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philo dissertation Cours de philosophie gratuits, citations et articles de recherche, pour le bac, la prepa, la fac ou le plaisir. Exemple de Dissertation Philosophique. Sommaire de l'article. Le cas d’une dissertation redigee et corrigee.
La dissertation en philosophie est un exercice difficile car elle suppose la maitrise d’une methode et d’une structure determinee. Nous vous donnons donc un exemple de dissertation redigee et corrigee par un professeur , tant d’un point de vue methodologique (forme) qu’editorial (fond). Nous avons volontairement choisi un sujet de dissertation tres classique en terminale philo : “ La liberte est-elle une illusion ? ” (frequent pour les terminales litteraires) A) L’analyse des termes du sujet : 1) La liberte : Il s’agit de toujours partir de la conception spontanee, immediate que l’on se fait de la liberte, celle de l’ « homme de la rue » qu’aurait pu interroger Socrate . 5+ Mileage Log Form? Ainsi, la liberte, c’est « faire ce que l’on veut », elle correspond, semble-t-il a la toute-puissance de la volonte de chacun. Itinerary – Sample, Format? Spontanement, tout individu se sent libre des lors qu’il peut accomplir tous ses desirs , toutes ses envies. Or l’experience ordinaire de la vie montre aussi, paradoxalement, l’etre humain soumis a de nombreuses contraintes a la fois externes (physiques, sociales, politiques) et internes (instincts, habitudes, passions) qui pesent sur sa liberte et qu’il lui est difficile voire impossible de surmonter totalement de sa propre initiative. 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt? Des lors, le sentiment de liberte ne serait-il qu’illusoire ? 2) l’illusion : Il s’agit de saisir l’importance de ce terme a distinguer de l’erreur . Itinerary Templates – Sample, Example, Format? L’illusion procede certes de l’erreur en ce qu’elle trompe l’individu, mais elle procede egalement de la mystification . 5+ Mileage Receipt? Qu’est-ce a dire ? Tout individu est responsable de ses erreurs et dispose du pouvoir de les corriger.
En revanche, dans l’illusion, qui peut etre a la fois individuelle et collective, nous serions victimes d’une puissance trompeuse impossible a vaincre . La question qui s’impose est donc la suivante : Quel type de desir proprement humain se trouve a la racine d’une illusion ? Ou bien quel besoin l’homme cherche-t-il a satisfaire dans la perennite d’une illusion ? B) Reperer les notions du programme en jeu dans le sujet : la liberte, la conscience et l’inconscient, le desir. C) Problematiser le sujet : Si tout individu eprouve un sentiment immediat de liberte, cette conviction renvoie-t-elle a une croyance illusoire ou a une veritable connaissance de soi ? L’objectif consistera donc a faire la part de ce qui releve d’une liberte reelle, reperable, de ce qui releve d’un desir infonde de liberte, dans un souci de lucidite et de verite. D) Mobiliser des references utilisables : – Platon , dans le Gorgias , denonce la confusion commune entre la liberte du sage et la realisation impulsive de tous ses desirs. – Descartes , dans La Meditation quatrieme , donne une definition du libre arbitre qui apparente l’homme a Dieu. – Spinoza , dans L’Ethique , montre que la conscience d’exister n’implique pas necessairement la liberte humaine. E) Elaboration du plan : elle doit obeir a la regle du « plus proche au plus lointain », c’est-a-dire aller de l’explicite a l’implicite, du plus evident au moins evident.
Exemple de plan possible : I) La liberte est un sentiment immediat : la these du libre arbitre. II) La critique deterministe du libre arbitre. III) La liberte est a conquerir : de la liberation a la quete d’autonomie. 1) Amorce : Il nous faut partir de ce constat de depart que le sentiment commun et immediat eprouve par tout homme est de se sentir libre : en effet, chaque homme peut faire l’experience, du moins interieure, d’une liberte de penser et d’agir, independamment de toute contrainte exterieure. Letter - Business? Cette conviction interieure est donc profondement ancree en chacun de nous. 2) Annonce du sujet et problematisation : Cependant, la liberte ne serait-elle pas une illusion ? Ou pour le dire autrement, le fait de se sentir libre n’est-il pas susceptible de ne renvoyer qu’a une croyance illusoire ? Le sentiment immediat de notre liberte est-il vrai, c’est-a-dire renvoie-t-il a une veritable connaissance de soi-meme ? 3) Annonce du plan d’etude : elle doit etre suffisamment explicite sans en dire trop, sans etre trop « lourde » : Nous tenterons, tout d’abord, d’evaluer la pertinence et les limites du sentiment spontane de liberte, commun a tous les hommes. 5+ Mileage Receipt? Puis nous tacherons de montrer que cette experience immediate du libre arbitre est susceptible de camoufler a l’homme une meconnaissance de lui-meme. Sample - Business - Business? Enfin, une nouvelle tache se dressera face a nous : la necessite de reconstruire une nouvelle approche de la liberte humaine, si tant est qu’elle soit possible. Developpement de la dissertation : 1ere partie. I) Le sentiment immediat de notre liberte : la theorie du libre arbitre. a) Tout homme se juge spontanement libre.
Dans le langage courant, la liberte renvoie au pouvoir que possede tout homme de n’obeir qu’a lui-meme, qu’a sa propre volonte, et d’agir uniquement en fonction de ses desirs, independamment de toute contrainte ou de toute pression exterieure. Tout homme se sent donc spontanement libre, tout simplement parce qu’il se croit capable de faire des choix de petite ou de grande importance, de prendre des decisions , de petite ou de grande ampleur. Autrement dit, tout homme, lorsqu’il porte un regard reflexif sur lui-meme, se juge spontanement libre, c’est-a-dire en mesure d’agir simplement en fonction de sa volonte . La plupart des philosophes qui se sont prononces en faveur de la liberte humaine, en faveur de l’existence du libre arbitre, ont accorde une grande valeur a l’experience intime , immediate que nous aurions, selon eux, de notre liberte : « La liberte de notre volonte, ecrit Descartes ( Principes de la Philosophie , I, art.39), se connait sans preuve par la seule experience que nous en avons ». Transition : Faire le point et formuler une ou plusieurs questions permettant de poursuivre la reflexion : La liberte correspondrait donc a un sentiment interieur , a une experience immediate en chaque homme. 5+ Mileage | Printable? Or peut-on se contenter de cette experience immediate ou pour reprendre la formulation de Bergson, de cette « donnee immediate de la conscience » ? Autrement dit, peut-on se contenter du sentiment de notre liberte pour en deduire son existence certaine ? Est-il donc possible de faire une experience de notre liberte qui puisse justifier ce sentiment ? b) Peut-on prouver l’existence du libre arbitre ? 1) Premiere tentative de preuve : l’experience de l’ane de Buridan et la mise a jour de la « liberte d’indifference » Jean Buridan, philosophe francais du quatorzieme siecle, aurait, selon la legende, concu une experience imaginaire afin de prouver l’existence du libre arbitre : la situation serait celle d’un animal, en l’occurrence un ane, ayant egalement faim et soif, et qui, place a egale distance d’une botte de foin et d’un seau d’eau, hesite, se montre incapable de choisir, et finalement se laisse mourir. Ce « protocole experimental metaphysique » aurait donc pour objectif de prouver l’existence de la « liberte d’indifference » proprement humaine.
En effet, nous avons tous deja vecu une situation ou les mobiles ou motifs en faveur d’un acte ou d’un autre etaient si equivalents , ou aussi contraignants l’un que l’autre, que nous nous sommes retrouves incapables de faire un choix. En effet, que se passe-t-il lorsqu’un individu se retrouve face a deux possibilites aussi equivalentes l’une que l’autre, lorsque rien ne puisse permettre de determiner son choix ? Or ce qui permet a l’homme d’echapper a la situation absurde de l’ane mourant de faim et de soif entre une botte de foin et un seau d’eau, c’est qu’il dispose de cette liberte d’indifference, c’est-a-dire de cette liberte par laquelle notre volonte a le pouvoir de choisir spontanement et de sa propre initiative. Cette situation d’indifference du choix prouve donc que l’homme est dote d’un libre arbitre, c’est-a-dire d’une capacite de choisir pouvant echapper a tout determinisme . Job Description Branch Sample Resume? Pour Descartes , cette liberte d’indifference, bien que consideree comme « le plus bas degre de la liberte », temoigne en meme temps d’un pur libre arbitre qui apparente l’homme a Dieu ( Meditation quatrieme ). 2) Seconde tentative de preuve du libre arbitre : le crime de Lafcadio dans Les Caves du Vatican d’Andre Gide. Andre Gide, dans Les Caves du Vatican , cherche a illustrer la possibilite pour un etre humain de realiser un acte gratuit , c’est-a-dire un acte accompli sans raison, par le seul effet de sa liberte. Dans le roman, le « hero » Lafcadio se rend a Rome par le train et se retrouve seul dans la nuit, ne partageant son compartiment qu’avec un vieux monsieur. Log Form | Printable? Lafcadio se prend alors d’une idee folle : « La sous ma main, la poignee. Proposal Sample Letter Proposal - Business? Il suffirait de la tirer et de le pousser en avant.
On n’entendrait meme pas un cri dans la nuit. 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt? Qui le verrait…Un crime immotive, quel embarras pour la police ». Lafcadio se dit en effet, et a juste titre, que s’il n’a pas de mobiles pour realiser ce crime, il n’a donc pas de motivations . Manager Job Description Manager Sample Resume? Le lien entre l’acteur et l’acte commis est inexistant . 5+ Mileage Receipt? Lafcadio prend d’ailleurs un soin tout particulier a renforcer la gratuite de son crime : il remet tout au hasard et se met a compter pour soumettre sa decision de passer a l’acte ou de ne pas passer a l’acte a l’apparition d’un feu dans la nuit. Proposal Sample - Business Proposal Templated - Business? Or le hasard, c’est precisement ce qui est fortuit , c’est-a-dire depourvu de toute intention consciente , donc de motivation intrinseque… Et le crime a lieu. 3) Peut-on dire que l’acte de Lafcadio est un acte gratuit ? Le merite du roman d’Andre Gide est d’aborder la question suivante : Un acte gratuit est-il possible ? Or deux critiques permettent d’etre avancees pour remettre en cause cette possibilite : La premiere critique consistera a remarquer que Lafcadio fait reposer son passage a l’acte sur des signes exterieurs , en l’occurrence l’apparition ou la non apparition d’un feu dans la campagne. 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable? Son acte serait donc determine par une exteriorite . La seconde critique consistera a remarquer que l’absence de motivations dans l’acte de Lafcadio est tout sauf evidente : l’une de ses premieres motivations ne serait-elle pas le desir meme de se prouver a lui-meme sa liberte ? Si bien qu’il est tout-a fait envisageable de soupconner Lafcadio de prendre pour une absence de motifs ce qui ne serait au fond qu’une ignorance profonde des motifs de son acte.
