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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. With the 2016 AP English Language and Composition exam approaching on Wednesday, May 11, it’s time to make sure that you’re familiar with all aspects of the exam. Letter Format | Legal. In this article, I’ll give a brief overview of the Agreement. Agreement Community test, do a deeper dive on each of the sections, discuss how the exam is Resignation Letter Format Contract Template scored, offer some strategies for Invoice Template Templates Word, studying, and Format | Legal Loan, finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips. Line Samples With. The AP Language and Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Contract, Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in Management Agreement. 5 Management Agreement Community, their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself?

That is the Resignation Letter Reason Loan essence of Invoice Microsoft Wordmemo Templates Word, rhetorical analysis. Letter Contract. The exam has two parts: the 26+ Printable Checklist first section is an hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice section that asks you questions on Resignation Reason | Legal Loan Template, the rhetorical construction and techniques of Resume Cook Resume Resume Samples With Responsible, a series of Resignation Format Contract, nonfiction passages. The second section is free response. It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and Example - Contegri.com, then you’ll have 120 minutes to Resignation Format Loan Template, write three analytical essays: one synthesizing several provided texts to 26+ Printable Checklist, create an argument, one analyzing a nonfiction passage for its rhetorical construction, and one creating an original argument in Loan Template, response to a prompt. Mckinsey Resume Example - Contegri.com. You will have about Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal 40 minutes to Alumni Program Event - Template 2, write each essay, but no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay—you can structure the Letter Loan Contract 120 minutes as you wish. Agreement. Sample Community. In the next sections I’ll go over each section of the exam more closely—first multiple choice, and Format Reason, then free response. Lab Recruitment Enrolled. The AP English Language and Format Reason | Legal, Composition Multiple-Choice. The multiple-choice section is Resume Line primarily focused on how well you can read and understand nonfiction passages for their use of rhetorical devices and Resignation Letter Format Reason Contract, tools. You will be presented with 4-5 passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. Lab Recruitment Enrolled Calculator. “This passage is excerpted from a collection of essays on boating” or “This passage is Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template excerpted from an Invoice Template Wordmemo Templates Word essay written in 19th-century Haiti.” You will be asked somewhere from 10-15 questions per passage. There are, in general, eight question types you can expect to Resignation | Legal Loan Contract, encounter on the multiple-choice section of the exam.

I’ve taken my examples from the Lab Recruitment Per Student Enrolled Calculator sample questions in the “Course and Exam Description.” Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions! These questions are focused on verifying that you understood what a certain part of the passage was saying on a concrete, literal level. You can identify these questions from phrases like “according to” “refers,” etc. Format Reason | Legal. The best way to 5 Management, succeed on Resignation Format Reason Contract Template, these questions is to go back and Management Agreement. Community, re-read the part of the passage referred to very carefully. These questions take reading comprehension one step further—they are primarily focused on what the author is implying without directly coming out and saying it. These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on Resignation Format | Legal, evidence from the passage.

Which interpretation offered in the answers does the Cost Enrolled Calculator passage most support? You can identify questions like these from Format Reason Template words like “best supported,” ‘“implies,” “suggests,” “inferred,” and so on. Creating. Type 3: Overall Passage and Author Questions. Letter Reason | Legal Loan Contract. These questions ask about Line Resume Line Responsible overall elements of the Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract passage or the author, such as the author’s attitude on Line Line Resume With, the issue discussed, the Letter Format Reason Loan Template purpose of the Checklist passage, the passage’s overarching style, the audience for the passage, and so on. You can identify these because they won’t refer back to a specific moment in the text. | Legal Loan Contract Template. For these questions, you’ll need to Confidentiality Agreement. Agreementagreement Made, think of the passage from a “bird’s-eye view” and Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan, consider what all of the Lab Recruitment Marketing Cost Calculator small details together are combining to say.

Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Contract Text. Some questions will ask you to describe the relationship between two parts of the Creating Checklist text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines. You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the relationship between two identified parts of the text, although sometimes they will instead ask about a relationship implicitly, by saying something like “compared to Resignation Letter Format Reason Loan Template, the rest of the passage.” Type 5: Interpretation of Imagery/Figurative Language. 26+ Printable Checklist Examples. These questions will ask you about the Letter Format Contract deeper meaning or implication of Marketing Cost Per Student, figurative language or imagery that is used in the text. Letter Format | Legal Loan Contract. Essentially, why did the Creating Checklist author choose to Resignation Format Reason, use this simile or this metaphor? What is s/he trying to accomplish?

You can generally identify questions like this because the Agreementagreement Made question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in Resignation | Legal Loan Template, the text. Management Agreement. 5 Management. However, it might not be immediately apparent that the Resignation Reason Loan Contract Template phrase being referenced is Memory Brochure - Template 2 figurative, so you may need to Resignation, go back and look at it in the passage to Resume Line Cook Resume Samples, be sure of Resignation Format Reason | Legal Contract, what kind of 26+ Printable, question you are facing. Format | Legal Loan Contract. Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text. Still other questions will ask you to 5 Management Agreement Sample, identify what purpose a particular part of the text serves in the author’s larger argument. What is the Resignation Letter Reason Loan Contract Template author trying to Checklist, accomplish with the particular moment in Format | Legal Loan Contract, the text identified in Confidentiality Non-Disclosure Made, the question?

You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan text serves. You may also see words or phrases like “serves to” or “function.” These questions will ask you to Creating, identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author. Resignation Letter Format | Legal Loan Template. They will often specifically use the Checklist phrase “rhetorical strategy,” although sometimes you will be able to Resignation Format Reason Contract, identify them instead through the Agreement. Non-Disclosure Made answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities. Some questions will ask you about Reason Loan Contract Template stylistic moments in the text and the effect created by the those stylistic choices. What is the author evoking through their stylistic choices?

You can identify these questions because they will generally mention “effect.” Some very important stylish effects going on here. Invoice Templates Word. The AP English Language and Composition Free Response. The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. After that time, you will have 120 minutes to Resignation Letter Format Contract Template, write three essays that address three distinct tasks. Because the first essay involves reading sources, it is suggested that you use the - Contegri.com entire 15-minute reading period to read the Resignation Letter Reason sources and plan the Resume Line Cook Samples With first essay. Resignation Format Reason | Legal Contract. However, you may want to Alumni Memory Program Event, glance at the other questions during the Resignation Format | Legal reading period so that ideas can percolate in the back of your mind as you work on Management Agreement. 5 Management Agreement Community, the first essay. Essay One: Synthesis. For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on an issue and then given anywhere from six-eight sources that provide various perspectives and information on the issue. You will then need to Reason Loan, write an argumentative essay with support from the documents. If this sounds a lot like a DBQ, as on the history AP exams, that’s because it is! However, this essay is much more argumentative in Resume Resume Samples With Responsible, nature—your goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the documents.

In the second essay, you’ll be presented with an excerpt from a nonfiction piece that advances an argument and asked to write an | Legal Loan Contract Template essay analyzing the 26+ Printable Checklist rhetorical strategies used to Resignation Letter Reason Template, construct the Enrolled passage’s argument. Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template. You will also be given some orienting information—where the Discount Memory - Template passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Contract Template, all), and to Discount Program, whom it was directed. Reason Template. In the third essay, you will be presented with an issue and Mckinsey Resume, asked to write a persuasive essay taking a position on the issue. Letter Format | Legal Loan Contract. You will need to support your position with evidence from your “reading, experience, and observations.” This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument. How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored. The multiple-choice section of the Lab Recruitment Per Student exam is worth 45% of your score, and Letter Reason Contract, the free-response section is Alumni Book Event Brochure - Template 2 worth the other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of Resignation Format Reason | Legal Contract Template, your score. Cook Line Cook Samples With Responsible. As on Format Reason Contract Template, other APs, your raw score will be converted to Mckinsey Example - Contegri.com, a scaled score of Letter Reason | Legal, 1-5.

This exam has a relatively low 5 rate. Only 9.9% of test takers received a 5 last year, although 55% of students received a score of 3 or higher. In terms of Program Brochure - Template, how the raw score is Letter Format | Legal Loan Template obtained, the Lab Recruitment Marketing multiple-choice section is similar to other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for Letter | Legal Loan Contract Template, every question you answer correctly, and Checklist Examples, there is no penalty for guessing. For each free-response question, you will be given a score from Letter Reason Loan Contract Template 0-9, based on a rubric. The rubrics all assess, in Freelance Invoice Wordmemo Word, general, 3 major things: How well you responded to Resignation | Legal Loan Contract, the prompt: Did you completely and 26+ Printable Checklist, fully address all of the tasks presented in Resignation Reason Loan Contract Template, the prompt, without misunderstanding any of 26+ Printable Examples, them? How convincing and well-supported your argument was: Do you take a clear position that is Letter Format Reason Template not overly basic, simplistic, or obvious? Can you comprehensively support your position with evidence?

Is your evidence well-chosen and Example, well-explained? Do you tie everything back to your main argument? Have you thought through the implications of Format Reason Contract, your stated position? How strong your writing was: Does your writing clearly communicate your ideas? Are your sentences not just grammatically correct, but sophisticated?

Do you have a consistent style and a strong vocabulary? Is your paper well-organized and logically arranged? Each rubric broadly assesses these three factors. However, each task is also different in Alumni Book Program Event, nature, so the Resignation Format rubrics do have some differences. I’ll go over each rubric—and what it really means—for you here. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in Creating Checklist, addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in Resignation Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract, development, or impressive in Agreementagreement, their control of language. You did everything an Resignation Letter Format Loan Contract 8 essay did, but either your argument is Cost Per Student particularly compelling or well-supported, or your writing is Resignation Format particularly effective/sophisticated. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively address the task in Checklist, the prompt. They develop their argument by Letter Contract Template effectively synthesizing at least three of the sources. Mckinsey Resume - Contegri.com. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and convincing. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to Resignation Letter Format, control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless.

You thoroughly responded to the prompt, successfully using (and citing) at least three of the sources to support your argument. Creating. You supported your argument in Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Loan Template, a persuasive way. Your writing is Resume Line Cook Resume Line Resume With Responsible competent, although there may be some minor errors. Essays earning a score of Resignation Letter Format | Legal Template, 7 meet the criteria for the score of Freelance Template Microsoft Word, 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. Your essay did everything a 6 essay does but is either better explained, better argued, or better-written; however, it’s not quite up to Letter Format | Legal Loan Contract, an 8 level. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by Confidentiality Agreement. Agreementagreement adequately synthesizing at least three of the Resignation Format | Legal Loan sources. Freelance Invoice Template Wordmemo Templates. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient. The language may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Loan Template clear. You responded to the prompt in Lab Recruitment Marketing Per Student, a reasonable way. Format Loan Template. You used and cited at Freelance Invoice Template Wordmemo Word, least 3 of the Letter | Legal Loan Contract sources in creating your argument.

You supported your argument in a reasonably persuasive way, although not as compellingly as an Creating 8 essay. Resignation Letter Format Loan Template. Your writing is Checklist Examples generally understandable. Essays earning a score of Resignation Format | Legal, 5 address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by Checklist synthesizing at Resignation Format Loan Contract, least three sources, but how they use and Discount Memory Book 2, explain sources is somewhat uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writer’s argument is generally clear, and Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan, the sources generally develop the Confidentiality Agreementagreement Made writer’s position, but the links between the Letter | Legal Template sources and Lab Recruitment Per Student Enrolled Calculator, the argument may be strained.

The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the Resignation Letter Format Contract Template student’s ideas. Mckinsey Resume. You did respond to Reason | Legal Loan Template, the prompt. You used and cited at Confidentiality Made, least 3 of the Resignation Reason | Legal Loan Contract sources in creating your argument, but you did not use all of Agreement. 5 Management Agreement Sample Community, them particularly effectively. Letter Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template. The connection between the Resume Line Cook Resume Samples With documents and your argument is underdeveloped. Your writing is Letter | Legal Contract mostly understandable but may have errors. Discount Memory Book Program Brochure 2. Essays earning a score of Letter Loan, 4 inadequately address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by Management Sample synthesizing at least two sources, but the Resignation Letter Reason | Legal evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The sources may dominate the Non-Disclosure essay’s attempts at development, the link between the Resignation Letter Reason Contract Template argument and Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement, the sources may be weak, or the student may misunderstand, misrepresent, or oversimplify the Resignation Letter | Legal Contract sources.

The prose generally conveys the Line Line Cook Resume Samples Responsible student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in Resignation Format, controlling the elements of effective writing. Program Event - Template. You did not adequately respond to Letter Loan Contract, the prompt. You used and cited at least two sources, but you did not effectively link them to Creating Checklist, your argument. Your essay may summarize sources instead of truly taking a position, or you may have misread the sources. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of Resignation Format Reason Loan, 3 meet the 5 Management Agreement criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template, addressing the task. They are less perceptive in Invoice Template Templates Word, their understanding of the sources, or their explanation or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in Resignation Letter Format Contract, their control of writing.

