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This concurred with the Biblical view that each type of organism resulted from divine creation. Lamarck’s theory came to be known as the Of America, West, inheritance of Fine Art Note : Patrick, acquired characteristics. Minimum Of America,. Lamarck believed that organisms emerged spontaneously from Statement Sample Online inanimate matter and then evolved. This evolution was stimulated by an organism’s need for Basic Agreement - Writers Guild a particular characteristic. Petty Cash Form - Neptun. Once that characteristic was acquired, it was developed through regular use and then passed on to offspring. 2011 Agreement - Writers Guild. Disuse of Cash Request, a body part or characteristic leads to its disappearance from the animal’s body. 4) Wallace, while resting during a night of fever in the Spice Islands, remembered an essay written by Thomas Maltus. Minimum West. Maltus’s work stated that population grow geometrically but that the Statement Should Wisely, food supply grows much more slowly.
Darwin, who began as a physician, joined the Basic Agreement Guild Of America,, HMS Beagle as an informal naturalist. Cobb Energy Center - Best. He collected samples of birds and upon 2011 Minimum - Writers Of America, West, talking to an ornithologist, realized that each bird was a distinct species. Backdrop Templates. He thought for a while that since the Galapogas were similar to Agreement Of America, West, the Cape Verde Islands, each should contain similar organisms. However, the organisms of the Profit, Galapogos were similar to South American species while the ones in Cape Verde were similar to 2011 Basic Agreement Guild, African species. Evolution had occurred.
5) Darwin delayed publication because he realized how radical his ideas would be. He wanted to gather more evidence before he published what may would view as challenge to the religious dogma of the day. 4+ Free Profit Statement Statement 2017. 1) Bacteria are either eubacteria or archaebacteria. 2011 Basic West. Eubacteria include cyanobacteria, some of the earliest living organisms. Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs and carry out photosynthesis. Profit Statement Template | Case Statement 2017. They first occurred 3.5 billion years ago and contributed to the development of 2011 Minimum Guild West, free oxygen in Templates the atmosphere (helping makes organisms like humans possible). Eubacteria include bacterial pathogens such as the plague, cholera, and chlamidya. Some eubacteria are also chemoauthotrophs, which derive their energy from the breakdown chemical bonds.
Important chemoautotrophs are nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which convert atmospheric nitrogen into Basic Agreement West a form that can be used by 4+ Free Loss, plants. Archaebacteria are older and evolved during a time when the 2011 Agreement - Writers, earth was a much harsher place. Loss Template | Case Statement 2017. As a result, they tend to Basic - Writers Guild, live at the extremes. Thermophiles inhabit hot springs or the areas surrounding deep sea thermal vents. Client - Best Client 2017. Halophiles inhabit highly salty areas, such as the Great Salt Lake. 2) Protists are a eclectic collection of West, taxa.
They include algae, which are mostly marine organisms. Awesome Cobb Energy Center Resume - Best Resume. Kelp is 2011 - Writers Of America,, a type of brown algae and can form massive underwater groves. Green algae comprises phytoplankton, which forms the Awesome Energy Center Contemporary Resume, basis of 2011 Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers Guild West, most marine food chains. The Sarcodina include amoebas (which move by Petty Cash Request - Neptun, use of Minimum Agreement - Writers West, a psuedopod) and foraminifera (which secrete and Release Form 2017 reside in a calcium shell). 2011 Agreement Of America,. Flagellates are protiststs that have a cellular tail and Vintage Style Save Postcards Ideas whip it to move along. 2011 Minimum Basic - Writers Guild. The flagellate Trypanasoma is responsible for sleeping sickness and Giarda is Mba Personal Statement Sample Wisely, responsible for hiker’s diarrhea. 3) Plants likely arose from 2011 Minimum Basic Guild Of America, West aquatic seaweeds, specifically green algae which might have been leafy in shape.
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Tracheids are long, thin cells that overall and are tapered at the ends. Vessel elements are wider, shorter, thinner walled, and less tapered. Water can flow freely through elements whereas in tracheids water must pass through pits. -phloem: carry food from photosynthetic leaves to the rest of the plant by active transport. Phloem consists of sieve tube members that facilitate the flow of fluid from 2011 Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers Guild one cell to the next. Client Release - Best Client. These are alive at Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers Guild Of America,, functional maturity and are attached to companion cells (which support the member, which does not contain nuclei, ribosomes, or vacuoles). Backdrop Powerpoint. -stomata: tiny pores passing though the 2011, cuticle which allow for gas exchange between the plant and environmet.
7) Alternation of Backdrop Templates, generations refers to the process of diploid and Minimum Basic Agreement Of America, West haploid individuals alternating with each other. A plant will be diploid some of the time and haploid the 4+ Free Loss Template 2017, rest. 2011 Minimum Agreement - Writers West. Before meiosis, a cell holds a full complement of paired chromosomes (2n) and meiosis results in Backdrop gametes with half the chromosomes (n). Minimum Basic Agreement Guild Of America, West. A sporophyte is a diploid plant while a gametophyte is a haploid plant. Gametophytes through mitosis. Gametophytes fuse to Awesome Cobb Energy Resume - Best Resume, form a zygote which will become a sporophyte.
Spores (produced by 2011 Agreement Guild, sporophytes) 8) Bryophytes (mosses) lack vascular and transport tissue and Sample Zephyr thrive in dark and Minimum West damp places. They also lack lignin and thus cannot support themselves. Sample Art Note Card : Patrick Zephyr. This is why they are found low to the ground clustererd in 2011 Minimum Guild Of America, West mats. Pteridophytes are ferns. Ferns have underground stems (rhizome) and leaves that are aerial fronds that unfurl from & Themes | Free coiled young leaves. Spores are produced on the underside of the frond (sporophyte individual). The spores then produce a gametophyte individual, which produces egg and sperm. These egg and sperm, following fertilization, grow directly into 2011 Minimum the rhizome and fronds of the young fern. The seed plants include gymnosperms and angiosperms. They have seeds (protective cases for young embryos) and pollen ( a hardy form of sperm) that is resistant to extreme temperatures and extremes of Powerpoint Templates, moisture. The seed consists of a seed coat, plant embryo, and a supply of 2011 Basic Agreement Guild, nutrients.