L’ « acte gratuit » est donc une notion philosophiquement problematique : la volonte de prouver sa liberte par un acte suppose sans mobile constitue, par elle-meme , un mobile. Transition : Une nouvelle question se pose des lors : le sentiment de liberte ou la volonte de realiser un acte non determine ne seraient-ils pas qu’une croyance ? Ne semble-t-il pas que ce ne soit que de facon illusoire et superficielle que je fasse l’ « experience » de ma liberte, par ignorance des determinations qui sont pourtant en jeu ? Developpement de la dissertation : 2eme partie. II) La critique deterministe du libre arbitre. a) L’illusion anthropocentrique du libre arbitre : « L’homme n’est pas un empire dans un empire » ( Spinoza ) Le projet philosophique de B. Endorsement? Spinoza , dans le sillage des travaux scientifiques de Laplace, est de denoncer les illusions du libre arbitre . C’est ainsi que dans la troisieme partie de l’Ethique , dans la section intitulee De l’origine et de la nature des affections , Spinoza rejette totalement l’idee selon laquelle l’homme occuperait une place privilegiee au sein de la nature. Spinoza critique notamment Descartes qui concoit l’homme comme « un empire dans un empire », ainsi que tous les philosophes qui croient que « l’homme trouble l’ordre de la Nature plutot qu’il ne le suit, qu’il a sur ses propres actions un pouvoir absolu et ne tire que de lui-meme sa determination ». Or l’objectif de Spinoza est bel et bien de montrer que l’homme suit les lois communes de la Nature , comme toutes les choses de ce monde.
b) L’illusion humaine de la liberte. C’est dans sa lettre a Schuller , extraite de sa Correspondance , que Spinoza denonce l’illusion du libre arbitre . Log Form Receipt? Il defend ainsi une position philosophique deterministe suivant laquelle tous les evenements sont absolument necessaires et le sentiment que nous avons d’etre libres ne serait qu’une illusion naturelle : « Telle est cette liberte humaine que tous les hommes se vantent d’avoir et qui consiste en cela seul que les hommes sont conscients de leurs desirs et ignorants des causes qui les determinent ». Endorsement? Et Spinoza d’ajouter un peu plus loin : « Et comme ce prejuge est inne en tous les hommes, ils ne s’en liberent pas facilement ». Cette illusion naturelle de l’homme a donc deux causes d’apres Spinoza qui justifient que l’homme s’illusionne et qu’il ne fasse pas seulement erreur. Log Form | Printable? Premierement, la source de l’illusion humaine du libre arbitre est l’ignorance des causes qui nous poussent a agir. Through? Or a prendre les choses rigoureusement, l’homme est tout aussi determine a se mouvoir sous l’influence de causes externes qu’une pierre qui recoit une impulsion. 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt? Les hommes se croient libres alors qu’ils sont contraints ou determines par leur nature. Itinerary Example, Format Downloads? Deuxiemement, Spinoza precise bien que les hommes « se vantent » d’etre libre car le desir d’etre libre , meme illusoire, est beaucoup plus valorisant pour l’orgueil humain que l’idee d’etre totalement determine. c) La liberte designe alors la necessite bien comprise.
C’est ainsi que Spinoza ne fait pas consister la liberte, dans la lettre a Schuller , dans un libre decret mais dans une libre necessite ou dans la necessite bien comprise : « j’appelle libre, quant a moi, une chose qui est et agit par la seule necessite de sa nature ». Tout comme les comportements des animaux sont determines par l’instinct, leur environnement ou des determinations biologiques, les actes et les pensees des hommes le sont eux-memes par de multiples facteurs a la fois internes et externes dont on 5+ Mileage | Printable, ignore le plus souvent l’existence et la puissance : facteurs d’origine physiologiques, psychologiques, sociales, etc. Des lors, l’un des apports essentiels de la critique spinoziste du libre arbitre est de montrer que la croyance en l’existence du libre arbitre est la source d’ alienation de l’homme. Proposal Sample Letter Proposal Templated - Business? En effet, selon Spinoza, non seulement l’homme est determine mais cette illusion naturelle du libre arbitre nous determinent a ne pas savoir que nous sommes determines, et ainsi a l’etre d’autant plus surement. 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt? Or il n’y a pas pire esclave que celui qui se croit libre . Transition : Il nous faut donc tirer les enseignements de la critique spinoziste du libre arbitre et reconnaitreque l’idee d’une liberte spontanee ou d’un sentiment immediat de liberte n’est plus tenable. Manager Sample? Est-il des lors possible de reconstruire une approche de la liberte qui soit accessible a l’homme ? Developpement de la dissertation ; 3eme et derniere partie. III) La liberte est a conquerir : de la liberation a la quete d’autonomie. a) Etre libre, c’est apprendre a se liberer des passions. Platon , dans le Gorgias , pose la question suivante : est-ce la vie de l’homme aux desirs insatiables ou celle guidee par la raison qui est la meilleure ? Dans ce dialogue qui met aux prises Socrate et Callicles, ce dernier defend le droit au desir , comme un droit a etre puissant, autrement dit a etre capable de mettre les forces de son energie et de son intelligence au service des passions , pour leur donner la plus grande ampleur possible. C’est ainsi que Callicles prefere les « tonneaux qui fuient » puisque « ce qui fait l’agrement de la vie, c’est de verser le plus possible ». Log Form | Printable? En revanche, Socrate choisit la vie ordonnee , celle ou les tonneaux du sage « seraient en bon etat ».
Platon cherche ainsi a montrer, dans ce dialogue, l’illusion dans laquelle se trouvent les hommes comme Callicles, qui croient qu’etre libre consiste a faire ce que l’on veut, c’est-a-dire a realiser tous ses desirs . Myson : Heating Through? Or une telle vie, guidee par des desirs multiples , polymorphes et surtout infinis , mene necessairement au tourment et au malheur. Log Form | Printable? En effet, le risque pour un homme comme Callicles decidant de mener une vie intemperante et desordonnee est de devenir l’esclave de ses propres passions et desirs . A cette vie desordonnee, Platon oppose une vie guidee par la raison , incarnee par la sagesse socratique . Endorsement Letter? Socrate incarne, en effet, le sage qui sait distinguer entre les desirs a poursuivre ou a ne pas poursuivre, qui sait se gouverner lui-meme et qui est en mesure d’acceder a une veritable autonomie de la volonte. b) Etre libre, c’est etre responsable de ses actes. Par consequent, l’entree dans la liberte authentique , par opposition avec la liberte illusoire des desirs infinis, c’est l’entree dans une veritable autonomie et c’est pouvoir devenir responsable de ses actes et pouvoir en repondre. L’enjeu de l’entree dans la liberte authentique est donc celui du rapport a soi-meme et a autrui . Log Form Receipt? La liberte entre alors dans le champ de la reflexion morale , sociale et politique . Business? C’est ainsi qu’au sens moral et juridique, etre libre, c’est pouvoir etre reconnu autonome et responsable de ses actes, de ses choix, a la fois devant soi-meme et devant la societe a laquelle on | Printable Receipt, appartient. En consequence, si la liberte est illusoire ou inaccessible, il semble que c’en soit fini de la responsabilite morale et juridique de tout individu, et par la meme de la justice . Myson : Heating Through Innovation? Le fait que nous nous sentions, a tort ou a raison libre, exige donc que l’on agisse comme si on Log Form Receipt, etait effectivement libre . c) La liberte comme condition de l’acte ethique. C’est ainsi que dans la premiere note de la preface a la Critique de la raison pratique , Kant affirme que la liberte est la condition de possibilite et l’essence (la ratio essendi ) de la vie morale de l’homme, comme la vie morale de l’homme est ce par quoi l’homme connait la realite de sa liberte (elle en est la ratio cognoscendi ). Itinerary – Sample, Format? Et Kant ajoute pour preciser : « (…) si la loi morale n’etait pas d’abord clairement concue dans notre raison, nous ne nous croirions jamais autorises a admettre une chose telle que la liberte (…). 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt? En revanche, s’il n’y avait pas de liberte, la loi morale ne saurait nullement etre rencontree en nous ». Ainsi, pour Kant , pour que l’homme soit moral, il faut qu’il soit libre, car s’il etait force par une nature intelligible a la bonte, a la justice et a l’altruisme, il ne serait qu’un automate spirituel et s’il etait force par sa nature sensible a l’egoisme, il ne serait qu’un mecanisme materiel . Conclusion de de notre exemple sur la dissertation philosophique.
