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beaumarchais resume Figaro, qui fut barbier et a repris du service aupres du Comte Almaviva (cf. Multiplication | Scimathmn. Le barbier de Seville) est devenu le concierge du chateau. How To. Il doit epouser Suzanne, la soubrette de la Comtesse, mais, le jour meme de leurs noces, des obstacles surgissent et semblent compromettre leur bonheur. 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn. Le Comte, dont l’autorisation est necessaire pour celebrer le mariage, poursuit Suzanne de ses assiduites et menace de refuser son accord si elle ne cede pas a ses avances. Form Sample. Marceline, la gouvernante, a pour sa part des vues sur Figaro et lui intente un proces pour l’obliger a tenir la promesse qu’il lui a faite de l’epouser, en echange d’une ancienne dette qu’il est incapable d’acquitter. | Scimathmn. Pour contrer les menees du Comte, Figaro, Suzanne et la Comtesse, mise au courant des projets de son volage epoux, ourdissent leurs plans. How To Write Analysis. Le valet fait remettre a son maitre un billet anonyme l’informant que la Comtesse a rendez-vous avec un inconnu pendant le bal qui doit suivre la ceremonie.
Quant a Suzanne, elle se decide a accorder un tete-a-tete au Comte, ou elle enverra un jeune page, Cherubin, costume en femme. Multiplication | Scimathmn. Mais, pendant qu’en compagnie de sa maitresse, elle s’ amuse a faire essayer divers deguisements a Cherubin, le Comte, que le billet anonyme a rendu fou de jalousie, fait irruption chez sa femme. Microsoft Templates And. Le page n’a que le temps de sauter par la fenetre, et le Comte en est reduit a accepter les explications des trois complices. Multiplication & Division. sans etre vraiment convaincu. Il consent neanmoins au mariage de Suzanne et de Figaro, tout en esperant faire perdre son proces a ce dernier afin de le contraindre a epouser Marceline. The Pre-1899 Antique Faq. Mais, devant le tribunal reuni en hate chez le Comte qui est le juge supreme de sa province, eclate une revelation pour le moins inattendue Marceline est la mere de Figaro, enleve au berceau par des brigands.
Plus rien ne semble donc s’opposer a la celebration des noces. 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn. La Comtesse, cependant, est bien decidee a demasquer son mari. Patient Consent Consent | Buy. Elle imagine de se rendre elle-meme, sous les habits de sa suivante, au rendez-vous que Suzanne a fixe au Comte, a la nuit tombee, dans le parc du chateau. Multiplication. Elle confie son projet a la soubrette tout en lui demandant de n’en rien dire a Figaro. Write A Swot : Essay On Discipline. Ce dernier soupconne neanmoins quelque chose, et, persuade que Suzanne le trompe, il quitte a son tour la fete pour tenter de surprendre I’ infidele. & Division | Scimathmn. Sous les arbres du parc, il rencontre une femme qu’il prend pour la Comtesse, alors qu’il s’agit de Suzanne travestie. Invoice. Quant au Comte, il entraine vers un pavillon derobe celle qu’il croit etre Suzanne, et dans laquelle il ne reconnaitra sa femme que trop tard. Multiplication. Il ne lui restera alors qu’a se jeter aux pieds de son epouse pour implorer un pardon qui lui sera accorde.
Reconcilies, les deux couples rejoignent le bal, au milieu des chansons. How To Report : Essay. Telecharger sujets et corriges du bac. Multiplication | Scimathmn. I - LE MARIAGE DE FIGARO : UNE OEUVRE SUBVERSIVE. Microsoft Office And. On s’accorde generalement a voir dans Le Mariage de Figaro un signe avant-coureur de la Revolution de 1789, un coup fatal porte aux privileges de l’aristocra tie et a ses abus de pouvoir. Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn. A la lecture du manuscrit, Louis XVI se serait exclame: «Cela ne sera jamais joue; il faudrait detruire la Bastille pour que la representation de cette piece ne fut pas une inconsequence dangereuse. Patient Form | Patient Form | Buy Sample. » Il fallut quatre ans pour faire revenir le souverain sur sa decision, et pour que cette comedie soit enfin portee a la scene, le 27 avril 1784. 6.1.3a. Le proces de la societe des maitres. School Word Download | Free. Le sentiment du roi fut partage par beaucoup, qui s’alarmerent, ou se feliciterent, de la virulence avec laquelle Figaro, « l’homme le plus degourdi de sa nation» selon Beaumarchais, s’attaquait aux privileges de la noblesse, a travers le conflit d’ordre prive qui l’opposait a son maitre.
Le retablissement du « droit de cuissage », que le Comte tente de « negocier », par l’argent et le chantage, avec Suzanne, est a la fois le moteur de l’action et le symbole de la tyrannie exercee par les puissants sur leurs inferieurs. Multiplication. « Ce droit honteux » selon les mots de Figaro (I, 1) dresse l’un contre l’autre les complices de jadis (cf. Microsoft Templates Template And. Le Barbier de Seville) et donne au subalterne l’occasion de faire le proces de la societe des maitres. II - ALMAVIVA : UN GRAND SEIGNEUR LIBERTIN. Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn. Le personnage du Comte est a lui seul une vivante critique de la classe qu’il represente. Development - Free | Free. Beaumarchais pretend dans sa Preface n’avoir voulu peindre « qu’un jeune seigneur de ce temps-la, prodigue, assez galant, meme un peu libertin, a peu pres comme les autres seigneurs de ce temps-la ». & Division | Scimathmn. Il se defend d’avoir prete a Almaviva « aucun des vices du peuple ». Office Resume And. Il est vrai que ceux de sa categorie sociale sont bien suffisants, et, comme le dit l’auteur, «qu’un seigneur assez vicieux pour vouloir prostituer a ses caprices tout ce qui lui est subordonne, pour se jouer dans ses domaines de la pudicite de toutes ses jeunes vassales, doit finir, comme celui- ci, par etre la risee de ses valets ». 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn. Suzanne n’est d’ailleurs pas seule a se plaindre de la conduite du Comte. Templates Template. Fanchette, la petite paysanne amoureuse de Cherubin, en fait aussi le naif aveu (IV, 5). & Division. Almaviva, tel le Don Juan de Moliere, est «un epouseur a toutes mains », qui ne connait d’autre loi que son bon plaisir.
Domine par ses passions, il est, comme le lui reproche Figaro, maitre de tout sauf de lui-meme (V, I 2). The Pre-1899 Guns Faq. Ses acces de colere, sa violence, terrorisent son entourage, et jusqu’a la Comtesse (Il, sc. 6.1.3a & Division. 10 a 16). Nursing Assessment. ? A Admission. Enfin, son orgueil, seul mobile de sa jalousie, n’a d’egal que son mepris envers ses inferieurs, comme en temoigne son monologue de l’acte III (sc. 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn. 4), ou il tolere chez ses subordonnes des egarements qui lui paraissent intolerables chez son epouse : « Des libertes chez mes vassaux; qu’importe a gens de cette etoffe. Checklist Template Free. » Almaviva incarne les vices d’une aristocratie oisive et corrompue, dont le pouvoir tyrannique apparait de moins en moins fonde. Qu’a-t-il fait en effet, ce gentilhomme plein de morgue pour meriter sa fortune, sinon, comme le remarque Figaro dans une formule restee celebre, « se donner la peine de naitre »? Dans le long monologue ou il resume sa vie errante de « picaro» (V, 3), le serviteur jette un regard sans illusion sur ceux qui l’entourent, Suzanne, qu’il croit infidele, et le Comte dont l’ingratitude le scandalise, et, au-dela, sur la societe tout entiere. 6.1.3a | Scimathmn. Il conclut sa tirade par l’aveu reitere de son desenchantement : «j’ai tout vu, tout fait, tout use. ? A Comprehensive Admission. Puis l’illusion s’est detruite et, trop desabuse. | Scimathmn. Desabuse ! . New Employee Checklist Template - 9+ Free Pdf Documents. Desabuse. Multiplication. » Figaro n’est pas un valet comme les autres. Development - Free. La servitude n’est pour lui que l’un des multiples avatars de son existence aventureuse.
Il a eu le loisir d’observer les dessous de la politique, qu’il execute en quelques mots vigoureux (III, 5), de frequenter les milieux litteraires, asservis par la censure (V, 3), de se frotter aux puissants dont il denonce l’arbitraire et la lachete (V, 3). 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn. Avec pour tout horizon la misere ou la prison, il est neanmoins parvenu a se frayer un chemin dans la societe, en deployant «plus de science et de calculs pour subsister seulement, qu’on n’en a mis depuis cent ans a gouverner toutes les Espagnes. Development Plan Documents | Free. » (V, 3). Si la fortune se mesurait a l’aune du merite, Figaro serait prince, et Almaviva, laquais. Multiplication. Ces propos audacieux trouvent un plaisant echo dans le finale chante de la piece, ou Figaro se permet une allusion a Voltaire, et proclame que le « hasard » seul explique l’inegalite des conditions sociales. Office Templates Resume | Resume Template. « L’esprit seul peut tout changer », ajoute-t-il. Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn. (V, 19). The Pre-1899 Antique. Mais le croit-il vraiment? Pour venir a bout des projets du Comte, Figaro n’a pas eu seulement recours a son ingeniosite, a cet art de l’in. Multiplication | Scimathmn. trigue que tous, et meme son adversaire lui reconnaissent. | Patient Template | Buy Sample. Aux moments les plus dramatiques, il a su utiliser la foule des vassaux du Comte pour museler ce dernier, et le contraindre a tenir parole au sujet de cet « ancien droit du seigneur » qu’Almaviva se flatte d’avoir aboli. Multiplication. (I, 10). Office | Resume And. Face a ses gens assembles, le gentilhomme ne peut se dedire. 6.1.3a Multiplication. La pression populaire l’emporte, et cette scene, qui transforme le valet en « meneur» du peuple, peut etre entendue comme un avertissement a la minorite des privilegies, trop prompts a mepriser la force du plus grand nombre. Guns Faq. Le couple maitre/valet que forment Almaviva et Figaro est redouble par celui de la maitresse et de sa servante, sa « cameriste », Suzanne.
Autant les deux hommes sont separes par une jalouse rivalite, autant les deux femmes apparaissent unies par une complicite sans faille. Multiplication. Suzanne revele a la Comtesse les avances du Comte, et celle-ci lui devoile son plan pour confondre le libertin, tout en lui demandant de n’en rien dire a Figaro. Template. La solidarite feminine est une force de resistance a l’oppression masculine. & Division | Scimathmn. Comme jadis le Comte et Figaro s’etaient allies pour « tromper un vieillard » et faire triompher « la jeunesse et l’amour» (Le Barbier de Seville, IV, 8), Suzanne et la Comtesse se sont liguees pour donner une lecon a leurs epoux. Microsoft Office Templates And. La difference de condition sociale est une fois encore transcendee par un interet commun. Multiplication & Division. Toutes deux rivalisent de hardiesse et d’ingeniosite : «Il est assez effronte, mon petit projet! », s’applaudit la Comtesse a l’idee de se rendre au rendez-vous galant fixe a Suzanne (II, 25).
Quant a Suzanne, elle ne se prive pas de faire « pleuvoir » les soufflets sur Figaro, venu se prendre au piege apprete pour un autre » dans l’obscurite du parc (V, 8). How To Analysis Report : Essay On Discipline. « A genoux bien courbe, prosterne, ventre a terre », comme il le dit lui-meme, ce dernier doit reconnaitre qu’en matiere de ruse il a trouve son maitre. 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn. Nous avons 34#160invites et aucun membre en ligne.
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Richard III, the Machiavellian Villain. Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2000 42 Pages. Shakespeare’s Richard III is considered as the most notorious Machiavellian villain of Elizabethan and 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division Jacobean drama. By the time Shakespeare wrote Richard III , the term ‘Machiavel’ had already an established set of references. The term was, in fact, so deeply established in Office Templates Resume Template the mind of & Division | Scimathmn Elizabethan audiences that it was enough to Admission Assessment. call someone a ‘Machiavel’ in order to characterise him as an utterly amoral and clever villain. The ‘Machiavel’, however, is only one part of Richard’s character as he is a combination of the traditional Vice-figure of the moralities, a tyrant of Senecan revenge tragedy and, of course, the Machiavellian villain. These elements are, in fact, so tightly interwoven that it is very difficult to separate them and concentrate on a single one. Richard the Vice is a witty deceiver and manipulator who is also very good at playing with language. Richard the ‘Machiavel’ seeks his own personal advancement through the Multiplication & Division exercise of his wit and the role of the Vice is just a part of his Machiavellian tool chest.
He is beyond conventional morality, and it is the end which for him justifies the means. The main difference between Richard as the Vice and Richard as the New Employee - 9+ Free Pdf Documents Download ‘Machiavel’ is 6.1.3a that Richard as the ‘Machiavel’ is not a motive-less villain. He commits all of his crimes in order to reach his ultimate goal, the Faq crown of England. Therefore, even though this essay will concentrate on the Machiavellian aspects of Richard’s career, it will be necessary to deal with the others as well. Research on Shakespeare’s Richard III has come a long way since E. M. W. Tillyard’s ground-breaking work ‘Shakespeare’s History Plays’ which was first published in 1944. Tillyard interpreted Richard III and Shakespeare’s other Histories from the Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn perspective of their political significance and argued that they were a faithful dramatisation of what he called the ‘Tudor Myth’. Office Resume Template And! Since then, however, the focus of research has diversified and drawn attention to other aspects of the play. A. Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn! P. Rossiter, for example, put more emphasis on the actual plot of the play and saw Richard as ‘God’s agent in a pre-determined plan of divine retribution  ’ who metes out justice on the wicked until he himself is destroyed.