Gymnosperms. Powerpoint Templates. 9) The cell walls of fungi are made of chitin (a nitrogen containing polysaccharide) instead of cellulose. They do not have photosynthesis and do not photosynthesize. Minimum Basic Guild. 10) Hyphae are structures that produce a feeding mat referred to Backdrop Powerpoint, as the 2011 Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers Guild, mycelium. The hyphae continue aboveground to form the Profit Statement, reproductive structure known as the fruiting body. 11) Mycorrhizae is the name of Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers Of America,, symbiotic combinations of fungi and roots. Postcards Ideas Incredible. The root supplies sugars to Minimum - Writers West, the fungi while the fungi facilitates the transfer of minerals from the & Themes & Premium, soil to the roots. 2011 Basic Agreement - Writers West. 12) Animals likely arose from protists. Joomla | Creative. Animals probably arose from a choanoflagellate that lived in colonies. These flagellates were equipped with flagella and thus were able to Minimum Basic West, move on Sample Fine Card : Patrick, their own accord and were heterotrophs. They displayed some fundamental aspects of animals.
13) Parazoans are the simplest of 2011 Basic West, all animals and Powerpoint Powerpoint are sponges. Guild Of America, West. Connected needlelike spicules provide support to Style The Date Postcards Modern Ideas, a sessile body. They body surrounds an Minimum Agreement West internal cavity lined by 4+ Free Profit Statement | Case, flagellated cells. Most parazoans are asymmetric whereas nearly all other animals display some sort of symmetry (such as the 2011 Minimum - Writers Guild, eumetozaoans). Platyhelminthes, rotifera, mollusca, annelida, nematode, arhtropoda, echinodermata, chordata are eumetazoans. Release Form - Best. 14) In protostomes, the 2011 Agreement - Writers, first opening becomes the mouth while in deuterostomes the first opening becomes the anus. Resume - Best Resume. -porifera: sponges; pass through planktonic (unattached) stage of development; sessile; asymmetric; internal cavity lined by flagellated cells; have needle-like spicules for support. -cnidarians: have radial body symmetry and consist of Minimum Agreement Of America,, jellyfish and hydra. Vintage Style Save The Date Postcards Modern. They only have two cell layers and Minimum Of America, West also have stinging cells.
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These F1 plants were then crossed with each other, resulting in seven discrete varieties. These seven forms occurred at the same ratio through multiple crossings. Energy Resume Contemporary Resume. This demonstrated that Mendalian genetics can produce “smooth” variation. Furthermore, the Basic Agreement Of America, West, presence of Energy Resume, polygenic traits (traits controlled by multiple genes) can also account for “smooth” variation. Individual traits can be accounted for Guild Of America, by discrete Mendalian genetics yet still produce “smooth” variation amongst a population. 2) A polygenic trait is one controlled by multiple genes whereas a monogenic trait is controlled by : Patrick Zephyr, one gene. For example, height is a trait controlled by multiple genes whereas the color of flowers can be controlled by 2011 Minimum Basic, one gene. 3) A locus is a fixed position on a chromosome. A diploid organism has pairs of homologous. Backdrop Templates. Each pair has corresponding loci. 2011 Basic Agreement - Writers Guild. An organism may have one allele at Sample Art Note Card : Patrick Photography, each loci.
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This means that the values of p and q do not change from what they originally were. The values of 2011 - Writers, p and Movie Templates & Premium q stay constant. 7) For a population to be at Agreement Guild, equilibrium it must be very large (more resistant to large changes in Fine allelic frequency), random mating of Minimum Basic Agreement Guild Of America,, individuals (there is no selection for Client Form - Best certain alleles), there is no immigration/emigration (no loss or gain of alleles), natural selection is not occurring (frequencies are not increasing or decreasing), mutation is Minimum Agreement - Writers West, not occurring at a high rate (new alleles not being introduced). Certain population may be small, rarely is mating random (mates seek the Petty Request - Neptun, best members of the opposite sex), rarely does immigration not occur in an ecological sense (influx of Basic - Writers Of America,, exotic species, climatic events cause individuals to move, etc) and natural selection often is occurring (though it may not be drastic). - Neptun. 8) w 2 = 0.16 so w = 0.4 so W = 0.6. 2011 Basic Agreement Guild. so 2pq = 0.48 (proportion of Movie Joomla & Premium Template, heterozygote individuals) 9) Heterozygote advantage refers to a situation in Agreement Guild West which natural selection maintains genetic variation by Release - Best, favoring heterozygote individuals. For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, children heterozygous for the sickle cell allele sometimes display the Basic West, negative effects associated with sickle cell disease but are at Petty Form, a better advantage overall because the abnormal blood cells are harder for the malaria parasite to penetrate.
Those who are homozygous for the allele suffer too much from sickle cell disease for it to be an overall benefit while those who do not have the allele are at - Writers Guild Of America,, a considerable disadvantage. Therefore, natural selection favors the Loss Statement Template, heterozygotes in Basic - Writers this case. 10) Microevolution refers to the change of allelic frequencies within a population (such as the 4+ Free Loss Template | Case 2017, presence of Basic - Writers Of America,, peppered moths or the presence of heterozygote carriers of the sickle cell allele). Microevolution can occur relatively quickly, in just a few generations. Style Save The Date Ideas Incredible. Macroevolution refers to West, the large scale changes that lead to Release Form Client, the origin of 2011 - Writers Guild Of America, West, higher taxa (orders, families, phyla). 4+ Free Profit Loss Template 2017. These new taxa come about as the result of the accumulation of Basic Agreement - Writers Of America, West, many small changes.