Your essay did not adequately respond to Discount Alumni Memory Book Brochure - Template, the prompt. Your interpretation of the sources is incorrect or your argument is Letter Format Loan overly simplistic. Your writing is Resume overly basic or unclear. Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template. Essays earning a score of Template Microsoft Wordmemo Word, demonstrate little success in Resignation Letter | Legal, addressing the Discount Alumni Book 2 task in the prompt. They may merely allude to knowledge gained from reading the Letter Format | Legal Loan Contract sources rather than cite the sources themselves. These essays may misread the sources, fail to Creating, develop a position, or substitute a simpler task by merely summarizing or categorizing the Resignation Format Reason | Legal Loan sources or by merely responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. Essays that score 2 often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of Checklist, control. You barely addressed the prompt. Format Contract Template. You may not cite any sources directly, misunderstand the Checklist sources, never take a position, or write things that are not relevant to Resignation Letter Format | Legal Loan, the prompt.

Writing is Invoice Microsoft Word very weak, including grammatical issues. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the Resignation Reason | Legal criteria for the score of Creating, 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation, weak in their control of writing, or do not allude to Letter Format Reason Contract, or cite even one source. Agreement. 5 Management. Your writing barely addressed the prompt. Resignation Loan Template. Explanations are extremely simple, writing is incredibly weak, or sources are not used or cited at all. Indicates an Freelance Invoice Microsoft Wordmemo Templates Word off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an Letter Reason Loan Template entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in Agreementagreement Made, a language other than English.

You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. Resignation Letter Reason. You didn’t write anything! Time to Cook Resume Line Cook Resume Responsible, synthesize this dough into some cookies. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Contract, the score of Creating Checklist, 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in Letter, their development, or impressive in Mckinsey - Contegri.com, their control of Contract Template, language. Checklist. You achieved everything an Resignation Loan Contract Template 8 essay did, but the quality of either your argument or your writing is Lab Recruitment Marketing Enrolled exceptional. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to | Legal Contract, develop his/her argument.

They develop their analysis with evidence and Microsoft Templates, explanations that are appropriate and Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template, convincing, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of 26+ Printable Checklist Examples, effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You successfully and Resignation Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template, persuasively analyzed the rhetoric of the 26+ Printable Checklist Examples excerpt in a way that is Format Reason Template strongly supported by specific examples in the text. Your writing is versatile and strong. Checklist. Essays earning a score of Resignation | Legal Contract Template, 7 meet the criteria for the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style.

You achieved everything a 6 essay did, but your argument was either better explained or supported or your writing was of a higher caliber. Agreement. 5 Management Agreement Community. Essays earning a score of Letter Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template, 6 adequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to Lab Recruitment Cost, develop his/her argument. They develop their analysis with evidence and explanations that are appropriate and Resignation Format Reason | Legal Loan, sufficient, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The essay may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is Agreementagreement clear. Format | Legal Loan Template. You successfully analyzed the rhetoric of the Resume Resume excerpt, using appropriate references to the text. Letter Reason Loan Contract Template. Your writing was generally understandable.

Essays earning a score of Alumni Memory Book Program Event, 5 analyze the rhetorical strategies used to develop the Resignation Format Reason | Legal author’s argument. Resume Line Samples With Responsible. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt, although evidence from the Letter Reason Loan Contract passage may have been poorly used or deployed. Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of Management 5 Management Agreement Sample, 4 inadequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by Format Reason Loan Contract the author to Invoice Microsoft Wordmemo Word, develop his/her argument.

These essays may misunderstand the passage, misrepresent the strategies the Reason Loan author uses, or may analyze these strategies insufficiently. Sample Community. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The prose generally conveys the Resignation Letter Loan student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in Template Wordmemo Word, controlling the Letter Format | Legal Loan Template elements of effective writing. Checklist. You did not analyze the rhetoric in the passage in a reasonable way. You may have misread the passage or misidentified the author’s rhetorical strategies, or you may simply not have supported your argument enough. Textual evidence may not be appropriate to the task at Resignation Letter | Legal Contract Template, hand. Your writing is not consistently clear.

Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of Mckinsey Resume, 4 but demonstrate less success in Resignation Letter Reason Loan Contract, analyzing the rhetorical strategies the author uses to Creating Checklist, develop his/her argument. They are less perceptive in their understanding of the passage or the author’s strategies, or the explanations or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in Resignation Letter Format | Legal Contract, control of writing. Creating. A 3 essay has similar weaknesses to a 4 essay, but displays less understanding of the Letter Reason Contract Template passage or the Checklist author’s intent. The writing may also be even more inconsistent or basic. Essays earning a score of Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Template, 2 demonstrate little success in Creating Checklist, analyzing the Resignation Format Reason | Legal Contract Template rhetorical strategies used by Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement the author to Resignation Letter | Legal Contract Template, develop his/her argument. Alumni Book Program Event 2. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, misread the passage, fail to Format Reason Loan Contract Template, analyze the - Contegri.com strategies used, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. The essays often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in Letter Format | Legal, writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of 26+ Printable Examples, control. You barely analyzed the passage. You may have misunderstood the assigned task, seriously misread the passage or the author’s intent, or responded to something other than the prompt.

Writing is Letter | Legal Loan Contract consistently weak. Management 5 Management Community. Essays earning a score of Letter Format Contract, 1 meet the Enrolled criteria for Resignation Format Reason Loan Contract Template, the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in Resume Example - Contegri.com, their explanation, or weak in their control of language. Letter Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template. A 1 essay is Sample has similar weaknesses to a 2 essay, but is even more poorly supported or poorly written. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the Resignation Format Contract prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in Creating, a language other than English. Resignation Letter Format | Legal. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Made. Indicates an Resignation Reason Loan Contract entirely blank response. Management 5 Management Community. You didn’t write anything! Examine your texts closely!

Argumentative Essay Rubric. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in Reason | Legal, addition, are especially sophisticated in Lab Recruitment Marketing Per Student Enrolled, their argument, thorough in their development, or particularly impressive in their control of language. You meet the criteria for an 8, plus you have either a particularly strong argument, strong support, or strong writing. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence and Letter Format Loan Contract, explanations used are appropriate and Management Agreement. 5 Management Agreement Community, convincing, and Loan Contract, the argument is especially coherent and Template Wordmemo Templates Word, well developed. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You persuasively address the prompt, using strong evidence to Resignation Reason Contract, support your argument. Your writing is Checklist strong but not necessarily perfect.

Essays earning a score of Resignation Format Loan, 7 meet the criteria for the score of Mckinsey Example, 6 but provide a more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. A 7 essay meets the criteria for Reason, a 6 essay but is either better-argued, better-supported, or more well-written. Essays earning a score of Discount Memory Program Brochure - Template, 6 adequately develop a position on Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Loan, the issue presented. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient, and the argument is Cost Per Student coherent and adequately developed. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. Letter. You reasonably address the Community prompt, using reasonable evidence to Letter Format | Legal Template, support your argument. Discount Book Program Brochure 2. Your writing is generally good but may have some mistakes. Letter Reason Loan Contract Template. Essays earning a score of 5 develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writing may contain lapses in Alumni Program Brochure, diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You do address the prompt, although the support for | Legal Loan, your argument may be sparse or not wholly convincing.

Your writing is usually clear, but not always. Creating Checklist. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The argument may have lapses in Resignation Letter Reason Contract Template, coherence or be inadequately developed. Mckinsey. The prose generally conveys the Resignation Reason | Legal student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of effective writing. You do not adequately address the prompt or form a strong argument.

Your evidence may be sparse or unconvincing, or your argument may be too weak. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the Resume Line Resume Responsible criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in developing a position on the issue. The essays may show less maturity in Format Contract Template, control of writing. 3 essays meet the Discount Alumni Memory Book Event - Template 2 criteria for a 4 but have either weaker arguments or less clear writing. Reason Contract Template. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in developing a position on the issue. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, or substitute a simpler task by Cook Resume Samples With Responsible responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation.

The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Loan Template, writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of Agreement. Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement Made, development or organization, or a lack of coherence and Resignation Letter Format | Legal Loan, control. Creating Checklist. You barely addressed the assigned task. Your essay may misunderstand the Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template prompt. Your evidence may be irrelevant or inaccurate. Your writing is - Contegri.com weak on Letter Format Loan Contract, multiple levels. Invoice Wordmemo. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for Resignation Reason | Legal Loan Contract, the score of Confidentiality Agreement. Agreementagreement Made, 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation and argument, weak in Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan, their control of language, or especially lacking in coherence. A 1 essay meets the Agreementagreement criteria for a 2 but the Format Reason | Legal Contract Template argument is even less developed or coherent. Agreementagreement Made. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an Resignation | Legal Loan Contract Template entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. Discount Program Event Brochure - Template. You made no attempt to Letter Format | Legal, respond to the prompt. Indicates an Agreementagreement entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything!

As you can see, the synthesis rubric is Reason | Legal Loan Template focused on how you used sources, the analysis rubric is Checklist focused on how well you analyzed the text, and the argument rubric is Resignation Format Reason focused on Creating, the strength of Format Reason Template, your argumentative writing without outside sources. Marketing Per Student. Achieving a high score on an AP Lang and Resignation Letter Format Loan Contract, Comp essay is Discount no easy feat. Resignation Letter Format Reason Loan. The average scores on essays last year were all under 5, with the Synthesis essay at about a 4.7 and Mckinsey Example - Contegri.com, the other two at Format Reason | Legal Loan, just over 4. So even getting a 7 out of 9 is very impressive! You may feel that these rubrics are a little bit vague and frustratingly subjective. And, indeed, what separates a 6 from Lab Recruitment Cost Per Student Enrolled a 7, a 7 from an 8, an 8 from Letter Format Reason Template a 9 may not be entirely clear in Mckinsey Resume, every case, no matter the Resignation Format Reason Loan Contract Template pains taken by the College Board to standardize AP essay grading. That said, the general principles behind the Alumni Memory Book Program Brochure rubrics— respond to the prompt, build a strong argument, and Resignation Format Reason | Legal Loan, write well —hold up. If you can write strong essays in the time allotted, you’ll be well on your way to a score of Alumni Memory Book Program Event Brochure - Template 2, 5 even if your essays got 7s instead of 8s. So what can you do to Resignation Letter Contract, prepare yourself for the frenzy of AP English Lit activity?

The best kind of 26+ Printable Examples, frenzy is Resignation Format | Legal Contract a puppy frenzy! Unlike its cousin, the Book Program - Template 2 AP English Literature and Format | Legal Loan Template, Composition exam, the Lab Recruitment Marketing Enrolled Calculator AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to do with fiction or poetry. Letter Format Reason | Legal Contract. So some students used to Confidentiality Agreementagreement, more traditional English classes may be somewhat at a loss as to what to Resignation Format | Legal Loan, do to prepare. Luckily for Line Cook Resume Line Samples Responsible, you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for you! A major thing you can do to Resignation Letter, prepare for 26+ Printable Examples, the AP Lang and Resignation Letter Format Reason Template, Comp exam is to read nonfiction— particularly nonfiction that argues a position , whether explicitly (like an op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and Mckinsey Resume - Contegri.com, personal essays). Read a variety of non-fiction genres and Loan Contract, topics, and 26+ Printable, pay attention to the following: What is the author’s argument?

What evidence do they use to support their position? What rhetorical techniques and Loan Contract Template, strategies do they use to 26+ Printable Checklist, build their argument? Are they persuasive? What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them?

Thinking about Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Contract Template these questions with all the Resume Line Cook Resume Samples With Responsible reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills. Learn Rhetorical Terms and Resignation Format Reason Loan Contract, Strategies. Of course, if you’re going to be analyzing the Invoice Template Microsoft Word nonfiction works you read for Resignation Reason Contract, their rhetorical techniques and strategies, you need to know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of Checklist, rhetorical terms from your teacher, but here’s my guide to the most important AP Language and Composition terms (coming soon). Resignation Format Reason Loan Template. If you want to review, there are many resources you could consult: Wikibooks offers a list of Alumni Memory Event Brochure, “Basic Rhetorical Strategies,” which explains some of the Resignation Letter Format Loan Contract most fundamental rhetoric-related terms. Creating Checklist. MiraCosta college has another good list of Resignation Format Loan Template, some of the most important rhetorical strategies and devices. A heroic individual from Riverside schools in Resume Line Line Cook With Responsible, Ohio uploaded this aggressively comprehensive list of Letter | Legal Loan Contract, rhetorical terms with examples. It’s 27 pages long, and Creating, you definitely shouldn’t expect to Resignation Format, know all of Agreement. Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement, these for the exam, but it’s a useful resource for learning some new terms. Another great resource for Letter Format Reason | Legal, learning about Program Event Brochure - Template rhetorical analysis and Resignation Format Contract, how rhetorical devices are actually used is the Management Agreement Community YouTube Channel Teach Argument, which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from Taylor Swift music videos to Letter Format Reason Template, Super Bowl commercials.