For Rossiter, Richard III had an element of subversity because Richard took the audience on a holiday from morality  : they enjoyed watching Richard even though they knew beforehand that, in School Development Plan - Free Word Download | Free the end, he had to fall. Rossiter understood this as a deliberate undermining of the Multiplication | Scimathmn ‘Tudor Myth’ on Shakespeare’s part. Since the Office Resume | Resume Template sixties, however, research on Shakespeare’s Richard III has moved to more abstract levels and this approach is still valid. In 1971, Wheeler argued that Shakespeare’s Richard III was much more complex than just a dramatisation of the Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn ‘Tudor Myth’ and suggested that it was rather a story of human involvement in the dynamics of power. For Wheeler, Henry VII was only a new face, a point vigourously supported by Cornelia Czach in 5+ Tender Quotation Computer Invoice 1983. She stressed that Richard was only one of many in a chain of comparable rulers and that at the end of Richard III everybody just rallies around Henry VII but nothing really changes. For her, Shakespeare’s Histories were foremostly a dramatical means of 6.1.3a | Scimathmn illustrating the inhuman element in history and its inherent absurdity, with the ultimate aim of unmasking history as a whole. In 1992, Ekkehard Krippendorf emphasised the element of Admission Nursing Assessment. political continuity. Furthermore, he pointed out that the Tudors had, ironically, turned out to Multiplication | Scimathmn be a lot more Machiavellian than the real Richard and this had, probably, not gone unnoticed by the Elizabethans.
In order to establish in how far Shakespeare’s Richard is a Machiavellian villain it is necessary to examine those parts of Machiavelli’s philosophy which are relevant to Richard’s actions and to trace Richard’s development from the Admission Nursing Assessment. ? A young, enthusiastic warrior at the beginning of the third part of Henry VI to 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn the ruthless villain who murders and tricks his way to the throne in School Development Word Download | Free Richard III . Throughout the history of & Division European literature, the Plan - Free Download idea of the 6.1.3a | Scimathmn prime importance of virtue had played a major part. Ever since the sixth century, political theorists had stressed how important it was for 5+ Tender Quotation Format Computer, a ruler to have moral integrity and to be a good ruler to his subjects. When Machiavelli’s work appeared on the radar-screen of political philosophy, it proved to 6.1.3a Multiplication be revolutionary. Based on his own experience in the foreign politics of Florence he created a framework of political thought which argued that a wise ruler had to be pragmatic and flexible in the choice of his measures, instead of Plan Word Documents Download | Free adhering to the imperative of virtue. Multiplication & Division! The main difference between Machiavelli and his predecessors was his extensive application of empirical methods. For Machiavelli, virtu was the sum of everything which enabled a ruler to establish stability and the continued existence of his state. In the Words end, it all boiled down to a ruler reacting appropriately to the current situation he found his state to be in. The most striking novelty in 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division Machiavellian politics was the total subordination of moral imperatives to those of political efficiency. It was the end which for 5+ Tender Format Computer Invoice, him justified the means.
Therefore, if it served the 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division interests of one’s own country, one also has the right (if not even the duty) to go to Template - 9+ Download war with another country. 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division! ‘War, therefore, does not reveal the basis of 5+ Tender Pdf | Computer any intrinsic ethical bankruptcy, since war can be used to defend the potential for good, and as such this type of the use of force is & Division a virtuous use of force.  ’ As far as foreign policy was concerned, the principle of keeping open as many options as possible also applied to keeping promises: ‘Ihr mu?t namlich wissen, da? es zweierlei Kampfweisen gibt: die eine mit den Waffen der Gesetze, die andere mit blo?er Gewalt; die erste ist dem Menschen eigen, die zweite den Tieren; da die erste oftmals nicht ausreicht, ist es notig, auf die zweite zuruckzugreifen. [. ? A! ] Da also ein Furst gezwungen ist, von der Natur der Tiere den rechten Gebrauch machen zu konnen, mu? er sich unter ihnen den Fuchs und den Lowen auswahlen; denn der Lowe ist wehrlos gegen Schlingen und der Fuchs gegen Wolfe. Man mu? also ein Fuchs sein, um die Schlingen zu erkennen, und ein Lowe, um die Wolfe zu schrecken. Diejenigen, welche sich einfach auf die Natur des Lowen festlegen, verstehen hiervon nichts. Ein kluger Herrscher kann und darf daher sein Wort nicht halten, wenn ihm dies zum Nachteil gereicht und wenn die Grunde fortgefallen sind, die ihn veranla?t hatten, sein Versprechen zu geben. & Division | Scimathmn! Waren alle Menschen gut, dann ware diese Regel schlecht, da sie aber schlecht sind, und ihr Wort dir gegenuber nicht halten wurden, brauchst du auch dein Wort ihnen gegenuber nicht zu halten. [. ] Aber man mu? seine Fuchsnatur zu verschleiern wissen, und ein gro?er Lugner und Heuchler sein: die Menschen sind so einfaltig und gehorchen so sehr den Bedurfnissen des Augenblicks, da? derjenige, welcher betrugt, stets jemanden finden wird, der sich betrugen la?t. The Pre-1899 Antique!  ’ According to Machiavelli, it was the duty of a ruler to & Division aim for the maximum he could possibly achieve in terms of gaining territory for his people, even though the area a state could actually control was limited. If you tried to conquer more territory than your country was able to control, you would eventually cross a line separating virtu from ambition. Documents Download | Free! This would then inevitably lead to your downfall. Therefore, you can basically say that a ruler was supposed to aim for 100%: Less was sloth and more was ambition. Apart from that, giving too much attention to moral values could also lead to fatal consequences for one’s own people and this, otherwise, could easily be avoided, as Machiavelli points out in chapter 15 of The Prince : ‘Viele haben sich Republiken und Furstentumer vorgestellt, die noch nie jemand gesehen oder tatsachlich gekannt hat; denn es liegt eine so gro?e Entfernung zwischen dem Leben, wie es ist und dem Leben, wie es sein sollte, da? derjenige, welcher das was geschieht, unbeachtet la?t, zugunsten dessen, was geschehen soll, dadurch eher seinen Untergang als seine Erhaltung betreibt; denn ein Mensch, der sich in jeder Hinsicht zum Guten bekennen will, mu? zugrunde gehen, inmitten von so viel anderen, die nicht gut sind. Daher mu? ein Furst, wenn er sich behaupten will, die Fahigkeit erlernen, nicht gut zu sein, und diese anwenden, oder nicht anwenden, je nach dem Gebot der Notwendigkeit  .  ’ The main goal of a ruler, according to Machiavelli, was the defence of the common good. ‘The Machiavellian monarchy does not set the Multiplication ‘good life’, the Template virtuous life, and and the 6.1.3a common good in the classical sense, as its end. The end of the new state is the procurement of material satisfaction, political security, and historical greatness as if they were the organic, naturalistic, needs of state.  ’ For Machiavelli, the worst vice in Quotation Format Pdf | Computer Invoice public life is ambition: ‘Ambition, whether found in Multiplication & Division a faction or an individual, whether motivated by desire for power or by greed, destroys the virtuous quality of the public good.
Yet, at Office Templates And, the same time, virtu is said to be compatible with cruelty, especially when it is ‘well used’. A Machiavellian founder could be inhumane, yet still be virtuous.  ’ However, even Machiavelli was prepared to draw a line, as he shows when he presents the case of the Syracusean tyrant Agathocles. Here, the term of ‘well used’ cruelty did most certainly not apply. Agathocles, who had been of low birth, had, via a military career, risen to | Scimathmn be Praetor of Syracuse. As soon as he had achieved this, he decided to Guns Faq become Prince. So, one morning he gathered his people and the Senate of Syracuse, pretending that he wanted to 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn discuss affairs of the The Pre-1899 Guns republic with them. But instead, he had the senators and the richest of the Syracusean nobility murdered by 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn, his troops. His people were so stunned by New Employee Free Pdf Documents Download, this display of action and determination, that they did not put up any resistance whatsoever and the rule of Agathocles was secure for 6.1.3a, years to come.  Machiavelli did not at all approve of what Agathocles had done, even though he was impressed with his decisiveness: ‘[. ] [Er ist] nicht durch die Gunst eines anderen, sondern uber die Rangstufen des Heeres, die er unter Tausend Muhen und Gefahren erklommen hatte, zur Furstenherrschaft gelangt und behauptete sie dann durch viele mutige und riskante Entschlusse.
Andererseits kann man es auch nicht Tuchtigkeit nennen, seine Mitburger umzubringen, seine Freunde zu verraten und ohne Treue, Mitleid und Religion zu sein; auf solche Weise kann man zwar Macht erwerben, aber keinen Ruhm.  ’ The application of dishonest and cruel measures, for Format Invoice, Machiavelli, was only justified in times of an interior or foreign political crisis, and & Division | Scimathmn not for purposes of Microsoft Office Templates | Resume Template And usurpation and thus establishing a tyranny. The second pillar of Machiavelli’s political philosophy was Fortune. For Machiavelli, it represented the element of uncertainty in human life. This meant that, however carefully something was prepared and later carried out, there was still a possibility that it could eventually fail, as Munkler explains: ‘Fortuna ist fur Machiavelli also der Inbegriff der politischen Variablen. An Geschick und Weisheit der politisch Handelnden entschied sich, wieviel Einflu? Fortuna auf den Ausgang politischer Entwicklungen erlangte. Die 50:50 Relation, in der Machiavelli das Verhaltnis zwischen der Gewalt der Fortuna und der Beeinflu?barkeit der Ereignisse durch die Menschen ausgedruckt hat, ist fur ihn kein starres Gleichgewicht, sondern der statistische Durchschnitt , wie er sich angesichts der Geschichte darstellt, wobei die Macht der Fortuna umgekehrt proportional zu dem Geschick und Weitblick der politisch Handelnden steigt und fallt. 6.1.3a & Division!  ’ If a country wanted to be protected from ill Fortune, Machiavelli thought that it was essential for School Development Plan Documents Download, it to have military strength, a citizen army and sound diplomacy. However, even the best precautions could not rule out bad luck as Fortune was a force beyond human control.
At best, her effects could be channeled, as Machiavelli illustrates when he compares Fortune to a river in flood: ‘Ahnlich verhalt es sich mit Fortuna; sie zeigt ihre Macht dort wo man nicht die Kraft aufbringt, ihr zu widerstehen, und sie lenkt ihre Kraft dorthin, wo sie wei?, da? sie nicht durch Damme und Deiche aufgehalten wird. 6.1.3a & Division!  ’ Therefore, Machiavelli concludes that if Italy had catered for her own set of dams and dykes in The Pre-1899 Guns time, she would not have been in the mess that he saw her in. 6.1.3a | Scimathmn!  Machiavelli’s main interest, however, lies in the way that Fortune affects individuals – or to be more precise, those individuals who hold an important public office  . In this context, virtu becomes the most important tool, in order to get the better of Templates Resume And one’s Fortune, even though actually being able to overcome one’s Fortune still requires the Multiplication & Division help of New Employee Fortune as Machiavelli illustrates in the following: ‘[. Multiplication! ] so stelle ich fest, da? man einen Fursten heute Erfolg haben und untergehen sieht, ohne da? eine Veranderung seines Wesens oder irgendeiner seiner Eigenschaften zu bemerken gewesen ware. Dies beruht meiner Meinung nach [darauf], [. ] da? ein Furst, der sich ganz auf sein Gluck verla?t, untergeht, sobald dieses wechselt; ferner glaube ich, da? der Gluck hat, der seine Handlungsweise den Zeitumstanden anpa?t, und ebenso jener ins Ungluck gerat, dessen Handlungsweise nicht den Zeitumstanden entspricht. Sieht man doch, da? die Menschen auf verschiedene Weise vorgehen, um das Ziel zu erreichen, das ein jeder vor Augen hat, namlich Ruhm und Reichtum: der eine verfahrt mit Besonnenheit, der andere mit Ungestum; dieser mit Gewalt, jener mit List, einer mit Geduld, ein anderer mit dem Gegenteil; so kann jeder auf unterschiedliche Weise an sein Ziel gelangen. Template And! Auch beobachtet man, da? von zwei Besonnenen der eine sein Ziel erreicht, der andere nicht; und das ebenso zwei mit verschiedenen Methoden gleicherma?en Gluck haben, der eine mit Besonnenheit, der andere mit Ungestum: dies liegt allein an & Division | Scimathmn den Zeitumstanden, die mit der betreffenden Handlungsweise ubereinstimmen oder nicht.  ’ Even though the idea that time actually did have a quality had its origins in Templates Resume | Resume Template And astrology, Machiavelli was more interested in circumstantial aspects of human action. He thought that ‘[. ] humans act according to their individual imagination (fantasia) and individual natural talent (ingegno).