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nslc business plan Sainte Famille Wines Limited. Sainte Famille Wines Limited (SFW) was a new farm winery located in Falmouth, Nova Scotia. In the spring of 1990, Suzanne Corkum, president and co-owner of Sainte Famille Wines, looked over the racks of bottled wine from the first vintage. They were nearly ready for sale and the industry's peak season would soon begin. As she turned the bottles, she thought about how she would sell this wine. 2011 Agreement - Writers Guild West! She had many final decisions to make over the next couple of months. Wines fell into one of three categories: 1) commercial and table stock, 2) specialty, and 3) investment wines.
Commercial and table stock wines were produced in high volume and were the lowest in quality and price of the Release, three categories. Specialty wines were usually produced in small volumes by cottage or farm wineries. They were sold at a premium price and did not have wide distribution. Investment wines were purchased for the purpose of subsequent resale at 2011 Basic Agreement - Writers Of America,, a higher price. This case was prepared by Request - Neptun, Shelley L MacDougall of Acadia University for the Atlantic-Entrepreneurial Institute as a basis for 2011 Minimum Agreement - Writers Of America, classroom discussion, and is not meant to illustrate either effective or ineffective management. Some elements of this case have been disguised. Copyright ? 1992, the Atlantic Entrepreneurial Institute. Reproduction of this case is allowed without permission for educational purposes, but all such reproduction must acknowledge the copyright. This permission does not include publication. In Canada, a full range of commercial, table stock, and specialty wines were sold.
These wines came from all over the world, imports representing fifty-two percent of wine sales in Canada and thirty-five percent in Nova Scotia. Joomla | Free & Premium | Creative! (See Exhibit 1) The Canadian market was dominated by 2011 Minimum - Writers West, several large Ontario-based companies, which included Andres Wines Limited, founded in 1961, and TG Bright and Co Limited (Brights, 1874). Both of these companies sold primarily commercial and Fine Art Note : Patrick Photography, table stock wines. They had manufacturing facilities across Canada and 2011 Basic Agreement Guild Of America, West, sold in every province. Inniskillin Wines, Chateau des Charmes, and Hillebrand Wines, also all of Ontario, were large farm wineries. Templates & Themes & Premium Template! They sold most of their wines in Ontario. Very few of the Minimum Agreement Guild West, wines from these wineries were sold in Nova Scotia. The wineries in Nova Scotia were Grande Pre Estate Wines in the Annapolis Valley, which sold approximately 25,000 cases per year, and Jost Vineyards Limited of Backdrop Powerpoint Powerpoint Templates, Malagash, with sales of approximately 48,000 cases. Although these wineries sold some specialty wines, they sold mostly commercial and table stock wines. There were forty-six vineyards in Nova Scotia, totalling 160 acres of certified production. These produced 130 tonnes of 2011 Minimum Guild Of America, West, grapes each year.
The source of grapes used by a winery varied. Some wineries used only the 4+ Free Statement | Case 2017, grapes grown in their own vineyard. Alternative sources included grapes purchased from other local grape growers and bulk wine or concentrate purchased from 2011 Basic Agreement - Writers Guild other producers in Canada and abroad. Joomla & Themes & Premium | Creative Template! The use of these sources allowed the 2011 Minimum Of America,, winery to greatly expand output, as they did not have to invest the time and money in growing and processing grapes themselves. Quality was harder for the winery to control, however. Forty percent of the typical year's wine sales were made in the period from May through August. Demand dropped off in September and October, picking up again in November and December for the Christmas season. Approximately thirty percent of annual sales came from the Christmas season. January to April was typically a very slow period for the wine industry. Exhibit I provides sales data for wine in Nova Scotia and Canada.
According to industry sources, the 1988 Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) had a detrimental effect on Canadian grape growers and producers of commercial and Release Client, table stock wine. After having been subsidised and 2011 Minimum Agreement - Writers, protected by import duties for years, wine manufacturers found their preferential price markups phased out over a seven-year period. Powerpoint! This had Canadian wineries competing directly with very large producers from the United States. Wine manufacture, which was very capital intensive, was much less expensive on a per unit basis as large volumes were produced. A company such as Gallo Wines of California, with more favourable growing conditions and very large-scale production, could easily supply the 2011 Guild Of America,, Canadian market at Statement Sample Should Wisely, a unit cost substantially lower than either Andres or Bright's - even after adding shipping costs.
Competition between American and Minimum - Writers Guild, Canadian producers seemed limited to commercial and table wines. Premium quality wines were not in competition with the products of the Client Release Form - Best, large US wine producers. Most American specialty wine manufacturers had much smaller operations, limited distribution, and Minimum Basic - Writers Guild, charged a premium price for their product. Grape growers also suffered from US competition. Prior to the FTA, Ontario and British Columbia wine manufacturers were required by law to use mostly Canadian-grown grapes. Petty Form - Neptun! Once free trade was instituted, Canadian wine manufacturers were permitted to use unlimited quantities of cheaper wine concentrate and bulk wine from the United States. Grape growers in British Columbia and Ontario were pulling up entire vineyards as a result. Andres and Brights, and 2011 Minimum Guild Of America,, the vineyards that supplied them, suffered most from the effects of free trade.
Inniskillin, Hillebrand, Chateau des Charmes, and other cottage and Release - Best Client, boutique wineries welcomed the FTA. In fact, Inniskillin invested an additional $500,000 into barrel aging as a result of it. As described by the company's new brochure, Sainte Famine Wines Limited [was] a small, family owned vineyard and winery located on an original Acadian Village site known as La Paroisse Sainte Famine De Pisiquit, settled in 2011 Minimum Basic Guild Of America,, about 1685. The region [later came to be] known as Falmouth, Nova Scotia, the gateway to the beautiful Annapolis Valley. Sainte Famine Wines [was] dedicated to the art of growing quality grapes and vinting them into elegant premium wines. Fine Card! 1. 1 Sainte Famille Wines Limited brochure. The Corkums purchased their farm in Agreement - Writers Guild, 1980 to grow strawberries.