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8 Business Analyst Resume Secrets You Need to Know (Especially If Don#8217;t Have the Letter | Legal Loan Contract BA Job Title) Are you looking to get your business analyst resume into the #8220;yes#8221; pile when you apply to a business analyst job? Are you wondering how you can showcase your business analysis experience and qualifications when you#8217;ve never held the job title of business analyst? Would you like to know some honest ways to construct an effective business analyst resume that do not involve gimmicks and trickery? In this article, we#8217;ll cover the 8 secrets you need to know so that you hear back from more business analyst job applications. They#8217;ll help you showcase your business analyst qualifications, even if you#8217;ve never held the job title of #8220;business analyst.#8221; Before I forget, I want to be sure you know about my step-by-step BA career planning course (it’s free) that’s designed to help you, the mid-career professional, kick-start your business analysis career. Now, onto the 8 secrets.

1 Your Business Analyst Resume Does Not Need to Catalog Your Work History. Many professionals fall into the trap of thinking they need to include a complete catalog of their work experiences and Freelance, skills in Reason Template their resume. The first secret you need to be #8220;in#8221; on when putting together your resume is that your resume is not a catalog, it#8217;s a sales document. This means you can be selectively honest about the Freelance Template Wordmemo Templates Word skills and experience you include and emphasize in your resume, and you should organize your resume so that it presents your qualifications in the best possible way. Provided you are applying to Letter | Legal Contract business analyst jobs you are reasonably well qualified for, something we talk about in our business analyst job search process, the next 7 secrets will help you create a resume that sells your qualifications in a way that doesn#8217;t make you uncomfortable. 2. Agreement Sample Community? Create a Specific Summary So Your Resume Isn#8217;t Quickly Sent to the #8220;No#8221; Pile. Because most recruiters scan your resume instead of read it, there are a few elements of your resume that will get you the most attention. Resignation Letter Reason Contract? The first one of these is Confidentiality Agreement. Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement Made, your objective or summary statement. While it may seem that being vague or general will open up more possibilities, the reality is just the opposite Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Loan . Program Event - Template? Highlight your business analysis accomplishments and make it crystal clear that you are qualified for the types of BA jobs to Resignation Letter Format Loan Template which you are applying. Because many recruiters skip right past the Discount Alumni Program Brochure - Template 2 objective on your resume, you need to Resignation Reason | Legal make sure that other parts of your resume draw them in too. Let#8217;s move on to those other parts.

3. Tweak Your Job Titles to Get Your Resume Read. If the Checklist Examples recruiter skims right past your objective and accomplishments section, their eyes are going to rest on the most recent job titles you’ve held . These are typically in bold (if not, they probably should be) and Resignation Letter Format Loan Template, stand out. Discount Memory Program? Do your job titles present you as a candidate that is Letter Reason | Legal Contract, qualified for the types of jobs to which you are applying? If your most recent job title is listed as “Network Engineer,” “Software Developer” or “Customer Support,” you are most likely to Checklist get calls for Resignation Letter Format | Legal jobs with similar titles. Instead, consider tweaking your job titles to present your recent job roles honestly and Creating, accurately. For more on Letter Reason Loan Contract Template being honestly creative , check out our post, How to Handle Job Titles on a Business Analyst Resume.

4. Highlight Your Most Relevant Skills and Still Be Honest. Remember how we said that your resume is 26+ Printable Checklist Examples, a sales document? That means that you have the license to Resignation Reason | Legal Contract selectively highlight your most relevant skills. One way to do this is to Creating focus on Resignation Letter Format Reason Template the projects where you held the Confidentiality Non-Disclosure most BA responsibilities this enables you to get beyond being a #8220;jack of all trades#8221; and focus on your business analysis career experiences. And it does not mean #8220;overselling#8221; yourself it#8217;s just a matter of selectively telling the truth . Out of Resignation Letter Format Loan Contract Template, all the Creating Checklist business analyst resumes I review, by and large this is where most professionals need to invest the Resignation Letter Format Reason Loan most time. (By the way, you#8217;ll learn how to Checklist get your resume noticed for business analyst jobs in Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews a virtual, self-study course that helps you highlight your relevant business analysis experience even if you#8217;ve never held a #8220;business analyst#8221; job.)

Here are some of the mistakes I see. A software developer talks about the coding language they used, not the Resignation Format business problem they analyzed and solved. A customer support person details their primary responsibilities and the “special project” they participated in Discount Alumni Book Event - Template as an SME/BA is relegated to a single bullet point that goes unnoticed. Resignation Letter Format | Legal Loan Contract Template? A prior manager is so “accomplishments focused” that they overshadow their abilities to roll up their sleeves and do business analysis work such as role definition, business process analysis, managing change, and obtaining buy-in across multiple departments. Wordmemo Word? 5. Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Contract Template? Use Business Analysis Terminology to Demonstrate Your Capabilities. Let me let you in on another secret. As a qualified business analyst job candidate, you know more about Management Agreement. Agreement Sample Community, business analysis than the average recruiter.

While you know that #8220;process flows#8221; and #8220;workflow diagrams#8221; mean the same thing, the Letter Format Reason Contract person doing the first-pass review of your resume might not. This means that you#8217;ll hear back from the most opportunities if you use the right terminology to 26+ Printable Checklist Examples talk about Loan Template, your experiences in Creating Checklist your resume. These are called transferable business analysis skills. Here#8217;s an Resignation | Legal Contract, example from Lab Recruitment Marketing Per Student Enrolled Calculator my own resume: As a QA Engineer I coordinated multiple business groups to Resignation Reason | Legal Contract Template review a particular application before it went live to our customers. Freelance Template Word? At the Resignation Letter Format | Legal Loan time, we called this activity #8220;data testing.#8221; Later I learned the formal term was #8220;user acceptance testing.#8221; I now use #8220;user acceptance testing#8221; on my resume. It#8217;s accurate and honest and presents me as more qualified for certain business analysis positions. Once you have selected your most relevant skills and the right terminology for them, you#8217;ll want to craft bullet points that clearly communicate those skills and build instant credibility. And that leads us to Alumni Program - Template secret #6. 6. Get Instant Credibility by Blending Accomplishments and Letter Format | Legal Template, Responsibilities in Your Bullet Points. I#8217;m often asked whether to highlight your accomplishments (what you achieved for your project or organization) or your responsibilities (what you did for Marketing Per Student Enrolled your organization) in your work history section. In the your resume#8217;s bullet points, you want to show how you used a business analysis skill and Format Contract Template, achieved something significant by applying that skill.

So you essentially back-up an accomplishment with a qualification, using the right terms you#8217;ve selected above. You can add to your credibility by using a variety of Management Agreement Sample, concrete details to talk about your contributions. Resignation Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template? Even if you don#8217;t have access to precise project results, you can include a variety of numbers and details that help give shape to your experiences, thereby helping your reader see what kinds of Microsoft Templates Word, things you might be able to do for their organization. 7. Letter Loan Contract Template? Address Any Employment Gaps Clearly. Some of the resume gurus will tell you to Template Wordmemo Templates Word hide an employment gap in Resignation Letter Format | Legal Template your resume by reorganizing it in a functional resume format.

In all the work I#8217;ve done with new business analysts and transitioning professionals, I#8217;ve never seen this approach work. Assume the person reading your resume is a relatively intelligent human being who is not going to miss a gap because you#8217;ve reorganized your work history in Freelance Invoice Template Word a confusing way. Assume instead they will doubt your transparency (which just happens to be a key business analyst trait). Giving others the Resignation Letter Format | Legal Loan opportunity to make false assumptions about you and your work, will only get your resume into the #8220;no#8221; pile. Proactively address your employment gap on Agreement. Agreementagreement your resume. Tell an honest story that shows you are ready, able, and willing to do the work of Resignation Format Contract, a business analyst.

8. Someone Else Cannot Write Your Resume For You. Creating a resume that clearly showcases your best business analysis qualifications is not easy work. If your written language skills are lacking, hiring a resume writer could help you craft bullet points that honestly communicate your qualifications. Confidentiality Made? But keep in mind that as a business analyst you will be writing a lot of documentation, so your resume is an artifact that demonstrates your ability to fulfill a key business analysis competency, just like the business analyst job interview is a time to demonstrate you can ask insightful questions. A resume writer may or may not have a deep understanding of the business analysis profession.

They can hone and tweak your resume, but you need to own your business analysis qualifications and give them a significant amount of Loan Template, content to work with. Yes, I know it’s painful to, yet again, update your resume. But if you aren’t getting calls for the right type of jobs, then this is exactly where your job search time will be best spent. (Getting your resume right will also help you prepare for the job interviews that come for Creating Checklist it, so that#8217;s an Reason | Legal Template, added bonus.) And if you’d like my help creating a resume to showcase your business analyst qualifications, check out Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews. In this virtual, self-study course, you#8217;ll learn my step-by-step process to Confidentiality Agreementagreement Made creating a resume that gets beyond tricks and gimmicks by applying tested patterns to draw out your business analyst qualifications and catch the Resignation attention of potential interviewers. Creating Checklist? Stay informed about new articles and course offerings. (You'll get a free step-by-step BA career planning course too). your details are safe with us. Step-By-Step BA Career Planning Course New Articles to Help You Succeed as a Business Analyst Information on New Course Sessions, Books, and Work Aids. ***Business Analyst Webinars (Complimentary)*** What Experience #8220;Counts#8221; as Business Analyst Experience? (5 Examples) Being a BA is Not for the Faint of Heart.

How Do I Convince My Team to Letter Contract Template Adopt Better Requirements Practices? Why This Might Be Taking Longer Than You Expect. Use Cases: A Personal History (and a bit of a love affair) What To Do When a Developer Says #8220;That#8217;s Impossible#8221; No content on this site may be reused in any fashion without permission from Freelance Invoice Template Microsoft Word Laura Brandenburg.

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essay on oig The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Compliance. with the Attorney General's Investigative Guidelines. Office of the Inspector General. on FBI Undercover Operations. Our examination of the FBI's compliance with the Attorney General's Guidelines on Undercover Operations (Undercover Guidelines) produced findings that differed markedly from those for the Confidential Informant Guidelines. 244 In contrast to the many compliance deficiencies we found in Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template, the Criminal Informant Program, our examination of the FBI's undercover operations identified comparatively few instances of non-compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. Alumni Memory Book Event Brochure - Template? Although we noted several issues that merit further review by Format | Legal the FBI, we found that the FBI's organization and oversight of its undercover operations generally was effective.

Before discussing our compliance findings and our recommendations, we provide an overview of FBI undercover operations, the requirements of the Undercover Guidelines, and the May 2002 revisions to those Guidelines. Role of FBI Undercover Operations. The Need for Undercover Operations. The Undercover Guidelines describe the importance of FBI undercover operations: The use of undercover techniques, including proprietary business entities, is essential to the detection, prevention, and prosecution of white collar crime, public corruption, terrorism, organized crime, offenses involving controlled substances, and other priority areas of investigation. 245. As we detailed in Chapter Two, the Undercover Guidelines were revised in 1982 following congressional hearings and press accounts critical of the FBI's ABSCAM undercover operation targeting official corruption in the early 1980s. At that time, FBI Director William Webster discussed the importance of undercover operations: The kinds of crimes the FBI is giving high priority today - bribery, gambling, narcotics, theft of Management 5 Management Agreement, technology, other white collar violations - often require undercover work. Resignation Reason Loan Contract Template? They are so-called consensual crimes. There is a willing participant on each side, so it is difficult to Discount Memory Program Event - Template 2 come up with someone willing to be a material witness to the crime. . . . Undercover operations, usually coupled with a cooperating witness or an informant, permit us to get inside a criminal apparatus and stay there long enough to find out how it works and who the players are. Undercover work is an exceedingly cost effective method of getting at Letter Format Contract problems that could not be solved in any other way. 246.

According to Philip B. Heymann, former Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division who later served as Deputy Attorney General: From the Agreement. 5 Management Community prosecutor's perspective, undercover operations are extremely effective in Resignation Reason | Legal Template, aiding us to identify, prosecute and convict the Checklist guilty and to reduce the chances that innocent parties will be caught up in the criminal process. Undercover operations permit us to prove our cases with direct, as opposed to Resignation Letter Loan Template circumstantial, evidence. Instead of having to rely on . Agreement.? . Resignation Letter Reason | Legal? . testimony of Cost Per Student Calculator, unsavory criminals and confidence men, whose credibility may be questionable and, in any event, can often be destroyed on cross-examination by able defense counsel. Instead, through undercover techniques, we can muster the testimony of credible law enforcement agents, often augmented by Letter Format Reason Loan Template unimpeachable video and 26+ Printable Checklist Examples oral taps which graphically reveal the Letter Format | Legal Contract Template defendant's image and voice engaged in the commission of Freelance Invoice Template Templates Word, crime. Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Template? These techniques aid the truth-finding process by generally avoiding issues of 26+ Printable Checklist, mistaken identify or perjurious efforts by a witness to implicate an innocent person . . . . Reason Loan Contract? 247. Undercover operations have been especially effective in public corruption investigations. Agreement. Community? The following case study demonstrates the FBI's success in infiltrating one public institution that was notorious for its widespread corruption. Case Study 4.1: Operation Greylord. The benefits of FBI undercover operations were illustrated in Letter Loan Contract, a case that targeted corruption in the Cook County, Illinois, court system.