But they face a difficulty since times and things constantly change, even while their own mode of behaviour may not. The key to success is to maintain a harmony between the quality of one’s time, the quality of general time, one’s temperament and humour, and one’s actions.  ’ In order to Multiplication & Division demonstrate the influence of the quality of time, Machiavelli presents the case of Pope Julius II who was renowned for his uncompromising active manner of tackling problems. Quotation Pdf | Computer Invoice!  Machiavelli does admit that Julius was only lucky because the circumstances he faced happened to favour boldness but his main concern ‘[. ] here is to give an activist, rather than a passivist interpretation of human action. Even though fortuitous events occur in 6.1.3a | Scimathmn the world, humans should do their utmost to Admission Nursing Admission cope with them, but always within the bounds of their given humour and temperament.  ’ Machiavelli makes his point very clear in one of the most famous and controversial passages of The Prince : ‘Ich ziehe also die Schlu?folgerung, da?, da das Gluck wechselt und die Menschen an ihren Methoden festhalten, sie erfolgreich sind, solange beide ubereinstimmen und sie erfolglos sind, wenn sie nicht ubereinstimmen. Doch halte ich es fur besser, sturmisch als besonnen zu sein; denn Fortuna ist ein Weib und es ist notwendig, wenn man sie niederhalten will, sie zu schlagen und zu sto?en. Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn! Man sieht auch, da? sie sich von denen, die so verfahren, eher besiegen la?t, als von jenen, die mit kuhlem Kopf vorgehen; daher ist sie als Weib stets den Junglingen zugetan, weil diese weniger besonnen und sturmischer sind und ihr mit gro?erer Kuhnheit befehlen. Office Templates Resume | Resume!  ’ Human action, according to 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn Machiavelli, depends on both human initiative and the favour of The Pre-1899 Antique Fortune.
When a youth hits and shoves her, it is still Fortune who allows this to 6.1.3a & Division happen. Without her consent, he would not have been able to do so and, in this context, humans become Fortune’s toy, even though they may not be aware of this. 2.3. How well did the Elizabethans know Machiavelli’s work? Even though Machiavelli’s The Prince was not officially available in English until 1640, there is substantial evidence that his work was known in England well before that particular year, as Bawcutt points out in the following: ‘There are only Development - Free Word | Free a few allusions to & Division Machiavelli in England before about 1570, not all of School Word Documents Download them hostile, usually made by men of learning who had actually visited Italy.
From 1570 onwards, the allusions are much more frequent, but usually in | Scimathmn a context of political and religious controversy [. ]  ’It was not even really necessary for the texts to be available in English, even though humanist scholars had translated a wide range of classical and temporary works into English. Italian influences (literature, art, etc.) were quite strong at the time, and even if someone actually was not able to read Italian, there always was the possibility of reading either a translation or a discussion of Machiavelli’s work (eg. in French). New Employee Checklist Free Pdf Documents! The discussion of Machiavelli’s work in England was lively but it suffered from the Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn hardly avoidable inaccuracies brought about by translation. ‘We know that Machiavelli’s work was frequently garbled; we also know that his works circulated widely and were translated into New Employee Template - 9+ Pdf Documents several languages, so that garbling was not merely the result of ignorance, though this was certainly a factor, and I am sure that many Elizabethans used the term ‘Machiavellian’ much in the way that words like ‘Freudian’ or ‘Marxist’ are used at present by people who may not have read either writer.  ’ However, the crucial event, in the evaluation of Machiavelli’s was the massacre of the French protestant Huguenots in Paris. Schieder explains: ‘[. ] das Epochenjahr fur das Verhaltnis des westeuropaischen Protestantismus ist das jahr 1572 gewesen, das jahr der Bartholomausnacht, die in Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn ihrer Verbindung von List und Grausamkeit als der klassische Fall von machiavellistischer Politik empfunden wurde. Von jetzt an ist der Stab endgultig gebrochen; sein Name wird das Symbol fur das bose Prinzip in der Politik, und wird, losgelost vom Boden der machiavellistischen Schriften, eine eigentumliche, selbstandig wirkende Kraft.  ’ People in Elizabethan England could not have agreed more with this assessment of Computer Machiavelli who for them was associated with cruelty and broken promises. The massacre of the Protestant Huguenots in 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division France also had a more concrete dimension for the Elizabethans.
They saw it primarily as a Catholic crime and when the ? A Comprehensive Admission relations between England and Spain started to deteriorate in the 1580s, a Spanish invasion became an equally realistic and fearful scenario. People in England added up their numbers and concluded that they would meet with the same fate as the Huguenots in 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn France. After all, the Comprehensive Admission Spanish King had openly welcomed how they had been dealt with. It was not until after the 6.1.3a defeat of the Antique Faq Spanish Armada in Multiplication 1588 that the threat of Pdf | Computer a Spanish invasion was finally off the 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn cards. The parts of Templates Template Machiavelli’s work which most shocked Elizabethan readers, were chapters 17 (why it is 6.1.3a | Scimathmn necessary to Guns be cruel under certain circumstances) and & Division 18 (keeping and Template | Survey breaking promises) of the Prince, which they interpreted as a guide for tyrants.
At the beginning of 3 Henry VI , Richard is portrayed as a soldier, proud of what he has achieved in Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn battle, but unrestrained by any moral scruples. He, the youngest son, is respected for Nursing Admission, his courage by his father who claims ‘Richard hath best deserved of all my sons.  ’ Young as Richard is, he does not stand back and let his elders make decisions. It is he who suggests that they stay in Parliament House, who mocks King Henry and tells his father to take Henry’s crown. Richard: ‘You are old enough now, and yet, methinks, you lose. Father, tear the crown from the & Division | Scimathmn usurper’s head.  ’ In 3 Henry VI , I.2, Richard begins to contest his brother Edward’s position of Template - 9+ Free supremacy. It is he who persuades his father to break the oath he has given to & Division | Scimathmn the king and brushes aside all moral issues which stand against doing so. Richard argues that his father is the rightful king and, therefore, should not hesitate to Office Templates | Resume Template And take with force what really belongs to him. ‘Moreover, this infant prodigy is given a speech which is to Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn be the clue to the whole of his subsequent career, as the dramatist sees it.  ’ Richard’s line of argumentation is truly Machiavellian: Richard: ‘An oath is of no moment, being not took. Before a true and lawful magistrate. That hath authority over him that swears.
Henry had none, but did usurp the place. Then, seeing ’twas he that made you depose, Your oath, my lord, is vain and frivolous.  ’ Richard goes on 5+ Tender Quotation Format Invoice to pledge that he will not rest until the crown of Multiplication & Division Henry VI firmly rests on 5+ Tender Format Computer Invoice his father’s head: Richard: ‘Therefore to arms! And, father, do but think. How sweet a thing it is to wear a crown, Within whose circuit is Elysium. And all that poets feign of bliss and Multiplication joy.
Why do we linger thus? I cannot rest. Until the Faq white rose that I wear be dy’d. Even in the lukewarm blood of Henry’s heart.  ’ Even though Richard is so openly obsessed with the crown, it is important to 6.1.3a stress that, at least at this point, he does not want the crown for himself but for his father whom he worships. ‘Love for his father is the sole token of humanity shown by Shakespeare’s Richard in the whole course of his career.  ’ Richard is also very proud of him as the following suggests: Richard: ‘Methinks, ’tis prize enough to be his son. Checklist Template Free Pdf Documents!  ’ The news of his father’s death after the battle of Wakefield leaves him unable to. weep and burning for revenge. Richard: ‘To weep is to make less the 6.1.3a depth of grief.
Tears then for babes; blows and revenge for me! Richard, I bear thy name. I’ll venge thy death, Or die renowned attempting it.  ’ As far as the Assessment. ? A last two lines are concerned, Richard will keep his vow, even though his renown will be of some darker kind. The death of his father has deprived Richard of the 6.1.3a only person who ever loved him. The Pre-1899 Antique Guns! Furthermore, the loss of his father has profound psychological consequences on Richard, even though these will not become apparent until the & Division second scene of the third act. ‘Not till Richard has lost his father, does he begin to invoke his bodily deformity as a thing which sets him apart from his fellows. - 9+ Pdf Documents! There is nobody now to love and praise him; he is no longer the ‘valiant crook-back prodigy’ whose grumbling voice is so dear to 6.1.3a the creature he most admired. Hence forth, he is a man apart. Microsoft | Resume Template And!  ’ In the meantime, the fortune of battle has turned, and 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn King Henry VI has been taken prisoner  . Richard’s enthusiasm at these new developments is rather limited, even though he disguises the fact. ‘Then with an appalling abruptness he breaks into - Free Word Download | Free his first soliloquy. It is a coup de theatre . Richard has fought heart and soul to make his father king.
But here, in his father’s place, is his brother. Edward is a lusty blockhead, wooing a sweet widow for 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn, his pleasure, though he is in policy pledged to seek a French alliance.  ’ Elizabeth Grey who requests Edward to return the land of her dead husband makes such a positive impression on him that he decides to marry her and make her Queen of England.  Edward’s decision to marry Elizabeth Grey is to end the 5+ Tender Quotation Pdf | Invoice unity between the three brothers who have, so far, fought together, to establish and preserve the dynasty of the House of York. Although his two elder brothers and their unborn children are before him in 6.1.3a the line of succession, Richard decides that he wants the throne for himself, cost it what it will. Richard: ‘So do I wish the crown, being so far of; And so do I chide the Admission Assessment. ? A Comprehensive means that keeps me from it; And so, I say, I’ll cut the causes off,
Flattering me with impossibilities.  ’ Now, for the first time, Richard thinks about his deformity, which had not been an issue while his father was still alive and, realising that it will cut him off from earthly pleasures, he determines that he will not rest until he is 6.1.3a Multiplication king: Richard: ‘Then, since this earth affords no joy to me. But to command, to check, to 5+ Tender Quotation Format Computer Invoice o’erbear such. As are of better person than myself, I’ll make my heaven to dream upon the crown, And whiles I live, t’account this world but hell, Until my mis-shap’d trunk that bears this head. Be round impaled with a glorious crown.  ’ The following lines show Richard’s intention of achieving his aims by deceit and murder and ‘[. ] express the very core of what an Elizabethan audience would recognise as Machiavellian doctrine, as practised by Italian despots, and by 6.1.3a & Division, the French queen-mother in the treacherous Massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572.  ’ Richard: ‘Why, I can smile, and murder while I smile, And cry “Content” to Office | Resume And what grieves my heart, And whet my cheeks with artificial tears,
And frame my face to all occasions. I’ll drown more sailors than the mermaid shall; I’ll play the 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division orator as well as Nestor, Deceive more slily than Ulysses could, And, like Sinon, take another Troy. I can add colors to Templates Resume And the chameleon, Change shapes with Proteus for advantages, And set the murderous Machiavel to school. Multiplication | Scimathmn!  ’ At the moment, however, there is Antique not much that Richard can do to achieve his aim. The most important thing for | Scimathmn, the time being is to keep his brother on the throne.
Richard has to be loyal to his brother for the moment, in order to be able to carry out his own plans, later. Template | Survey Words! Edward’s marriage to Lady Grey causes the King of France, to whose sister Edward was betrothed, to switch his allegiance to the House of Lancaster. It also causes Warwick and Clarence to defect. Richard, however, stays. ‘The defection of Clarence and Warwick to | Scimathmn the cause of Microsoft Resume | Resume And Lancaster provides him with further occasion to display his energy and Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn resource. Edward is captured by the Lancastrians and King Henry is Admission Assessment. ? A Admission restored to the throne. Richard rescues his brother and urges him to reclaim at once the crown he has lost.  ’ Richard’s patience is finally rewarded at the battle of Tewkesbury. The death of 6.1.3a Multiplication Prince Edward leaves King Henry the last remaining obstacle between Edward and the throne. It is New Employee Download symptomatic for Multiplication, Richard’s decisiveness that, after the battle, in Admission Assessment. Admission truly Machiavellian style, he immediately rides to 6.1.3a Multiplication London in 5+ Tender Quotation Invoice order to take charge of the 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division problem personally.
Richard’s killing of King Henry marks his first political murder and his comments referring to it are very cynical: Richard: ‘See how my sword weeps for the poor king’s death! Oh, may such purple tears be alway shed. From those that wish the Checklist - 9+ downfall of our house! If any spark of life be yet remaining, Down, down to hell, and say I sent thee thither.  ’ From now on Richard’s mind is free to focus on the goal which he has set for himself: the crown of England. ‘And in his final soliloquy in this play he reaffirms his resolve to remove both Edward and Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn Clarence from his path, and again, in Machiavellian terms, emphasises his immunity to normal human weakness.  ’ Richard: ‘I have no brother, I am like no brother, And this word “love” which greybeards call divine, Be resident in men like one another. And not in me. I am myself alone.
Clarence, beware. Thou keep’st me from the light; But I will sort a pitchy day for thee; For I will buzz abroad such prophesies. That Edward shall be fearful of his life, And then, to purge his fear, I’ll be thy death. King Henry and the Prince his son are gone; Clarence, thy turn is next, and then the rest, Counting myself but bad till I be best. Checklist - 9+ Pdf Documents Download!  ’ In the last scene Edward, surrounded by his wife, baby boy and brothers, believes he has achieved a lasting peace which he hopes to pass on to his heir.
In an aside Richard threatens to destroy the child after the death of Multiplication | Scimathmn his elder brother Edward. Richard: ‘I’ll blast his harvest, if your head were laid;  ’ He feigns love but at the same time reveals his true feelings. Richard: ‘To say the Development Word Download | Free truth, so Judas kiss’d his master; And cried “All hail” when as he meant all harm.  ’ By the end of the 6.1.3a & Division play, Richard has freed himself from all remains of conventional morality and The Pre-1899 Antique Faq so the stage is set for the plot of & Division Richard III. At the beginning of Richard III , the Guns Faq overall situation seems to 6.1.3a Multiplication be peaceful. The civil war between the Microsoft Office Template Houses of 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division Lancaster and Microsoft | Resume Template And York is over and Richard’s brother Edward is king of Multiplication | Scimathmn England. Everybody at court seems to be settling down to the new situation of peace – everybody apart from Richard, who has not forgotten, what he had committed himself to at the end of 3 Henry VI , after he had killed King Henry in the Tower.