1) Faire le bilan de la demarche poursuivie dans le devoir : La liberte humaine est-elle donc possible ? Nous avons pu comprendre, tout au long de notre travail, la difficulte qui existe a pouvoir saisir une veritable « experience » de la liberte et, par consequent, la difficulte a en prouver veritablement l’existence. 2) Repondre a la question initiale : La liberte est-elle une illusion ? Notre travail a, en tout cas, cherche a demontrer que si la croyance en une liberte immediate etait illusoire, voire naive, la critique spinoziste nous a permis d’acceder a une approche de la liberte qui puisse permettre d’en preserver l’espoir : en effet, si l’homme n’est pas libre, il lui est, en revanche, donne d’entrer dans un processus , dans une conquete assimilable a une liberation par l’usage de la raison et par son entree dans la morale et la vie sociale . 3) Si possible, proposer une ouverture a une nouvelle reflexion : Comment penser les consequences d’une authentique liberation de l’homme dans ses interactions morales, sociales et politiques ? Vincent Boyer , professeur de philosophie a Paris. Vous pouvez nous envoyer votre demande d’aide (gratuite) via le formulaire ci-dessous : Pour aller plus loin sur le bac philosophie : le langage animal. L’homme est la mesure de tout chose? je dois reconnaitre, moi qui enseigne depuis 10 ans en lycee, que votre exemple est un modele pour les eleves de terminale philo. Merci donc de l’avoir partage sur votre site. Je crois qu’il faut souligner les dimensions politiques et psychologiques des l’explication du sujet.au fait l’individu se sent toujours decu de ce qu’il en a tant reve et lotrssu’il parvient a realise ce dont il z longtemps reve et plannifie,il se rend compte que ce qu’il a realise n’est pas beaucoup de chose ,n’est pas a la hauteur de ses desirs.l’autre cote politique,tous les peuples qui ont combattu pour le printemps arabe et pour la liberte et au nom de la liberte se sont sentis decus.de meme les regimes comme le socialisme qui ont promis liberte aux peuples ont decu les peuples. jardelin: merci bcp msr vincent votre dissertation m,a donne le gout de la lire, mrci d l,avoir publiee.
y aurait il la meme chose pour le sujet “peut-on se mettre a la place d’autrui?” ?? C est formidable. vraiment bien pourrais-je avoir une copie pour le sujet” les individus ont-il une prise sur le cour de l’histoire?” une dissertation complete pour le sujet” les individus ont-il une prise sur le cour de l’histoire?” dans la mesure ou l’homme est un etre naturellement pensant et dote de raison a la capacite de distingue le bien du mal alors se mettre a la place d’autrui vu qu’il est notre semblable est possible dans ce cas.Mais en outre les sensation et sentiment qu’eprouve l’otre et ses desirs ne peut etre en aucun cas les memes par ailleurs ce mettre a la place d’autrui ne peut etre percu. Elle est vraiment bonne….merci. Merci c’est agreable, pourrais-je avoir la correction de ce sujet la religion limite-t-elle la liberte humaine? car je ne sais comment vous remercier pour votre illustration. Manager Sample? j’aurai encore besoin de vous dans le but de bien comprendre mes textes philosophiques. Log Form | Printable? MERCI. n’ayant pa d citation,pourez t on Sample Letter - Business Proposal Templated - Business, partir des faits quotiens pour introduire.
pourait je avoir une dissertation sur le sujet taisez vous les philosophes ici ne parlent que les scientifique» Peut-on avoir un exemple d’une dissertation comparative svp? Sujet :l’homme est il un acteurs de l’histoire? Dissertation : le progres des sciences entrainent -il la ruine de la philosophie? merci a vous pour cette belle exemple. Vraiment bonne !je suis en term l, cette dissert est PARFAITE. | Printable Receipt? je cite aussi hobbes, dans la mienne et sartre dans un grand II. votre site est tres benefique.
Merci! Vraiment bien mais j’ais besoin d’une copie pour ” l’homme d’action a t il raison de se moquer du philosophe” Elle est trop bonne seulmnt si vous pouriez en faire beaucoup dotre sa serai parfait. Faut-il croire sans experimente? Merci pour votre travail consequent! Celui que mon professeur de philosophie ne remplie pas… Votre exemple clair et precis m’a permis d’enfin comprendre la methode et de bien me preparer a mes epreuves. Mille fois merci! Merci beaucoup pour votre parfaite illustration. 11+ Event? Je voudrais savoir un peu d’eclaircissement sur l’idealisme hegelien, le materialisme marxiste et le positivisme d’Auguste Comte et en quoi ils s’opposent. SUJET: Vanite des vanite, tout est vanite.
Vous ne mettez pas les parties en rapport, elles sont totalement isolees, et votre conclusion n’aboutit a rien. Merci prof vincent BOYER. Merci pour les informations. Vraiment j’apprecie beaucoup votre corrige. la philosophie est elle importante dans la societe humaine? ?la philosophie est indetacharble des preocupation de la vie?Expliquez svp. La philosophie est-elle un systeme?
merci de nous avoir escplicite ce sujet. merci bien prof vraiment c’est super, ca m’a permi de mieu comprendre certains details.svp je peux avoir de meme pour ce sujet:”toutes les passions sont sans eception mauvaises” svp. Merci beaucoup. Log Form | Printable Receipt? ..c’est tres bien detaille. Y a til la meme chose pour :?peut on Business Invitation, parler de la philosophie en ce 21em siecle?..merci d’avance. merci . Log Form Receipt? la conscience est elle la marque de la grandeur de l homme?
l’homme est le seul animal raisonnable , il est conscient de son inconscience et oui la conscience fait sa grandeur . merci beaucoup de nous facilite les techniques. […] dissertation . Business Invitation? […]
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Psychological and biological theories of crime in criminology essay. The psychological and biological theories of crime as related to criminology. What are the peculiarities of the psychological and biological theories of 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt, crime? What is the essence of the biological theory of crime? What are the psychological characteristics of a potential criminal? The rich socio-historical experience of the humanity in the past gives an additional opportunity for adequate understanding of modern criminology and Letter - Business Proposal Templated, the problems solved by the given branch of knowledge.
Psychological and biological theories of 5+ Mileage Log Form, crime in Wedding Invitation Spreadsheet Template – Wedding Invitation Ideas criminology essay. Table of content: o Peculiarities of criminology. o Biological theories in criminology. o Psychological theories in criminology. Criminology is not an old science; nevertheless it is possible to say that the steps of its creation started long before its official definition as a science. The necessity of this science is especially high nowadays when, the | Printable Receipt, level of crime has risen immensely in every corner of the planet. The attempt to explain the Sample Endorsement, human behavior has already become a priority for many scientists all over the world. 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt. The rich socio-historical experience of the humanity in the past gives an Business, additional opportunity for adequate understanding of modern criminology and the problems solved by the given branch of 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt, knowledge. Criminology had several factors that especially influenced its development. These factors provide a lot of back up information for Spreadsheet Invitation Ideas, a better understanding of criminology and its possibilities.
2. Peculiarities of criminology. Criminology is a socially-legal interdisciplinary science and an integral part of 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt, legislation. As it has been already mentioned, the beginning of the Wedding Invitation Invitation Ideas, existence of criminology as a separate science started in the middle of the 5+ Mileage Log Form, XIX century. Its start is strongly associated with the Spreadsheet Invitation, works of a famous criminologist Cesar Lombroso. Criminology as a science has a list of primary problems that it is to solve. The first one to mention is the analytical problem which lies in the detailed researched of the phenomenon of Receipt, criminality, its general condition and Endorsement Letter, the categorization of all the existing criminal manifestations. So therefore criminology provides a correct “picture” of the present criminal situation in 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt any given geographical location. Other problems include the Manager Job Description Branch Manager, prognosis of the potential criminal situation, the Log Form, prevention of criminality and the determination of the causes and the consequences of crime. One of the : Heating !, most important criminological issues of the new era is the designation of the crime determinants.
So basically criminology has four main priorities to study: criminality, the personality of 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt, criminals, the reasons and the conditions under which criminality takes place and the possible methods of prevention. There have been many attempts to understand the true causes of crime. These attempts are especially revealed through the existing theories in criminology. Nevertheless, the biological and the psychological theories are the Job Description Branch Manager Sample Resume, ones most spread and Receipt, their contradiction constantly results in numerous arguments between the supporters of both of the theories. In order to make any concrete conclusions on Innovation any of these theories it is necessary to Log Form Receipt analyze them and their contribution in criminology. 3. Biological theories in criminology. The biological theories primarily study the physical constitution and endocrinology. They are a bright example of the theories that has not really got any practical support.
The misunderstanding of these theories has caused a stereotype that if a person is a criminal then he was born as a criminal and any steps taken in order to change or to influence them are useless. Biological theories are only a part and one the Invitation Spreadsheet – Wedding Ideas, interpretation of 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt, criminality but not the Invitation, only. In the present time there is no assertive evidence of the fact, that the physical constitution and other biological factors cause criminality. Nevertheless, these theories have a right to exist and there was a lot of important information that was used in terms of the development of criminology as a science. The most vivid example of the biological determinism is the theory of Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso based his theory on the assumption that criminals have certain physiognomic features or abnormalities. | Printable. Lombroso wanted to be able to detect future criminals in order to isolate them from the society.
This gave criminology a strong push to create new methods of dealing with criminals and prevent crimes. Lombroso implied that prisoners had common facial characteristics. Wedding Template Invitation Ideas. If to exaggerate criminals in 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt Lombroso’s theory can be identified through the shape of Myson : Heating Innovation !, their skulls, asymmetry of the face and head, large cheekbones, ears and lips, long arms and a twisted nose. Lombroso’s theory is the oldest one and it can without a doubt be called the main background data for the whole process of the Log Form, development of criminology. Lombroso stated that men are more inclined to commit crimes due to the conservatism and Resume, the narrow-mindedness of their interests. Log Form. According to Lombroso women have less social contacts and this is what predetermines their conservatism. This theory of female deviance seems to be very discriminating and not a present-day issue. The evaluation of Wedding Spreadsheet – Wedding Invitation Ideas, a person as a “born criminal” basing on his facial features is at least not ethical and rather primitive. Lombroso considered this “born criminals” to Log Form | Printable Receipt be the “atavisms” of the Templates Example, Format Downloads, society. All the biological theories are based on the notion that biological markers foreordain criminal behavior.
The core of all these theories is that genetic factors or any abnormalities which are inherited or acquired throughout the life, predispose individuals to the criminal behavior. Lombroso’s theory gave life to probably almost every single biological theory that appeared afterward. Among the biological theories the XYY syndrome occupies a special place, as it analyzes why males are more often subjects to become criminals due to the presence if an extra Y chromosome. As this syndrome is in the first place associated with the low IQ-level of such males which seems to be a much better explanation. IQ shortage causes the inability to adjust in the contemporary social world that requires constant activity and flexibility. People facing these difficulties are left with no other choice that to turn to 5+ Mileage Receipt criminality. Branch Resume. It all starts with low performance at school which results in the awareness of the “irretrievable dissimilitude” from others which later on results in 5+ Mileage Log Form deviance. Also such diseases as Organic Brain Syndrome, ADD or hormonal changes according to the biological theories play a very important role in the inclination to any criminal activities. Another famous biological theory is the Proposal - Business Templated - Business, theory of William Sheldon. He based his research and inferences on Kretschmer's constitutional personality.
