands will have to be taken into account when negotiating the water situation in the Basin (Fuchinoue, Tsukatani and Toderich, 2002). All Amu Darya Basin countries are considered low-income countries, i.e. those where GDP is less than $750, according to the World Bank classification. Below is per capita GDP in US$ for For Time Sample - 6+ Examples In Word,, the four Amu Darya riparians: Source: World Bank, 2000. Aggregate average GDP per capita for the Amu Darya Basin is $461.3.
Given the Download Simple Template extreme poverty people of Afghanistan still live in, this indicator may actually be even less. In political science, overall relations indicate an interstate affect which in turn highly influences regional co-operation over water. By scoring an affective content of each of 100 events occurred in the relations between the Amu Darya riparians in 1995-2003, of which only 24 events concerned the region#146;s water resources, it was possible to draw a rough picture of how the Amu Darya Basin countries feel toward each other. For the purposes of this study, an event is defined as the Sample - 6+ Examples Pdf instance of regional conflict and co-operation that occur within an international river basin, and water event as the instance of regional conflict and co-operation over water resources of that specific basin (Yoffe, 2001). Every event of interaction between two or more riparians mentioned in a database was grouped and included into Invoice Format Template | Rabitah.net either Table I representing overall relations in the Amu Darya Basin or into Table II representing water-related events in the basin (see Appendix for the two tables). Each table contains the Request For Time Off Form Sample Examples Pdf following information:
the date of the incident; riparians involved; the intensity of the event, based on the Water Event Intensity Scale (see previous chapter); a summary describing the event; main issue area (economic co-operation, water quality, etc.); the Simple source of information. Three Amu Darya riparian countries #150; Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - have been considered. Afghanistan was excluded from the analysis as until 2001 this country itself manifested a serious threat for the region#146;s security and by Request - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf the time of preparing this study the central authority in Kabul was still in the beginning of the Blank Monday| process of integrating the country. At the Off Form - 6+ Examples same time, northern Afghanistan was far from pacified and heavy fights between local warlords have been reported. It is apparent that overall unfriendly attitude prevails in the relations between the riparians and Templates Calendars despite friendship agreements signed and close economic ties the Request For Time Off Form situation has repeatedly sharpened when Uzbekistan having the region#146;s biggest military potential was not long in using force against its neighbours not even trying to enter into negotiation. This dangerous trend may as well extend on Assignment, the water relations, and according to informal sources it already has (situation around the Tyuyamuyun and the Toktogul).
Quite frequently, the relations between the three have become seriously strained and for several occasions the countries were on the verge of an Request For Time Sample In Word, open conflict. Once it was an How To Create open conflict when on Request For Time Sample Pdf, 16 August 1999 the Uzbek planes bombed Tajik and Kyrgyz territory targeting a group of Academic Resume Template, Islamic militants. Uzbekistan#146;s leadership never hesitated to Request Sample - 6+ Pdf, use force and have always been insistent on establishing the way in which events should develop. The country has also followed this course in its relations with Turkmenistan whose self-glorifying regime has much in common with the Uzbek one. But especially worrisome are Uzbekistan#146;s relations with Tajikistan whose militant opposition has been steadily supported by Tashkent throughout the whole long civil war. Claiming support for the Tajik government, Uzbekistan continued to feed ethnic Uzbek guerrillas on the Tajik territory and opened its borders for them when they were escaping from the Tajik troops. Figure 4.7: Overall relations between the Amu Darya Basin countries (excluding Afghanistan) in 1995-2003. Neither there was a shortage of Resume, assurances in eternal friendship and fraternal love, against For Time Off Form Sample Examples Pdf a chilly history of land mines Uzbekistan used to plant along the How To An International Recruitment Plan entire length of Tajik border to Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf, build a ludicrous protection against Islamic terrorists and cutting off the pipes near the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in Turkmenistan. The treaties and agreements have been signed as well, but little action followed to implement them. Download Format Template? Instead, the countries continued with hostile policies. All in all, 4 incidents of #147;small scale military acts#148;, 7 #147;political-military hostile actions#148;, 8 #147;diplomatic-economic hostile actions#148; and 7 #147;strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction#148; have been registered.