He makes this very clear in his opening soliloquy: Richard: ‘Why, I, in this weak piping time of peace, Have no delight to pass away the time, Unless to see my shadow in the sun. And descant on my own deformity. And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover.
To entertain these fair well-spoken days, I am determined to prove a villain. And hate the idle pleasures of these days.  ’ Richard’s contempt for the new situation of peace is easily explained: war was the only time, when Richard’s services were appreciated and he was met with respect for Admission Admission, his courage and determination, instead of with scorn for his deformity. Now that the Multiplication | Scimathmn war is Admission Assessment. ? A over, he realises that, from now on, his deformity  will again become the focus of attention. However, instead of | Scimathmn despairing over the unlikeliness of a woman’s love for him, he decides to prove a villain. This decision is not a sudden angry reaction out of frustration, but rather a rationally considered moral choice. ‘Die Monologe Gloucesters sind kalte rationale Uberlegungen uber die nachsten Schritte von einer Machiavelli nahekommenden Kraft der Analyse politischer Situationen [. ].  ’ It is also important to Pdf | Computer Invoice stress that Richard is not a victim of his deformity. Rather, he is motivated by his moral deformity and thus his moral choice becomes an Multiplication outward expression of it. The way in which Shakespeare describes Richard’s moral choice and the ensuing consequences indicates his own view of one of the most controversial innovations of humanist thought: the idea of individual freedom. Although everybody had a God-given place in Microsoft Templates Resume the framework of society, you were still free to 6.1.3a | Scimathmn excel in School Development Plan - Free Word Download any particular field or occupation you happened to be good at. This understanding of individualism was also reflected in the Renaissance concept of 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn art: basically everything which required a certain degree of skill was considered an art. Even though the 10+ Attendance Template | Survey Words Renaissance broadened the view of what mankind was able to & Division achieve, this new individualism also had its darker side.
People suddenly started to Pdf | Computer Invoice realise the moral implications of individual freedom and this is why the emphasis on & Division virtuous action, as one of the main goals of learning, became a fundamental principle of humanism. Virtue thus became a standard against which everything would be checked. School Word Documents! One of the & Division most important novelties which had been brought about by New Employee Checklist Template - 9+ Free, humanism was a new assessment of the 6.1.3a & Division position of the individual, as Michael Maurer explains in the following: ‘Wahrend in der Uberlieferung vor allem das blinde Schicksal, der Kampf des Einzelnen gegen das Rad der Fortuna, das einen heute nach oben treibt und morgen fallen la?t, strukturbildend waren, wurde nun im Zeitalter von Shakespeare die Autonomie des Individiums starker betont.  ’ This, foremostly, applied to the ‘de casibus’-tragedy. You still had the rise-and-fall pattern inspired by School Development Plan - Free Word Documents | Free, Senecan tragedy but ambition no longer automatically led to the protagonist’s doom. The focus of attention now lay in his motivation. In this context, ambition no longer had to be bad from the start.
Instead, everything boiled down to the motivation of the 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn protagonist and 5+ Tender Format the lawfulness of the means which he applied. As far as the Elizabethans were concerned, Richard, like Machiavelli, was far removed from any conventional notion of morality or virtue.  ‘Richard as a character expresses Shakespeare’s fascination with the possibility of 6.1.3a Multiplication a creative, self-assertive individuality [. ]. But as a figure exercising his egoistic freedom in the world of Nursing Comprehensive other men, Richard presents to Shakespeare the possibilities of terror and destruction which can accompany that freedom. The grotesque proportions of 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division Richard’s evil reflect Shakespeare’s radical distrust of the individual not controlled by a divine moral plan. School Word!  ’ Richard does not feel bound by any authority whatsoever. He is completely self-centered and 6.1.3a | Scimathmn also very straight-forward about his goals. Right from the start he pursues his aims one by one, disregarding all questions of morality. The end for Pdf |, him always justifies the means. On the whole, the way in which Richard proceeds throughout his notorious career, for people living in Elizabethan England, was the essence of how they understood Machiavellian power politics. To them, Machiavelli, had been an advocate of cold-blooded murder as a legitimate means of 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn pragmatic policies. Clarence is totally deceived by Richard’s pretended concern and compassion for 5+ Tender Pdf | Computer Invoice, his plight. Richard at once lays the blame for 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn, the arrest of his naive brother on the queen and Microsoft Office Template her family.
Richard: ‘Why, this is when men are ruled by 6.1.3a | Scimathmn, women. ’Tis not the king that sends you to the tower.  ’ He tells Clarence that she had likewise been responsible for the imprisonment of Hastings, who is about to be released, thanks to the influence of the king’s mistress, Jane Shore. An interesting detail in 5+ Tender Richard’s line of argumentation, here, is the element of witchcraft. Richard had brought it up earlier, in 3 Henry VI , when he talked about 6.1.3a | Scimathmn his deformity, and Nursing ? A that his mother was to blame for it. Clarence is no match for Richard’s supreme intelligence. He had been outraged at his brother Edward’s marriage to Elizabeth Grey and Richard only 6.1.3a has to fuel his brother’s hatred and suspicion of the queen, at The Pre-1899 Antique Guns Faq, the same time drawing away suspicion from himself.
When he says good-bye to his brother he pretends that he will do everything in his power to help Clarence. Richard: ‘We are the queen’s abjects and must obey. Brother, farewell. I will unto the king, And whatsoe’er you will employ me in,
Were it to 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn call King Edward’s widow sister, I will perform it to enfranchise you. Meanwhile, this deep disgrace in brotherhood. touches me deeper than you can imagine. The Pre-1899 Guns!  ’ Clarence is deceived into believing that Richard will do everything to 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn secure his release and Clarence will continue to think so right until the School Development Plan - Free Download | Free murderers tell him who really sent them.  Richard, however, is only prepared to help his brother to an early grave. Richard: ‘Go, tread the path that thou shalt ne’er return.
Simple, plain Clarence, I do love thee so. That I will shortly send thy soul heaven, If heaven will take the present at our hands.  ’ The last sentence, here, is an allusion to Clarence’s own past record of Multiplication & Division villainies and betrayals. In 3 Henry VI , he had first betrayed his brother, then Warwick, and Templates Resume | Resume Template And then he had participated in the killing of King Henry’s son Edward.  ‘Thus Clarence pays the debt of his kind. He has played the game and inevitably pays his forfeit – cruel to his enemies, false to his friends, unequal in & Division | Scimathmn force or cunning to Download | Free his brilliant brother. He excites our compassion without moving our hearts.  ’ Richard’s next step is to find himself a future queen. His obvious choice is Anne, because, as the | Scimathmn widow of the last Prince of Wales, she embodies the claims of the House of Lancaster.
Apart from that, she would also make a beautiful trophy and Development Plan - Free Documents Download Richard could demonstrate that he was able to win her, despite his deformity and 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn her hatred for him. In the end, she proved to be the ultimate proving ground for his talents as a dissembler, another key feature of the Machiavellian villain. According to Keeton this scene ‘[. ] is Checklist Template - 9+ inserted with the deliberate intention of showing how completely Richard has mastered the Machiavellian technique. It also strikingly illustrates the fact that although everything which Richard does is evil, and 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division although his appearance is repulsive and Margaret habitually describes him as a monster, he is nevertheless generally trusted, has a reputation for blunt honesty and fidelity, and even has made himself attractive to Development Word Download women. 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn! Equally notable is the fact that whenever he is taxed with some crime, his explanation is prompt and plausible. Admission Comprehensive Admission! The whole scene with Anne emphasises his mental agility and his readiness in 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn repartee, and by the end of it even she has succumbed to the overpowering charm which he uses with such effect, and with such supreme insincerity; [. Pdf Documents! ]  ’ Anne is, however, still intelligent enough to have sincere doubts over Richard’s feelings. Anne: ‘I would I knew thy heart. Richard: Tis figured in my tongue. Anne: I fear me both are false.  ’ Anne is a widow in medieval England. This means that there are only two options open to her: either to remarry or to spend the rest of her life in a cloister.
Richard offered a lot of advantages in spite of the grief that he had caused her. With this in mind, it is Multiplication not too difficult to imagine, that in the end she simply chose ‘the devil she knew’ as the lesser evil. However, as Spivack points out, there were also other reasons for Shakespeare to Development Plan - Free Word Download put the wooing scene into the play. ‘She stimulates his most brilliant achievement [. ] because she is his most difficult undertaking, the abhorrence for the murderer of her husband and Multiplication her royal father in law corresponding to the more abstract enmity of 5+ Tender Quotation Format Pdf | Computer Invoice virtue to vice that puts the vice of the moralities on his mettle when faced with the equivalent situation. Shakespeare exploits this traditional crux to the uttermost by allowing Richard to intrude upon her at the moment the most hopelessly inauspicious for 6.1.3a Multiplication, his enterprise, when she is following the corpse of murdered King Henry to its burial, her grief mingled with curses against the author of it. So contrived to extend his skill, the scene is Admission Assessment. Admission Richard’s masterpiece [. ] At the end Anne has made the same moral reversal that marked the career of Mankind and all his descendants: she has thrown over her alliance with virtue and united herself to evil. | Scimathmn!  ’ Although Anne, at first, was Richard’s fiercest adversary, she finally succumbs to him, because she is Admission Assessment. ? A Admission human. Even if the reasons of the real Anne to marry Richard, probably were a lot more pragmatic, Shakespeare makes it look as if Anne was just a challenge for | Scimathmn, Richard’s superb wit.
As Palmer points out, ‘Richard’s wooing may be dictated by New Employee Checklist - 9+ Free Pdf Documents Download, political necessity, but its prime purpose for the dramatist is to show Richard’s insolent virtuosity in persuasion, his delight in the exercise of his mind and will, his pride in attempting the impossible and his triumph in his achievement. The reasons which Richard gives for the attempt are secondary. Here was a challenge to his wit which, apart from 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn any question of expediency, was irresistible.  ’ Richard’s victory over Anne was a great one indeed. Even though she had been so violently hostile at the beginning of the scene, he still managed to win her but, in Format spite of his joy, he had nothing but contempt for her. On top of that, his victory over her is & Division also one over Templates Resume | Resume, God and the latter makes him especially proud of his achievement. Therefore, from his morally deformed perspective, he has every reason to | Scimathmn be delighted with himself and School Plan Word Documents thus he celebrates accordingly: Richard: ‘Was ever woman in this humour wooed? Was ever woman in this humour won? I’ll have her, but I will not keep her long.
What, I that killed her husband and his father, To take her in 6.1.3a Multiplication her heart’s extremest hate. With curses in her mouth, tears in her eyes, The bleeding witness of her hatred by, Having God, her conscience, and these bars against me,
And I no friends to back my suit withal. But the plain devil and the dissembling looks? And yet to win her, all the world to nothing! Even though Anne repeatedly refers to Richard’s dissembling nature, she still cannot resist him.  Richard overcomes overwhelming odds against her in Development Plan Word Documents | Free truly Machiavellian style: Anne literally becomes an embodiment of Multiplication Fortune and 5+ Tender Pdf | Computer Invoice Richard beats down her defences.  7. Richard plants discord at court. Richard’s next step towards his goal is to Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn rid himself of Clarence, at the same time putting the blame on the queen.
In a game of cat and mouse he taunts her until she threatens that she will complain to New Employee Checklist Template Free Pdf Documents Edward, thus giving Richard the 6.1.3a | Scimathmn opportunity to remind everyone how much Edward owes him. Richard: ‘Ere you were queen, ay, or your husband king, I was a pack-horse in his great affairs, A weeder-out of his adversaries, A liberal rewarder of his friends.
To royalize his blood I spent mine own.  ’ At the same time he denies having any ambitions to become king. Richard: ‘If I should be? I had rather be a pedlar. Far be it from my heart, the thought thereof.  ’ With a brilliant display of acting, Richard has managed to reverse the Office Resume Template roles and turn the queen herself into Multiplication | Scimathmn a calculating ‘Machiavel’. Thus he has given her a motive for getting rid of Microsoft Office Resume | Resume And both Clarence and & Division | Scimathmn himself. New Employee Checklist Template Free Download! Richard’s accusations culminate in reminding her that both her former husband and her brother had fought for 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn, the House of Lancaster in Antique Faq the past war. Suddenly, the queen has treason looming over her head.  Throughout the whole scene, Richard proves to be a superb actor. First he plays the unjustly accused, then he, in turn, accuses the queen and her family of Clarence’s imprisonment and secret plotting. He rounds off a masterly performance by Multiplication, pretending only to be a plain man, who cannot flatter and the pious man who is The Pre-1899 too kind-hearted to 6.1.3a | Scimathmn get on in the world.  ‘Er stellt sich hin als der Edle, Einfache in dieser schlimmen Welt.
Es ist das Antichrist-Thema: der Schlimmste hat das Gesicht, die Maske des Heiligen angenommen.  ’ After the others have gone, Richard rejoices at how convincingly he has managed to deceive them. Richard: ‘I do the Antique Guns Faq wrong, and first begin to brawl. The secret mischiefs that I set abroach. I lay into the grievous charge of others.  ’ Richard: ‘And thus I clothe my naked villainy. With odd old ends stol’n forth of holy writ, And seem a saint when most I play the devil.  ’ As Keeton has pointed out, this skill of Multiplication & Division Richard’s as a dissembler was understood in 5+ Tender Quotation Pdf | Elizabethan England as one of the & Division | Scimathmn principle character traits of the | Free Machiavellian villain: ‘[. ] in spite of his deformity, almost everyone falls victim to his charm of manner and persuasive tongue.  ’ At the end of the Multiplication | Scimathmn scene, Richard seals the fate of his brother Clarence when he hands the execution warrant to the two murderers who then promptly set off towards the Tower. This means, that throughout the whole scene he must have had the execution warrant in his pocket, and still he had no scruples about casting the blame on others.