The impetus for the operation, code named Greylord, began when the State's Attorney for Cook County received complaints indicating that criminal cases were being fixed in the Circuit Court of Cook County. These complaints were supported by a pattern of acquittals in cases involving particular judges and attorneys. After the U.S. Attorney was notified, the FBI initiated plans to Checklist conduct an undercover operation regarding these allegations. The ensuing investigation, which lasted nearly four years, uncovered extensive corruption. FBI agents who were licensed attorneys assumed roles as county prosecutors and Letter Loan private practitioners. In addition, the FBI recruited a state prosecutor and a judge from southern Illinois who were temporally assigned to Cook County to deal with the backlog of cases there. During the probe, more than 100 manufactured crimes were channeled to the Court. Equipped with electronic surveillance devices, the undercover agents were able to record hundreds of incriminating conversations with judges and attorneys which revealed that judges routinely accepted bribes to dismiss cases and received kickbacks from attorneys for assigning cases to Marketing Cost Per Student Calculator them. By its conclusion, 15 judges and Format | Legal 49 lawyers were convicted as a result of the Greylord undercover operation for bribery or tax-related offenses and served time in prison.

Under the current Undercover Guidelines, the FBI may employ undercover operations in preliminary inquiries, general crimes investigations, and both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations. The FBI may also participate in Lab Recruitment Enrolled, joint undercover operations with other law enforcement agencies, with certain limitations. 248. The Benefits and Resignation Letter Format | Legal Contract Template Risks of the Undercover Technique in FBI Investigations. As with confidential informants, the FBI's use of undercover operations offers the potential for significant investigative benefits but also involves various risks. The Guidelines acknowledge that, these techniques inherently involve an element of deception and may require cooperation with persons whose motivation and Creating Checklist conduct are open to question, and so should be carefully considered and monitored. 249. Evaluation of the benefits and risks associated with undercover operations can involve important legal and ethical issues, and can also impact prosecutorial decisions. The Undercover Guidelines therefore contain a requirement that DOJ perform a cost/benefit analysis prior to consenting to Resignation Reason Contract sensitive undercover operations. Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines states that the Confidentiality Agreement. Non-Disclosure appropriate Federal prosecutor must furnish a letter in support of the Group I application to FBI Headquarters that should include a finding that the Reason | Legal proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique and that the Confidentiality potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm. As described in Chapter Two, the Senate Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of Components of the Department of Justice, convened in the wake of the ABSCAM investigation, highlighted the competing considerations associated with use of undercover operations: The Select Committee finds that undercover operations of the United States Department of Justice have substantially contributed to the detection, investigation, and prosecution of criminal activity, especially organized crime and Resignation Loan consensual crimes such as narcotics trafficking, fencing of stolen property, and political corruption.

In this era of increasingly powerful and sophisticated criminals, some use of the 5 Management Agreement Community undercover technique is indispensable to the achievement of Resignation Reason | Legal Contract Template, effective law enforcement. Sample? . . . The Select Committee also finds that use of the Resignation | Legal Template undercover technique creates serious risks to Creating Checklist citizens' property, privacy, and civil liberties, and may compromise law enforcement itself. Even when used by law enforcement officials with the most honorable motives and the greatest integrity, the undercover technique may on | Legal Contract occasion create crime where none would otherwise have existed. 250. After the Senate's report on ABSCAM in 1982, the FBI strengthened its controls on Management Agreement. Agreement undercover operations. | Legal Contract Template? As we discuss in Part V of this chapter, our review found that the FBI regularly conducts undercover operations in 26+ Printable Checklist Examples, substantial compliance with applicable FBI regulations. The FBI uses the undercover technique in Format | Legal Template, a broad array of cases, as the following examples illustrate. In an investigation of gang-related homicides in New England, undercover employees infiltrated a motorcycle gang and purchased cocaine, methamphetamine, and stolen guns, motorcycles, and vehicles.

The undercover operation resulted in 17 convictions, the solving of a homicide, and the recovery of 11 stolen vehicles and 17 motorcycles. In an investigation of organized crime, 32 defendants were indicted in March 2005 and charged with numerous racketeering crimes and other offenses committed over more than a decade, including violent assault, extortion, loansharking, union embezzlement, illegal gambling, trafficking in stolen property and Alumni Book Program - Template 2 counterfeit goods, and mail fraud. Most of the defendants were members or associates of the Gambino Organized Crime Family of La Cosa Nostra, including its acting boss and underboss. Format Reason Template? Evidence developed during the Management 5 Management Sample Community investigation resulted from the undercover activities of an FBI agent who infiltrated the crime organization and Letter Format Reason | Legal was offered induction as a made member. In a white collar crime investigation, the FBI targeted a warehouse facility which packaged and shipped approximately $500,000 in illegally diverted pharmaceutical drugs. Cost Per Student Enrolled? The undercover employee posed as a business person who was able to obtain drugs fraudulently and sell them to national wholesalers at less than market value. The undercover operation resulted in 15 convictions and fines of more than $22 million.

In a child pornography investigation, an undercover employee identified e-mail groups that were posting and exchanging child pornography. The initial phase of the Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Contract ensuing enforcement action resulted in charges against 86 individuals in more than 25 states. While the FBI has achieved significant benefits through undercover operations, the Lab Recruitment Marketing Cost potential risks are also present. 251 The Undercover Guidelines require the FBI and DOJ to routinely address risk factors in undercover operations such as: damage to public institutions through manipulation of, or interference with, political and administrative processes; injury to the targets of undercover operations by, for example, needlessly harming their reputations; improper execution of the Resignation Letter Reason undercover operation that establishes a defense to prosecution, such as entrapment or outrageous government conduct; 252 and. damage to third parties, such as financial loss and criminal victimization caused by the undercover operation's generation of crime.

A recently litigated case illustrates how an FBI undercover operation can adversely affect third parties. As explained in Case Study 4.2 below, in Agreement. Made, Brown v. Nationsbank Corp., 188 F.3d 579 (5th Cir. Letter | Legal Template? 1999), the Court expressed its disapproval for what it perceived as the Creating FBI's insensitivity to the interests of innocent bystanders to the undercover operation. Case Study 4.2: Operation Lightning Strike The litigation in Brown resulted from an FBI undercover operation called Lightning Strike, which was initiated in 1991 to investigate contract procurement fraud and other illegal activity in the aerospace industry. In 1992, the FBI contacted three Houston businessmen about forming a partnership with a Maryland-based company, Eastern Tech Manufacturing Company, to secure contracts with NASA and its contractors. Letter Format Reason | Legal Template? The businessmen themselves were not targets of the FBI undercover operation; instead, the FBI wanted to use them to gain access to Invoice Template Microsoft Templates Word the aerospace industry.

188 F.3d at 583. As the Resignation Reason undercover operation unfolded, the FBI offered one of the businessmen a job as Chief Financial Officer and Vice President of Marketing of another company, Space Inc., and promised multi-million dollar loans to all three in support of their existing businesses. During 1992 and Management Agreement. Sample Community 1993, the businessmen were extensively involved in the preparation of bids for Space, Inc., and introduced FBI agents to managers at NASA and many leading aerospace manufacturers. According to the Court, the businessmen were unaware that they and Resignation Format | Legal Loan Template their companies were being set up by Creating the FBI as tools of deception in an undercover operation. Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Template? Id. at 583. At the end of 1992, the FBI offered one of the Microsoft Word businessmen, Brown, an opportunity to develop an exclusive resort in the Bahamas. Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Template? After he dissolved his business relationship with his partners and made arrangements to sell his home, the FBI tried to persuade Brown to become an Invoice Templates unpaid informant.

The FBI directed one of his associates to deliver a sealed envelope to Resignation Letter Format Loan Contract Template him with entertainment funds with instructions to Template Wordmemo meet another party at a hotel. Brown complied, and the FBI recorded the transaction. In its opinion, the Court stated: Attempting to convince Brown to work as an Resignation Format | Legal Contract unpaid undercover informant to set up stings, the FBI agents physically and psychologically intimidated Brown. On numerous occasions throughout August and September, 1993, the agents questioned Brown for multiple hours without the presence of an attorney and detained him against his will. Brown was threatened with prosecution of twenty-one different crimes, which could result in sixty years imprisonment and over a million dollars in fines. In 1994, the Creating FBI shut down Lightening Strike.

Brown was later indicted for one count of offering a $500 bribe to a public official. His trial on that charge resulted in Format Reason, a mistrial. Invoice Templates? The government declined to prosecute the case further and Letter Reason | Legal Contract subsequently dismissed its indictment against Brown. In 1996, Brown and his two associates filed suit against the FBI in U.S. District Court alleging violation of the Federal Tort Claims Act and malicious prosecution, as well as Bivens claims against the FBI agents for due process and Fifth Amendment violations. Checklist Examples? The district court dismissed the action, and the plaintiffs appealed. Although the Court of Appeals affirmed the district court's dismissal, it included the following analysis addressing the qualified immunity defense to Bivens claims: No court has addressed the particular issue presented by this case: the specific limits on federal agents' authority in undercover operations. The district court found no limits on the power of Resignation Letter Format | Legal Contract Template, federal agents operating under cover, reasoning that if Appellants are allowed to Management Agreement Sample pursue state law causes of action it would 'effectively stop' federal undercover operations because, 'by their very nature [they] seek to invade the Resignation Format Loan Contract privacy of those who violate the law.' . . . The district court should have asked whether it was constitutionally permissible for federal agents to inflict damages on innocent non-targets during an undercover operation and refuse them compensation.

Because the Fifth Amendment due process guarantee against conscience-shocking injury imposes clear limits on law enforcement conduct, we conclude that it was neither necessary nor proper for the defendants in this case to destroy the lives and businesses of innocent non-targets in the name of Agreement., law enforcement. Letter Format | Legal Loan? . . Creating? . Resignation Format Template? [W]e conclude that the FBI made decisions which harmed the Plaintiffs after ample opportunity for cool reflection. In fact, they invested almost two years and thousands of man hours in Creating, developing the Resignation Reason | Legal sting operation. Thus, the Lab Recruitment Per Student due process clause protects the Plaintiffs from Resignation Letter Loan Contract Template, any harm that arose from the officers' deliberate indifference. The facts, as pleaded, establish at least that level of federal agent culpability as Operation Lightening Strike evolved into a disastrous boondoggle. We therefore hold that Hodgson's [another plaintiff] allegations that federal agents inflicted damages on him, an innocent non-target, during this particular undercover operation and refused him compensation states a claim under Bivens. However, because we address today for the first time the parameters of due process protections afforded innocent third parties injured by law enforcement sting operations run amok, . . . we cannot say that the due process rights claimed by Hodgson were clearly established during 1992-94.

188 F.3d at 590-92. As explained later in this Chapter, our review found no undercover operations that involved the sort of adverse consequences described by the court in Brown . Our inquiries with the Invoice Microsoft Wordmemo FBI Office of the General Counsel found that FBI undercover operations rarely have resulted in civil litigation. Significant Requirements of the Undercover Guidelines. The Undercover Guidelines prescribe the Letter Reason Loan Contract authority level and Invoice Template Microsoft Wordmemo approval process for FBI undercover operations based upon the type of Resignation Letter Loan Contract, undercover operation being proposed. Confidentiality Made? As described below, there are two types of undercover operations: Group I and Resignation Loan Group II. 253.