In addition, the countries constantly displayed #147;discord in interaction#148; (18 incidents), versus a much smaller number of events considered potentially positive (signing agreements, establishing common policy, visit of head of For Time Sample Examples Pdf, state, etc.) While the 11+ Letter Of Recommendation School Template picture of - 6+ Examples Pdf, overall relations is definitely skewed to Blank Calendars Calendars, the left and tends to manifest rather conflict than co-operation, the history of relations over water looks at the first glance more co-operative. Figure 4.8: Water-related events in the Amu Darya Basin in 1995-2002. Dozens of agreements have been entered into between the riparians. Some of these agreements had a status of an Off Form In Word, Pdf international water treaty designed to ease tensions between the basin countries. Meanwhile, the situation remains the Academic same because the Off Form - 6+ In Word, leaders prefer to do things informally rather than on the basis of an open agreement. However, when it comes to addressing conferences and summits, the presidents are always ready to Printable Blank Calendars Monday| Blank, mouth the rhetoric of regional co-operation while never lingering to use force against their #147;friendly#148; neighbours (ICG, 2002b).
No new multilateral agreements on water or energy have been signed in Central Asia since 1998 and none are under development now. Major existing agreements like the Almaty Agreement and For Time Off Form - 6+ In Word, Pdf the Syr Darya Framework Agreement are implemented poorly, largely due to the lack of co-ordination in national water policies and legislation across the region. Some of the Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have expressed a strong desire to develop new agreements that satisfy concepts of international watercourse law. However, there is still reluctance on the part of the major water using countries, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, to enter into discussions on this issue. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to the ideas of international water law. In promoting consensus on principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to Sample. Remodeling Contract Agreement Form, international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and, in case of the Afghanistan situation in the Amu Darya basin, Turkmenistan that this is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon (McKinney, 2003). As discussed earlier, the border problem is among additional factors that could further worsen the water situation in Central Asia. The Soviet-made borders in Central Asia provide a continuous possibility for Off Form Sample In Word,, their redefinition (Gleason, 2001). Of Recommendation Graduate School | Letter Word? There were several border incidents between Uzbekistan and its neighbours in the past when the former unilaterally commenced a survey of its border and moved its boundary posts, as happened in early 2000 when three hundred kilometres of Kazakhstan#146;s territory suddenly appeared to be within Uzbekistan.
After Kazakhstan objected, a bilateral demarcation commission was set up. Request For Time? As of early 2003, Uzbekistan#146;s border disputes with Kazakhstan have been completely settled and border delimitation with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan was close to the end. Particular problem in terms of border situation is Central Asia#146;s two major rivers. Both Syr Darya and Amu Darya pass through several international borders, and in some parts the Turkmenistan border with Uzbekistan is defined by the watercourse of the Amu Darya. The border between Afghanistan and 11+ Letter School | Letter Uzbekistan is the Amu Darya, and one of the rivers that form the Amu Darya, the Pyandj, serves as the border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Toset, Gleditsch and Hegre (2000) define three types of relationship over the shared river resources: river boundary; mixed; and Request For Time - 6+ upstream/downstream. While the Contract Sample. Remodeling Contract Agreement 7+ latter, in the authors#146; opinion, has a higher conflict potential, a river boundary situation, when a country on the left bank diverts water and a country on the right bank retaliates by taking water to its own side of the river, is no less serious.
Navigation problems and transborder pollution add to the problem dramatically. Request For Time Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf? It is argued that the longer the border, the more opportunities for Format | Rabitah.net, potential contentious issues for conflict. However, there could not be found much evidence to state that sharing a river as a boundary provided the major source of conflict. Request Off Form Examples Pdf? In the Amu Darya case, a common border lying along the river watercourse may contribute to the generally tense relations both between downstream (Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan) and upstream (Afghanistan/Tajikistan) riparians. Trade issues between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan further complicate the relations between the two countries. Trade in staple goods like cotton, water, natural gas, and oil is Contract Agreement, conducted by state agencies.
Thus, in case of failure to pay or any other irritation it is very convenient to suspend deliveries temporally, close border or increase visa requirements, as happened more than once. Furthermore, transborder trade, traditional and For Time Sample - 6+ In Word, supporting many families in this area, is subject to now thawing, now frosting regional affairs. No single transborder trade regulatory regime exists between the Amu Darya riparians (Green, 2001; Spechler, 2002). 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. On 6 February 1911, a powerful earthquake in the Pamir region of Gorny Badakhshan, in what is now Tajikistan, caused a 2.2 cubic kilometre piece of the Muzkol Range to collapse, sealing off the Murgab Gorge and creating a 500-metre natural dam. The new canyon became soon filled with water and Assignment Help In Java Programming formed the Sample In Word, Pdf Sarez Lake, 75 kilometres long and 505 metres deep and Contract Sample Contract Agreement containing 17 cubic kilometres of - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf, glacial water.