The beginning of act II sees Edward on his deathbed. He has gathered the warring factions at his court in a last desperate attempt to unite them and all those who are present, comply with this request – or at least pretend to. When Richard enters, he pretends to join in the cordial mood and even takes the lead. ‘On Richard’s face, love glows more brightly than on any other.  ’ In reality, however, he is only waiting for the right moment to break the news of Clarence’s death. He does not have to wait long. When the queen asks her husband, to include his imprisoned brother in these reconciliations, Richard pretends to take offence: Richard: ‘Why, madam, have I offered love for this, To be so flouted in this royal presence? Who knows not that the The Pre-1899 Guns gentle Duke is dead?  ’ The news of Clarence’s death leaves the king and all the people around him shocked and stunned. 6.1.3a! From one moment to Templates | Resume another, Richard has shattered both the king’s optimism and Multiplication the cordial mood at court. Admission Assessment. ? A Comprehensive Admission!  ‘It is one of the fine dramatic moments of the play, with Buckingham whispering, ‘look I so pale, Lord Dorset, as the rest?’ Dread and suspicion divorce his nobles in an instant while in the soul of the Multiplication | Scimathmn dying king bitterness marries despair.  ’ The king cannot understand that Clarence was executed because he himself had revoked the order but Richard explains: Richard: ‘But he (poor man) by your first order died, And that a wing’d Mercury did bear;
Some tardy cripple bare the countermand, That came too lag to see him buried.  ’ The irony here, of course, is that Richard actually was both the ‘winged Mercury’ and the ‘cripple’, although one has to admit that he most certainly was not tardy in the way he proceeded. The grief over Quotation Format Pdf | Computer, his brother’s death and his own guilt is too much for Edward and soon afterwards he is 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn led away by his queen. Richard pretends to be the Admission Assessment. Comprehensive Admission decent man and 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division casts further suspicion on the queen’s family. Richard: ‘This is the Template | Survey fruits of & Division rashness. Marked you not. How the guilty kindred of the Admission Nursing ? A Comprehensive Admission queen. Looked pale when they did hear of Clarence’s death? Oh, they did urge it still unto the king. God will revenge it.
Come, lords, will you go. To comfort Edward with our company.  ’ Only a short while later, the queen announces the king’s death. With Clarence dead and Edward’s son, Prince Edward too young to rule, Richard has come a step closer to his goal. He is to be Lord Protector. Soon afterwards, Richard and 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn the others arrange for young Prince Edward to be taken to New Employee Checklist Template - 9+ Free Pdf Documents Download London. However, after the others have left, Richard and Buckingham reveal that they are playing a totally different game. Buckingham proposes to separate the & Division queen’s relatives from the young prince and, for the moment, Richard will all too gladly pretend to accept a back-seat and leave everything to Buckingham. 8. Microsoft! Richard paves his own way to the crown. Richard’s principal accomplice on his way to the throne is Buckingham.
His reasons for siding with Richard are pure calculation and thus entirely egoistic and Buckingham becomes Richard’s principal henchman. ‘Buckingham was privy to all Richard’s plans. 6.1.3a Multiplication! He was the 10+ Attendance Template | Survey Words counsellor, instrument and crony to his master. So devout is 6.1.3a his admiration for Richard that he becomes infected with his hero’s manners and methods. He imitates with zest Richard’s radiant hypocrisy and abrupt violence. When Queen Elizabeth sends her son to sanctuary, it is Buckingham who, in the very accents of Richard, argues that it would be no sin to drag him forth. Sanctuary, he maintains, was never designed to keep children away from their lawful guardians:  ’ Buckingham ‘You are too senseless, obstinate my lord, Too ceremonious and traditional. Weigh it but with the grossness of this age. You break no sanctuary in seizing him.
The benefit thereof is always granted. To those whose dealings have deserved the place. And those who have the wit to claim the place. This prince hath neither claimed nor deserved it, And therefore, in School Word Download | Free mine opinion, cannot have it. Then taking him from thence that is not there,
You break no privilege nor charter there. Oft have I heard of sanctuary men, But sanctuary children ne’er till now.  ’ Furthermore, it is 6.1.3a also Buckingham who insists that Hastings should join the party sent to remove Prince Edward’s younger brother from Development Word Download church sanctuary at | Scimathmn, Westminster, where he is staying with his mother. Buckingham: ‘If she deny, Lord Hastings, go with him. And from her jealous arms pluck him perforce. Format Pdf | Computer!  ’ From an Elizabethan perspective, everything Buckingham says here is ‘Machiavellian’ to the core: Buckingham issues orders to snatch a child , currently under protection of church sanctuary from the Multiplication & Division arms of his mother , only for the sake of political pragmatism and Wolfgang Clemen illustrates, ‘[. ] hier wird heiliges und in der Tradition verankertes Recht mit spitzfindiger Begrundung gebrochen. Shakespeare la?t uberdies bei seinem Appell an den Kardinal sich auf „the grossness of the age“ (46) berufen, eine sehr bezeichnende, in der Quelle nicht gegebene Hinzufugung Shakespeares. Buckingham will sagen: Verglichen mit der „Rohheit des Zeitalters“, und unter Anlegung der Ma?stabe, mit denen in solcher Zeit derartige Aktionen beurteilt werden, wurde der Kardinal, wenn er den Prinzen gewaltsam aus dem Asyl heraushole, kein Unrecht begehen. Office Resume | Resume Template! – In dieser Wendung und in dem Vorwurf, der Kardinal sei „too ceremonious and traditional“ (45) liegt ein charakteristischer Hinweis auf jene neue politische Moral, die Shakespeare wiederholt an Richard zeigt und die mit dem „englischen“ Machiavellismus in Verbindung gebracht werden kann. | Scimathmn!  ’ Buckingham’s eagerness to please his master allows Richard to Format Computer stay in Multiplication & Division the background, and Development Plan Richard deceives Buckingham into believing that they are partners. 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn! ‘There are moments when Buckingham seems to work for Richard from pure love of the sport.  ’ You can, however, not say that Buckingham acts for entirely unselfish reasons. Richard simply knows how to motivate his ‘partner’: Richard: ‘And look when I am king, claim thou of me. The earldom of Hereford and all the movables.
Whereof the king my brother was possessed. Buckingham: I’ll claim that promise at Microsoft Office | Resume Template And, your grace’s hand. Richard: And look to have it yielded with all kindness. 6.1.3a | Scimathmn!  ’ Buckingham is the perfect Machiavellian agent  . He does the dirty work for Richard and if something goes wrong, Richard can easily find a pretext to get rid of The Pre-1899 Guns Faq him, while at the same time, he secures Buckingham’s loyal services with the prospect of | Scimathmn granting him favours in the future. After the two princes have been sent to Template | Survey Template Words stay in the Tower, under the Multiplication & Division pretext of their ‘safety’, Buckingham and Quotation Format Richard direct their attention towards the only person who could still cross Richard’s plans to become king: Hastings. Hastings, for Richard, is the key figure in gaining control of the two princes. He is the former chamberlain of King Edward, and as such he has enjoyed a good relationship with both of Edward’s sons  . One indication for this is, that Prince Edward is very disappointed not to see Hastings when he arrives in London.  Another is, that Buckingham is eager to have Hastings in the party which is sent to remove young York from sanctuary.  Hastings’s good relations to the young princes allow Richard a much easier access to 6.1.3a | Scimathmn them. Although Hastings is prepared to help Richard become Protector, he draws the line when asked by Catesby to Plan - Free Word Download | Free help Richard to the crown. From that point on, Hastings is no longer of any use to 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn Richard and Richard makes quite clear how he will deal with Hastings if he does not comply. Buckingham: ‘What shall we do if we perceive. Lord Hastings will not yield to our complots?
Richard: Chop off his head.  ’ Richard has prepared the removal of Hastings very carefully. Antique Faq! It is all to Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn happen at a council meeting where the New Employee Checklist Free Pdf Documents Download date for the coronation of Prince Edward is to be decided. Knowing that Hastings will oppose Richard’s plans to seize the crown, Richard has to Multiplication & Division move quickly – before Edward can be crowned. Hastings is Computer Invoice foolish enough to doubt the evidence and provokes an outburst in 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division which Richard accuses Hastings of treachery for defending his mistress and condemns him to death. Hastings: ‘If they have done this deed, my noble lord – Richard: If? Thou protector of this damned strumpet, Talk’st thou to 10+ Attendance | Survey Words me of ifs? Thou art a traitor. Off with his head! Now by 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division, Saint Paul I swear, I will not dine until I see the same. The Pre-1899 Antique Faq!  ’ Richard leaves the 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn others in the room no time to answer and School Plan Word Documents orders everyone who is on his side to leave the & Division room with him.
Hastings is led away to his execution immediately afterwards.  His lamentations are mercilessly cut short by Ratcliffe and Resume | Resume Lovell and Cornelia Czach illustrates: ‘Durch den Wahnwitz eines solchen menschenverachtenden Zynismus schon im kleinsten Handlanger des Teufels gewinnt auch die Sterbeszene Zuge einer grotesken Persiflage. Der schwarze Komodiant Richard la?t seinen Opfern nicht einmal mehr die Zeit, zu beichten und eine Sterberede zu halten wie in der Tragodie. Er ist stets in Eile und verwirklicht seine Plane schnell und uberraschend, fur das Verweilen der Tragodie in Pathos und Emotion hat er, der gefuhllose Rationalist, keine Mu?e.  ’ With the removal of Hastings, Richard’s path to the crown is Multiplication as good as free. The swift and stern manner in which Richard had dealt with Hastings had demonstrated to the other nobles that he was no one to be messed with. All he has to Antique Guns do now is to find a way to Multiplication persuade the 5+ Tender Quotation citizens that he alone is the rightful heir to the throne of England. With his next tactical move, to persuade the citizens of London that Edward’s children are bastards and that Richard is, therefore, the rightful heir to the throne, Richard does not meet with his accustomed success. If Richard cannot be made king by popular acclaim he must be presented in a different light – the devout man reluctant to accept the proffered throne. Buckingham: ‘Ah ha, my lord, this prince is not an Edward. He is not lulling on a lewd love-bed.
But on his knees at meditation, Not dallying with a brace of 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn courtesans. But meditating with two deep divines, Not sleeping to ? A Comprehensive Admission engross his idle body. But praying to enrich his watchful soul. Happy were England, would this virtuous prince. Take on his grace the sovereignty thereof, But sure I fear we shall not win him to it.  ’ Richard feigns reluctance to 6.1.3a & Division meet the mayor and aldermen, and Checklist - 9+ Free Pdf Documents Download finally he appears with a prayer book in his hand, flanked by two bishops. ‘There are no bishops present in 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn the gallery scene as Holinshed describes it, it is Admission Nursing Assessment. ? A Comprehensive Admission Shakespeare who has amplified the scene iconographically, in accordance with his portrait of Richard as a master of deceptive stage management.  ’ As far as England is Multiplication | Scimathmn concerned, the Quotation Format Pdf | image of a king flanked by two bishops had its origins in the myth of King Arthur. ‘Geoffrey of Monmouth described Arthur brought to his coronation by two bishops.  ’ From an Elizabethan perspective, Richard had thus profaned both the Multiplication holy institution of kingship and the Tudor dynasty.  However, as Naumann points out, the significance of The Pre-1899 Guns this scene also has a more abstract level. ‘Der Akzent der Darstellung liegt auch hier nicht auf der menschlichen Entwicklung, sondern eher auf der Vorfuhrung abstrahierter Tugenden oder Laster, wie der Heuchelei, die in Richard verkorpert ist, und die sich in das Gewand der Tugend gekleidet hat.  ’ When Richard appears on the gallery with a prayer book in his hand, flanked by two bishops, he plays the part of the simple, pious, tender-hearted prince who is 6.1.3a Multiplication more concerned with religion and meditation than with politics. This whole part of the scene also reflects a crucial point which Machiavelli had made: that what you seem to Development Documents Download | Free be is 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division more important than what you actually are  , and Wolfgang Clemen explains: ‘Nirgendwo ist die Ironie der Situation durch paradoxe Umkehrung aller Rollen so meisterhaft gehandhabt und so kunstvoll mit den verschiedenen Formen der Sprachironie mehrschichtig verbunden.
Nirgendwo haben wir auch eine so bewu?t durchgefuhrte Anwendung der „Verstellungsrhetorik“. An keiner anderen Stelle erleben wir „Richard den Schauspieler“ mit solcher Virtuositat in Microsoft Templates Resume Template einer ad hoc „gestellten Szene“, fur die er selber gleichzeitig der Regisseur war.  ’ The last thing Richard would want to decline is the 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn crown of England. However, he still has to fool the mayor and the citizens into believing that he has to be persuaded into accepting the crown. In the end the astonishing display of acting of 10+ Attendance | Survey Template Words both Richard and Buckingham pays off.  Richard allows himself to 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn be persuaded into Nursing Assessment. ? A accepting the Multiplication throne on the grounds of the illegitimacy of Edward’s son in order to save his dynasty. Buckingham: Your brother’s son shall never reign our king, But we will plant some other in Nursing Comprehensive the throne.
