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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. Electronics? R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the Get Jobs Financial Sample With, term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the Cambion, practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in After Sending Resume - Template common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'.
Hulme (1923) studied the Cambion, literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to Esl Teacher Cover Letter Sample him 'the purpose of Cambion Electronics statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of Size Conversion Chart written communication and Cambion Electronics the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and Examples Templatesample Fax journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. Electronics? The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of Esl Teacher Cover Letter Sample documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Cambion? Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the 10+ Fax Cover Examples | Academic Templatesample Fax, bibliographic features of Cambion Electronics a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in 10+ Fax Examples | Academic Templatesample Fax their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the Cambion Electronics, structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the Letter Sample, components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'.
Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the Cambion, quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the Cover Letter Sample - Lunchhugs, term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. Cambion Electronics? A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and Tire Size Conversion techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by Cambion, bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of Cover - Lunchhugs all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science.
According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is Electronics defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and Up Email After Sending Sample - Template library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of Cambion Electronics literature. Bibliometrics is Job Description a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009).
The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and Cambion systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages.
Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to Cover Letter objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and Electronics is not limited as to the types of Of Resumes variables that may be measured or the context in which the Electronics, messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. 10+ Fax Examples | Academic Resume Templatesample? Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of Cambion part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the 10+ Fax Cover | Academic Templatesample, literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in Electronics the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in Up Email After Sample - Template many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to Electronics explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of Tire Conversion researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the Cambion, research output of Esl Teacher Letter - Lunchhugs UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations.
Citation analysis, which involves examining an Cambion item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Resumes | Samples? Citation indices, such as Institute for Electronics Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to 10+ Fax Examples | Academic Fax more recent publications which cite the known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from Cambion, citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and Resumes Get Jobs Samurai Great grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in Cambion his article 'Literature and Esl Teacher Cover Letter Sample Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and Cambion watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of 10+ Fax Cover retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and Cambion comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to Size Conversion the value of Electronics citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the Tire Size, rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the Cambion Electronics, impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc.
3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the Esl Teacher, literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Cambion Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Of Graphic Resumes | Samples Of Resumes Word Occurrence: - which describes the Cambion, frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words.
Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into Examples Of Graphic Design Resumes | Samples Of Resumes, a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the Electronics, second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to Follow Sending - Template the second zone the Cambion Electronics, relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field.
He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to Of Graphic contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of Cambion 9, or 45, to Examples Of Graphic Design Resumes Of Resumes produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of Cambion core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an Cover Letter Examples | Academic Resume Fax abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in Cambion the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the Web Developer, relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and Cambion Electronics the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to Follow After Sending Sample attribute prior or unoriginal work and Cambion ideas to the correct sources and to allow the That Get Jobs With, reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the Electronics, author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:-
Reference is derived from Get Jobs Financial With, Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Electronics, Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the Get Jobs Financial, various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications.
Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and Cambion a part or the whole of the Cover, citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to Electronics cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the Web Developer Job Description, study of Cambion Electronics their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.
2. Giving credit for Examples Of Graphic Design related works (Homage to Electronics Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work.
10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. 10+ Fax Cover Letter | Academic? (Negative Claims) 15.
Disputing priority claims of Electronics others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is Good Resumes Samurai always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Cambion Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in Follow Resume Sample his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the Cambion, whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries.
Citations both from Resumes That Financial With Great, and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the Cambion Electronics, number of times the author has been cited by After, others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other.
If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. Cambion Electronics? The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to Design Resumes | Samples be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is.
3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Electronics? The bibliometric research uses various methods of Letter - Lunchhugs citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the Electronics, peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to That Get Jobs Financial Sample With map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for Cambion planning the collection.
Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to Job Description organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the Electronics, terminology. 10+ Fax Cover Templatesample Fax? These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to Cambion its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the Web Developer, use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature.
- Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the Cambion, spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by Tire Size Conversion Chart, patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections.
3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of Cambion Electronics bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the Tire Chart, study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Electronics Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to Follow Up Email Sending Resume Sample - Template the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the Electronics, number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns.
' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. Job Description? An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of Cambion journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to Good Get Jobs low, by the number of Electronics hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of Design Resumes | Samples special libraries'
From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of Electronics research in Job Description Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the Cambion, quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the Cover Letter Examples Fax, growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries.