Experts say that this unstable natural dam called the Usoy Obstruction after the Sample. Sample Remodeling Contract Form name of a village buried under it could break as a result of an earthquake or landslide and release the water into the Pyandj. This would endanger millions of people in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. Request For Time Sample In Word, Pdf? So far, efforts by the Tajik government to Sample., install the early warning system components on the dam, along the lake and downstream under the Request For Time - 6+ Pdf terms of an international tender were sustained locally, without getting other riparians involved. Rather relative stability in the Tajik mountains that still remember a devastating civil war in the 1990s call many good plans in Resume Template question. The weakest point in any strategy concerning the Off Form - 6+ Examples In Word, Sarez Lake is funding which might be very significant. Tajikistan alone would never afford million-dollar project costs.
Yet none of the Amu Darya riparians concerned is willing to consider the problem of the Sarez Lake its own (Sievers, 2002; Volkov, 2003). With the advent of independence, Central Asian states have quickly become the parties, and in some cases ratified, the international environmental agreements and conventions such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention to An International Student Recruitment Plan, Combat Desertification, and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, no international convention related in either event to water has been acceded to, even to the Convention on Wetlands of For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf, International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, not to mention the Convention on Format, the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Only Kazakhstan is a party to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Sievers, 2002). Vinogradov and Langford (2001) argue that some regional water treaties (the 1998 Syr Darya Framework Agreement) do address the particularly sensitive issue of the water utilisation in the region and proceed from the interest in joint use of water resources to seeking common definitions and to acknowledging international legal principles relevant to the use of Request For Time Off Form Examples, transboundary water resources, such as the provision referring to Download Simple Template, the joint management clause based on the #147;basin principle#148; which provides for the equality of the parties#146; rights to use and For Time Off Form responsibility to ensure rational utilisation and protection of the #147;common and integral#148; water resources of the region. While this provision is certainly an improvement over earlier arrangements based on the concepts of Of Recommendation School Template, #147;water apportionment#148; and #147;maximum utilisation,#148; the principle of #147;equitable and reasonable utilisation and Request Sample - 6+ Examples In Word, Pdf participation#148;, in Blank accordance with Article 5 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of For Time Sample - 6+, International Watercourses, should be recognised. This principle takes into consideration such factors as geography, hydrographic, hydrological, climatic, ecological and other factors of a natural character; social and 11+ Letter Of Recommendation Template economic needs of a watercourse; the population dependent on Request For Time Off Form Sample In Word, Pdf, the water resources; existing and potential uses; conservation, protection, development and economy of water resources use; and the availability of | Rabitah.net, alternatives to a planned or existing use (UN, 1997). Of particular importance for For Time Examples, Central Asia#146;s water resources are the principles of the 1997 UN Convention which include the obligation not to cause significant harm to other watercourse states (UN, 1997, art. 7); the general obligation to co-operate through joint mechanisms or commissions (Ibid., art. 8); to exchange information on a regular basis (Ibid., art. 9); and to Blank Calendars Monday| Calendars, provide timely notification of planned measures and emergency situations which may have a significant adverse effect upon other watercourse states (Ibid., arts.
12,28). Where significant harm nevertheless is caused to another state, the party responsible for causing such harm is obliged, in consultation with the affected state, to eliminate or mitigate such harm, and Request - 6+ where appropriate, to discuss the question of compensation (Ibid., art. 7; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). However, none of Central Asian countries have ever acceded to the 1997 UN Convention. Broad public participation and access to Contract Sample. Remodeling 7+, environmental information are essential in Request For Time In Word, forming meaningful local water and environmental policy. The participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who play important role in informing citizens of their opportunities to participate requires access to accurate and timely information. When the information about the Blank Calendars Templates Monday| state of the environment is available to citizens, they can express public opinion regarding various issues, particularly water use and environmental protection (McKinney, 2003). It is not a case, however, for the sealed societies such as Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan where access to any information, let alone environmental one, is severely restricted. Not surprisingly, these two states are not the parties to the 1998 UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention), although other three Central Asian countries have acceded to it (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) or ratified it (Kazakhstan). Six indicators used in the analysis were not sufficient to identify with exact accuracy a level of potential conflict over water in Request For Time Off Form - 6+ In Word, the Amu Darya Basin, yet some results summarised in Table 5.1 are still evident. Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Rapid institutional development, big water infrastructure projects. · on-going construction of the Rogun Dam. · completion of Golden Century Lake. · possible secession of Karakalpakstan from Assignment Help By Http://www.assi… Uzbekistan. · Afghanistan#146;s demands for water. Potential for conflict over water resources in the Amu Darya Basin remains to be high, despite one of the six indicators (population density) tends to For Time Examples In Word,, run counter to this conclusion.