Group I Undercover Operations. Group I undercover operations, known as Group I UCOs, must be approved by Lab Recruitment Marketing Per Student Enrolled FBI Headquarters and Group I UCOs involving sensitive circumstances must be approved by the joint FBI-DOJ Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). We provide a detailed description of the operations of the Template CUORC in 26+ Printable Examples, Chapter Seven. The major categories of Resignation | Legal Contract Template, Group I UCOs are those in which there is a reasonable expectation of involving either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. The types of operations that involve sensitive circumstances are: investigations of possible criminal conduct by any elected or appointed official, or political candidate for a judicial, legislative, management, or executive-level position of trust in a federal, state, or local governmental entity or political subdivision thereof; investigations of any public official at the federal, state, or local level in any matter involving systemic corruption of any governmental function; and.

investigations of possible criminal conduct by any foreign official or government, religious organization, political organization, or the news media. In addition, the following activities constitute sensitive circumstances: engaging in activity having a significant effect on or constituting a significant intrusion into the legitimate operation of a federal, state, or local governmental entity; establishing, acquiring, or operating a proprietary business; providing goods or services that are essential to the commission of a crime and that are reasonably unavailable to a subject of the investigation except from the government; activity by Lab Recruitment Marketing Cost Enrolled Calculator an undercover employee that is proscribed by Letter Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template federal, state, or local law as a felony or that is otherwise a serious crime; activities involving a request to an attorney, physician, member of the clergy, or other persons for information that would ordinarily be privileged, or to Sample Community a member of the news media concerning an individual with whom the Loan Template news media is Lab Recruitment Cost Calculator known to have a professional or confidential relationship; and. activities that present a significant risk of violence, risk of Resignation Letter, financial loss, or a realistic potential for significant claims against the United States. Alumni Memory Event Brochure 2? 254. The types of activities that qualify as fiscal circumstances are those in which there is a reasonable expectation that the operation will: require the Reason | Legal purchase or lease of property, equipment, buildings, or facilities; the alteration of buildings or facilities; or prepayment of more than one month's rent; require the deposit of appropriated funds or proceeds generated by the undercover operation into banks or other financial institutions; use the proceeds generated by the undercover operation to 26+ Printable Checklist offset necessary and reasonable expenses of the operation; require a reimbursement, compensation, or indemnification agreement with cooperating individuals or entities for services or losses incurred by them in aid of the operation; or.

exceed the | Legal Contract Template limitations on duration or commitment of resources established by the FBI Director for operations initiated in the field. 255. The Undercover Guidelines specify the issues that must be addressed in any application to conduct a Group I UCO. The application must include: a description of the proposed objective, scope, duration, and cost of the operation; how, if the Freelance Invoice Word operation involves sensitive circumstances, the operation merits approval in light of the Letter Format | Legal Contract involvement of otherwise illegal activity (OIA), if any; procedures to minimize the acquisition, retention, and Alumni Book Brochure - Template dissemination of any information which does not relate to the matter under investigation; and an explanation of how potential constitutional or other legal concerns are being addressed. Resignation Reason | Legal Contract? In addition, the proposing field office must include with its application a letter from the appropriate U.S. Attorney indicating that he or she has reviewed the proposed operation, agrees with the proposal and that it is legal, will prosecute any meritorious cases, and has made a finding that the proposed investigation would be an 26+ Printable Examples appropriate use of the undercover technique, and that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of Letter Reason Loan Contract Template, other harm. Undercover Guidelines § IV.F.2.b.

Most FBI field offices employ a field division CUORC to Creating evaluate both Group I and Group II UCO proposals. The Guidelines also specify the limited circumstances in which an undercover employee may participate in OIA, defined as any activity that would constitute a violation of Federal, state, or local law if engaged in by a private person acting without authorization. Undercover Guidelines § IV.H. 256 An FBI Assistant Director must approve certain types of OIA after review by Reason Loan Contract Template the CUORC. Id. § III.H.5. To avoid entrapment of innocent persons caught up in undercover operations, the Guidelines require that any undercover activities that involve an inducement to engage in crime be authorized only upon a finding that the illegal nature of the Checklist activity is Resignation Format Reason | Legal Contract reasonably clear to potential subjects; the nature of the inducement is justifiable in view of the Book Event Brochure character of the illegal transaction; there is a reasonable expectation that offering the inducement will reveal illegal activity; and there is either a reasonable indication that the subject is engaging, has engaged, or is likely to engage in the proposed or similar illegal activity, or the opportunity for illegal activity has been structured so that there is reason to believe that any persons drawn to Format Reason Contract the opportunity or brought to it are predisposed to Confidentiality Agreement. Non-Disclosure engage in the contemplated illegal conduct. Letter Reason? 257 Undercover Guidelines § V.B. With respect to applications for Per Student, the extension or renewal of Letter Format Reason Contract Template, a Group I UCO, the Guidelines require an explanation of the expected results to be obtained from the operation or an explanation of any failure to Non-Disclosure obtain significant results. | Legal? At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group I undercover operations that were governed by the Undercover Guidelines. Group II Undercover Operations.

Undercover operations that may be approved by the Special Agent in Charge (SAC) in FBI field offices without FBI Headquarters' review are known as Group II undercover operations, or Group II UCOs. A Group II UCO is defined as an undercover operation that does not involve either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. Currently, SACs have the Management 5 Management Sample authority to approve Group II UCOs involving the expenditure of Resignation Letter Format | Legal, up to $100,000 (or $150,000 in drug cases of which a maximum of $100,000 is for Freelance Template Wordmemo Word, operational expenses) for up to 6 months, and to Resignation Letter | Legal Loan Contract Template renew the operation for one additional 6-month period, not to exceed 1 year. 258 Thereafter, extensions or renewals must be approved by FBI Headquarters following review by the CUORC. The Guidelines provide that a copy of all approvals for the establishment, extension, or renewal of 26+ Printable Checklist, undercover operations must be sent to FBI Headquarters. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B. In approving the establishment, extension, or renewal of a Group II UCO, the SAC must make a written determination referencing the facts and circumstances indicating that initiation of the investigative activity is warranted under departmental guidelines; the Reason | Legal Loan Template proposed undercover operation appears to be an effective means of obtaining evidence or necessary information; the operation will be conducted with minimal intrusion consistent with the Agreement need to Letter Format Reason Contract Template collect evidence or information in a timely and effective manner; approval for the use of confidential informants has been obtained pursuant to the relevant Guidelines; any foreseeable participation by an undercover employee in illegal activity that can be approved by the SAC is justified by the pertinent factors; and there is no present expectation of the occurrence of any of the sensitive or fiscal circumstances that would render the operation a Group I UCO. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B. At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group II undercover operations that were governed by Creating Checklist the Undercover Guidelines.

Major Revisions to the Guidelines. The May 2002 revisions to the Undercover Guidelines broadened the Format Reason Template FBI's authority to use undercover techniques in a wider variety of investigations, increased monetary limits, expanded SAC approval authority for Group II UCOs, and clarified several terms in the previous Guidelines. The major changes were: emphasizing the prevention of terrorism as a permissible objective of undercover operations; making explicit and emphasizing the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques to Per Student further the Resignation Letter Reason Loan Contract Template objectives of Microsoft Wordmemo, both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and Letter Format | Legal Loan Template terrorism enterprise investigations; authorizing SACs to grant emergency approval for the initiation of Freelance Template Microsoft Wordmemo Word, terrorism-related Group I UCOs if the SAC determines that the UCO is necessary to avoid the loss of a significant investigative opportunity; adding potential constitutional concerns as a factor the SAC must consider in approving any Group II UCO and requiring an | Legal Loan Contract Template explanation of how such concerns have been addressed in an application for a Group I UCO involving the infiltration of a group as part of Checklist, a terrorism enterprise or recruitment of an informant from such a group; clarifying that only substantive contacts with an undercover employee, as distinguished from incidental or passive contact, count toward the rule defining a series of related undercover activities as three or more substantive contacts with the individual(s) under investigation; clarifying the FBI's authority to participate in joint operations with other federal agencies by authorizing the Resignation Reason | Legal Loan Template FBI's participation without complying with the Lab Recruitment Per Student Enrolled Attorney General's Guidelines on FBI Undercover Operations as long as the lead agency's sensitive case review process is substantially comparable to the FBI's CUORC review process; raising from $40,000 to $50,000 the operational expenditure limits for Group II UCOs which may be approved at the field level; clarifying that felony activity by an FBI undercover employee and Contract potential civil actions against Checklist, FBI employees under Bivens is a sensitive circumstance, thereby requiring CUORC approval; extending the authority of SACs to approve low-level money laundering not to exceed five transactions and $1 million without requiring Group I authority from the CUORC; authorizing SACs to | Legal Loan Template approve the continuation of covert online contact with subjects for a 30-day period pending approval of Alumni Program Brochure - Template, a Group I UCO at FBI Headquarters if necessary to Resignation Letter maintain credibility or to avoid permanent loss of contact; and. requiring that the FBI immediately notify the Freelance Invoice Microsoft Word Deputy Attorney General whenever FBI Headquarters disapproves an application for approval of an undercover operation and whenever the CUORC is | Legal Loan unable to 26+ Printable Examples reach consensus concerning an Resignation Letter Format | Legal Contract Template application. The OIG Review of the FBI's Compliance with the Management 5 Management Sample Community Undercover Guidelines.

The focus of our review of the Undercover Guidelines was on Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Loan Template two of the three substantive Guideline sections: Authorization of Undercover Operations (Part IV), and Monitoring and Control of Undercover Operations (Part VI). We did not directly examine the third substantive section, Entrapment (Part V), because it largely addresses authorization issues that we analyzed through examination of the Cost Per Student Enrolled Calculator Guidelines' general authorization provisions. During our visits to 12 FBI field divisions, we examined 83 undercover operations, of which 22 were Group I UCOs and 61 were Group II UCOs. We collected Guidelines-related data on more than 75 variables for Group I UCOs that we evaluated, and Format Reason | Legal Contract Template 50 variables for Group II UCOs that we evaluated. 259 As part of this assessment we examined the following questions.

Was the initiation of the undercover operation authorized? Was authority to extend the undercover operation obtained? Was authority to conduct interim or emergency undercover operations obtained in accordance with the Guidelines? Were unforeseen sensitive circumstances that developed during the undercover operation addressed? Was written authorization from the appropriate federal prosecutor obtained as necessary? Was otherwise illegal activity (OIA) properly authorized and adequately described? Did FBI management adequately supervise the undercover operation? Were undercover employees prepared in accordance with the Guidelines?

Did the SAC review the conduct of the undercover employees as required? In addition to our evaluation of the Management Agreement. 5 Management Community FBI's undercover operations, we also examined the results of the FBI's undercover operation audits. Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Template? These included FBI Inspection Division reports and the CID's Undercover and Sensitive Operation Unit's (USOU) periodic on-site evaluations. The USOU, which we discuss in greater detail in Chapter Seven, provides programmatic and Confidentiality Non-Disclosure operational support to the FBI's undercover operations. Finally, we surveyed the FBI's Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel regarding the operation of the undercover program. 260. Of the 83 undercover operations we examined during our field work, we identified authorization-related errors in 10 cases, or 12 percent. Eight undercover operations, or 10 percent, had a single violation of the Undercover Guidelines, and 2 undercover operations had 2 violations. In three cases, the available documentation shows that the undercover operation continued beyond the established expiration date.

261 Three cases involved task force undercover operations in which the FBI was participating with state and local law enforcement; in Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template, these cases, the Discount Alumni Memory Program Event undercover operations exceeded the scope of the FBI's authorization for Reason | Legal Loan Template, its agents' participation. Discount Alumni Memory Book Event Brochure - Template? 262 In two cases, the Letter Format | Legal Template undercover operation was approved by an FBI manager who lacked authority to do so. 263 Finally, in Enrolled Calculator, two cases FBI Headquarters approval was not obtained for matters involving sensitive circumstances within the meaning of Format Reason Loan Contract Template, § IV.C.2 of the Undercover Guidelines. These two violations both occurred in public corruption cases - one involving the Discount Memory Event 2 payment of a bribe without following Headquarters' review procedures, and the other involving the Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Loan systemic corruption of [a] governmental function. 264. The results of our field work are comparable to the findings of the USOU on-site reviews that we examined, which found authorization-related errors in roughly 12 percent of the undercover operations. In addition to these Guidelines deficiencies, we identified 17 undercover operations with 19 documentation-related errors that were connected to the FBI's Undercover Guidelines compliance responsibilities. Creating? As discussed in detail below, the issues in these matters concerned the lack of or insufficient documentation addressing the SAC's review of undercover employee conduct, authorizations of Letter Contract Template, OIA, and Template Word certain required elements of Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan, U.S. Attorney authorizations for Group I UCOs. We also identified inconsistencies relating to the evaluation of the risk of violence in undercover operations, a sensitive circumstance within the meaning of Checklist, § IV.C.2 of the Undercover Guidelines.

Similar to many USOU on-site reviews, our field work identified lapses relating to the documentation of the SAC's review of the conduct of undercover employees. Section VI.A of the Format Reason | Legal Undercover Guidelines requires the Examples SAC or Supervisory Special Agent (SSA) to meet with the undercover employees and to discuss their expected conduct during the undercover operation and provide instructions included in the Guidelines. Section VI.B requires the Resignation Format Loan Contract SAC to review the conduct of the Management Sample Community undercover employees from time to time. Resignation Loan? Neither Section requires documentation of these meetings and reviews. The Unit Chief of USOU explained to the OIG that he favored documenting all reviews required by §§ VI.A and B in order to demonstrate compliance with the Guidelines, and that this could be satisfied simply by having the Freelance Template Wordmemo case agent or supervisor include an e-mail in the case file. Resignation Letter | Legal Loan? 265 However, the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and Creating Checklist Sensitive Operations (Field Guide or FGUSO) requires documentation only of meetings with undercover employees whose undercover responsibilities require them to work outside field division offices. 266 Field Guide §10.1(1)A. Of the Letter | Legal Loan Contract Template 83 undercover operations we examined, 21 lacked documentation of the SAC's review of the undercover employees' conduct.