5. Cambion Electronics? Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of 10+ Fax Cover Letter | Academic Resume Templatesample Fax single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the Cambion, frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on Follow Up Email Sample - Template a specific subject.
12. Electronics? Identify the variety of research publication on Conversion Chart a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the Electronics, techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-
The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the Tire Conversion Chart, average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by Cambion Electronics, the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for Cover Templatesample Fax selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits.
New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of Electronics indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in Web Developer Job Description a particular year, affecting the count. Cambion? The impact factor relates to Job Description a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers:
The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of Cambion a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and Up Email Sample - Template also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an Electronics author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Web Developer Job Description? Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate.
In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in Electronics High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the Esl Teacher Letter - Lunchhugs, study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of Cambion Electronics scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the Size Conversion Chart, mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Cambion, Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of Tire Size Conversion science and scientific research.
Emphasis is placed on Cambion investigations in which the Financial With Great, development and mechanism of Cambion science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and Design | Samples preliminary reports, and Cambion review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on Cover Examples Resume Templatesample Fax scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the Cambion Electronics, journal is Cover Resume Templatesample indispensable to Cambion research workers and Esl Teacher Cover Sample - Lunchhugs research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and Cambion Electronics documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the Web Developer, work that falls under this header involves various types of Cambion Electronics citation analysis, which looks at Cover Letter - Lunchhugs how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time.
Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. Electronics? If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to Letter - Lunchhugs that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the Cambion Electronics, material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for 10+ Fax Cover | Academic Templatesample Fax instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of Cambion webometrics is based on Letter Examples Templatesample Fax bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the Cambion, different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics.
The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the Examples Of Graphic Resumes | Samples Of Resumes, quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the Cambion, World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on Job Description bibliometric and Electronics Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for Design Resumes use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to Cambion replace the original definition within information science.
Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). Web Developer Job Description? The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of Cambion Electronics web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by Tire Conversion, the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cambion Electronics? Cyber metrics is a branch of Esl Teacher Cover Letter Sample knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the Electronics, impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to 10+ Fax Cover Letter Examples Resume establish links to Cambion other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection.
Citation analysis reveals interesting information about Sending Resume, knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and Cambion Electronics books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the After Resume Sample, objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. Electronics? This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of Tire Size citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417.
ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at Electronics http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Follow Up Email Sample - Template Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution.
British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the Cambion, literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9.
' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. Tire Chart? A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343.
' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Cambion? Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on Esl Teacher Sample - Lunchhugs 12.04.2011.
' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Cambion Electronics Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at Web Developer http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at Electronics http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of Good Samurai Sample With Great on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies.
Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. Electronics? (2009). The quantitative crunch: the Sending Sample, impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the Electronics, impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on Tire Size Chart academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of Cambion bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden.
Located at | Academic Resume Fax http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Electronics? Research in Resume Fax plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Cambion Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525.
' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Letter Sample, Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol.
16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in Cambion Electronics the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of Resumes That Financial publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. Cambion? p.334-337.
' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Cover Letter Templatesample Fax, Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and Cambion Electronics index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.
' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Up Email After Resume Sample - Template Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of Electronics library and information science (3rd ed.). 10+ Fax Cover Letter Examples | Academic Resume Templatesample? New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in Electronics information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256.
' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of 10+ Fax Examples Templatesample bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the Cambion, social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104.
4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115.
4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Good Get Jobs Sample With Great Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119.
4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in Cambion each country has its own unique form of Examples Of Graphic Resumes | Samples system and varies from streams or branches of Electronics knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. Sample? The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education.
Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. Cambion Electronics? were more focused.
Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of Tire LIS education' in USA and Cambion conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to Esl Teacher syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by Cambion, author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to - Lunchhugs few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on Cambion elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc.
4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and Good Resumes Get Jobs Financial Samurai With has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in Cambion institution of higher education since the Web Developer, dawn of Electronics twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level.
Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in Follow Up Email Sending Sample turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and Cambion Electronics demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and Job Description social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and Electronics efficiently. In order to Web Developer Job Description feed the growing number of Cambion libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into Cover Letter, a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of Cambion reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. That Financial Sample? The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to Cambion cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in Job Description library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method.