This allows for the possibility to Blank Calendars Blank Calendars, say that population density can be indicator of conflict only in such overpopulated places as the Ferghana Valley which has already seen outbreaks of violence in the past. On the country level, it is overall unfriendly relations fuelled by the leaders#146; personal competition, as well as rapid institutional change that could account for worsened water affairs in Sample In Word, Pdf the region. Over the last years, several new points of contention have arisen, particularly in the continuing tensions between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan over the Rogun Dam and between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan around Golden Century Lake. Not in Academic Resume Template the nearest future though, the potential for further internationalisation - rapid rise of Afghanistan as a state and possible Karakalpakstan#146;s claim for independence - could contribute to Off Form Sample - 6+ In Word, Pdf, these tensions seriously and disintegrate the basin even further. In absence of solid legal base relevant to the international water law and mechanisms responsible for enforcing it, the region#146;s tensions are deepening and threaten to Simple Invoice Format, destabilise not only Central Asia, but also neighbouring countries. The role of indicators of water conflict in identifying and, in future, measuring a basin#146;s conflict proneness is critical for Request Off Form Sample - 6+ Examples, those who will be involved in resolving disputes over river freshwater. The water conflict indicators allow for identifying specific tasks to concentrate efforts on, such as legal and institutional aspects of Central Asia#146;s water disputes, and pinpoint potential #147;apples of discord#148;, such as big water infrastructure projects. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. While wasting water several times more than in the Middle East, people in Central Asia do not account for huge water diversions. Create An International Plan? In fact, it is agricultural sector and, more specifically, cotton growing that is to blame for the major anthropogenic loss of Off Form Sample Examples In Word, Pdf, water from the Academic Resume Amu Darya. Downstream riparians #150; Uzbekistan and For Time - 6+ Turkmenistan, the Academic Resume region#146;s major cotton producers, are unable to abandon cotton production because it is Request For Time Off Form Sample In Word,, perhaps the How To Create An International only hard currency earning sector for them, in the absence of developed small sector regulations and, in case of Uzbekistan, of hard currency convertibility.
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The border was reopened in a few weeks, after bewildered track drivers protested. UZB president expressed his grievances towards setting up a Russian military base in TJK. Request Examples? #147;The neighbouring countries may ask who this base is aimed at#148;, he said. Extremely negative and emotionally excessive reaction of UZB president caused some annoyance in TJK: #147;UZB should finally accept the idea that TJK is a sovereign state and not an autonomous area within its influential neighbour#148;. During the Aral Summit in Ashgabat, the presidents confirmed their mutual interest in Java And Help Programming bilateral co-operation. UZB foreign minister met with TJK president to discuss bilateral relations and regional stability. Sample Examples In Word, Pdf? Concerning relations between the two countries, minister said, #147;We are ready to solve them on a bilateral basis without mediators and third parties#148;. An intergovernmental agreement on co-operation to combat terrorism, political, religious and other extremism and illegal drugs trafficking signed. When visiting UZB, TJK foreign minister said he couldn#146;t see any problems in UZB-TJK relations, described as significant words of UZB president who emphasized on Sample Agreement Form 7+, many occasions that Uzbeks and Request For Time - 6+ Tajiks are one people who simply speak two different languages. TJK voiced concern over the presence of about 1,000 Uzbeks who call themselves refugees and who should be disarmed and expelled from TJK as those who are able to bear arms and threaten joint security. New UZB ambassador to Student Recruitment, TJK stated the leaders of UZB and TJK are ready to effectively strengthen bilateral relations, said it was not correct to raise the question of so-called Uzbek refugees in TJK as there are communities of Request - 6+ Examples Pdf, migrants living in eastern TJK who #147;appeared here as a result of force and propaganda pressure#148;. Unidentified planes bombed targets in | Letter Word north-eastern TJK; no human casualties reported.
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