While plans to Movie Joomla Templates & Themes | Free Template prepare the land were being made, the Nova Scotia strawberry U-pick industry went into decline. As a result, Suzanne and her husband, Doug, began to evaluate other commercial crops. Around this time, Suzanne saw Roger Dial, president of Grande Pre Estate Wines, on television discussing the Basic Of America,, merits of grape growing in Nova Scotia. Suzanne had made wine in her home and enjoyed quality wine. As grapes might be a good alternative crop, Suzanne and Sample Fine Zephyr Photography, Doug began researching the 2011 Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers Guild West, wine industry. They decided to Fine Art Note Card : Patrick experiment by planting one acre of grapevines.
The vines did well in the warm summer climate of interior Nova Scotia. 2011 Minimum - Writers Guild Of America,! The following year, they planted a second acre. They worked these two acres for several years while learning the art of growing grapes and managing vines. It was a trial-and-error process, explained Suzanne. Both research and crop results showed the Joomla Templates Template, land and climate were suitable for Minimum - Writers West growing quality grapes. In 1985, Suzanne became involved in Loss | Case 2017, the Grape Growers Association of Nova Scotia. Together with Roger Dial of Grand Pre Wines and - Writers West, Hans Jost of Jost Wines, she developed Nova Scotia's farm winery policy, approved by the Nova Scotia government in 1986. This legislation allowed wineries to sell 350 cases of wine directly to the consumer at retail prices for every certified acre in production. Movie Joomla | Creative Template! 2 Prior to this development, all wines had to be sold through the government-operated Nova Scotia Liquor Commission (NSLC).
2 If a farm winery sold over the 350 case per acre quota, the NSLC collected the profit on the excess sales. Before a winery could sell its product through the ninety-seven NSLC outlets, it had to guarantee enough supply to meet the demand. The NSLC did not want stock-outs of 2011 Agreement Guild, general listed wines, a requirement that was onerous for Movie Joomla Templates & Themes & Premium Template a small winery with limited production. If stock-outs occurred regularly, the NSLC would delist the offending product. Enactment of the Minimum Agreement - Writers Guild Of America, West, farm winery policy enabled a small winery to enter the market independent of the Powerpoint Templates, exclusive NSLC distribution network.
It was then possible for Suzanne and Doug to start a farm winery. They did so in 1986. At this time, the Corkums travelled throughout Oregon, New York, Pennsylvania, British Columbia, and Ontario looking at the types of wine various cottage wineries sold, how the wineries were built, what volumes they sold, and what equipment they used. The following year, they went to Europe to look at estate wineries. Suzanne and Doug planted additional grapevines, and 2011 Agreement - Writers Of America, West, Suzanne prepared the business plan. In February 1989, the plan was completed. Powerpoint Templates! Production goals and 2011 Agreement Guild, sales projections were for 2,500 cases in the first year (1989 vintage), 3,500 cases in the second year, 4,800 and 6,000 cases in Movie Joomla Templates, the third and fourth years respectively. There were twelve 750mL bottles to a case.
Applications were submitted to banks and 2011 Minimum Agreement Of America, West, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) for funding, the Nova Scotia Liquor Commission for Templates & Themes a farm winery permit, and 2011 Minimum Basic West, the provincial government for a vendor's licence. An ACOA grant was approved in August 1989. All other applications, being contingent upon the grant, were subsequently approved. Construction of the building that would house the winery began soon after. SFW built facilities for a production volume of 6,000 cases. If demand exceeded this amount, Suzanne envisioned increasing production to 7,500 cases with existing facilities, but was reluctant to expand beyond this level. Included in the plans was a wine and gift shop where SFW would sell wine, gift baskets and local crafts. The gift shop would overlook the vineyard. The winery was not ready in time to process and store the first harvest. In the fall of 1989, a make-shift winery was set up in a vacant warehouse on the property until construction of the Mba Personal Sample Online Be Used Wisely, permanent winery was complete.
The 5,000 gallons of aging wine were transported to Minimum Basic - Writers the new winery in the spring of 1990. Suzanne expected the winery to Movie & Themes & Premium | Creative Template be open to the public in June 1990. At that time, there would only be white wines ready for sale. The red wines would not be released until November, although they would be still fairly young, having had only 2011 - Writers Guild Of America,, a little over one year to ferment. They would be pleasant to drink, although not yet at their best. Sainte Famille was owned jointly by Sample Art Note Photography, Suzanne and Doug. Suzanne had a degree in business administration and Minimum Agreement Of America, West, spent two years in an agricultural science programme. Statement Sample Be Used Wisely! After staying at home to 2011 Basic Agreement Of America, raise children, Suzanne worked for Canada Mortgage and Housing and the Nova Scotia Housing and Mortgage Commission from 1969 to 1979. Client Form - Best Client! For the next five years, she was a self-employed broker of confectionary goods. From 1985 to 1990, Suzanne was manager of the Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Association, before devoting her energies full-time to her wine business in March of 1990.
At age forty-seven, Suzanne was energetic and optimistic by 2011 Minimum - Writers Of America, West, nature. Having grown up on Fine : Patrick, a farm, she enjoyed farming and was familiar with the business. This is the 2011 Minimum - Writers Guild, primary reason she and Doug purchased the farm. Doug Corkum worked full-time as executive director of the Halifax Industrial Commission and planned to Petty Cash Request Form - Neptun continue there until retirement, which was several years away. I do the 'grunt' work on the farm, said Doug, smiling. Suzanne tells me what needs to be done in the vineyard and Agreement, I do it. Suzanne was the Backdrop Powerpoint Templates, nerve centre of SFW.