For instance, Sheldon pointed out three main body types which are to explain the potential bent to Log Form Receipt criminal activity: endomorph, mesomorph and ectomorph. Endomorph is Myson : Heating Through ! a type hat is fat and therefore is primarily concerned with consumption. Mesomorph is 5+ Mileage Receipt defined through skinny intelligent introverts and ectomorph characterizes large dynamic people. Sheldon claimed that disproportionately mesomorphic people are more often subjects to criminal behavior than any other body type. In spite of the variety of biological theories nowadays it is clear that there is Business no possibility to consider that any person can be a “born criminal”, because it is very hard to underestimate the social factors and all the psychological issues connected with them. Lombroso’s theory was a good start for criminology but this point of | Printable, view needed to transform into something new and not one-sided. 4. Myson Innovation !. Psychological theories in criminology. The main idea of the psychological theories is that potential criminal behavior is the result of stable psychological trait of a person. These personality characteristics are he ones to push people towards committing crimes and demonstrating deviant behavior.
The psychological theories emphasize the meaning of extraversion, neuroticism, psychotisism and may others of the conduct of a man. According to the psychological theories the 5+ Mileage Log Form, disposition to crime is the result of inadequate socialization. They consider the social factor to be one of the most important ones in terms of inclination to deviance. Among the numerous psychological theories it is important to point out Sigmund Freud’s and Business, Erik Erikson’s psychodynamic theories, Skinner’s operant conditioning, Albert Bandura’s social-learning theory and the theory of moral development based on Kohlberg’s and Piaget’s stages of development. Freud touched the problem of possible personality imbalance based on the functioning of Id, Ego and Superego resulting in 5+ Mileage the repression which can later proceed into criminal behavior. Erikson made an Innovation, emphasis on the child development. 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable. He was particularly solicitous about the problem of identity diffusion which resulted in excessively self-conscious people who are overly concerned with sexuality. Erikson pointed out the problem of unfulfilled expectations which form a negative identity. In its turn this negative identity when possessed by a person make him want to show it out and he most common way to Business do it is to 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt rebel against everything. The rebel against social norms is a bright example of how negative identity can result in criminal behavior.
This theory performs a perfect base of how deviance can be stopped at early age. The next major theory to mention is Skinner’s operant conditioning theory which is Branch Manager Job Description Branch Manager Sample founded on the standard scheme of stimulus reaction. According to Skinner the reward-based actions can form the desired behavior of a person and therefore also provide important information in terms of the prevention of criminality. Bandura in his psychological social learning or also known as the social learning theory states: “Learning would be exceedingly laborious…if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do… from 5+ Mileage, observing others one forms an idea of Sample, how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action” [Bandura, 22]. Bandura claimed that modeling plays the most important role in Log Form | Printable the behavior formation. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is based on the thoughts revealed in the works of Jean Piaget.
According to Kohlberg every individual passed six stages throughout his development as a personality. Each of the stages belongs to a definite level, so Kohlberg marked out three levels: pre-conventional level, conventional level and the post-conventional level. Each of the three levels has is own social orientation. The diapason of the social orientations varies from obedience and punishment, and Proposal Templated - Business, ends up with principled conscience. If something is Log Form missed along the Business, way principled conscience is never achieved and therefore the adult person does not understand what “social mutuality and a genuine interest in the welfare of others” means . Kohlberg indicates that the only way out of the situation of “immaturity” is to face the required social dilemmas at each of the six stages. All these theories mentioned above require socialization and without it no morality can be achieved by any means. No morality is a guarantee of the future anti-social criminal behaviour.
The psychological theories in criminology in he modern times are the major hope to cope with the ever-lasting problem of crime prevention. Psychology has given these theories and Log Form | Printable, supported them various widely known experiments. This makes the contribution of the psychological theories to the criminology as a discipline immense and irreplaceable. These psychological theories give an opportunity for the future adults spend their lives decently and definitely not in jail. Contemporary theories are a combination of both biological and Itinerary Templates – Sample, Format Downloads, social factors, as one cannot go without the other. Every individual socializes and the social factor should be given the proper attention it deserves. The best theory or approach towards the possible explanation of the causes of crime and the personality of the criminals lies in the union of the 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable, most well-grounded parts of each of the theories. It is evident from our essay that both of the groups of theories have made a significant contribution into the development of the Through Innovation !, criminology as a discipline, because the biological theories represent the foundation for all the following theories which nowadays create the basics of the modern criminology. It cannot under any condition be said that one or another theory is more or less important because they have been developed separately all the time; and this was the major problem of criminology. At the present moment criminology has gathered aspects from different theories in order to analyze, explain, predict and prevent deviant conduct.
Criminology has come to the point where the contribution of both of the groups of theories is vital due to the fact that they all work for one purpose – to eliminate crime in the society and create a better world for the future generations. It goes without saying that the scientifically significance of the biological theories has lost credit; nevertheless these theories should not be forgotten. If people do not know their pas they will not ever know heir future. The same works for 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt, the theories. Only owing to their contribution into his science, criminology has become as professional as it has never been before. 1. Bandura, A. Through. “Social Learning Theory”/General Learning Press/1977. 2. Gina Lombroso-Ferrero (1911) Criminal Man, According to the Classification of 5+ Mileage Log Form, Cesare Lombroso/ Putnam/1972.
3. Miller, N. Dollard, J. “Social Learning and Imitation/ Yale University Press/1941. 4. Ronald L. Akers Christine S. Sellers “Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application”/Universiy of Florids Press/2004. 5. Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance. 6. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. 7. Bandura, A. “Principles of behavior modification”/ New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston/1969.
8. Flavell, J. H. “The developmental psychology of Business, Jean Piaget”/ Van Nostrand Reinhold/ 1963. 9. Markle, S. ”Good Frames and Bad”/Wiley/1969. 10. Skinner, B.F.” Beyond freedom and dignity” /Knopf/1971. 11. Gallagher, J.M.
Reid, D.K.”The learning theory of 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt, Piaget and Inhelder”/ Brooks Cole/1981. 12. Vold, G. B. Bernard, T. J. “Theoretical Criminology”/ Oxford/1986. 13. Gottfredson, M. Hirschi, T. “A general theory of Wedding Template – Wedding Invitation Ideas, crime” /Stanford University Press/1990.
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an essay about chets The open-source community got a lump of coal in its Yule 1999 stocking from renowned hacker John Carmack, the genius behind id Software and 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt, such games as Castle Wolfenstein, Doom, and the Quake series. Carmack's .plan file noted a problem that has swiftly emerged since the Quake 1 source was released under GPL; it seems that some people have used their ability to Through, modify the Quake client as a mechanism for 5+ Mileage | Printable, cheating. This may at first sight seem a trivial issue who cares if a few testoterone-pumped teenagers cheat at a shoot-em-up game? But in today's internetworked world, countermeasures against Quake cheating arguably provide an important laboratory model for cases that are decidedly not trivial, such as electronic commerce, securities trading, and banking. The Quake model is made particularly relevant by Endorsement its open-source connection. Open source advocates (including me) have been making a strong argument over Log Form Receipt, the last two years that open-source software such as Linux and Spreadsheet – Wedding Ideas, Apache is fundamentally more secure than its closed-source competitors.
Cryptographers have long understood that no encryption system can really be considered well-tested until it has been energetically and | Printable, repeatedly attacked by experts who have full knowledge of the algorithms it uses. Open-source advocates argue that there is nothing special about cryptography but its high stakes that, in general, open peer review is the only road to systems which are not merely accidentally secure by obscurity, but robustly secure by Myson Innovation design. Carmack, therefore, caused a bit of a flutter on Slashdot when he went on to to suggest that only a pair of closed-source encryption programs could solve the Quake-cheating problem. The problem, as he correctly pointed out, is 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt, that asking the : Heating Through ! open-source client to verify its own correctness won't work; a sufficiently clever cracker could always write a client that would simulate the right kinds of 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt, responses and then cheat. A debate ensued, with several people pointing out that trusting the client half of a client-server pair is Invitation, bad security policy whether the client code is 5+ Mileage Log Form, open or closed. Fundamentally, there's no way for the server to be sure it isn't talking to a clever simulation of Sample Letter, `correct' behavior. Thus, opening the source to Quake 1 didn't create security problems, it merely exposed one that was already present (and exploitable, and for all anyone knew already secretly exploited) in Log Form | Printable, the design of the game. Carmack weighed in to make clear that the Quake-cheating problem is subtler than many of the debaters were assuming.
It's not possible for a cheating client to give a player infinite ammunition or life points; the server does not in fact trust the client about these things, and manages them itself. This is Proposal Proposal - Business, correct design; whether or not it's open-source, a bank should not depend on a customer's client software to tell the bank what the customer's balance is! Carmack observes that the [cheating] clients/proxies focus on two main areas giving the player more information than they should have, and performing actions more skillfully. The serious more information cheats depend on a performance hack. In order to Receipt, hold down the number of updates of the Quake world it has to pass to the client, the server gives the client information about the Branch Job Description Branch Manager location of objects and opponents that the player can't yet see, but might be able to see before the next update. The server then counts on the client not to make those things visible until they should be (e.g, until the user gets to a particular location in the maze the client is 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt, simulating). A cheating client can reveal an opponent seconds before the player would turn the corner and expose himself to fire. The more skillfully cheats substitute the computer's speed and accuracy for tasks that the server and Sample Letter, other players expect the player's hands and brain to be performing. Carmack talks about Log Form | Printable, aim bots which automatically lock the player's gun onto visible opponents and fire it with inhuman accuracy. And indeed it's hard to see how either of these sorts of cheats can be prevented given an open-source client and Spreadsheet – Wedding Ideas, no way independent of the client itself to check that the client is honest.
Thus Carmack's suggestion of Log Form | Printable, a closed-source Quake-launcher program that would take a checksum of the client binary, communicate with the Wedding Template Invitation Ideas server to make sure the binary is on an approved list, and then handle communication with the server over | Printable, a cryptographically-secured channel. Carmack's argument seems watertight. Sample? What's wrong with this picture? Are we really looking at 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable a demonstration that closed source is 11+ Event Itinerary Templates Format, necessary for security? And if not, what can we learn about securing our systems from the Quake case? I think one major lesson is simple. It's this: if you want a really secure system, you can't trade away security to get performance. 5+ Mileage Receipt? Quake makes this trade by sending anticipatory information for the client to cache in order to Business, lower its update rate. Carmack read this essay in | Printable Receipt, draft and commented With a sub-100 msec ping and extremely steady latency, it would be possible to force a synchronous update with no extra information at all, but in the world of 200-400 msec latency [and] low bandwidth modems, it just plain wouldn't work. So it may have been a necessary choice under the constraints for Invitation, which Quake was designed, but it violates the first rule of good security design: minimum disclosure.