To the disgrace and downfall of your house.  ’ At last, Richard allows himself to & Division | Scimathmn be ‘persuaded’ into accepting the throne. Richard: ‘Cousin of Buckingham, and sage, grave men, Since you will buckle fortune on my back, To bear the burden, whe’er I will or no, I must have patience to endure the load.  ’ Richard’s line of argumentation is religious to the core, even though he himself, of course, is not. | Survey Template Words! As Bridget Gellert Lyons has shown, Richard’s language is transformed into an image of Christian patience and & Division | Scimathmn endurance. ‘He suggests that the ‘burden’ of kingship which he is reluctantly agreeing to assume is a cross which he has to Quotation Format Pdf | Invoice bear, like his hunchback, or that he is like the 6.1.3a & Division emblem representing religious Hope as a man with Fortune’s wheel strapped to his back, who walks along, doubled over by his burden, yet supported by his staff of Admission Assessment. ? A Comprehensive Admission Hope. Multiplication!  ’ The farce which both Richard and Buckingham have acted out so perfectly, thus, becomes an inversion of traditional concepts of kingship. In the second scene of the fourth act Richard is finally crowned. Antique! However, there is something very strange about this scene: Even though Richard is 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn king there is a deep divide between him and the other people in the room.
He is totally isolated as Bridget Gellert Lyons illustrates: ‘Mounted on | Survey Template Words the throne with great flourishing, presumably for the first time, he asks everyone but Buckingham to withdraw (‘Stand all apart.’ IV.2.1), thus dramatising in visual terms that his eminence is Multiplication | Scimathmn not the summit of society’s pyramid, but a lonely perch occupied by Quotation Invoice, him alone in the temporary company of his accomplice in crime. The royal seat of England, separated in this way from the society to which it is 6.1.3a | Scimathmn meant to give order and coherence, becomes the private place where Richard plots the murder of the legitimate ruler, and where he is | Survey Template Words unable to & Division assert his authority even over his accomplice.  ’ It now becomes obvious that Richard has a lot more talent as an Antique Guns Faq actor than as a politician. He is in & Division | Scimathmn fact not quite as Machiavellian as the Elizabethan cliche of the Plan Word Documents Download | Free term would have suggested. After all, one of the most important points which Machiavelli had made was that a ruler should do everything he could in order to gain the support of the dominant social group. Once he had achieved that he was then supposed to maintain this support for the future. ‘Gut geordnete Staaten und kluge Fursten waren mit Eifer darauf bedacht, die Gro?en nicht zur Verzweiflung zu bringen, sowie das Volk zufriedenzustellen und bei guter Stimmung zu halten, denn dies ist eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben, die ein Furst hat.  ’ Furthermore, even though it was safer for a ruler to be feared than loved, he was still supposed to avoid anything which might have incurred the hatred of his people.  The latter was certainly not something you could have said about Richard who had already burnt his boats long before he actually managed to become king. ‘Richard the master of palace politics does everything possible to prevent himself from 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn attaining his broad base in popular support, which in Admission England was manifested in the strength of the Multiplication | Scimathmn nobility.  ’ Although Richard now has the power, this power of his lacks a proper base. In the end it is Plan - Free | Free inevitable that he has to fall, as Wheeler illustrates. ‘Richard, politically, ironically is the ‘bottled spider’ that Margaret calls him, able to poison whomever ventures into his web, but not able to extend this web as a means of embracing the power of the kingdom.  ’ As Moseley has argued, Richard is the exact opposite of a true king: he does not reconcile and he does not unite. 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn! ‘The opposite of a true King is the tyrant, for Plan | Free, whom power and its exercise is merely selfish. Richard as King demonstrates in his tyranny the true nature of Machiavellian ambition and ignoring of the 6.1.3a | Scimathmn moral law, and as we have seen, it is Guns when he became King that he ceases to personate; he shows what he personally is.  ’ Especially this last aspect is drastically demonstrated in the dialogue between Richard and Buckingham which immediately follows Richard’s coronation. Richard begins by Multiplication, hinting that his position is endangered by the young Prince Edward. Richard: ‘But shall we wear these glories for a day? Or shall they last, and we rejoice in them?  When Buckingham is reluctant to ? A Admission follow him he comes straight to the point.
Richard: Cousin, thou was not wont to be so dull. Shall I be plain? I wish the bastards dead, And I would have it suddenly performed.  ’ Suddenly Richard’s language has changed: from courtly to brutally direct. When Buckingham hesitates he inadvertently seals his own fate. Richard had ‘played the 6.1.3a & Division touch’ to see how far his partner in crime was prepared to go. Now it is Plan - Free Word Documents Buckingham’s turn to draw the line. Until then he had just about managed to leave the Multiplication | Scimathmn murders to Richard, however deeply he may have been involved in the preceding plotting. Richard’s straight-forward request for Buckingham to organise the murder of the young princes catches his until then faithful follower totally by surprise. ‘Buckingham withdraws to think over Richard’s proposal, but Richard’s mind was made up at the first sign of Words hesitation in his confederate. He does not wait for 6.1.3a | Scimathmn, Buckingham’s considered reply.
He has no use for a man who has a pitiful, small mind of his own. Quotation Format Pdf | Computer!  ’ Buckingham is thus sidelined and his request, regarding the earldom which Richard had promised to 6.1.3a | Scimathmn him earlier, is harshly brushed off. Furthermore, Richard humiliates him by simply ignoring him.  In Machiavellian terms, this is The Pre-1899 Guns Faq Richard’s first political mistake as Machiavelli explains in the following: ‘Es gilt also festzustellen, da? man die Menschen entweder verwohnen oder vernichten mu?, denn fur leichte Demutigungen nehmen sie Rache, fur schwere konnen sie dies nicht tun; also mu? der Schaden, den man anderen zufugt, so gro? sein, da? man keine Rache zu furchten braucht.  ’ Buckingham will not forget how he has been treated by Richard and defect to Richmond’s side. & Division | Scimathmn! When his forces are dispersed in the floods it will be the Development Plan Documents Download | Free last time that Fortune does Richard a favour. Even though Buckingham is little more than a sorry imitation of Richard there is a significant difference between the two of them: Buckingham still has a tiny rest of fundamental goodness, a quality which Richard lacks entirely, as Cornelia Czach shows in the following: ‘Richard hingegen bekennt sich in & Division damonischem Zynismus ehrlich, ohne sich irgendeine Legitimationsinstanz zu schaffen, zur Menschenverachtung als Bedingung erfolgreicher Machtpolitik und Kriegsstrategie, zum Machiavellistischen Gewaltprinzip. Konsequenter als alle anderen weist er jeden Moralkodex zuruck, der zu den Regeln seines eigenen Gesellschaftsspiels in Widerspruch steht, die er selbst setzt und auf die sich die anderen einlassen mussen.  ’ After Richard had forced Buckingham to show his cards, he turned to Tyrell and put him in charge of the crime which was to cement his reputation as the Microsoft Templates Resume | Resume Template And most notorious criminal in the history of English politics: the murder of the two little princes in & Division | Scimathmn the Tower.
While they were still alive they posed a constant threat to Richard’s reign. Therefore, it is very likely that Richard had already made up his mind about how to deal with them well before he actually became king, as Palmer explains: ‘Child murder is a political expedient on which countless generations of men in Development - Free Download | Free authority have based their privilege and power. [. ] All down the ages the successful politician has shown little or no reluctance to out-Herod Herod in his slaughter of the innocents. The crime of Richard is the secular crime of the power politician in every age and | Scimathmn there is a sense in which every political leader is a wicked uncle who kills little children in their beds.  ’ When Tyrell returns with the news for 5+ Tender Pdf | Invoice, Richard that the princes are dead, he describes how they were murdered in a remorseful soliloquy. Tyrell: ‘The tyrannous and bloody act is done, The most arch deed of piteous massacre. That ever yet this land was guilty of.  ’ Tyrell is, in fact, the first to show any notion of guilt whatsoever since the murderers of Clarence in the first act and, as Cornelia Czach has shown, this is 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division symptomatic for the overall atmosphere of the Nursing Admission play.
‘In Richard III gibt es keinen Konflikt zwischen Gut und Bose; das Bose allein herrscht; von allen Seiten unterstutzt. Die Welt ist nicht aus den Angeln gehoben wie in & Division der Tragodie, sondern gezeigt wird, wie diese Welt tatsachlich ist. Nursing Admission! Und so, wie sie ist, ist sie in sich intakt, stimmig und in sich geschlossen. Dem Zuschauer wird keine moralische Norm an Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn die Hand gegeben, die das Gegenteil von [Richard] Gloucester ist. Richard selber ist die Norm, der Prufstein vor dem sich die anderen Figuren enthullen und sich ihre eigene Zwielichtigkeit zu erkennen geben mussen.  ’ This is Microsoft Office Resume Template And also why we do not feel any real sympathy with Richard’s victims – apart from the 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn little princes. Microsoft | Resume Template! Most of them are themselves despicable, weak or eaten up by their own individual desire for personal advancement. After Tyrell has left Richard contemplates his achievements. Both of Edward’s sons are dead and & Division | Scimathmn Clarence’s children have also been rendered harmless. Furthermore, the death of his wife Anne has opened the opportunity for him to marry Edward’s daughter Elizabeth, his last challenge to the throne.
Only if he manages to Office Templates secure her mother’s consent would his reign be secure. Richard is totally aware of & Division this fact as the frankness of his soliloquies shows  and Wolfgang Clemen explains: ‘Der auf Tyrell’s Abgang folgende Monolog Richards ist ganz in der Technik des zusammenfassenden „Lageberichts“ oder der „Situationsuberschau“ [. ] [gehalten]. Durch die rasche summarische Aufzahlung der verschiedenen „Erfolge“, die jeweils mit einer einzigen Verszeile „abgetan“ werden, wird gleichzeitig betont, wie kaltblutig Richard hier Bilanz zieht. Admission Assessment. ? A Admission! Sind die ersten vier Zeilen ruckwarts gewandt, so erhalten die folgenden (und abschlie?enden vier Zeilen die Ankundigung des nachsten Planes, wobei Richard zum letzten Mal seine Rolle mit ubermutiger Selbstironie (a jolly thriving wooer, 43) beschreibt.  ’ With the Multiplication little princes dead Richard had thought himself only one step away from really securing his reign. Plan Word Download | Free! He was, however, only deceiving himself. & Division | Scimathmn! The actual climax of his career, and the watershed in the play, had been his coronation.
Until then, Richard had controlled the action, very much like the traditional Vice-figure. From the moment of Richard’s coronation the balance shifts, even though he himself is not yet aware of this. From now on all his actions will be reactions to the actions of his enemies. Before Richard became king, he could operate from a cover. Now, Richard is exposed and himself subjected to plotting.
It is no longer he who plots and his powers will steadily decline until, eventually, he will be on 5+ Tender Format Pdf | par with everybody else in the play.  ‘Richard, after the | Scimathmn death of the princes, is like an Development - Free artist who has put the finishing touch to a masterpiece. 6.1.3a Multiplication! For this, he was ordained and he has fulfilled his destiny. The virtue, an evil virtue – has gone out of 5+ Tender Quotation Format Computer him. & Division! He will never again be the jocund adventurer in crime. [. ] This falling-off in Richard’s performance is not due to any falling off in School Development Plan - Free Documents Download | Free Shakespeare’s creative power. It is an | Scimathmn essential feature of the New Employee Template - 9+ Free tragedy and profoundly characteristic of the man.  ’ Even though Richard had succeeded in being crowned he had only been able to Multiplication attain a symbol of power. The power itself, normally associated with the Nursing Assessment. crown, was denied to him as he had long before hollowed out any foundations on which it could have rested. From now on Multiplication the pressure on Richard will not ease off and The Pre-1899 Guns all of Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn a sudden meaner qualities which Richard had seemed to Templates Resume Template lack in the preceding part of Multiplication & Division his career become apparent. When Richard and Catesby come to inform him that Richmond’s navy is approaching, Richard, for the first time, seems to be caught off guard and in the subsequent discussion with Ratcliffe and Catesby he confuses his orders.  At first, he issues orders to Catesby to go to Salisbury to the Duke of Norfolk and, a few lines later, he suddenly reprimands Ratcliffe for not having complied with the orders he had given to Catesby. Another clear indication that Richard is increasingly losing control is New Employee - 9+ Download when he strikes the 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn third messenger  because he had lost his temper over the bad news brought by the previous two. Ironically, it is the third who brings good news  and for the first time, Richard is actually honest about an apology  . The crucial scene to demonstrate how little power Richard now effectively has is his failed attempt to Templates | Resume persuade Queen Elizabeth to woo her daughter in 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn his name. New Employee - 9+ Free Pdf Documents Download!  As in the case of Anne he does not love her.
His only reason is that a marriage with the daughter of 6.1.3a Multiplication Elizabeth and Template Edward, the direct heiress to the throne, would secure his reign once and for all. 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn! Richard even uses the same tactics as in the earlier scene with Anne. It worked once, very much to his amazement, and he is 5+ Tender Pdf | Computer sure it will work a second time. ‘Richard takes success for granted and, as in the earlier scene, pours scorn upon his dupe. But this time it is Richard who is deceived. Elizabeth gives her daughter to Richmond, thus uniting the white rose and the red in a dynasty which is to supplant Richard on the throne and to create the legend of his infamy.  ’ Elizabeth seems to give in to Richard’s request and agrees to talk to 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division her daughter about the Checklist - 9+ Download matter. It is, however, difficult to say whether Richard had won over her, whether she had just fooled him, or whether she made up her mind later, after careful consideration. Expert opinions on this matter are divided. 6.1.3a & Division! Cornelia Czach, for instance, has advocated the first option and argued that Richard was successful because he now had something to offer, ‘[. ] denn er hat ein Konigreich zu bieten, um sein Gegenuber zum Verrat an der Tochter zu bewegen. School Plan Word Download!  ’ Historic facts indeed seem to favour her point. However, other scholars like Clemen and Wheeler are a little bit more cautious  and Multiplication & Division have, in turn, suggested that she probably did not make up her mind until later on, after she had enough time to go through the pros and cons of either marital option carefully. In dramatic terms, however, it would make more sense to assume that Elizabeth had indeed managed to The Pre-1899 Faq deceive Richard deliberately.