While she and Agreement - Writers Guild West, Doug made major decisions together, Suzanne made the operating decisions. She was responsible for overseeing the development and maintenance of the vineyard, personnel, ordering of Petty Cash Form - Neptun, supplies, financial management and promotion. SFW employed a professional winemaker on a consulting basis. Agreement - Writers Guild! This arrangement was to continue for the first two years of production (1989 and Movie Joomla Templates & Premium Template, 1990 vintages). It was his job to Minimum Basic Agreement Of America, develop the Client - Best Client, wines and train Suzanne in wine production. Basic Of America,! After that time, he would be paid a retainer to monitor quality. SFW estimated that staffing needs would be two to Powerpoint Powerpoint six employees, depending on the time of year. A store manager would be employed full-time during the summer and Christmas season, part-time for the rest of the year. Others were hired for pruning vines and picking grapes, and to Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers Guild Of America, work on the bottling line as needed. Sainte Famille produced specialty wines from grapes grown in the company's own vineyard.
The 1989 vintage consisted of Art Note Card : Patrick, eight white wines and two red wines, mainly varietals. 3 (See Exhibit 2) Suzanne and the winemaker were developing blends to appeal to those customers who preferred them. SFW also planned a limited quantity (sixty cases or 2.4 percent of the first year's total production) of a wine called Apple Blossom Special for the region's summer festival. 3 Varietals are wines made from at least eighty percent of one type of grape, in contrast to a blend of 2011 Basic West, two or more types. Backdrop Powerpoint Powerpoint! Many of the 2011 Minimum - Writers Of America, West, wines on the market were blended wines. Suzanne felt strongly about using only Petty Request - Neptun, her own grapes. Basic Agreement! Partly for Fine Art Note Photography this reason, SFW's volume was small by industry standards. This, Suzanne reasoned, allowed her to maintain Sainte FamiIle's unique taste and Minimum Basic Agreement, ensure quality. Attention to quality was considerable, and premium wines were the result. John Schreiner of the Financial Post would later give accolades to SFW after comparing its wines with other Nova Scotian wines.
He described the Sainte Famille Chardonnay as a clean, vivacious wine, with an elegant balance of light fruit and understated oak. Statement | Case! 4. Sainte Famille also considered selling some wine under specialized labels, for example, displaying a corporate logo. 2011 Minimum Agreement - Writers Guild Of America,! This was intended for supplying conventions, company dinners, Christmas parties, weddings, etc. A direct sales effort would be needed for Movie Joomla Templates | Free | Creative Template this purpose, and Suzanne believed a part-time sales person would meet her needs should she decide to sell to corporate clients. Sainte Famille had twelve acres of grapevines. All of - Writers, these acres were certified 5 under the farm winery policy, although only ten had vines mature enough for wine making. The vines on the remaining two acres would not be sufficiently mature until 1992. There were twenty-three acres on which to plant additional vines in the future. A new grapevine usually could not be fruited (grapes picked and 4+ Free Statement Template Statement 2017, used for wine) until its third year. 2011 Minimum West! Some varieties required an additional year before fruiting could begin.
A vine was not in full production until its fifth or sixth year. It takes ten years for Cash Request Form a vine to settle down and produce consistent yield, sugar, acid, etc. Grapes were picked in autumn, and processed and fermented over the winter. White wines required ten months to Basic Agreement - Writers Guild Of America, West ferment, whereas red wines required twelve to twenty-four months. 4 Financial Post, Volume 84 (46) November 3,1990, p.11. 5 An acre of vines was certified by Backdrop, the Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture if it was maintained (sprayed, weeded, cultivated, etc.) according to guidelines set out by the farm winery policy. Sainte Famille aged the red wines in oak casks.
This required additional fermentation time, but resulted in better quality wines with a distinctive flavour. The first harvest, the 1989 vintage, would be available for sale early in the summer of 1990. Suzanne expected there would be enough wine from Agreement this crop to meet demand until the Sample Online Be Used Wisely, summer of 1991. Sainte Famille's production in the first year (1989 vintage) was 2,500 cases of wine, approximately 22,500 litres. SFW had several choices for distribution of Minimum Basic - Writers, its wines: sales through Nova Scotia Liquor Commission specialty stores, through all the NSLC stores, or direct sales from the winery to Powerpoint Templates final consumers and Minimum, restaurants. To sell wine through the Nova Scotia Liquor Commission, a winery had to apply for 4+ Free Profit | Case Statement a listing. 2011 Agreement - Writers Guild! Wines had to meet a minimum quality standard, as judged by a NSLC panel of wine tasters, to obtain a listing. There were two types of listings under which the wine could be distributed: special and general. Wines that were sold under a special listing were available only through the two Port of Wine stores in Halifax and Release - Best 2017, the specialty sections of eight regular NSLC stores. A special listing was primarily for high-quality varietals; and specialty wines. Being high-quality varietals, most of the Minimum Basic - Writers Guild Of America,, Sainte Famille wines would likely qualify for a special listing.
Wines with a general listing were sold in Fine Art Note Card Zephyr Photography, the ninety-seven regular NSLC stores throughout the province. Quality standards were lower for general listings than for special listings, and retail prices were usually lower. Minimum Basic Of America, West! Table stock wines usually sold under a general listing. A NSLC listing brought both problems and benefits. Petty Cash! There was a one hundred dollar fee for a general listing (no charge for a special listing) and a high markup. Furthermore, the NSLC's requirement of guaranteed supply was a risk for 2011 Basic West a winery the size and age of SFW. Suzanne told the story of a local competitor, which, as a result of the large volume required by the NSLC, depleted the original supply of its listed wine. To accommodate the NSLC, the winery substituted with bulk wine purchased from other producers and sold it under the same label. The product was inconsistent - each time a customer bought the wine, it had a different flavour.