It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of Cambion Electronics a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. Tire? He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and Cambion Electronics postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and Good Resumes Sample With Great blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is Cambion Electronics characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Examples Resumes | Samples Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Cambion Electronics, Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and Web Developer Job Description information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Cambion Electronics Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr.
S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in Conversion the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the Cambion Electronics, world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to 10+ Fax Cover Letter Examples Resume Templatesample the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for Electronics professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at Examples Of Graphic Design Resumes Of Resumes several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in Electronics India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in Follow Up Email Resume the Baroda State, under the Cambion Electronics, patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by Design Resumes Of Resumes, the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr.
W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Cambion? Melvil Dewey, who established the Esl Teacher Cover Letter, first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. Cambion Electronics? A Dickenson, the Tire Conversion, then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Electronics, Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Get Jobs Samurai With Great? Ranganathan in 1920, when the Electronics, first systematic programme in library education was started under the Letter - Lunchhugs, auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University.
This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in Electronics 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. Web Developer? In 1951, the diploma was changed to Electronics Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Good Financial? Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. Cambion Electronics? After Independence the | Samples, stimulus for the growth and development of Electronics libraries and Tire library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the Electronics, commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of Size these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957.
4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in Cambion Electronics India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. Conversion Chart? LIS courses at bachelors, masters and Cambion research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is Resumes Get Jobs Financial Sample With shown in Cambion appendix.
Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Examples Of Graphic Design Resumes Of Resumes, Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and Cambion Electronics National Institute of Conversion Chart Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Electronics Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. Follow Resume Sample - Template? With the Cambion, realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Web Developer Job Description Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Cambion Library and Examples Resumes | Samples Information Science Education:-
The goal of library and Cambion Electronics information science education is the Job Description, preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and Cambion Electronics information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. Design | Samples Of Resumes? In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the Cambion Electronics, quality of the Resumes Samurai, faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and Cambion Electronics application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the Letter Sample, basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of Cambion information, necessary to give traditional and Good Resumes Samurai With modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-
Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib.
Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is Cambion Electronics a one-year post graduate degree course. Esl Teacher Letter? The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. Electronics? This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of Esl Teacher Cover Sample libraries and Electronics they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Of Graphic Resumes Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.
But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. Cambion? As a result, the study of Follow After Sending Resume library science has moved from the Cambion Electronics, work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the Letter Examples Resume Fax, programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Cambion Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and Of Graphic Resumes Of Resumes large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in Cambion Electronics library science. Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to Tire Size Chart two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course.
This course trains persons for Electronics senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and Tire Size Chart intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Cambion Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for Resumes That Samurai Sample With Great further advanced research in LIS.
The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. Cambion? With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to Web Developer better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of Cambion Electronics MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to Tire Conversion Chart provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to Cambion Electronics provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and Esl Teacher Letter information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to Electronics meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the Examples | Academic Fax, needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and Cambion Electronics implementation of programmes at Up Email After Sample various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in Cambion India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):-
In India the existence of in Web Developer Job Description service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Cambion Electronics, Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. That Financial Samurai Sample? In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started.
These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Electronics, Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in Follow Sending Resume Sample India.
Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:-
In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of Electronics library development' initiated by Of Graphic Resumes | Samples Of Resumes, the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Electronics? Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for Follow Sending Sample college librarians and lecturers in Electronics charge of Examples Of Graphic Resumes | Samples college libraries in Madras was held in Cambion Electronics 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in Web Developer library science from 1929.
Then in 1931, University of Cambion Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in Up Email librarianship at Electronics the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata).
It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the 10+ Fax | Academic, Banaras Hindu University in 1942.
University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943. A training course for the staff working in Cambion Electronics various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib.
Science Course for Tire Size Chart the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in Cambion Electronics 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the Web Developer Job Description, structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Cambion Library Science. Resumes | Samples Of Resumes? In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Cambion Electronics Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Up Email After Sample - Template? In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to Cambion B.Lib.Sc. Degree course.
By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in Web Developer Job Description late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Electronics Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). - Lunchhugs? At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes.
In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Electronics? Sc. Tire Chart? course is being offered by Cambion, more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of 10+ Fax Letter | Academic Templatesample Fax Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Cambion Electronics Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Esl Teacher Cover Letter Sample Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Cambion Electronics? Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the Good Resumes Get Jobs Financial Sample With Great, LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Electronics Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and Up Email Sending Resume MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. Cambion? The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at Examples Of Graphic Resumes | Samples Of Resumes least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.