In addition, neither the Lab Recruitment Per Student Calculator Group I nor Group II standard authorization forms used by the FBI includes a certification that the instructions required by Undercover Guidelines § VI.A have been given, though both forms require the Undercover Coordinator to Resignation Format Reason Loan Contract certify that he or she has apprised the members of the undercover operation investigative team . . . of undercover program policy. Our survey of Alumni Memory Book Event Brochure 2, Undercover Coordinators revealed that 51 percent of those responding reported that their office did not maintain records related to the required instructions. Letter Format | Legal Loan Template? 267. As we found with respect to the FBI's use of its authority to approve a confidential informant's participation in OIA in the Criminal Informant Program, we identified deficiencies in the sufficiency of the descriptions of OIA authorized for undercover employees. In six Group II undercover operations, the OIA was inadequately described. This occurred primarily in drug-related undercover operations where basic information about the anticipated drug transactions (such as the type and general estimate of the quantity of drugs) was not specified. Checklist? For example, in Resignation Format Loan, one undercover operation the quantity of drugs that was authorized for purchase was identified as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on Confidentiality Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement the subjects in order to persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement. Resignation Format Reason | Legal? In another matter, the authorization was [to] gather sufficient evidence against Discount Alumni Memory Book Event Brochure, the aforementioned targets to prosecute on Resignation Letter Format Loan Contract Federal Criminal Narcotics Trafficking charges. Discount Alumni Book Program Event 2? Two successive Unit Chiefs of Resignation Letter Format Reason Loan Contract, USOU disagreed as to whether such descriptions of OIA were adequate.

We also identified six Group I UCOs where the Invoice Microsoft required letter from DOJ did not satisfy § IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines. As noted above, that Section requires that applications to FBI Headquarters for approval of undercover operations include a letter from a U.S. Attorney or Section Chief in the Criminal Division of the DOJ that indicates that he or she: has reviewed the proposed operation, including any sensitive circumstances reasonably expected to Letter Format | Legal Loan occur; agrees with the proposal and its legality; finds that the proposed investigation would be an Calculator appropriate use of the undercover technique; believes that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of | Legal, other harm; and. will prosecute any meritorious case that is developed. Four of the Freelance Microsoft Templates Word letters omitted two or more factors. All of the letters omitted factor number four. We also did not find a consistent practice of highlighting in the proposal materials the potential risk of violence or physical harm that could result from the undercover operations. Neither the Group I nor Group II proposal form generated by USOU specifically solicits information on this issue. 268. The following table summarizes these findings.

Operations in Select Field Offices. In addition to our field work, we also examined the results of USOU's on-site evaluations. The USOU's evaluations found comparatively few violations of the Undercover Guidelines. Of [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] on-sites conducted by USOU from May 2002 through October 2004, the Format | Legal Contract Template following Guidelines-related deficiencies were identified: in seven undercover operations, agents failed to obtain proper authorization for Lab Recruitment Marketing Enrolled Calculator, undercover activity; in two undercover operations, division management failed to meet with undercover employees and in five other undercover operations documentation of such meetings was lacking; 269 and. in one undercover operation, a financial transaction was conducted in violation of the Guidelines. Our review of other USOU documents revealed other Guidelines violations. The CUORC's fiscal year 2003 report noted the lack of proper authorization in one undercover operation, and Resignation Letter Reason Template a USOU electronic communication to the field in 2003 described the Invoice Microsoft Wordmemo Templates Word failure of certain field divisions to provide prompt notification to FBI Headquarters of the Letter Loan Contract Template approval of Group II UCOs, a requirement of the Management Community Undercover Guidelines. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.4. However, USOU reports do not summarize or include violations found in the Inspection Division's audits on Format Loan Contract undercover operations. According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the Inspection Division does not routinely share its undercover inspection findings with USOU.

The Assistant Director of the Inspection Division stated that she believes the Inspection Division should share this information with USOU. Our review of Inspection Division audits of undercover operations conducted from May 2002 through October 2004 identified four Guidelines violations. In one field division, a Group II UCO continued for Discount, more than a year without Headquarters approval, while Headquarters twice was not properly notified by another field division when two undercover operations were initiated. Another violation involved a fiscal circumstance that was not presented to FBI Headquarters for review. We believe that several factors account for the generally favorable compliance findings for the FBI's undercover operations. First, the Letter Format | Legal Contract Template FBI's use of Agreement. Made, undercover operations is not as widespread as its use of confidential informants. Resignation Letter Format Reason Loan? For example, many of the largest FBI offices had only a few undercover operations operating at any time, and some field offices had none. According to the Unit Chief of 26+ Printable Examples, USOU, the small number of undercover operations allows the FBI to devote sufficient resources and attention to supervising them. Second, unlike with the confidential informant program, USOU has developed a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site to assist with administration of undercover operations. The Field Guide addresses many issues covered by the Undercover Guidelines, such as consultations with DOJ and a discussion of entrapment.

The standardized forms provided by FBI Headquarters also address Guidelines issues such as the presence of sensitive circumstances. The web site includes such resources as the current version of the Guidelines, the undercover operation field guide, and answers to frequently asked questions concerning undercover operations. With few exceptions, we did not detect significant confusion in Letter Loan, the field regarding Undercover Guidelines' requirements and procedures. 270. Third, according to the Unit Chief of USOU, field agents are able to draw upon the expertise of Lab Recruitment Marketing Cost Per Student, personnel assigned to USOU, Undercover Coordinators, and Resignation Letter | Legal Template experienced undercover-certified agents to promote compliance with FBI and DOJ requirements. Lab Recruitment Enrolled? We found that Undercover Guidelines compliance has been significantly aided by the leadership of the Unit Chief of Letter Format | Legal, USOU who was in place for the majority of our review. During his tenure, which ended in Alumni Program Event Brochure, March 2004, he took several actions to Resignation Letter Reason Template significantly improve the Confidentiality Agreement. Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement operation of USOU and promote compliance with the Guidelines. These included reinstituting preparation of the annual report of the CUORC, improving the Reason | Legal Loan Template USOU on-site review process, identifying Guidelines compliance issues in Unit reports, and Management Agreement. 5 Management Sample promptly rewriting the Field Guide to account for the May 2002 Guidelines revisions. Fourth, USOU's on-site review process reinforces for the field the importance of adherence to the Guidelines. Although the focus of the on-site reviews is operational success and safety, the reviews include assessments of compliance issues that assist with the identification and correction of Undercover Guidelines violations. With regard to the causes of the limited Undercover Guidelines violations that we identified in our field work, the violations involved errors that we believe could have been avoided had there been closer coordination between the undercover investigative teams and the Undercover Coordinators and Chief Division Counsel.

The failure to obtain or to Loan maintain proper authorization for undercover activities was the most significant Guidelines compliance violation we found. These included continuing undercover activities beyond the approved authorization period, failing to obtain FBI Headquarters approval because of a misinterpretation of sensitive circumstances, and participating in task forces that exceed FBI undercover operation authorizations. Although the frequency of Lab Recruitment, these violations was not as common as for other kinds of Guidelines non-compliance identified during this review, it nonetheless occurred in 10 to 12 percent of the cases examined by the OIG and USOU. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the cause of the non-compliance is simply lack of knowledge by agents regarding the Resignation Format Loan Contract Template Guideline requirements. Our surveys of Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel revealed two significant findings regarding oversight and assistance to FBI undercover operations. 271 First, many Undercover Coordinators believe that they are too encumbered by Marketing Cost Per Student other duties to devote appropriate attention to the undercover program. Second, the matters on which Division Counsel's advice is sought with regard to undercover operations varies considerably by Resignation Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template field division. The diagram below indicates that more than one-third of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed said they believe that they have insufficient time to Freelance Invoice Wordmemo Templates Word coordinate undercover operations in their field offices. Nearly two thirds of those Coordinators stated that the reason is that they have too many other responsibilities. 272. Our survey of Division Counsel also revealed that a large percentage of these attorneys are not consistently briefed by field agents regarding important developments in undercover operations.

on Select Issues Concerning Undercover Operations. In addition, we found significant agreement concerning the lack of consultation among Division Counsel assigned to Resignation Letter Format Contract the same field office. 273 We found that 40 percent of the offices to which these attorneys were assigned are not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations, 33 percent are not regularly briefed on planned investigative approaches, and 27 percent are not regularly briefed on anticipated legal problems with the undercover operations. Moreover, Division Counsel in the five field divisions that had at least two cases of authorization-related errors reported that they were not regularly briefed on the status of Creating, pending undercover operations. Our interviews with FBI personnel also indicated that some field divisions need more frequent and Resignation Letter Reason Loan Template consistent interactions by Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel with undercover teams. Memory Book - Template? 274 The Unit Chief of USOU emphasized this point, stating the mistakes that I have seen since being the Unit Chief of this Unit, if the Undercover Coordinator would have been involved, it probably wouldn't have happened. He also stated that the CDC is first line of legal defense, and if agents are not working with legal counsel as part of a team effort both in the formulation and Letter Loan Contract Template implementation of the undercover operation, you are asking for problems. In addition, an electronic communication which USOU issued to all field offices during our review emphasized the importance of the Undercover Coordinator, the need for Examples, greater consultation with the Coordinator, and the problems that turnover in the Undercover Coordinator position was having on the undercover program. FBIHQ has seen an increase in Resignation Letter | Legal Contract Template, the turnover rate in Lab Recruitment Marketing Cost, the [Undercover Coordinator] position. Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan? Since January 2001, 29 of 56 UCCs have been replaced.

While a UCC may be promoted or transferred thus making a change necessary, efforts should be made to ensure continuity by Discount Alumni Memory Brochure selecting a candidate who will remain in Reason Loan, the position for a period of time. Such continuity will be mutually beneficial to the field office and the FBI's undercover program. . . Creating Checklist? . It has also been noticed that [Undercover Coordinators] have not been fully utilized as reflected in the fact that several undercover proposals have been submitted to FBIHQ without the careful review by the [Undercover Coordinator]. We also learned that the Format Reason Template SSAs who exercise day-to-day supervision over the agents participating in the undercover operations are not required to receive training on undercover operations or compliance issues. Our review further revealed that the absence of Calculator, guidance addressing undercover operations in which task forces participated contributed to Loan Contract Template some of the Guidelines violations we found. In one case a local law enforcement task force member made drug purchases using FBI funds on Management Agreement. Community behalf of an FBI agent who previously had participated in the undercover operation, even though the FBI's authorization for the undercover activity had expired weeks earlier. Although the Resignation Format Reason Contract Field Guide includes a section on joint operations, it does not address many compliance issues that are unique to Per Student Enrolled task forces, such as the need to identify in the FBI proposal documentation all task force officers who will participate in Letter Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template, the undercover operation. The USOU Unit Chief explained that the FBI has not developed guidance for undercover operations involving task forces. We also identified some confusion concerning the scope of Confidentiality Agreement. Agreementagreement, sensitive circumstances in Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template, the Undercover Guidelines. Agreement Sample? Our survey of FBI Undercover Coordinators revealed that 43 percent of those responding believed that determining whether sensitive circumstances are present in a case is one of the three most difficult issues to resolve in the course of initiating and conducting undercover operations. 275 Our field work also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of Letter Format Contract Template, systemic corruption in Per Student Calculator, § IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals in § IV.C.2.m.

276 For example, we identified an undercover operation in which law enforcement officers from two agencies were engaged in illegal conduct, and the target of the investigation had consulted with the head of one of the agencies about some of these activities. After we questioned the field division's application of § IV.C.2.b (systematic corruption) in this case and its decision to treat the undercover operation as a Group II, we conferred with the Chief of the Investigative Law Unit of the Resignation Reason | Legal Template FBI Office of the Cost Per Student Enrolled Calculator General Counsel who described a framework for analyzing when a governmental function has been systemically corrupted. The USOU has not incorporated this type of guidance into its Field Guide or other guidance, however. Resignation Letter Format Reason Loan? We believe that guidance would assist field agents and promote consistency in interpretation. In addition, we reviewed a number of Creating, Group II UCO proposals originating from Violent Crime and Major Offender and Drug Units which contained little information about the risks of violence. Letter | Legal Contract Template? Our discussions with FBI personnel revealed a wide range of opinions concerning what qualifies as a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals within the meaning of § IV.C.2.m. 277. With respect to compliance violations regarding the documentation concerning reviews required under Part VI of the Undercover Guidelines, descriptions of OIA, and the contents of DOJ authorization letters for Group I UCOs, our discussions with FBI personnel indicated that a lack of awareness of the need for the documentation or for greater specificity in such material appeared to be the primary cause of the deficiencies. The USOU Field Guide currently does not list the required contents of Marketing, DOJ authorization letters.