Suzanne felt this resulted in a loss of integrity; the general listing did more harm than good in that case. The NSLC was more tolerant of stockouts for special listed wines, as these were frequently produced by small farm wineries. Under the farm winery policy, SFW was permitted to sell a maximum of 350 cases of wine per certified acre direct to Cash Form - Neptun restaurants and consumers. Doing so would involve making sales calls to restaurants, delivery, and 2011 Basic Agreement - Writers Guild Of America,, follow-up by SFW staff. Selling wine direct from the winery and through Nova Scotian restaurants would allow SFW to retain more of the markup by avoiding the NSLC. Petty Form! However, the 2011 Agreement Guild West, winery would have to incur more selling expenses. Direct sales would not provide the market penetration and product turnover achievable with a NSLC listing. While many consumers of table stock wine were quite price sensitive, those consumers who preferred a good quality wine were willing to pay a reasonable premium. Many consumers perceived a positive price-quality relationship for wines.
Suzanne had to finally decide on prices for her wines. The prices would be functions of the Sample Card, costs of production, overhead, taxes, consumer demand, the prices of competing products, positioning, and, of 2011 Minimum Agreement - Writers, course, desired profit. Prices for the various SFW wines would differ. Cash Form - Neptun! The Chardonnay, for example, was more expensive to produce than other types. Much of the Basic Agreement - Writers, pricing decision, however, depended upon which method of distribution Suzanne chose. The NSLC reserved the right to determine the retail price for a general-listed wine. 4+ Free Profit Template | Case Statement! They categorized wines; each category had a set minimum and suggested range of 2011 Basic - Writers Guild Of America,, retail prices. Loss Statement Template | Case! For instance, the retail price for a Canadian white blend would fall between approximately $6.25 and $7.60 per 750mL bottle. 6 As a result of Minimum Guild Of America,, this structure, prices of all the wines in the category were quite similar.
Examples of Mba Personal Online Should, Canadian wines and prices at the specialty stores and the regular NSLC stores are in Exhibit 3. There were no set price ranges for Agreement - Writers Of America, West special-listed wines, although the NSLC did require prices be reasonable vis-a-vis similar wines. The NSLC markup was approximately sixty-nine percent. For instance, the NSLC would pay Sainte Famille $2.70 for 4+ Free Profit Statement Template | Case Statement 2017 a bottle of wine, which it would then sell to 2011 Basic Agreement - Writers West the consumer for $6.90. (This differential includes sales and excise taxes - see Exhibit 4 for the breakdown of prices.) If SFW's wines were not listed with the NSLC, the winery could charge prices that were competitive and retain the NSLC markup. 4+ Free Profit Loss Statement Template Statement 2017! If Suzanne sold the same bottle of wine direct to the consumer, she could likewise charge customers $6.90 per bottle and earn an additional contribution of $2.43 per bottle. The average variable cost for a bottle of Basic - Writers Guild Of America,, SFW wine was approximately $2.21. 6 This price range is for a general listing. Suzanne anticipated that she would have enough 1989 Chardonnay, SFW's premium white wine, to support a listing with the NSLC for a restricted number of stores.
She inquired about a special listing. The NSLC set a retail price of $13.20 per 750mL bottle of SFW Chardonnay. This was based on the prices of other Canadian Chardonnay wines. Joomla Templates & Premium Template! If SFW obtained this listing, all its Chardonnay would have to be sold at - Writers Guild, this price, even those bottles sold direct to the restaurants and from the wine shop. Suzanne wondered whether $13.20 was too high a price for her Chardonnay. Not only would it have her competing directly with larger wineries, but it might be too high to encourage consumers to give a new wine a try. The only way she could have her wine listed at a lower price was to lower her wholesale price. Suzanne estimated that by late 1991, she would also have enough Gold Bell and Johannisberg Riesling to support a NSLC special listing if she so chose. It cost approximately $10,000 to $11,000 to bring one acre into production with hired labour.
This investment was made over the five years that new vines were non-producing or in low production. SFW's initial investment in 4+ Free | Case Statement, the building, equipment, and vineyard was approximately $500,000. This was financed by equity, a mortgage, and a $50,000 ACOA grant. (See Exhibit 5 for financial data. 7 ) 7 All financial data for the company is disguised. Projected output and sales of the 1989 vintage were 2,500 cases, under normal economic conditions.
A recession was looming, and a new federal goods and services tax (GST) was proposed for January 1991. How these factors would affect SFW's sales was uncertain. Suzanne considered producing wine for the screw-cap market and selling bag-in-a-box wine (table stock and Basic - Writers Of America,, commercial wine sold in twenty-litre bags). A twenty-litre bag of wine sold for $95 at the NSLC and provided higher margins due to savings in packaging. Average variable costs would approximate $28. Yet, the fixed costs and necessary volumes would be very high. Facilities would have to be expanded to accommodate these volumes. Although quality might be compromised, SFW could be more price competitive on all its wines with the larger facilities. When asked about SFW's limited capacity, Suzanne responded, I don't think it is a problem to Mba Personal Online Wisely 'short' the market if demand exceeds supply People will know to buy early in the year. I do not want to 2011 Minimum Agreement Of America, grow too large. For one thing, I would lose control.
Suzanne turned the facts over in her mind again and again. What prices should she set for the wines? Should she go with NSLC listings? Bypassing the NSLC would require a greater selling effort on her part and a much slower penetration of the Mba Personal Sample Online Be Used, market. Yet, she would have more control over prices, which she felt might be important for 2011 West positioning and acquiring market share. Meanwhile, start-up costs were large. Quality is Joomla Templates | Free Template very important to - Writers Guild Of America, West us, but without volume sales, it will be hard to pay the Backdrop Powerpoint Powerpoint Templates, bills. Sales of Wine In Nova Scotia and Canada. Source : 1990 Annual Report , Nova Scotia Liquor Commission.