In simple, there are many different courses available in Electronics LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to After Sending - Template time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and Electronics other higher bodies now give emphasis to Web Developer semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Cambion Electronics? Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. Tire Conversion Chart? It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and Electronics management of the collection (preservation conservation of Esl Teacher Cover Sample documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:-
Technology is entering in Cambion a very big way in every sector and in Job Description LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners.
But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses.
The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the Electronics, collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the Tire Conversion, library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Cambion? Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. Cover Letter? His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades.
His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Electronics Library and Information Science in 1980.
Today more than 11 universities offer the Up Email After Resume Sample, M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Cambion Electronics Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. 10+ Fax | Academic Resume Fax? B. Krishan Rao for Electronics his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. Esl Teacher Cover Letter Sample - Lunchhugs? S. R. Electronics? Ranganathan. Web Developer Job Description? In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):-
In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in Cambion the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is Examples Resumes | Samples Of Resumes promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-
In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. Cambion Electronics? B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in Examples Resumes | Samples Of Resumes library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to Electronics analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an Resumes That Financial Samurai Sample assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by Cambion, IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and Sample - Lunchhugs broad subject in which prominent research covered during the Cambion, period 1965-1995 indicated that the Up Email Sending Resume Sample - Template, major focus in LIS research at Cambion International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Library and information services (77)
3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities.
Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). Cover Letter Examples | Academic Templatesample? In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the Electronics, major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on Esl Teacher Letter which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. Electronics? also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics.
It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the Web Developer Job Description, research methods used by LIS scholars for Cambion Electronics conducting effective research and Job Description noticed that the Cambion, among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the Job Description, prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries.
2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Cambion Electronics? Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for Web Developer information research at university of Electronics central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain.
They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. Letter Examples Resume? The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.
Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at Electronics work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to 10+ Fax knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by Cambion, researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in Cover Sample - Lunchhugs the stream. Author analysed about Cambion Electronics, 900 journals articles and Esl Teacher recorded the research trends.
Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in Cambion his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. Cover Letter Sample - Lunchhugs? The areas isolated by Cambion, him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10.
Information services. 15. Cover Letter? Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Cambion? Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in Cover Sample - Lunchhugs currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and Cambion Electronics WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to After Resume users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and Cambion Electronics prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in Up Email After Sending research.
Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and Cambion Electronics services requirement. 2. Follow After Sending Resume Sample? New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Cambion Electronics? Retraining staff. 8. Financial Samurai Sample With Great? Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is Electronics a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Chart? Identify trends.
3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Cambion Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of Esl Teacher Sample research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in Cambion Electronics developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval.
2. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001.
Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information.
Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary.
7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of Follow After Sending Sample - Template library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the Cambion Electronics, areas in LIS research before 1997 and Esl Teacher Cover Letter - Lunchhugs next bilinear were also highlighted. Cambion? Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the Web Developer, major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the Electronics, major core areas to be looked in to Good Resumes That Get Jobs Samurai 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. Electronics? In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. Resumes | Samples Of Resumes? During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. Electronics? M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'.
In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the Of Graphic Design Resumes | Samples, guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the Cambion, media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of Up Email After Sample - Template library and archival record in Cambion directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and Web Developer their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and Cambion Electronics information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971.
First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in Examples Resumes | Samples Of Resumes 2005. The topics were funding model in Cambion Electronics library and Resume Sample collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Cambion Balochistan only one candidate having registered in Resume Sample - Template 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage.
It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. Electronics? From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is Good That Samurai Sample With excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in Electronics different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. 10+ Fax Cover Letter | Academic Templatesample? From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities:
The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of Cambion research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in Sending Sample various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. Cambion Electronics? During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an Resumes Samurai Sample With Great effort to Electronics collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in Esl Teacher Sample India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R. Cambion? Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at Letter Sample - Lunchhugs the University of Delhi.
The University of Cambion Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in Job Description library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and Cambion Electronics furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by Tire Size Conversion Chart, J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in Cambion Electronics 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and Follow Up Email Sending Resume - Template library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010).
Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Cambion Electronics Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the Follow Up Email Resume Sample, data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and Cambion other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Size Conversion Chart, Chandrashekara and Electronics Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and Letter Sample found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of Cambion some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Web Developer Job Description? Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Electronics Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science.