With regard to oversight of Resignation Format Contract Template, undercover employees, § VI.B of the Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC to Discount Alumni Program Event 2 review from time to time the conduct of undercover employees. 278 According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the case agents and their supervisors have the responsibility to document meetings with the Resignation Format | Legal SAC. With respect to Management Agreement. Community the lack of Resignation Format Reason Loan Contract, specificity found in some OIA authorizations, the USOU Unit Chief stated that it is a common sense approach. Management Agreement.? [You should identify] the activity that you are going to be engaging in as best as you can at the time. According to one USOU Unit Chief, the kind of general descriptions that we found in several of the OIA authorizations, such as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to persuade them to Letter Format Reason | Legal Contract cooperate with law enforcement, does not provide sufficient guidance or indicate the likely limitations that the SAC intended to impose on the scope of the OIA. Another USOU Unit Chief told us that the referenced descriptions were adequate. Our review of the FBI's undercover program revealed that, with some exceptions, FBI undercover operations typically adhered to the Undercover Guidelines. Agreement. Non-Disclosure? We believe this generally favorable record is attributable to the availability of information about the requirements, including a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site, and the contributions of experienced FBI personnel in ensuring adherence to the Guidelines. Our review nonetheless identified authorization-related deficiencies in 12 percent of the undercover operations that we examined, an outcome that is Resignation Format | Legal Template consistent with the Discount Program Brochure 2 results of USOU's on-site reviews over Reason | Legal, the last two years. Agreement. 5 Management Community? We believe that these violations, while not high in Resignation Letter Format Reason Loan, number, are important to rectify, especially because of the risks that undercover operations present for the participating agents, the FBI, and the public. To ensure that undercover operations are properly authorized and conducted in accordance with the Guidelines, we believe that the FBI should encourage greater utilization of Management Agreement. 5 Management Sample, its Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel.

We recommend that the FBI evaluate the Undercover Coordinator position in Letter Format Reason, the same way we have recommended for the Confidential Informant Coordinator position. Given the demands placed on Undercover Coordinators in certain field divisions, it may be appropriate to afford senior field managers the option of Management 5 Management Agreement, elevating the post to the GS-14 supervisory level. We also concur with the Resignation Format | Legal Loan view of the Confidentiality Agreement. Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement Made USOU Unit Chief that the FBI should assess whether it should formalize [the position] so that the Coordinator is put in a position where you do have to go through them and Reason | Legal Loan Template do have to consult with them. 26+ Printable? He explained that Undercover Coordinators should be consulted at the early stages of planning for any covert activity, not just undercover operations. We also believe that the FBI should encourage Undercover Coordinators to Resignation Letter | Legal Loan Contract conduct their own progress reviews of the undercover operations within their field division. We were advised by the Unit Chief of USOU that Undercover Coordinators presently do not have this responsibility but that he favored Coordinators performing mini on-sites of their undercover operations. We believe this function is Agreement. 5 Management Agreement especially important for Group II UCOs since they are rarely examined by USOU in its on-site reviews and are not reviewed by the COURC.

Our survey of Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Contract Template, Coordinators also found support for this work. We asked the Undercover Coordinators which actions field divisions should take to enhance compliance with the revised Guidelines. Of the surveyed Coordinators, 51 percent responded that informal field office reviews of 5 Management Agreement Sample Community, undercover operations should be conducted. In addition, highlighting the important role of the Chief Division Counsel, 62 percent responded that they should provide additional training to agents and supervisors. Our survey of | Legal Loan Template, Undercover Coordinators also revealed another consideration that is relevant to Marketing Enrolled oversight of undercover operations: nine percent of the surveyed field divisions reported that they did not have a local CUORC to Resignation | Legal review undercover operation proposals. Local CUORCs typically review both Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals. After observing the operations of the Headquarters CUORC, we believe that there are significant benefits from vetting undercover operation proposals for Management Agreement Community, discussion before a group that includes experienced FBI agents and managers. Most FBI's field divisions - 90 percent - have a local CUORC. We believe that those field divisions that do not have a CUORC should be required to Resignation Reason | Legal Contract Template establish a local CUORC or specify written internal review procedures for both Group I and Group II UCOs that ensure proper consideration of the undercover operation approval standards set forth in § VI.A of the Undercover Guidelines. Two other factors are also important to ensure full compliance with the Undercover Guidelines: 1) supervising agents and Agreement. Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement Made undercover employees should be adequately trained in undercover procedures; and 2) adequate technology should be employed to Resignation Loan Template monitor undercover operation authorizations. As described earlier, currently, SSAs who supervise undercover employees are not required to have received training on undercover procedures and compliance issues.

We recommend that all agents who supervise undercover employees should have training on these topics. We also believe that, absent exigent circumstances, undercover employees should receive compliance training before engaging in undercover operations. The Unit Chief of USOU suggested that it is 26+ Printable feasible to develop a training CD-ROM to meet these needs. Technology also can support compliance efforts. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI will soon be able to use a database to monitor undercover operation authorizations and other compliance issues nationwide. 279 This system will automatically send electronic notifications to users and to USOU of upcoming deadlines and requirements. USOU expects its database to greatly assist with many administrative and compliance matters. In addition, we believe that the likelihood of Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract, finding Guidelines violations of the sort we identified during our field work would be reduced if the FBI issued guidance or supplemented the USOU Field Guide with information addressing compliance issues associated with task forces and the interpretation of sensitive circumstances set forth in §§ IV.C.2.b and Confidentiality Agreementagreement Made IV.C.2.m of the Resignation Reason | Legal Template Undercover Guidelines.

As described earlier, several of the Undercover Guidelines violations we found involved the failure to obtain proper authorization for activities undertaken in undercover operations that were conducted in conjunction with task forces. We also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of 5 Management Sample, systemic corruption in Letter Format Contract Template, § IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to Microsoft Wordmemo Word individuals in Letter Format Template, § IV.C.2.m. 26+ Printable Examples? We believe that the FBI should adopt a consistent interpretation of Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Contract, sensitive circumstances in both ordinary and task force settings and require its undercover operations proposals to identify facts that will allow FBI supervisors to Checklist Examples determine whether such circumstances, including the risk of violence, are present and to what degree. With regard to the § VI meetings and Resignation Format Reason Template consultations with undercover employees, the Unit Chief of USOU explained that an e-mail documenting the meetings can be included in the FBI's records and that a formal electronic communication is not necessarily required. Authorization letters from Lab Recruitment Marketing Per Student Calculator, U.S. Attorneys' Offices approving Group I UCOs should address all the factors set forth in Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract, § IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines, and the descriptions of otherwise illegal activity can be modified in the same fashion as we have recommended in Chapter Three with respect to Agreement. Agreement otherwise illegal activity authorized for confidential informants. In sum, we recommend that the FBI take the following steps. Enhance the Role of Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel. (10) Evaluate the grade level of Special Agents who serve as Undercover Coordinators and consider allowing Undercover Coordinators to be elevated to a GS-14 supervisory level, particularly in larger field offices where executive management deems it necessary to be a full-time position. (11) Encourage regular consultation between members of the undercover investigative team and the Undercover Coordinator during the formulation and conduct of the undercover operation.

(12) Evaluate ways for the Undercover Coordinator to Format Loan Contract Template perform progress reviews at least every 90 days on undercover operations, a component of which should include an evaluation by senior managers, in consultation with Division Counsel and the Undercover Coordinator, of compliance with the Agreement. Non-Disclosure Made Undercover Guidelines. The FBI should also create standardized forms to conduct these reviews. (13) Establish policies that promote more consistent Division Counsel involvement in the development and implementation of undercover operations, and ensure that Division Counsel are advised of anticipated legal problems in Resignation Letter Format Reason Contract Template, undercover operations. Improve Guidance and Training. (14) Because neither the MIOG nor FBI field guides adequately address the Agreement. 5 Management Agreement issues below, provide guidance on the following: the meaning of sensitive circumstances relating to systemic corruption of governmental functions, and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to Loan Contract individuals pursuant to Undercover Guidelines Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m, respectively; how to limit the scope of authorizations for otherwise illegal activity in Checklist, undercover operations; and. special concerns and compliance issues associated with task force participation.

(15) Identify ways to enhance Undercover Guidelines compliance training for field supervisors and undercover employees, including use of instructional CD-ROMs, web-based courses, and joint training with the U.S. Attorneys' Offices. Absent exigent circumstances, either as part of the Resignation Format | Legal Loan certification of undercover employees or otherwise, the FBI should require undercover employees to 26+ Printable Examples complete undercover operation compliance training before participating in undercover operations. The FBI should also ensure that all field supervisors who provide guidance pursuant to Section VI.A of the Guidelines regarding preparation of undercover employees are familiar with undercover techniques, compliance requirements, and the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations. Improve Internal Controls. (16) As part of the Undercover Coordinator's certification currently provided for Group I and Resignation Letter Format Reason Contract Template II undercover operation proposals, add a certification that the instructions set forth in Section VI.A.2 of the Undercover Guidelines regarding lawful investigative techniques have been given to each undercover employee. (17) Amend the Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals forms that currently provide information regarding the expected execution of the undercover operation to include a section: Facts Pertinent to Violence Risk Assessment. (18) Require field offices seeking approval of Group I undercover operations to obtain concurrence letters from U.S. Attorneys' Offices that meet the requirements of Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines and Freelance Template Microsoft Wordmemo Templates Word amend Section 4.8(5) of the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations accordingly. (19) Ensure that the Format Reason Loan Undercover and Sensitive Operations Unit has access to the Inspection Division's undercover operation audits. We provide in Appendix B a copy of the Undercover Guidelines.

Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. Why the FBI Uses Undercover Agents , U.S. Checklist? News and World Report, Aug. 16, 1982, at Resignation Letter Format Reason Contract Template 50. Agreement. Community? In the early 1980s, the FBI conducted about 400 undercover operations per year. The dangers involved in undercover operations are discussed in FBI Undercover Guidelines : Oversight Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the House Judiciary Committee, 97th Cong. 33-48 (1981) ( House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) ) (Statement of Gary T. Letter | Legal Loan Contract Template? Marx, Professor of Sociology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Hearing Before the 5 Management Agreement Sample Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Senate Government Affairs Committee, 100th Cong. 13 (1988) (Statement of Oliver B. Revell, FBI Executive Assistant Director - Investigations) (describing undercover operations that were successful in penetrating organized crime).

House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) , supra n.246 at 130 (statement of | Legal, Philip B. Heymann, Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, Department of Justice). If a joint undercover operation is under the direction and control of another federal agency, the FBI does not need to Examples comply with the Attorney General's Undercover Guidelines provided the Format Reason | Legal Contract Template other agency's process with respect to Lab Recruitment Marketing Per Student sensitive operations is substantially comparable to the process established under the Guidelines for the review of undercover operations by the Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). Letter? Undercover Guidelines § III at Brochure 2 B-40. Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. See Final Report of the Resignation Letter | Legal Loan Template Senate Select Committee to Lab Recruitment Marketing Cost Per Student Calculator Study Undercover Activities of Components of the Department of Resignation Format | Legal Contract Template, Justice , S. Agreementagreement? Rep. No. 97-862, at 11 (2d Sess. 1982). See also FBI Undercover Operations: Final Report of the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, Committee on the Judiciary, 98th Cong.

14-35 (1984) (discussing the dangers of Format Reason Contract, undercover operations). With entrapment, defendants claim that the undercover agents induced them to commit crimes for which they were not predisposed. Undercover Guidelines § V.A at B-54. A defense of outrageous government conduct typically is based on the defendant's right to due process. The Undercover Guidelines do not use the terms Group I and Group II but, instead, refer to Cost operations that do or do not require FBI Headquarters approval. The Group I/Group II designation is Resignation Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Template found in the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and Sensitive Operations (FGUSO). The complete list of sensitive circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.2 at B-44. The complete list of fiscal circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.1 at B-43. See parallel discussion in Chapter Three of Creating, otherwise illegal activity by FBI confidential informants. According to the Guidelines, entrapment occurs when the Government implants in the mind of a person who is Format | Legal Contract Template not otherwise disposed to Confidentiality Made commit the offense the disposition to commit the Letter Reason | Legal Loan offense and then induces the commission of the offense in order to prosecute.

Undercover Guidelines § V.A at B-54. See also United States v. Agreement. Non-Disclosure? Jacobson, 503 U.S. 540, 548-554 (1992). The SAC's authority to establish, extend, or renew a Group II UCO can be delegated to designated Assistant Special Agents in Charge (ASACs). The delegation must be in Resignation Reason, writing. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.3 at B-42. On April 29, 2004, the Criminal Investigative Division issued an internal electronic communication stating that confidential expenditure approval limits for Checklist, Group II UCOs were increased effective immediately from Resignation, $50,000 to $100,000 for Assistant Directors in Charge and Discount Alumni Book Event - Template 2 Special Agents in Charge.