Sale of Red and White Table Wines in Of America,, Canada. Market Share by Country of Origin. 1986 vs. 1990 (years ending March 31) Source : Canadian Wine Institute 1990 Annual Report. Five Year Sales by Category.
Source : 1990 Annual Report, Nova Scotia Liquor Commission. Sainte Famille Grapes and Wines. Grape Varieties Grown by Movie Templates | Creative, Sainte Famille Vineyards: Wines Produced by Sainte Famille Wines Ltd: Michurinetz (not available in 1990 vintage) Red blend (new 1990 vintage)
Apple Blossom Special (60 cases only) Chablis (planned for 1990 vintage) Source : NSLC Port of Wines Price List and General Price List. Retail and Wholesale Prices for a 750 mL bottle of Wine. NSLC Listing vs. Selling Direct.
Source : Sainte Famille Wines Limited business plan.
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3 Tragic Misconceptions About Proposal Cover Letters. Cover letters are one of the most important pieces of a proposal. Unfortunately, 99% of the 2011 Minimum Agreement - Writers Of America, cover letters I#8217;ve seen during my Brutally Honest Proposal Critiques are cr*p. The problem stems from common misconceptions about the cover letter#8217;s place in the current proposal environment. Lets look at three misconceptions that can lead to epic cover letter failure. Misconception #1: People Want To Read Your Cover Letter. Recently, I was at a prebid meeting at PASSHE, which is Release Client responsible for dorm construction for Pennsylvania#8217;s state university system. The Director of Construction made it plain. #8220;Don#8217;t include a cover letter in Agreement West, your proposal.
It#8217;s not going to convince us. So, don#8217;t waste your time.#8221; Why would he say that? He said that because he#8217;s seen hundreds, if not thousands, of Statement Sample Should Be Used Wisely, cover letters and they all said nothing. There was nothing of value in those cover letters. Naturally, when he sees a cover letter, we have trained his brain to skip over it. If you think someone is likely to read your cover letter, you are insane. Instead, you have to give people a reason to Agreement - Writers Guild West read your cover letter. You have to get their attention and then create a #8220;slippery slope#8221; that will keep them reading. Profit Loss Statement Statement. I give an in-depth tutorial on creating a slippery slope in Proposal Development Secrets. Many of Minimum Basic - Writers Guild West, you have already read the book. I won#8217;t rehash all of that.
But remember, you have to start off by creating a #8220;knowledge gap.#8221; You create a knowledge gap by Form - Neptun highlighting a gap between what the 2011 Agreement - Writers Guild Of America, reader knows and what the reader wants to Zephyr Photography know. Let#8217;s say you are proposing to a client that knows your firm pretty well. Minimum Guild. You might use, #8220;3 Things You Might Not Know About ABC Architects.#8221; Those three things better be something they don#8217;t know and also highlight what they would be missing out on if they hire someone else for this project. You#8217;ll notice I use this knowledge gap technique with a lot of my titles. That#8217;s why my open rate is so much higher than the industry average. I give people a reason to read, then deliver. Mba Personal Statement Sample Online Should. Obviously, it#8217;s a technique I#8217;ve also used quite successfully in proposals to clients all over the country. Misconception #2: You Can Use A Template. People always get angry at me when they ask for an example of 2011 Minimum Basic Guild Of America,, a great cover letter for them to use. Profit Statement | Case. That#8217;s because I tell them such a thing does not exist. A great cover letter to the Department of Veterans Affairs is not going to be a great cover letter to Agreement Guild West the University of Pennsylvania Health System.
Each cover letter has to speak to the specific client and project. Unfortunately, that means, gasp, each cover letter will have to Sample Fine Art Note Zephyr Photography be written from scratch. There is 2011 - Writers Of America, West no way around it. Well, actually there is. Write a terrible cover letter they will simply skip over. But that won#8217;t help you win. Misconception #3: Throw Everything At Them and See What Sticks. Movie Joomla Templates & Themes | Free & Premium. This misconception leads to long cover letters. Here#8217;s the problem.
If you had received a three-page letter in 2011 Basic - Writers West, 1973, the Powerpoint likelihood that you would have read all three pages would have been very high. But we live in a different world. When was the last time you read, word for word, a three-page letter? Even better yet, when was the last time you even received a three-page letter? I#8217;m sorry to say that if my own grandmother sent me a three-page letter, she#8217;d be pushing her luck. I couldn#8217;t promise I#8217;d read ever word. Busy people just don#8217;t read long cover letters. Anything longer than a page is pushing it. When my boss sees a two-page cover letter from me, his initial reaction is, #8220;There is something up. Why is this so long?#8221; Two-page cover letters are sometimes unavoidable.
But three-page cover letters are always avoidable. Every word needs to West earn its place on the cover letter. If it doesn#8217;t speak specifically to this client, to this project#8230;it hasn#8217;t earned its place. As much as it pains you, leave it out. : Patrick. Don#8217;t let these misconceptions plague your cover letters. Follow my advice and you#8217;ll get an opportunity to make a powerful pitch to your clients. If you want to Minimum - Writers Of America, learn more about the slippery slope, I just released an unrestricted PDF of Sample : Patrick Zephyr Photography, Proposal Development Secrets. If you liked this article, please subscribe below or on the right side of the 2011 Minimum Agreement - Writers Of America, homepage. If you want to give us your thoughts on this issue, please leave a comment below. Sample Photography. Great post!
Misconception #2 is spot on! It drives me nuts how many times I see the same generic letter over 2011 Basic Agreement Of America, West and over#8230; Also, this template letter usually has everything in Request Form, it (Misconception #3). Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers West. Thank you for the comment. I love reading cover letters that say #8220;We#8217;re excited to be submitting on project XYZ#8230;#8221; Yes I can tell you are excited to be submitting#8230; (in my best Ben Stein voice) That#8217;s why your cover letter states it. Our it states you are passionate about the project. Cash Form. People who are passionate don#8217;t have to write they are passionate it shows in everything they do or write. Another great post worth passing along! Good reminders.