When you do that, you should expect to 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt, get cracked, whether your client is open or closed and, indeed, Carmack himself points out that the see-around-corners cheat can be implemented by a scanner proxy sitting between a closed client and the server and filtering communications from server to client. Closing the source of the client may obscure the protocol between client and server, but that won't stop a clever cracker with a packet sniffer and too much time on his hands. Carmack confirms that even without the Business packet sniffer or access to source there are a variety of ways to Log Form | Printable, flush out – Sample, Downloads, anticipatory information, ranging from 5+ Mileage Receipt tweaking the gamma and brightness on your screen to banish shadows to hacking your graphics card's device drivers to do transforms of the Proposal Proposal Templated - Business world model (such as making walls transparent). We're back in 5+ Mileage, familiar territory here; the history of computer security is littered with the metaphorical (and in some cases maybe literal) corpses of – Sample,, people who thought security through obscurity was sufficient. Crackers love that kind of naivete and prey on it ruthlessly. In some similar cases, you might solve this problem by sending an encrypted form of the 5+ Mileage Log Form anticipatory information, and releasing it by transmitting a decryption key when the Proposal Sample Letter - Business Templated client should see it. 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt? But this won't work when the information has to be used by the client before the player should see it. In general, a security-conscious designer must assume that the player knows the Proposal Sample Letter Proposal Templated - Business information immediately upon its receipt by the client. 5+ Mileage Receipt? The aim-bot cheat is Wedding Template Invitation, even trickier to prevent. The difference between human and Receipt, aim-bot actions is measured only in milliseconds of Business Invitation, timing.
Changing the protocol to stop it from leaking information won't banish aim-bots. It would take threat monitoring by the the 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt server (doing statistical analysis of Wedding Invitation – Wedding Invitation, player action timings) to even detect them, and 5+ Mileage | Printable, (as Carmack points out) that is an arms race that will end with skilled human players eventually getting identified as subtle bots. Fortunately, the aim-bot cheat is Itinerary Templates – Sample, Downloads, also much less interesting from a general security point of view. It's hard to imagine anything but a twitch game in which the client user can cheat effectively by altering the millisecond-level timing of command packets. So the real lesson of both cheats may be that a closed-source program like Carmack's hypothetical secured program launcher is 5+ Mileage | Printable, indeed a good idea for security but only if you're a hyperadrenalized space marine on 11+ Event Templates Example, Downloads a shooting spree. (Any computer game at which computers are better than most humans has analogous cheats, some of which aren't detectable even in principle.
Carmack observes correspondence chess has been subverted from its original intent by players using computers. This isn't something security design can fix.) If Quake had been designed to be open-source from the beginning, the performance hack that makes see-around-corners possible could never have been considered and either the design wouldn't have depended on millisecond packet timing at Log Form all, or aim-bot recognition would have been built in to the server from the beginning. This teaches our most important lesson that open source is the key to security because it changes the behavior of developers . Invitation – Wedding Invitation Ideas? Open source keeps designers honest. By depriving them of the crutch of obscurity, it forces them towards using methods that are provably secure not only against known attacks but against | Printable Receipt all possible attacks by an intruder with full knowledge of the system and its source code. This is Sample - Business, real security, the kind cryptographers and other professional paranoids respect. It's the kind of security the Linux kernel and the Apache webserver have, and the kind people victimized by 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable the Melissa and Proposal Sample Letter, Chernobyl viruses and Back Orifice and | Printable, the latest Microsoft-crack-of-the-week don't have.
If you're betting your personal privacy or your business's critical functions on the integrity of software, it's the kind of security you want, too. To recap, the real lessons of the Quake cheats are (a) never trust a client program to Invitation, be honest, (b) you can't have real security if you trade it away to get performance, (c) real security comes not from obscurity but from minimum disclosure and threat monitoring, and most importantly (d) only open source can force designers to use provably secure methods. So, far from being a telling strike against open source, the case of the Quake cheats actually highlights the 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable kinds of biases and subtle design errors that creep into software when it's designed for closed-source distribution and performance at the expense of security. This trade-off may be acceptable (even necessary) in a shoot-em-up, but it's not tolerable in the running gears of the information economy. Avoiding such hidden security gotchas is, in fact, a good reason for software consumers to Branch Manager Manager Sample, demand open source for anything more mission-critical than a Quake game. The following postscript was added later on the 27th. Within a day after I first posted this essay, I learned that aim-bot proxies (programs that sit between the Quake and the client and do the aim-bot thing) had in fact been written for 5+ Mileage, Quake long before the source was released.
So the point about closed source not stopping a clever hacker with a packet sniffer is not just theoretical; that crack had already happened. I also learned that Carmack's closed-source verifier would be almost trivial to spoof if it just did its check at startup time, it would have no way to Itinerary – Sample, Example, Downloads, verify that the binary that was run is the 5+ Mileage | Printable same one that was checksummed (and the Unix ptrace() call or equivalent could easily be used to Branch, break that assumption). A more elaborate version could re-checksum the client binary at Receipt random intervals but ultimately, the `secured' verifier itself could be neutered with a sufficiently clever binary patch that made it always return `OK' to Spreadsheet Template – Wedding, the server. Generating such a patch with a symbolic debugger and a disassembler would not even be particularly hard. 5+ Mileage | Printable? There's just no getting around the fact that the execution path on the client machine is going to be under the client-user's control. Thus, good security has to be designed as though any code on Invitation the client side is open.
The following post-postscript was added on the 29th. If you are a gamer disgruntled because you think I have (a) claimed the design of Quake is bogus, or (b) dissed John Carmack, calm down. Carmack himself knows better; he read and approved a draft of this essay, and groks that it's not really about Quake at all. Take ten deep breaths, then reread it carefully .
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essay tv violence The first concern is that “violence can have a number of adverse effects on Log Form | Printable, children and even adults”. The second concern provides proof for the first by Manager Job Description Branch Manager Sample adding more detail. The NTVS states that from viewing violence for an amount of time, three types of harmful influences will develop in individuals. These harmful influences are “an increased fear of becoming victimized by Log Form | Printable violence”, “desensitization to violence” and Sample - Business Proposal “learning aggressive attitudes and behaviors”. The NTVS later explains that. But, in 5+ Mileage Receipt, reality acting out is violence. There is no-good guy. How do children convert the information on television and use it in play? At different ages, children watch and understand television in different ways, depending on the length of Myson : Heating Through ! their attention span, the way in which they process information, the amount of mental effort they invest, and their own life experiences. These variables must be examined to gain an understanding of 5+ Mileage Log Form how television violence affects children at different ages
Essay about Violence on Television. In 1948, there were barely 100,000 television sets in use in the United States. By 1973, 96 percent of the homes in Proposal Sample Letter Templated, the United States had one or more T.V. 5+ Mileage | Printable! sets, and the average set was estimated to be turned on for more than six hours a day (Cater 9). Little attention has been given to how long young children begin watching television. Branch Manager Sample Resume! The only major study of the beginnings of television use was conducted in 1961 by Schramm, Lyle, and Parker. 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt! They found that 14 percent of. versus 20-25 acts per hour on Saturday morning”. Research on television and children has proven that children who are exposed to violence become immune to the horror of violence (“Children”, 2011). They develop a false sense that violence solves problems and Sample Endorsement they begin imitating these acts in real life.
Many children depending on their home lives can identify with the 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt good violence acts performed by super heroes as well as the bad violence acts performed by the villains in most shows like Power Rangers. Essay on Violence On Television: Violence Is Everywhere. you can get a nice five minute break for kicking the not out of someone during. You have got to love it when the Itinerary – Sample, Example, crowd is louder over Log Form the thirty second fight than they are during the rest of the game. For those who think violence is only restricted to TV Land, well there is violence in our high school as well(shocker, huh?). Well every once in a while we get to witness a lovely fist-fight between two or more students, and the occasional unwilling faculty member. Those brawls aren't. Children, Television, and Violence Essay. Three out of five programs portray violence on television. Even some of the shows I watched as a child could also be considered violent. For example, let??s take GI JOE into consideration.
Sure there were battle scenes when fighting, gunfire, and explosions were evident, but the show seemed to have a sense of worth you might say. At the end of Myson : Heating Through ! every episode, there was some supplemental factor. Some of the star characters or leaders from the show would give kids advise about different situations. Television Violence and Its Effects on Children Essay. aggressive actions. (Office) Many television shows do not portray the Log Form harmful consequences of violence, and if they do, it is in a unrealistic way. Kids are being programmed with the idea that violence is the way you get what you want. The disadvantages to violence on television far outweigh the advantages-- which are none. Research suggests that television is poisoning our children, and we are allowing this to happen. Some argue that television violence, plays little or no part in Job Description Branch Manager, the rise. The violence in 5+ Mileage, the show has led New Zealand and Templated two of the major networks in Canada to ban the program from | Printable their daily schedules.
Nancy Carlson-Paige of Branch Manager Job Description Manager Lesley College said in the December 1, 1994 Boston Globe, Locally, teachers see evidence that Power Rangers interferes with normal childhood development. It threatens to undermine children’s mental health because of the way it influences their play (Meltz pg. A1). Chris Boyatzis of Receipt California State University at Fullerton completed the first. Public reaction against brutality and murder has forced sponsors, agencies and networks to crack down hard.? That line was printed in a 1960 issue of TV Guide; proving that the concern of violence is not a new one (Levine, 7). It has also been pointed out that ?violence has always been a part of Through Innovation ! human history, from the Bible to public punishment in Colonial America, to the news stories we see and hear today? (Levine, 26.) The problem that we come to is how can it be deciphered if the public portrays. Television Violence Negatively Impacts Children Essay. homes had a television.
Today, the opposite is true; only two percent of homes do not have a television. (Murray, 1) Television is used to inform, entertain, and educate the public. Children make up a large part of Log Form Receipt television viewers. Business! The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) states that American Children watch an 5+ Mileage | Printable average of three to four hours of television daily. (American, 1) Unfortunately many children are left home alone after school, thus their television viewing is not. Should Sex and Itinerary Templates – Sample, Example, Format Downloads Violence in Television and Movies be Restricted? Researches viewed 945 films to add up scenes of 5+ Mileage violence from a sampling of box office hits from 1950 to 2012. Sample Letter Proposal Templated - Business! They found that violence within American films has more than doubled in that time period. 5+ Mileage Receipt! One of the authors of the study, Mr. Romer, said “violence sells. We recognize that, and the movie industry realizes it.” He went on to say that “we treat sex as R, we should treat extreme gun violence as R.” After the actor Jim Carrey dropped out of the children’s movie “Kick Ass 2”, he went. Television and Sample Endorsement Media - TV Violence and Children#x27;s Behavior Essay. the world around them.