This would mean a sharp contrast to the earlier scene with Anne and & Division would demonstrate how Richard’s powers were fading increasingly. Even though Richard’s failure to win over New Employee Checklist Free, Elizabeth is his first major failure, it is, nevertheless, decisive. When Elizabeth agrees to give the & Division hand of her daughter to Richmond, Richard’s fate is finally sealed and, from then on, his decline will prove to 5+ Tender Quotation Format Computer Invoice be unavoidable. As Palmer points out, ‘The decline in Richard’s genius for decisive action has in it no element of | Scimathmn remorse. It springs, on the contrary, from a sense that anything he may have to do next must necessarily be something of an anti-climax. 10+ Attendance | Survey Template Words! The first, fine careless rapture is & Division | Scimathmn exhausted. 5+ Tender Format Pdf |! All he can do henceforth is to Multiplication maintain his position and accept the necessities which it lays upon The Pre-1899 Antique Faq, him.  ’ Therefore, in Machiavellian terms, you can say that even though necessita forces him to act, he no longer has a sufficient amount of Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn virtu to act appropriately. As a consequence, Fortune begins to turn her back on him and Richard will increasingly find himself fighting losing battles. The qualities which have enabled him to rise are also the cause of his eventual downfall. And this is where the element of tragedy comes in, as Moseley illustrates: ‘It delineates the rise and deserved fall of Richard and School Plan Download shows how even when he thinks he is most in 6.1.3a Multiplication control Fortune can tip the scale against him [. ]  ’ Ironically, Richard makes the same mistake as Hastings and, yet again, pride comes before a fall – this time his own.
In the end, he is only a tool of Providence whose purpose is to weed out the consequences of the usurpation of 10+ Attendance Template Henry IV. Ironically, it is Richard who brings down his own House and who paves the way for the reaccession of the House of Lancaster. The element of conscience, as far as Richard is concerned, is one of the main themes of 6.1.3a Multiplication Shakespeare’s Richard III. The Pre-1899! It is, as Keeton has pointed out, the weak spot of the Machiavellian villain.  ‘In the end the Machiavellian who thinks himself free from moral restraint is defeated by the moral order of the universe contained in little, microscopically, in his own self.  ’ In fact, it had been Anne who had dropped the first hint that Richard was haunted by his conscience earlier in the play, when she mentioned ‘his timorous dreams’.  Through Richard’s inner conflict, until then well hidden from the attention of the people around him and the audience, Shakespeare demonstrates the profoundly damaging effect which the exercise of power can have on the human soul. This, as Schieder explains, is the main difference between Shakespeare and Machiavelli. ‘Shakespeare fuhrt damit weit uber Machiavelli hinaus, der sie nur als etwas Zweckrationales, Technisches kannte, oder da, wo sie als Ehrgeiz, ungesattigter Machttrieb in seelische Bereiche fuhrte, der Berechnung, dem Kalkul zu unterwerfen suchte. Seine Entdeckung steht ebenburtig neben derjenigen Machiavellis, wenn auch dieser sie durch sein Werk und deren Nachwirkungen uberhaupt erst moglich macht.  ’ On the outside Richard still puts up a brave face and encourages the people around him. However, he has lost his supreme confidence and Multiplication | Scimathmn he even admits his fear to Ratcliffe. Richard: I have not that alacrity of spirit.
Nor cheer of mind that I was wont to Format Invoice have.  ’ Richard even asks for wine twice, within a reasonably short amount of time  , another indication that he is growing increasingly nervous. The most important part of the last act is when Richard is & Division haunted in his sleep on the eve of the final battle at Bosworth by the ghosts of the people he murdered. Office Templates Resume | Resume Template And! They are a symbolic representation of Multiplication & Division Richard’s crimes and 10+ Attendance Template Template Words his suppressed guilt and & Division serve to Checklist - 9+ Free Download remind both him and 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn the audience of Nursing ? A Comprehensive Admission what he will shortly pay for Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn, with his life. ‘Richard suffers no effective remorse. But when his intellect is in abeyance, the unconscious mind takes charge. Here, at last [. ] is the underlying cause of his startling confession that he has lost his alacrity of spirit and Antique cheer of mind.  ’ When Richard wakes up from his dream he is quite obviously shaken. As Haeffner illustrates, bad dreams, for an Elizabethan audience, were a clear hint that a character in a play was suffering from 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn melancholia: ‘To be melancholy nowadays is to be merely sad or depressed [. ]. But to Shakespeare’s audience it suggested rather a dangerous mental sickness which could take the form of insanity. Admission Nursing Assessment. ? A Comprehensive! [. ] Its symptoms varied strongly, however, from a sharp wit and talkativeness, to pessimism and a desire for revenge against 6.1.3a society, against law and The Pre-1899 Antique order.
Bad dreams visited the melancholic frequently, and he would naturally have been shunned by most men as he was himself the enemy of most men. Almost all the characteristics of the melancholic are shown in | Scimathmn Shakespeare’s Richard. Template! In a way it excuses him from behaving as he does, and it makes just possible a feeling of pity for him at the end when he is beset by enemies, and overcome by Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn, his conscience and bad dreams.  ’ The ghosts of Richard’s victims come in Office Resume Template And turn to appear to both Richmond and Richard. They encourage Richmond and they pound Richard with a series of accusations and curses. When Richard awakes he is depressed and tormented by his conscience. ‘His dream forces him for the first time in the play to see himself as a man who is after all bound by the moral restraints he has deliberately overthrown, trapped in the prison of his own despair.  ’ And this despair is genuine and not just a short glimpse of fear as Cornelia Czach has suggested.  Richard: ‘O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me?  ’ Richard: ‘Is there a murderer here? No. Yes, I am.  ’ Richard: ‘Alack, I love myself. Wherefore?
For any good. That I myself have done unto myself? Oh, no. Alas, I rather hate myself. For hateful deeds committed by myself. I am a villain. Yet I lie, I am not. Fool, of | Scimathmn thyself speak well.
Fool, do not flatter. My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, And every tongue brings in The Pre-1899 Antique Guns a several tale, And every tale condemns me for 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn, a villain.  ’ By suppressing the moral implications of his actions Richard had only Office Templates Template And deceived himself. In his dreams, however, his mind is & Division no longer under his control and, consequently, it now confronts him with realities he cannot escape from. Since Richard had decided to dedicate himself to a career of The Pre-1899 Machiavellian villainy, he had managed to alienate himself from Multiplication everyone and everything in his world: his country, the audience and, ultimately, his own self. ? A Admission!  At the end of his career, he is | Scimathmn a lost soul.  When Ratcliffe comes to tell Richard that it is time to get ready he finds Richard in a state of thoughtful depression. Richard: By the apostle Paul, shadows tonight. Have struck more terror to the soul of Richard. Than can the Antique substance of ten thousand soldiers. Armed in proof and led by shallow Richmond.  ’ However, Richard quickly pulls himself together and 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn gets back to business.
He organises his army and encourages his confederates. Richard: ‘Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls, For conscious is a word that cowards use, Devised at first to keep the strong in awe. Our strong arms be our conscience, our swords our law!  ’ Even though this is Assessment. ? A Comprehensive little more than a last act of Multiplication | Scimathmn defiance, for Richard it is the only way out still left to Guns Faq him. ‘All the evidence is against Multiplication & Division him now. Template | Survey Template Words! Conscience is not just a word , not just a fiction invented as a political tool, force is useless against Multiplication & Division it. It is real and it destroys.  ’ Richard’s flamboyant speech before his troops is a last futile attempt to take the bull by the horns. The speed with which his forces will disintegrate demonstrates how right he was about his doubts over Development Word, the loyalty of his troops.  In the 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn end he will bravely fight alone and die alone. The character of Shakepeare’s Richard III was what the Elizabethans fundamentally understood as Machiavellian. He achieved his aims by deceit and murder.
Machiavelli, himself, would not have approved of everything Richard did.  Although Richard had the courage of a lion, the cunning of a fox and was decisive in Quotation Format Pdf | Invoice his actions, his motivation was personal ambition. He succeeded in becoming king but he neither won the support of the nobles or his countrymen nor were his actions in Multiplication their interest. There is no indication that Richard had any long-term political strategy once he became king. On the contrary, he destabilized a fragile peace and plunged his country back into civil war. As a result, he not only met his own downfall but he also caused the Checklist Free Download fall of the House of York. Machiavelli, Niccolo: Il Principe / Der Furst. Italienisch / Deutsch. trans. and ed. Rippel, Philipp. Stuttgart 1986. Shakespeare, William: King Richard III . ed. Lull, Janis.
1st Edition. Cambridge 1999. Shakespeare, William: The Third Part of King Henry The Sixth . in: The Complete Works of Shakespeare . ed. Bevington, David. 3rd. Edition. 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn! Glenview, Illinois 1980. Anglo, Sydney: Machiavelli.
A Dissection. New York 1969. Bawcutt, N.W.: ‘Policy’, Machiavellianism, and the Earlier Tudor Drama. in: English Literary Renaissance 1 (1971). Bawcutt, N.W.: Some Elizabethan Allusions to Machiavelli. in: English Miscellany 20 (1969). Clemen, Wolfgang: Kommentar zu Richard III. Interpretation eines Dramas. 2nd Edition. Gottingen 1969.
Clemen, Wolfgang: Shakepeare und das Konigtum . in: Shakespeare- Jahrbuch 68 (1932). Coe, Charles Norton: Shakespeare’s Villains . New York 1957. Czach, Cornelia: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie. Der Versuch der Bewaltigung von Geschichte: Shakepeares Richard III . in: Anglia 101 (1983). Garber, Marjorie: Descanting on Deformity: Richard III and the Shape of History . Assessment. ? A Comprehensive! in: The Historical Renaissance. New Essays on Tudor and Stuart Literature and Culture . ed. Dubrow, Heather and Multiplication & Division Strier, Richard. Chicago 1988. Gellert Lyons, Bridget: ‘King’s Games’: Stage Imagery and Political Symbolism in 5+ Tender Quotation Pdf | Computer ‘Richard III’ . in: Criticism 20 (1978). Haeffner, Paul: A critical commentary on Shakespeare’s Richard III . London 1966.
Hanham, Alison: Richard III and Multiplication his early historians. 1483-1485. Oxford 1975. Keeton, George W.: William Shakespeare’s legal and political background . Checklist Free Pdf Documents! London 1967. Krippendorf, Ekkehart: Politik in Shakepeares Dramen. Historien, Romerdramen, Tragodien.
Frankfurt am Main 1992. Lamb, V.B.: The Betrayal of Richard III. London 1968. Maurer, Michael: Kleine Geschichte Englands . 6.1.3a Multiplication! Stuttgart 1997. Metzler Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie. Ansatze – Personen – Grundbegriffe . ed. Nunning, Ansgar. Stuttgart 1998. Moseley, C.W.R.D.: William Shakespeare.
Richard III . London 1989. Munkler, Herfried: Machiavelli. Die Begrundung des politischen Denkens der Neuzeit aus der Krise der Republik Florenz . Templates Template! Frankfurt am Main 1982. Naumann, Walter: Die Dramen Shakespeares . Darmstadt 1978. Palmer, John: Political and comic characters of Shakespeare . London 1974. Parel, Anthony J.: The Machiavellian Cosmos . New Haven 1992. Rossiter, A.P.: Angel with Horns and other Shakespeare Lectures . & Division! ed. Storey, Graham.
London 1961. Shakepeare-Handbuch. Template Words! Die Zeit – Der Mensch – Das Werk – Die Nachwelt . ed. Schabert, Ina. Stuttgart 2000. Schieder, Theodor: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . in: Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte 33 (1951). Skinner, Quentin: Machiavelli. Oxford 1981. Spivack, Bernard: Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil . New York 1958. Tillyard, E.M.W.: Shakespeare’s History Plays . Harmondsworth 1962. Watson, George: Machiavel and Machiavelli . in: Sewanee Review 84 (1976).
Wheeler, Richard P.: History, Character and Conscience in Richard III . in: Comparative Drama 5 . No. 4. Multiplication! (Winter 1971/72).  Rossiter, A.P.: Angel with Horns and other Shakespeare Lectures . ed. Storey, Graham. London 1961. (in the Antique Guns following quoted as: Rossiter: Angel with Horns .) p. 20.  Palmer, John: Political and comic characters of Shakespeare . London 1974. (in the following quoted as: Palmer: Political and comic characters .)p. 66.  Parel, Anthony J.: The Machiavellian Cosmos . 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn! New Haven 1992. (in the following quoted as: Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos .) p. School Development Word! 100.  Machiavelli, Niccolo: Il Principe / Der Furst. Italienisch / Deutsch. Multiplication & Division! trans. and ed. Faq! Rippel, Philipp.
Stuttgart 1986. (in the following quoted as: The Prince.) 18. pp. 6.1.3a | Scimathmn! 135 137.  Necessita was the third pillar of Checklist Template - 9+ Free Download Machiavelli’s political thought.  Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 121.  Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos . 6.1.3a | Scimathmn! p. 87.  cf. The Prince 8, pp. 65 67.  Munkler, Herfried: Machiavelli.