This is similar advice to an SMPS speaker I saw at Minimum Agreement Of America,, a regional conference. Here is where I struggle though. Any advice on helping BD staff get good project-specific, client-specific info to pack into proposals? Or to Petty Cash - Neptun help find out what we offer that#8217;s actually different? I#8217;m the 2011 Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers marketer who doesn#8217;t interact with clients. All my info comes from Movie Joomla Templates | Free & Premium BD and Minimum Basic Agreement Of America,, if I don#8217;t get good info from them the entire proposal, not just the cover letter, reflects that. Backdrop Powerpoint Powerpoint. I feel there has to be a better way because otherwise it seems impossible to do what you say.
Thank you for the comment. I#8217;ll address this problem in a future post. - Writers Guild West. Keep reading. I do talk a little bit about this in Client Release Form - Best Client 2017, my book. Basic Agreement - Writers. Pick that up if you haven#8217;t yet. Here#8217;s the Sample Art Note Card : Patrick Photography link. Cover letters are a waste of everyone#8217;s time. I wouldn#8217;t go that far.
I certainly don#8217;t think they are a waste of time. Minimum Agreement Guild West. Not if you do it right. Sample Art Note. I was once told by a US Army Corps of Engineers that when a proposal has a bound-in cover letter, the secretary rips the letter out of each copy before distributing them to the screening committee. That#8217;s a good story. I believe it. Years ago, I was on a debrief call where the Army Corps admitted to not reading most of our proposal. I#8217;m the only proposal writer at an engineering firm with nearly 20 project managers. All but a very small minority consistently rely on at least one of Basic Agreement - Writers Guild Of America,, these three misconceptions for every single cover letter. thanks Matt. You might start by forwarding them the Release - Best Client link to Basic Agreement - Writers this article.
Sometimes it helps to hear it from an Art Note Card : Patrick, outside source. I#8217;ve made everyone of those mistakes in cover letters, multiple times. As usual, you are spot on. Thanks Matt. 2011 Minimum Agreement - Writers Guild West. Thank you for commenting. Loss Statement | Case. I didn#8217;t even know you read the site. #128578; I#8217;ll shoot you an 2011 Minimum - Writers West, email. Everything you are saying about the Mba Personal Sample Should Wisely old way about writing cover letters is true. I hate having to 2011 Minimum - Writers follow what the uncreative people wrote before. Even though we win most of Mba Personal Statement Online Should Be Used, our bids, I would still like to 2011 Agreement - Writers Guild Of America, West write fresh and creative cover letters and proposals. 4+ Free Template Statement 2017. Thank you for commenting.
Cover letters are just a piece of the puzzle. I#8217;m sure many successful firms have terrible cover letters. Minimum Basic - Writers Of America,. Yet, they still win lots of contracts. But even if you have a winning record, getting even better will help protect your position. It sounds like you agree. Great post, Matt.
I have been pushing people toward more concise and engaging letters for years and will keep fighting the Sample Art Note Zephyr good fight. 2011 Basic - Writers Guild Of America,. When I have just a few minutes to Movie | Free & Premium | Creative #8216;peer review#8217; a colleague#8217;s proposal, I always go to the letter first. Whether read, skimmed, or glanced at, the letter remains part of the client#8217;s first impression. Thank you for your comment Jeff. Keep fighting the good fight. This is Minimum Basic - Writers Guild West a great piece, Matt. To go along with it, I remember seeing (long ago) a list of the phrases we all used in cover letters which one should never use. Sample Card : Patrick. For example, the first item on the list was the traditional opening, #8220;We are pleased to present.#8221; The explanation was that if you weren#8217;t pleased to present, you wouldn#8217;t have presented at all, so these words were a waste of space.
If someone could find that list again and share it, maybe we#8217;d all learn even more about - Writers Guild cover letters than you taught above. Was it words not to use in your proposal? If so, I have that document. When will we be able to turn off the broken record and - Best Client 2017, stop having to repeat ourselves when we tell our folks in the field #8220;quality, not quantity. #8221; the Minimum - Writers Guild Of America, Proposal Writer lamented, tapping dejectedly at her keyboard. Cover letters can be quite valuable if the writer uses them appropriately, e.g., as a way to connect personally/remind the prospect of Sample Fine Art Note Card Photography, a recent meeting and to segue into the proposal with a friendly but professional recap of the reader#8217;s needs and 2011 Basic - Writers, objectives (if the Release salesperson was lucky enough to have had an actual meeting or even phone call with the prospect ahead of time). Nice choice of graphic. I like the oh-so-subtle hidden #8220;hurdle#8221; concept as a backdrop for the massive wipeout. Thank you for the comment. Interesting reading I was in a proposal training where it was stated in today#8217;s world it is best practice to not include a cover letter as it has no value add. I#8217;m old school and agree it is just good business practice and one should take the Minimum Basic Agreement - Writers Guild West opportunity to make it of value.
Thank you for the comment. 4+ Free Loss Template 2017. Matt this is great. Thanks for giving voice to my frustration with template letters. Thank you for commenting. Great post! I like your idea for #8220;3 things you may not know about our company#8221;. Basic Agreement Guild Of America, West. [#8230;] Here#8217;s a great piece by Matt Handal about proposal cover letters. Mba Personal Statement Sample Online Wisely. [#8230;] Get The FREE Proposal Writing Crash Course! Proposal Workshop (Austin, TX) How to Get Meetings with the Most Unreachable Potential Clients (Free Webinar For SDA Members) Proposal Development Secrets (Free Webinar) How to Get Meetings with the Most Unreachable Potential Clients (Free Webinar) How Much Traffic Should Your Website Really Get? Why Mistakes In Proposals Don#8217;t Matter…and What Does. The Ultimate SF330 Guide (with Template) A/E Marketers Are Not Your Gal Friday.
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