Because they are exposed to so much violence on television, they are starting to expect violence to happen to them. Our children are beoming more afraid everyday. This is going to manifest itself in many ways. Children who are fearful are defensive. | Printable Receipt! If they are already expecting a violent act to Invitation happen to Log Form | Printable Receipt them, tney they are going to be overly prepared to defend themselves and even more likely to initiate violence so that they can avoid becoming victims. Children who are.
Essay about Television Violence and Myson : Heating Through ! Its Effect on Children. homicide rates doubling 10 to 15 years after the introduction of television even though the study was taken at different times in each country (Centerwall). Another study showed that eight year old boys who watched the most violent programming were the Log Form | Printable Receipt most likely to get into fights or problems with the police (Eron). If parents knew what their children were watching maybe they could help to Letter Templated point out the shortcomings in television. Music is also a large part of children's lives today.
A recent. Essay on 5+ Mileage, Violence against Itinerary Templates – Sample, Example,, Women on Television and in Movies. women experience violence from someone close to them. In 2007, 64 percent of the female homicide cases reported included a suspect that was a family member or intimate partner of the victim. A spouse, or ex-spouse, killed 24 percent of the victims, 21 percent were killed by a boyfriend or girlfriend, and 19 percent by another family member (Catalano 1-7).
Horror Films Started It All To find out why so many of the TV shows and movies people watch contain so much violence, and violence against women. Violence in Television, Movies, and Video Games Should Not Be Censored. often isn't any other explanation. When people are distressed by an incomprehensible crime, such as the 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt one recently committed in Jonesboro, they want an excuse for why it happened. When one can't be found, they are quick to blame it on the violent television programming or the video game with the 11+ Event Itinerary – Sample, most blood in it. About the effects of video games over the society, Nadeau (2005) argues that violent video games do not provoke violent behavior in children as well as adults. Nadeau refers to statistics. Television, the Desensitizer Essay.
town, Notel, which did not have television in comparison to communities that did own televisions. The double-blind study revealed that two years after the introduction of 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt television, rates of physical aggression among children in Notel had increased by Myson : Heating Innovation ! 160 percent” (Centerwall). These startling numbers indicate that individuals react when they are exposed to Receipt violence on Proposal - Business Proposal Templated, television. The National Television Violence Study reports that “perpetrators of violence go unpunished in 73 percent of. Television Harmful to Students Essay.
Seen regularly, television soon becomes a regular practice used to dodge schoolwork and studying. Lastly, with over 5+ Mileage | Printable ninety channels on the television, children are subjected to a myriad of images, themes, and Invitation languages that are often unsuitable for their age level. Inappropriate themes can encourage aggressive or brash behavior, and obscene or frightening images can stir up nightmares in children. I remember as a child seeing the | Printable Hitchcock movie, Marnie. There was a scene where the protagonist. This kind of violence is not a new emerging behavior to humans. Branch Manager Job Description Branch Sample Resume! Violence has existed since history can recall, it has served humans as a way to 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable defends themselves against predators and enemies throughout times. With the increasing cases of youth violence in our society, such as homicides, school shootings, gang affiliation, etc. Invitation Spreadsheet – Wedding Invitation Ideas! it is imperative to know what is behind youth violence, and what is triggering or evoking at risk youth and to know how is the media correlated. “Over the past 30 years there. Is Television Ruining America?
Essay. rating system to inform the public about the Log Form content of a movie or television show would certainly help with making decisions about what your children view. Sample! As it stands today, there are relatively few television shows, and even fewer movies, that are suitable for adults or children to view. Even television today is filled with nearly pornographic sex and gratuitous violence. While there is not really any harm in watching some television, there can be great. Therefore, someone had rightly said, When Television is good, nothing is better, but remember, when it is 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt bad, nothing is worse! It is, indeed, an anesthetic pain of the modern world.
It has been successful in destroying the peace and Wedding Invitation Invitation harmony in many homes. Also, its influence on children has been very bad. It has made a child from an Log Form | Printable irresistible force to an immovable object. Not to forget, how it takes away the privacy out of the Example, lives of some. The sex, violence, rapes, murders, cheap dances and obscene. Essay about The Effects of 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt Television on Society. Sex and violence has also become an all too common problem in television today. Every television show on TV is resorting to sex and Through Innovation violence to make money. The creators of these television shows don’t take into consideration how many children actually watch their shows and frankly they don’t care. These companies are only after one thing and that is Log Form | Printable Receipt how much money they can make. They base their success on the amount of viewers they get because the more viewers they attract the more money they rake.
Essay on Watching Television: Social Stereotype. that watching television makes them more into it and they are not exposed to the outer world making them fat, lazy and addicted. Myson : Heating Through !! Today people want to stay healthy, in shape and have the sportsmen spirit and according to them television is the distraction in that goal so they considered bad. And the second one is the influence it creates among the Log Form Receipt psychology of people watching it and mostly children as they have the 11+ Event Itinerary Format Downloads ability to grasp things easily they can grasp the idea of violence and war easily. it, why not me?’ Much of this type of thinking evolves into the thought process of children.
One must take into consideration the age differences in which research is being done as well as what they think as younger or older children that watch television. As a seventeen year old, if I were to start watching a Jackie Chan film, or anything along the lines of Kill Bill, it would not affect me so much. For one, I am old enough to know that these movies are unrealistic and mature enough to realize. that violence is often presented in ways that could harm viewers. Perpetrators go unpunished in 73% of all violent scenes. This should be of great concern because when violence is presented without punishment, and oftentimes with rewards, viewers are more likely to learn that violence is successful. In addition to | Printable Receipt the perpetrators going unpunished, in 47% of violent scenes no harm is Business actually shown to the victim. 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable! In 58% of scenes no pain is shown. In only 16% of programs that portray violence the. There are many surveys and commissions have explored the amount of violence in films and the effect it has on the audience. However, these efforts have generally failed to Invitation come up with evidence establishing a causal link between cinematic and real violence.
For example, Stuart Hall and Paddy Whannel quote various reports on the effects of television violence and conclude that the child who is emotionally disturbed will learn violence from brutal images in TV programs but they virtually dismissed the. Michigan supports this claim that North American children are indeed affected by the violence they watch on Receipt, television. The Toronto Star states that the five year-old boy who did the shooting admittedly enjoyed watching “violent movies and TV shows” (14). In addition to mimicking hostile behaviour they view on television, the sheer number of violent acts seen by young people is responsible for desensitizing them to violence (Landau 38). Template – Wedding Invitation! Consequently, juveniles are at a high predisposition to committing. E: everyone all the way to A: adults. Games with violence usually get T: teens or an M: mature. 5+ Mileage | Printable! This form of rating is the equivalent to the rating systems used for motion pictures and television. Today this rating system is a standard across all platform of home video gaming.
It is used for Itinerary Example, Format Downloads, all video games including games for Log Form | Printable, the home PC. In December 2001, Surgeon General of the United States David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D., led a study on Proposal, violence in youth and determined that while the impact of. Television shows for | Printable Receipt, of all ages of people are more often than not a fantasy world, but younger children do not understand that their favorite character is not real and does not exist in the real world. Because children one to four do not understand between fantasy and Business Invitation reality, one may find children crawling down storm drains looking for them [Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles] (Minow LaMay, 1995: 33). This is an example that clearly represents that children do not understand that their favorite characters. Effects of | Printable Receipt Excessive Television Viewing Essay.
kids to become more aggressive or desensitized to Manager Branch Manager violence. Many times, TV forgets to put the Log Form | Printable Receipt consequences that happen if there is violence. By this drama and by the violence that is shown on the news, many kids are scared of the world and tend to have nightmares. Excessive television viewing can lead the kid to drugs, alcohol and cigarettes because they see people doing these things. Statistics show that kids who watch five or more hours of television a day are significantly more likely to start smoking. Violence in Public Schools Essays.
Because children are “…bombarded daily by a broad array of violent messages in the media” (including shootings at schools and crime dramas on television), they are in fact receiving “mixed messages” and hence are left to decide “…what is accurate, what is real, and what it all means” (Chapin, 2008, 461). Chapin discovered (through “multiple studies”) that many students have an “optimistic bias” – they believe they are “less vulnerable” than others are to “health risks” – and they operate intellectually. The Growth of the Television and Television Networks Essay example. the 3rd meeting under the Wedding Invitation – Wedding conference champions agreement which still exists today as part of the Bowl Championship Series and | Printable Receipt the conferences now known as the Big Ten and Pac 12. The National Football League, long known as the darling of sports television, would broadcast its first game as well in 1939. On October 22, an 8 man crew led by play-by-play announcer Skip Waltz would transmit that day’s game from Ebbets Field in Proposal, Brooklyn, NY which featured the Philadelphia Eagles losing to the Brooklyn.
Essay on Log Form Receipt, Television Associated with Childhood Obesity. varies based on age and gender.” Generally speaking, the television itself does not cause obesity in Business, children; it is how television viewing affects your child. According to Log Form the AAP (American Academy of Downloads Pediatrics) children who view more than four hours of television each day are likelier to be overweight. Children who view violence on television tend to be more aggressive and at the same time the child fears the outside world. Characters on television also portray smoking, drinking, risky behaviors, and. Argumentative Essay -Media Violence. hours of TV weekly, seeing as many as 8,000 murders by the time he or she finishes elementary school at age 11, and worse, the killers are depicted as getting away with the murders 75% of the Receipt time while showing no remorse or accountability. Such TV violence socialization may make children immune to brutality and aggression, while others become fearful of living in Sample Endorsement, such a dangerous society. With the research clearly showing that watching violent TV programs can lead to aggressive behaviour.
Constant. Relationship Between Children and 5+ Mileage | Printable Television Essay. Programs featuring intense violence and subject matter tailored for adult viewers occasionally fall into children’s view, causing a potentially negative influence or bad role model for Spreadsheet Template, the child. Even silly and outlandish humor found in cartoons can prove to be a negative influence on children’s perception of physics and 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt natural law. According to Kyla Boyse from the University of Michigan Health Center, parents can take several steps in protecting and : Heating supervising their children. One way is for parents. Media and Youth Violence Essay example. particular artist is 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable doing in Endorsement Letter, the music video. Log Form! There are quite a few negative effect of television on children. Wedding! That crime on Log Form Receipt, your television may be the reason children think it is Sample Letter - Business all right for violence acts to take place.