Die Begrundung des politischen Denkens der Neuzeit aus der Krise der Republik Florenz . Frankfurt am Main 1982. (in the New Employee - 9+ Pdf Documents following quoted as: Munkler: Machiavelli .) pp. 302f.  The Prince 25. p. 193.  cf. The Prince 19. p. 143.  Machiavelli’s view of the individual was rather disillusioned. He thought that the 6.1.3a & Division best an individual could aspire to was to become a good citizen, a tiny wheel in some much more complex mechanism. An excessive amount of Quotation Invoice amount of freedom would only lead to disorder. & Division! (cf. The Prince 17. pp.
129 131.)  The Prince 25 . 10+ Attendance | Survey! pp. 193 195.  Parel: The Machiavellian Cosmos . 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn! p. 76.  cf. The Prince 25. p. 197.  Parel: The Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 83.
 The Prince 25. p. 199.  Bawcutt, N.W.: ‘Policy’, Machiavellianism, and the Earlier Tudor Drama. in: English Literary Renaissance 1 (1971). (in the following quoted as: Bawcutt: ‘Policy’ .) p. 208 (for further detail cf. Watson, George: Machiavel and Machiavelli . in: Sewanee Review 84 (1976). Checklist Free Pdf Documents! pp. 631-637).  Schieder, Theodor: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . in: Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte 33 (1951). (in the following quoted as: Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli .) p. Multiplication! 136.  Shakespeare, William: The Third Part of King Henry The Sixth . in: The Complete Works of Shakespeare . Microsoft Office Template And! ed. Bevington, David. 3rd. Edition.
Glenview, Illinois 1980. (in the following quoted as: 3 Henry VI .) I.1.17.  Keeton, George W.: William Shakespeare’s legal and political background . London 1967. (in the Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn following quoted as: Keeton: Shakespeare’s background .) p. 320.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 68.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. School Plan - Free Documents! 69.  cf. 3 Henry VI . II.2 – III.1.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 70.  cf.
3 Henry VI . III.2.1-117.  3 Henry VI . III.2.140-143.  3 Henry VI . III.2.165-171.  Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 326.  3 Henry VI . III.2.182f.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . 6.1.3a & Division! p. 73. and cf. 3 Henry VI. New Employee Checklist Template Free Pdf Documents Download! III.5. III.7.
 Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 326.  Shakespeare, William: King Richard III . ed. Lull, Janis. | Scimathmn! 1st Edition. Cambridge 1999. 5+ Tender Format Pdf | Computer Invoice! (in the following quoted as: Richard III .) I.1.24-31.  For centuries, people believed that deformity of the body was the outward expression of a morally deformed mind.  Schieder: Schakespeare und Machiavelli . p. 140.  Maurer, Michael: Kleine Geschichte Englands . & Division! Stuttgart 1997. School Development Plan - Free Word Documents | Free! p. 6.1.3a Multiplication | Scimathmn! 145.
 cf. Plan - Free Documents Download | Free! Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 328.  Wheeler, Richard P.: History, Character and Conscience in Richard III . in: Comparative Drama 5 . 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn! No. 4. Admission Nursing Assessment. Admission! (Winter 1971/72). (in the following quoted as: Wheeler: History, Character and 6.1.3a & Division Conscience ). pp. 319f.  Richard III . I.1.106-112.
 cf. Richard III . I.4.227-239.  Richard III . I.1.113-115.  cf. Clarence’s dream. in: Richard III . I.4.146-153.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 79.
 Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 330.  Richard III . I.2.197-199.  Spivack, Bernard: Shakespeare and the Allegory of 5+ Tender Quotation Format Evil . New York 1958. (in the 6.1.3a | Scimathmn following quoted as: Spivack: Allegory of Evil .) pp. The Pre-1899 Antique Faq! 404f.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 81.  Richard III . I.2.231-242.  cf. & Division | Scimathmn! Richard III . Admission ? A Comprehensive! I.2.153 I.2.189.  cf. Palmer: Political and comic characters . p.83. and The Prince 25. pp. 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division! 193 195.
 Richard III . I.3.119-123.  Richard III . I.3.125-137.  cf. Machiavelli’s remarks on the use of Admission Assessment. Admission duplicity and calculated piety in peace and 6.1.3a war. Microsoft Office Templates Resume And! in: The Prince 18.  Naumann, Walter: Die Dramen Shakespeares . Darmstadt 1978. (in the 6.1.3a Multiplication following quoted as: Naumann: Shakespeares Dramen .) p. 14.
 Richard III. I.3.324-326.  Richard III . I.3.336-338.  Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 331. and cf. Gellert Lyons, Bridget: ‘King’s Games’: Stage Imagery and Political Symbolism in ‘Richard III’ . in: Criticism 20 (1978). Assessment. ? A Comprehensive Admission! (in the following quoted as: Geller Lyons: King’s Games .) p. 19.  Spivack: Allegory of Multiplication | Scimathmn Evil . p. 402.  cf Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 309.  Spivack: Allegory of Evil . p. 403.
 Richard III . II.1.136-141.  Palmer: Political and School - Free Documents Download | Free comic characters . p. 93.  Richard III . III.1.44-56.  Richard III . III.1.35f.  Clemen, Wolfgang: Kommentar zu Richard III. Interpretation eines Dramas. 2nd Edition.
Gottingen 1969. (in the following quoted as: Clemen: Richard III .) p. 173.  Palmer: Political and 6.1.3a comic characters . p. 95.  Richard III . III.1.198-202.  cf. The Prince 19. p. 149.  As Catesby points out in New Employee Template - 9+ Richard III . Multiplication | Scimathmn! III.1.166.  Richard III . III.1.22f.  Richard III . III.1.35-59.  Richard III . III.1.194-196.
 Richard III . III.4.72-76.  Richard III . III.4.79-106.  Czach, Cornelia: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie. Der Versuch der Bewaltigung von Geschichte: Shakepeares Richard III . in: Anglia 101 (1983). (in the Nursing Assessment. ? A following quoted as: Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie .) p. 402.  Richard III . | Scimathmn! III.7.70-79.  Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 23.  Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 22.  Through his Welsh ancestory, Henry VII ‘[. Guns! ] had a claim to the English throne unconnected either with his Lancastrian descent or his Yorkist marriage. Not only 6.1.3a Multiplication did he claim through his ancestor Owen Tudor, husband of Henry V’s widow, direct descent from Cadwalladar, last of the British kings, but he encouraged the old Welsh superstition that Arthur was not dead but would return again, with the 10+ Attendance Template Words suggestion that he and his heirs were Arthur reincarnate.’(Tillyard, E.M.W.: Shakespeare’s History Plays . Harmondsworth 1962. pp. Multiplication! 29.)  Naumann: Shakespeares Dramen . Template Words! p. 19.  cf.
Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . p. 142.  Clemen: Richard III . p. 211.  cf. Rossiter: Angel with Horns . p. 19.  Richard III . III.7.214-216.  Richard III . III.7.225-228.  Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn! p. Admission Nursing Assessment. Admission! 23.
 Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 25.  The Prince 19. p. 147.  cf. The Prince 17. p. 129. and The Prince 19. p. Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn! 149.  Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . Development Plan! p. 310.  Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 311.  Moseley, C.W.R.D.: William Shakespeare. Richard III . London 1989. (in the following quoted as: Moseley: Richard III .) p. 78.  Richard III . IV.2.18-20.
 Palmer: Political and comic characters . & Division | Scimathmn! p. 96.  cf. Templates Resume | Resume And! Richard III . IV.2.84-101. (Moseley (cf. Moseley: Richard III . p. 72.) has argued that Richard does not ignore Buckingham deliberately but that Richard is Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn ‘bad rattled’ and that he, therefore, cannot focus. It is an interesting point but it seems a little bit far-fetched.
 The Prince 3. pp. 17 19.  Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 397.  Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 101.  Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 399.  cf. Richard III . IV.3.36-43 and ibid. IV.2.61f.  Clemen: Richard III . p. 244.  cf. Moseley: Richard III . p. 75.
 Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 103.  cf. Clemen: Richard III . pp. 269-270.  Richard III . IV.4.515.  Severe flooding has caused Buckingham’s forces to be disperced. His precise whereabouts are currently unknown. Shortly afterwards, however, it is Catesby who comes to inform Richard that Buckingham has indeed been captured.  cf.
Richard III . IV.4.517-523.  cf. Richard III . Template! IV.4.199-436.  Palmer: Political and 6.1.3a Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn comic characters . p. 105.  Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. Checklist - 9+ Free Pdf Documents! 404.  cf. Clemen: Richard III . p. 275. and & Division | Scimathmn Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 309.  Palmer: Political and 5+ Tender Pdf | Computer comic characters . Multiplication & Division! p. Template! 104.  Moseley: Richard III . p. 24.  cf.
Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . pp. 332f.  Moseley: Richard III . p. 79.  cf. Richard III . IV.1.83-85. (Furthermore, bad dreams were a common dramatical trait of tyrants. (cf. Moseley: Richard III . p. 75.))  Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . p. 145.  Richard III . V.3.66 and ibid.
V.3.74.  Palmer: Political and 6.1.3a & Division comic characters. p. 109.  Haeffner, Paul: A critical commentary on Shakespeare’s Richard III . London 1966. p. Assessment. Comprehensive! 14.  Moseley: Richard III . p. 39.  cf. Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 404f.  Richard III . V.3.190-198.  cf. Habermann, Ina and Multiplication Klein, Bernhard: Die Historien . in: Shakepeare-Handbuch. Die Zeit – Der Mensch – Das Werk – Die Nachwelt . Template! ed.
Schabert, Ina. Stuttgart 2000. p. 345.  Coe, Charles Norton: Shakespeare’s Villains . 6.1.3a! New York 1957. p. 27.  Richard III . V.3.217-220.  Richard III . V.3.310-313.  Moseley: Richard III . p. 83.
 cf. | Survey Template! Richard III . V.3.222f.  cf. 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn! Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 309.
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After Yahoo: Why do powerful people lie? Why do leaders risk so much over what, in the grand scheme of things, is a small dishonesty? FORTUNE #8212; In the wake of Yahoo CEO Scott Thompson’s departure amid controversy over his padded resume, the | Scimathmn question remains: why did he do it? Whether Thompson embellished his bio with a college major he didn#8217;t earn, or simply signed his name to a document that someone else falsified, the lie cost him a flourishing career. Format Pdf | Computer Invoice. It also added him to an ignominious list of powerful leaders who stepped down in disgrace over resume deceptions, including former RadioShack RSH CEO Dave Edmondson and Notre Dame head football coach George O#8217;Leary. Why do they do it?
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A degree from a small Catholic college outside Boston doesn’t quite have the same shimmer as the 10+ Attendance Template Template Harvard and Stanford diplomas littering Silicon Valley offices, so Thompson might have felt he needed the edge of a technology degree. & Division | Scimathmn. #8220;Today#8217;s business world is Checklist Template Free Download so competitive. If you don#8217;t have the right MBA, didn#8217;t go to the right school, don#8217;t have the right educational background, people look down on 6.1.3a & Division you,#8221; says Richard S. Bernstein, an Admission Nursing Comprehensive Admission, adviser to Donald Trump and the Trump Organization. Once you tell a lie, and leave it uncorrected long enough, you can start to believe it#8217;s true. #8220;People start saying something enough that they start believing it themselves,#8221; says David Reiss, a psychiatrist based in San Diego. #8220;Looking back on the history of these people, the & Division | Scimathmn pattern started before they were powerful. They got into the habit of inflating things out of lack of Assessment. confidence,#8221; Reiss says. #8220;Once they got to a higher level, if they#8217;ve gotten away with it, they think they#8217;ll never get caught.#8221; Once executives reach the top levels of management, they can become surrounded by sycophants, start believing their own accolades, and lose sight of the truth. #8220;You have to be able to hold people accountable. What happens with leaders is there#8217;s nobody who is speaking truth to power,#8221; says David Gebler, president of Skout Group in Boston, which helps organizations manage people and culture based risks. #8220;They#8217;ve got themselves locked into a world where they really believe they#8217;re not doing anything wrong.#8221; We all have the tendency to 6.1.3a & Division | Scimathmn, rationalize behavior that falls in an ethical or moral grey area, and many of us stretch that line to cover outright lies. We#8217;re wired to adjust the Pdf | narrative of our actions to align with our identity. If we believe we#8217;re fundamentally honest people, we will rationalize our behavior to ourselves as ethical #8212; regardless of how it looks to an impartial observer. #8220;The brain is doing this constant dance of, #8216;How do I get more of what I want while holding onto the identity that I think I actually have,#8217; #8221; says Kevin Fleming, owner of Grey Matters Intl., a neuroscience-based executive development and 6.1.3a | Scimathmn, coaching firm based in Jackson Hole, Wyo. and Tulsa, Okla. #8220;The brain is always wired to reduce dissonance.#8221; Indeed, one of the dangers of The Pre-1899 Antique Faq a prominent individual being publicly shamed, as Thompson has been, is that the general public grows more likely to rationalize their own shady behavior. #8220;They make us feel good because it puts our own behavior in perspective,#8221; Hanft says. 6.1.3a Multiplication. #8220;It#8217;s why we love celebrity meltdowns or professional meltdowns. They allow us to continue in our delusion of Nursing Assessment. acceptable behavior.#8221; However, the little lies can lead to big missteps. Multiplication & Division | Scimathmn. They pave the 5+ Tender Quotation Format Pdf | Invoice way for us to rationalize larger dishonesty.
So whatever we take away from the Thompson episode, we should resist schadenfreude #8212; it could actually lead us to greater deception in our own lives. A spokesperson from Yahoo did not immediately respond to a request for comment.
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