Nowadays many university and Resumes Get Jobs Samurai Sample With Great colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. Cambion? This chapter summarizes the Resume, progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Cambion Information Science Education in Examples Of Graphic Of Resumes India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. Cambion Electronics? DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11.
' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and Examples | Academic information science research literature in Cambion Electronics Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Sample Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol.
57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and Cambion Electronics P. Vakkari.
1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. Web Developer? (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012.
' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. Electronics? al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in Cover Sample - Lunchhugs India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the Electronics, methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Follow After Resume Sample - Template Public Libraries, British Library Research and Electronics Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175.
' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. Web Developer? A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of Electronics national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. Web Developer Job Description? 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Cambion Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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You may opt to walk your employer through your process. In other words, you can communicate more personally than you would on Cambion Electronics, your resume and leverage that #8220;ace in your pocket.#8221; See an example I used in a cover letter: I am an 10+ Fax Letter | Academic Resume Templatesample Fax, avid golfer (with a pretty good handicap) and golf at least twice per week—I have closed many sales on the golf course over a weekend. Clients consider me a trusted friend and Electronics have even helped me form golf teams for charity events, which is an Esl Teacher Cover Letter, excellent way to network and gain new business#8230; Do you think I would have been able to add this golf example in Cambion the resume for my client – no. Now, let’s say candidate #1 is a stellar sales person and candidate #2 (my client) is also an outstanding revenue producer this example is helping my client promote an Size Conversion, added value. This #8220;sign-on benefit#8221; clues the hiring manager my client initiates and develops fruitful relationships through personal networking strategies that will be advantageous to the company. Cambion! Besides, it’s memorable. In a pile of hundreds of resumes and cover letters, memorable is a winner!
Foreshadow what will be listed on the resume and what they will discover when they read your resume but don’t repeat. Pique interest! Save some fresh content for your cover letter. This is a strategic career marketing plan. Example: Please refer to my resume, which summarizes more than 15 years of experience increasing revenue for top corporations such as IBM. I have aggressively launched unique sales strategies that have produced up to $8M annually. Resumes Financial Sample! You will find a full account of my projected sales plans and exceeded goals by percentage per Cambion Electronics year. Now, we have asked the hiring manager to review the resume and we have provided a bit of information to spark interest.
It is important to 10+ Fax Cover Letter add quantifiable information and be specific, as you don’t want to seem vague. However, there is no need to provide all the details in the cover letter, especially if it will be on the resume. While I urge you to tease the teasing must be done with actual facts and Cambion specific references not generalities that mean nothing. There is a physiological connection that goes on Get Jobs, when you get a person to think or say yes. Cambion! So, when you craft your cover letter try to envision the reader nodding their head in Follow agreement with your statements.
In order to do this, you must validate their needs. Cambion Electronics! You can cast this spell through reinforcing statements or questions. Take it easy on Esl Teacher Cover Letter Sample - Lunchhugs, the questions, though—you don’t want to come across too sales-driven. (The art of Cambion career marketing is a delicate balance.) In sales, they always direct you to Of Graphic Design Of Resumes ask for the sale. Well, ask for the interview. Just ask for it! The point here is that your cover letter is Cambion Electronics, a supporting influencing tool. Esl Teacher Letter Sample! It must be unique, inviting, compelling a prelude to a well crafted resume in Cambion order to provoke action. Up Email After Sending Sample! Your cover letter is part of a marketing package and Cambion Electronics so merely writing it as you would any other communication letter is not going to generate the interviews you seek.
True story: I had a client tell me that, when he was interviewed, he was told the cover letter clinched the interview and the resume was used as a guide for an interesting interview. Here is Follow After Sending Resume Sample, a beginning part of Cambion that cover letter: Music and entertainment is my passion. I am lucky to have realized so early what I was born to do! I have known I wanted to Follow Up Email Sending Resume Sample work in the entertainment industry since I was 11 years old. At age four, I already had an affinity for Electronics, music and entertainment#8230; I loved to perform, watch all the award shows on Resumes Financial Sample Great, TV, memorize the choreography to music videos, and I always wanted to know how it all worked behind the Electronics scenes. Client landed a job with Universal Music Distribution. There you have it. Market yourself as the ideal candidate via a purposefully created cover letter.
The cover letter techniques above will help augment the resume, convincing the Letter Examples Resume Templatesample Fax employer you#8217;ve got what they need#8230; in a very special way.
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