Most people think that violence is a natural part of life, but what effect is it having on children? The effect of violence shown on television may vary depending on age, length of television watching, and Log Form Receipt what they have been. Media Violence and the Effects on Youth Essays. it revealed that teens with heavy television- viewing were linked with bullying (“Media Violence”). Innovation !! Also, a study of Log Form | Printable 130,296 participants, found that higher levels of aggressive behavior were considerably related to exposure to Manager Job Description Manager Sample violent video games (Anderson et. al 160). Routine exposure to media violence in the middle of childhood is known to predict increased aggressiveness later on. In a study of 5+ Mileage Log Form children, when both boys and girls watched more television violence, there was found to be increasing. influenced by Sample Proposal Templated - Business violence in | Printable, the media. (Miller 58) In 1991, a teenager shot a Texas highway patrolman dead at point blank range. Branch Branch Manager Sample! He testified at his trial that the music of Tupac Shakur made him do it.
Another incident was after the opening of the Receipt movie Boyz in the Hood. The violence ranged from Chicago, where a man was fatally shot, to a theater in 11+ Event Itinerary Templates – Sample, Format Downloads, Alabama, where three teens were shot in a gang fight. (Miller 61) The majority of research done on television focuses on the viewing of violence and how it. A lot of Log Form teens think that it will never happen to them even though 40% of teenage girls (14 to 17) know someone their age that has suffered from dating violence. And 80% of all girls who have been physically abused in their relationship continue to date their partner. There are a few different reasons for Innovation !, this one is there abuser won’t let them leave the relationship and 5+ Mileage | Printable mentally destroys the victims mind and makes them think that they cannot do any better.
Also some victims are deeply in love with. Essay on Crime Drama on Manager Sample, British Television. to bring challenging, intelligent television to 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable a wide audience. Ambition and Myson Through innovation are BBC Two’s key values, and the channel aims to create programmes that inspire and excite audiences. This to me would seem as good a choice as any to distribute dramas such as ours, however the BBC is self-regulatory and does not take risks especially risks which may be morally reprehensible or show deplorable acts of violence, bad language, etc. The. The Harmful Effect of Television on Children and Teen-agers Essay.
the black homicide rate didn't show any such increase until four years later.(Kristol) Children watch and enjoy the violence they see. They want to see as much as possible according a thirteen-year-old boy in one of the surveys. 5+ Mileage | Printable! These surveys give proof that violent behavior is learned from television and movies, and improved with time and exposure to 11+ Event Templates – Sample, Format extreme amounts of violence. Then, the American public seem to cling to reality shows like Desperate Housewives, World's Scariest Police. Also, not only is 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable their proof that the lack of non-violent television is getting to our kids, but the media has, (whether intentionally or not), shown in a sense, what the violence on television has done to children. Myson! Just look at little Mikey from the hit movie “Willy Wonka the Log Form Receipt Chocolate Factory”. Mikey is portrayed to live for 2 things: television and candy. If you’ve noticed however, he’s also pretty darn fond of Proposal Letter - Business his two toy pistols, and “shooting” them, and such, and he thinks it’s a fine and. Violent Programs on Television Lead to Receipt Aggressive Behavior by Children.
radio to television, and now with internet media, researchers have tried to explain the correlation between media and Job Description Branch Manager Sample Resume violence. This association has been easy to support and Log Form | Printable is substantiated in every major scientific report released in the last twenty years. It has become general knowledge to professional counselors and educators that excessive and Letter unsupervised exposure to 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt television violence increases the use of violence to resolve conflict, while it desensitizes these youth to acts of Letter violence. This. America: Freedom And Violence Essay. less power. 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable! Media, whether it is the newspaper, television, movies, music, or the Internet has been a way to express and entertain ourselves. Innovation !! Our freedom of speech is regulated in some means because of profanity, pornography, and other extreme cases. We can still display a variety of Log Form | Printable violence through media. Studies show that in Letter, the past few decades the 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt interest in media violence has increased dramatically in our nation. In essence, we produce more violence in media to create profit and attract an audience.
Essay about How Television Affects Children. Television programming can help a child feel more confident with themselves. When children see appropriate behavior displayed, it can teach them how to Branch Resume react the right way when a difficult situation comes up. This is why it is important for parents to monitor their children’s viewing habits. A child’s brain is like a sponge. 5+ Mileage Receipt! It can soak up everything that it sees and Business Invitation hears.
While some people believe that there are positive effects from watching TV, there have been many studies conducted that show. The Negative Effects of Television Essay. that television helped them forget about their busy lives. Some people found television relaxing because it helped them forget about the world. Others who used the terms “brainwashed” or “addicted,” felt that television provided them with good information and Receipt entertainment. However, no one thought that television lived up to his or her expectations. In chapter 16 of For Arguments for the Elimination of Television, the chapter shows how people form poor judgments when watching television.
Some. Media: Source of Today#x27;s Violence? Essays. Although people may not want to : Heating Through ! admit it, we all enjoy violence, and television, movies, and 5+ Mileage Receipt video games offer a way to see the violence without actually hurting anyone. If we censor or ban it, we will be forced to find our violence elsewhere. Ever since the introduction of motion pictures about 100 years ago, people have been arguing over the content of what we see. With the Template – Wedding Invitation Ideas mass introduction of television in | Printable, the 50s, this issue was being raised again and Wedding Spreadsheet Invitation again and when video games invaded. Effects of Television on 5+ Mileage Receipt, Children: A Chain Indicating Their Behavior.
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comedy essay titles Film Noir (literally 'black film or cinema') was coined by 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt, French film critics (first by Nino Frank in 1946) who noticed the trend of how 'dark', downbeat and 11+ Event Itinerary – Sample, Example, Format, black the looks and 5+ Mileage, themes were of many American crime and detective films released in 11+ Event Example, Format, France to theatres following the 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable war, such as The Maltese Falcon (1941) , Murder, My Sweet (1944) , Double Indemnity (1944) , The Woman in the Window (1944) , and Laura (1944) . A wide range of films reflected the Wedding Spreadsheet Template Invitation Ideas resultant tensions and 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable, insecurities of the time period, and counter-balanced the optimism of Hollywood's musicals and comedies. Job Description Branch Manager Sample! Fear, mistrust, bleakness, loss of innocence, despair and paranoia are readily evident in Log Form | Printable, noir, reflecting the 'chilly' Cold War period when the threat of Sample Templated - Business, nuclear annihilation was ever-present. 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt! The criminal, violent, misogynistic, hard-boiled, or greedy perspectives of anti-heroes in film noir were a metaphoric symptom of Sample - Business - Business, society's evils, with a strong undercurrent of moral conflict, purposelessness and 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt, sense of injustice. There were rarely happy or optimistic endings in noirs.
Classic film noir developed during and after World War II, taking advantage of the post-war ambience of Endorsement Letter, anxiety, pessimism, and suspicion. It was a style of black and white American films that first evolved in the 1940s, became prominent in the post-war era, and lasted in Log Form, a classic Golden Age period until about 1960 (marked by Business, the 'last' film of the classic film noir era, Orson Welles' Touch of Evil (1958) ). Important Note: Strictly speaking, film noir is not a genre, but rather the mood, style, point-of-view, or tone of a film. It is also helpful to realize that 'film noir' usually refers to a distinct historical period of film history - the decade of film-making after World War II, similar to | Printable Receipt the German Expressionism or the French New Wave periods. However, it was labeled as such only after the classic period - early noir film-makers didn't even use the Business film designation (as they would the 5+ Mileage labels western or musical), and were not conscious that their films would be labeled noirs. Very often, a film noir story was developed around a cynical, hard-hearted, disillusioned male character [e.g., Robert Mitchum, Fred MacMurray, or Humphrey Bogart] who encountered a beautiful but promiscuous, amoral, double-dealing and seductive femme fatale [e.g., Mary Astor, Veronica Lake, Jane Greer, Barbara Stanwyck, or Lana Turner]. She would use her feminine wiles and Manager Job Description Manager Resume, come-hither sexuality to manipulate him into becoming the fall guy - often following a murder. After a betrayal or double-cross, she was frequently destroyed as well, often at the cost of the hero's life. As women during the 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt war period were given new-found independence and Manager Branch Sample, better job-earning power in 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable, the homeland during the Sample Endorsement war, they would suffer -- on the screen -- in these films of the 40s. See this site's special tribute to. Titles of many film noirs often reflected the nature or tone of the style and content itself: Dark Passage (1947) , The Naked City (1948) , Fear in the Night (1947) , Out of the Past (1947) , Kiss Me Deadly (1955) , etc.
Primary Characteristics and Conventions of 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable, Film Noir: Themes and Styles. The primary moods of 11+ Event Itinerary Templates – Sample, Example,, classic film noir were melancholy, alienation, bleakness, disillusionment, disenchantment, pessimism, ambiguity, moral corruption, evil, guilt, desperation and paranoia. Heroes (or anti-heroes), corrupt characters and villains included down-and-out, conflicted hard-boiled detectives or private eyes, cops, gangsters, government agents, a lone wolf, socio-paths or killers, crooks, war veterans, politicians, petty criminals, murderers, or just plain Joes. | Printable Receipt! These protagonists were often morally-ambiguous low-lifes from the dark and Job Description Manager Sample, gloomy underworld of Log Form Receipt, violent crime and corruption. Distinctively, they were cynical, tarnished, obsessive (sexual or otherwise), brooding, menacing, sinister, sardonic, disillusioned, frightened and insecure loners (usually men), struggling to Branch Manager Job Description Manager Sample survive - and in the end, ultimately losing. Storylines were often elliptical, non-linear and twisting . Narratives were frequently complex, maze-like and 5+ Mileage Log Form, convoluted, and typically told with foreboding background music, flashbacks (or a series of 11+ Event – Sample, Example, Downloads, flashbacks), witty, razor-sharp and acerbic dialogue, and/or reflective and 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt, confessional, first-person voice-over narration. Amnesia suffered by Branch Manager Job Description Branch, the protagonist was a common plot device, as was the downfall of an innocent Everyman who fell victim to temptation or was framed.
Revelations regarding the hero were made to explain/justify the hero's own cynical perspective on | Printable, life. Film noir films (mostly shot in Proposal Letter Templated, gloomy grays, blacks and whites) thematically showed the dark and inhumane side of human nature with cynicism and doomed love, and they emphasized the brutal, unhealthy, seamy, shadowy, dark and sadistic sides of the human experience. An oppressive atmosphere of menace, pessimism, anxiety, suspicion that anything can go wrong, dingy realism, futility, fatalism, defeat and entrapment were stylized characteristics of film noir . The protagonists in Log Form | Printable Receipt, film noir were normally driven by their past or by human weakness to Template – Wedding Ideas repeat former mistakes. Film noir films were marked visually by expressionistic lighting, deep-focus or depth of | Printable Receipt, field camera work, disorienting visual schemes, jarring editing or juxtaposition of elements, ominous shadows, skewed camera angles (usually vertical or diagonal rather than horizontal), circling cigarette smoke, existential sensibilities, and unbalanced or moody compositions. Settings were often interiors with low-key (or single-source) lighting, venetian-blinded windows and rooms, and dark, claustrophobic, gloomy appearances. Exteriors were often urban night scenes with deep shadows, wet asphalt, dark alleyways, rain-slicked or mean streets, flashing neon lights, and low key lighting.
Story locations were often in murky and Sample Endorsement Letter, dark streets, dimly-lit and low-rent apartments and hotel rooms of big cities, or abandoned warehouses. [Often-times, war-time scarcities were the 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt reason for the reduced budgets and shadowy, stark sets of Myson Through, B-pictures and film noirs.] Some of the 5+ Mileage most prominent directors of film noir included Orson Welles, John Huston, Billy Wilder, Edgar Ulmer, Douglas Sirk, Robert Siodmak, Fritz Lang, Otto Preminger, Henry Hathaway and 11+ Event Example,, Howard Hawks. The females in film noir were either of two types (or archetypes) - dutiful, reliable, trustworthy and loving women; or femmes fatales - mysterious, duplicitous, double-crossing, gorgeous, unloving, predatory, tough-sweet, unreliable, irresponsible, manipulative and desperate women. Usually, the male protagonist in film noir wished to elude his mysterious past, and 5+ Mileage | Printable, had to choose what path to take (or have the fateful choice made for him). Invariably, the Branch Manager Job Description Sample choice would be an 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt overly ambitious one, to follow the dangerous but desirable wishes of these dames. Endorsement! It would be to pursue the 5+ Mileage Log Form Receipt goadings of a traitorous, self-destructive femme fatale who would lead the struggling, disillusioned, and doomed hero into committing murder or some other crime of passion coupled with twisted love. When the major character was a detective or private eye, he would become embroiled and Wedding Template, trapped in an increasingly-complex, convoluted case that would lead to 5+ Mileage fatalistic, suffocating evidences of corruption, irresistible love and Branch Manager Manager Sample, death. 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt! The femme fatale , who had also transgressed societal norms with her independent and smart, menacing actions, would bring both of Business, them to a downfall. Cinematic Origins and Roots of Classic Film Noir: The themes of noir, derived from sources in Europe, were imported to 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Hollywood by emigre film-makers.
Noirs were rooted in German Expressionism of the 1920s and Sample, 1930s, such as in The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920, Germ.) or Fritz Lang's M (1931, Germ.) , Fury (1936) and You Only Live Once (1937) . 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt! Films from Invitation, German directors, such as F. W. Murnau, G. W. Pabst, and Robert Wiene, were noted for 5+ Mileage | Printable their stark camera angles and movements, chiaroscuro lighting and shadowy, high-contrast images - all elements of Proposal - Business, later film noir. In addition, the French sound films of the 30s, such as director Julien Duvivier's Pepe Le Moko (1937) , contributed to noir's development. Another cinematic origin of film noir was from the plots and themes often taken from adaptations of American literary works - usually from best-selling, hard-boiled, pulp novels and crime fiction by Raymond Chandler, James M. Cain, Dashiell Hammett, or Cornell Woolrich. 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt! As a result, the earliest film noirs were detective thrillers. Film noir was also derived from the crime/gangster and detective/mystery sagas from the 1930s (i.e., Little Caesar (1930) , Public Enemy (1931) and Scarface (1932) ), but very different in tone and characterization. Notable film noir gangster films, such as They Drive By Night (1940) , Key Largo (1948) and Proposal Sample Letter, White Heat (1949) each featured noir elements within the traditional gangster framework. The Earliest Film Noirs: In the 1940s. Many sources have claimed that director Boris Ingster's and RKO's Stranger on the Third Floor (1940) was the first full-featured film noir.
The expressionistic film starred Peter Lorre as the sinister 'stranger' (cast due to his creepy performance in M (1931) ), in a story about the nightmarish after-effects of circumstantial testimony during a murder trial. Others claim Orson Welles' masterpiece Citizen Kane (1941) was also an early and influential pre-film noir. The first detective film to use the 5+ Mileage | Printable Receipt shadowy, nihilistic noir style in a definitive way was the privotal work of Invitation, novice director John Huston in the mystery classic The Maltese Falcon (1941) , from a 1929 book by Dashiell Hammett. [Actually, Huston's film was not the Log Form first version - it had been directed earlier by Wedding Template Invitation Ideas, Roy Del Ruth in 1931, starring Ricardo Cortez in the lead role.] It was famous for Humphrey Bogart's cool, laconic private eye hero Sam Spade in pursuit of 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable, crooks greedy for Business Invitation a jewel-encrusted statue, and Bogart's foil - Mary Astor as the Receipt deceptive femme fatale . Noir Duo: Alan Ladd and Veronica Lake. The acting duo of Alan Ladd and Veronica Lake was first teamed in the superb early noir thriller This Gun For Hire (1942) (with the Myson Through tagline: He's dynamite with a gun or a girl). 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable Receipt! From the novel A Gun For Sale by renowned British novelist Graham Greene, the moody noir featured Ladd in a star-making role (his first lead role) as a ruthless, cat-loving, vengeful, unsmiling San Francisco professional hit-man named Raven working for a peppermint-candy loving fat man Willard Gates (Laird Cregar) and his wheelchair-bound Nitro Chemicals executive Alvin Brewster (Tully Marshall) - both double-crossers who were selling secrets to foreign agents (the Japanese).
Ladd was paired with popular wartime pinup star Lake as nightclub showgirl singer Ellen Graham, his hostage (and unbeknownst to Branch Sample him working as a federal agent). Another Dashiell Hammett book of political corruption and murder was adapted for Stuart Heisler's The Glass Key (1942) for Paramount Studios - again with the duo of Ladd and 5+ Mileage Log Form | Printable, Lake, and noted as one of the best Hammett adaptations. Business! Ladd starred as Ed Beaumont, a right-hand man and political aide attempting to Log Form | Printable Receipt save his employer (Brian Donlevy) from a murder frame-up, while Lake played the seductive fiancee of the boss. The film was noted for the vicious beating given to Ladd by Sample Endorsement Letter, a crime lord thug (William Bendix). The popular noir couple were brought together again in George Marshall's post-war crime thriller The Blue Dahlia (1946) , with an Oscar-nominated screenplay by Raymond Chandler (the only Receipt, work he ever wrote directly for the screen). Business! Alan Ladd portrayed returning war veteran Johnny Morrison who discovered that his wife Helen (Doris Dowling) was unfaithful during his absence. When she turned up dead and he became the prime suspect, he was aided in the case by the mysterious Joyce Harwood (Lake) - the seductive ex-wife of his wife's former lover. Orson Welles and 5+ Mileage | Printable, Film Noir:
Orson Welles' films have significant noir features, such as in Branch Manager Branch Resume, his expressionistically-filmed Citizen Kane (1941) , with subjective camera angles, dark shadowing and deep focus, and low-angled shots from talented cinematographer Gregg Toland. Welles' third film for RKO, the war-time mystery Journey Into Fear (1943) , was one in which he acted and co-directed (uncredited) - it was set in the exotic locale of Istanbul. Log Form | Printable! The film's story was inspired by Eric Ambler's spy thriller about the Branch Job Description Branch Resume flight of an American arms engineer (Joseph Cotten) on a Black Sea tramp steamer where he was threatened by Nazi agents intent on killing him. The complex The Lady from Shanghai (1948) - with its plot (from Sherwood King's novel If I Should Die Before I Wake ), told about a destructive love triangle between Irish seaman Michael O'Hara (Welles himself), a manipulative Rita Hayworth as the platinum blonde-haired femme fatale Elsa (or Rosalie), and 5+ Mileage Receipt, her husband Arthur Bannister (Everett Sloane). Its final sequence in 11+ Event Templates Downloads, a San Francisco hall of mirrors fun-house was symbolic and Receipt, reflective of the shattered relationships between the characters, exemplified by a wounded O'Hara's last words: Maybe I'll live so long that I'll forget her. Maybe I'll die trying. Welles' Mexican border-town B-movie classic Touch of Evil (1958) is generally considered the last film in the classic cycle of film noirs.
It starred Charlton Heston as Vargas - a naive Mexican-American narcotics cop, Janet Leigh as his imperiled, honeymooning wife Susan, and Welles' own corrupt and Branch Manager Branch Manager Sample Resume, corpulent local cop Hank Quinlan. The film also featured a comeback appearance by cigar-smoking bordello madam Marlene Dietrich, and a breathtaking opening credits sequence filmed in Log Form | Printable, a single-take. Later, Welles' expressionistic noir and - Business, psychological drama The Trial (1962) was an 5+ Mileage adaptation of Franz Kafka's classic novel, with Anthony Perkins as Joseph K - a man condemned for an unnamed crime in an unknown country. More Definitive 40s Noirs: Early classic non-detective film noirs included Fritz Lang's steamy and fatalistic Scarlet Street (1945) - one of the Invitation – Wedding Invitation Ideas moodiest, blackest thrillers ever made, about a mild-mannered painter's (Edward G. Robinson) unpunished and | Printable, unsuspected murder of an amoral femme fatale (Joan Bennett) after she had led him to commit embezzlement, impersonated him in order to sell his paintings, and had been deceitful and cruel to him - causing him in Sample Letter, a fit of anger to murder her with an ice-pick.
Director Abraham Polonsky's expressionistic, politically-subversive Force of Evil (1948) starred John Garfield as a corrupt mob attorney.