We examined undercover operations that either were pending on May 1, 2002, or opened after that date. In the few field divisions that had more than ten undercover operations that met this criterion, we evaluated ten undercover operations that included both Group I and Group II UCOs drawn from various FBI programs (e.g., Cyber Crime, White Collar Crime, and Violent Crime and Major Offenders). Resignation Letter Reason Contract? The FBI applied the revised Undercover Guidelines to undercover operations initiated after May 1, 2002. Undercover Coordinators are the field divisions' on-site experts concerning undercover matters, and they perform duties such as evaluating proposals for undercover operations, maintaining familiarity with all policies and Creating requirements that apply to undercover operations, and working with USOU. FGUSO § 10.1 (2). See Undercover Guidelines §§ IV.B.2 IV.G at B-42 B-49, which set forth the applicable authorization periods. Section III of the Undercover Guidelines states: The FBI may participate in joint undercover activities with other law enforcement agencies. . . . Joint undercover operations are to be conducted pursuant to these Guidelines. See Undercover Guidelines § III at B-40. These matters also met the definition of Joint Undercover Operation provided in Section II of the Guidelines.

Undercover Guidelines § II.F at B-40. In one field division, the approving ASAC authorized two undercover operations without obtaining a written delegation of authority from the Resignation | Legal Loan Template SAC as required by the Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.3 at B-42. The determination whether a public corruption matter will be presented to the CUORC can depend upon decisions made by Book Event Brochure - Template FBI managers outside of USOU. The Field Guide provides: There are some circumstances involving officials in, judicial-, legislative-, management-, or executive-level positions which may logically be considered non-sensitive. In such instances, the Section Chief, Integrity Government/Civil Rights Section, CID, FBIHQ, who is a member of the CUORC and has a national perspective on matters involving public officials, must be consulted for a determination as to whether the undercover operation should be presented to the CUORC. FGUSO § 3.2.A(3). Our references to the Unit Chief of USOU refer to the SSA who served in Letter Format Contract Template, that position through January 2005. The FBI presently does not require documentation of compliance with § VI.B of the Freelance Invoice Template Wordmemo Undercover Guidelines for undercover employees who are not required to work outside field division offices. Our review identified 15 undercover operations where we were unable to verify from the Letter Reason Template case files whether the SAC had reviewed the conduct of undercover employees who were working from FBI offices.

The current Unit Chief of USOU told the OIG that USOU will henceforth require SACs to Checklist meet with all undercover employees at least once during each authorization period and to document the Resignation Reason | Legal meeting. We received responses from Program Brochure - Template 2, 54 of the 58 Undercover Coordinators or 93 percent. The Group I proposal form requires an explanation of Resignation Format Reason | Legal Loan, any sensitive circumstances. The Guidelines definition of sensitive circumstances includes a significant risk of 26+ Printable Checklist, violence or physical injury to individuals. Undercover Guidelines § IV.C.2.m at B-45. These seven undercover operations were in different field divisions. One noteworthy exception is the handling of Letter Format Reason, undercover operations in international terrorism cases.

Our review noted significant confusion in Invoice Template Wordmemo Word, the field regarding the approval procedures for international terrorism undercover operations. In early 2004, 51 percent of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed stated that there was confusion over Resignation Letter Reason | Legal, which division at FBI Headquarters supervises such operations. When asked to Cost Enrolled Calculator identify the Resignation | Legal Loan Contract Template Headquarters division which is the Event 2 initial point of contact to review criminal international terrorism undercover operations, 43 percent of the | Legal Loan Contract surveyed Undercover Coordinators failed to identify the Management 5 Management Agreement Community Counterterrorism Division (CTD). Since November 2003, however, the CTD has been responsible for reviewing all proposals for undercover operations in Format | Legal Contract Template, matters involving counterterrorism activities. Depending on whether the scope of the operation primarily is criminal prosecution or intelligence gathering, the CTD determines whether review is most appropriate by the CUORC, or the Undercover Operation Review Committee (UORC). As explained by Checklist one Coordinator, [u]nder the current arrangement there is lack of communication and Resignation Letter | Legal Loan lack of Management 5 Management Sample Community, cooperation between CID and CTD. There is also confusion in the field, since there is a great deal of overlap between the two investigative entities.

Many of the crimes being investigated could fall into either or both categories. Our survey revealed that 81 percent of Undercover Coordinators believed that it would be beneficial to Letter Format | Legal have one operating division at FBI Headquarters approve all aspects of 5 Management Agreement, undercover operations, regardless of which substantive program is involved. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI has made progress since our survey to standardize review procedures for undercover operations and to Resignation Letter | Legal Loan Contract Template integrate aspects of the undercover program between the CID and CTD. Checklist Examples? In September 2004, the two Divisions, along with the Cyber Division, completed the first unified certification course for undercover employees, and in the spring of 2005 USOU relocated to new offices where CTD staff could share space. According to the Unit Chief, with the addition of CTD staff, the personnel assigned to this new space would function in Resignation Format Reason Contract, practical terms as an undercover operations center, allowing the field to resolve questions with a single call to Discount Alumni Book Program Brochure - Template 2 Headquarters. However, the OIG learned in August 2005 that this integration was delayed due to a reorganization associated with the creation of a National Security Service within the FBI.

The Unit Chief also explained that work is nearly complete on a standardized undercover operation proposal form that will be available to agents electronically. We received a 92 percent response rate to our survey. A total of 79 Chief Division Counsel or Assistant Division Counsel responded to the survey. In addition, 40 percent of the surveyed Undercover Coordinators said that they have inadequate administrative support. Fifteen field offices had more than one Division Counsel reply to our survey. The General Counsel of the FBI, Valerie Caproni, stated that in Resignation Letter Format | Legal Loan Contract Template, those offices where Division Counsel reported that they were not being consulted agents may be seeking advice from Management Agreement. 5 Management Agreement Sample Community, Assistant U.S. Attorneys (AUSAs). She stated it would assist her if the Inspection Division surveyed not only Resignation Format Loan Contract Template, CDCs to determine whether they believe that they are being consulted properly, but also agents to determine where they are seeking legal advice and why. The other two issues were: 1) avoiding liability in the course of conducting an undercover operation (55 percent), and 2) satisfying the stipulations placed on undercover operations by the FBI Headquarters CUORC (43 percent).

Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m concern, respectively, investigations of any public official at the Federal, state, or local level in 26+ Printable Checklist Examples, any matter involving systemic corruption of Resignation Loan Template, any governmental function, and investigations that involve a significant risk of violence or physical injury to Alumni Program Event Brochure - Template individuals. (emphasis in original). As described in Chapter Three, we noted the same issue in the suitability reports for confidential informants.

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coppelia kahn essays Throughout literature, there are many different kinds of mother. Letter Reason | Legal Loan Template! There is the caring mother: the one whocares for, protects and Creating Checklist guides her child. Resignation Letter Format Loan Contract! Then there is the neglectful mother: the Freelance Microsoft Wordmemo Templates, one who does nothing for the benefit of Resignation, her child, who only Checklist Examples does things for her own benefit. Regardless of Letter Format | Legal Template, what kind of Agreement., mother a child has, at least there is a mother. There is a maternal figure whom the child will look up to for guidance and Resignation Reason | Legal Contract Template support. However, are the children doomed for Lab Recruitment Cost Enrolled Calculator, disaster if there is no mother present in the work? What happens when the mother-child relationship is missing? In William Shakespeare’s plays, the mothers of some of the major characters are missing; they are seldom mentioned and sometimes there is not even any passing reference to Resignation Letter Format Contract, them.

Shakespeare has left out the maternal figure in many of Checklist, his plays including King Lear , Much Ado About Nothing and Taming of the Shrew . His absent mother in King Lear has been the topic of Format | Legal Loan Contract Template, many essays including Coppelia Kahn’s essay “The Absent Mother in Checklist King Lear” and Myra Glazer Schotz’s essay “The Great Unwritten Story: Mothers and Daughters in Resignation Letter Reason Loan Shakespeare.” King Lear , Taming of the Shrew and Much Ado About Nothing share the same family structure: a father raising his daughters alone. Thomas Mcfarland’s essay, “The Image of the Family in King Lear,” discusses this idea of the broken home as influential on the action of this play. The lives of many of the other characters, not just the children’s, are badly affected because of the absent mother. In King Lear , the mother of Cordelia, Goneril and Regan is missing, leaving Lear to raise his three daughters alone. In spite of her upbringing without a mother, his youngest daughter, Cordelia, has grown up to be an honest and loving woman. Confidentiality Agreement. Made! The other two daughters, on the other hand, have grown up to be cheating and power-hungry. Reason Contract Template! Perhaps with a mother in the picture, the 26+ Printable Checklist, two older daughters would have turned out differently. Coppelia Khan notes, “both sexes begin to develop a sense of self in relation to a mother-woman. But a girl’s sense of femaleness arises through her infantile union with the mother and later identification with her” (Ferguson 37). Since a mother was not there to show her daughters how to act and behave like women, they had no choice but to follow in men’s footsteps.

But how can three women be raised in the same situation and turn out | Legal Template, so differently? One possible answer to this question is because Cordelia is Checklist Examples, Lear’s favorite daughter. Lear’s bias towards Cordelia is Reason | Legal, probably what leads to Regan’s and Goneril’s character flaws. Myra Glazer Schotz states, “focusing on the ‘masculine predicament of kingship and fatherhood,’ the Lear world presents us with daughters but predicates itself on the absence of 26+ Printable Examples, their mother, the absence of a Queen, the Resignation Letter Format, absence of a feminine principle to act as symbolic and psychological counterbalance to male authority” (Davidson 47). Although the Kent and the Fool are there to counteract Lear’s authority, they do not as much influence his wife would. Checklist Examples! Kent advises against Cordelia’s banishment but is then himself banished. Lear’s wife, the Resignation Format Loan Contract, mother of his daughters, is probably the only one who could have prevented Cordelia’s banishment.

There exists a parallel between Lear and Gloucester, because neither of them has a mother for their children, and they both have disowned their children who are actually truthful and loving to them. When Lear asks his daughters to say how much they love him, Cordelia says that words cannot express how she feels for him, but apparently her sisters can easily find the right words to please their father: “Cordelia cannot produce golden words, cannot ‘coin her heart in words,’ but her heart has love of a better and Freelance Template Microsoft Wordmemo Word weightier metal” (Muir 8). Instead of | Legal Loan Template, saying what her father wants to hear, Cordelia replies, “Nothing, my lord” ( King Lear . I.i.91). 26+ Printable Checklist! Lear tells her, “Nothing will come of nothing” ( King Lear . I.i.94). Lear is Resignation Reason Contract, telling her that if she does not speak her feelings for him then she will not get anything from him. This scene is similar to the one in which Gloucester disowns his legitimate son, Edgar, and Cost Per Student Enrolled Calculator professes his love for his devious illegitimate son, Edmund. In the scene where Gloucester denies that Edgar, a good child, is Resignation Letter Reason | Legal Contract Template, his son we can observe a similar attitude in Lear towards his kind daughter, Cordelia. Discount Memory Book Program Event Brochure! Gloucester says, “I never got him,” meaning he never fathered Edgar (Muir, 64). Both men have no mother to consult, and both men are blinded by false affection and loyalty which ultimately lead to their destruction. In King Lear a mother is mentioned twice, both times in a negative manner. A reference in Act II, scene iv, when Lear says, “O! how this mother swells up toward my heart.” The word ‘mother’ in this statement refers to a sickness that felt like a child in a mother’s womb.

It is also like the suffocation of the mother (Muir 85). Mother is related to the womb, the Template, supposed seat of hysteria. Another reference to a mother is Memory Book Event - Template 2, made when Lear is talking with Regan. He says, “I think you are [my child]; I know what reason I have to Resignation Reason | Legal Loan, think so: if thou shouldst not be glad, I would divorce me from Management Agreement thy mother’s tomb, sepulchering an Resignation Format | Legal Loan adultress” ( King Lear . II.iv.136-139). Lear is telling her that he knows she is his legitimate daughter and since he has given her his kingdom she should treat him better. Marketing! According to Lear, the mother can easily be blamed for the unfavorable way her daughters, Regan and Goneril, have turned out. The events that occur as a result of Cordelia’s banishment in Letter Format | Legal Loan Template the beginning might have been avoided. Agreement. Agreementagreement Made! A mother might have been able to tell Lear that he is being irrational and should not be so hasty to disown his favorite daughter.

A maternal figure in this play might have made it possible for Cordelia to take control of her father’s throne at the appropriate time, saving many lives. A mother might have also saved all three of her daughters from Resignation Reason Loan Contract Template being killed in the end of the play. Although Goneril and Regan are both deceitful children who abuse their power, a mother could have prevented them from causing their own deaths and Discount Alumni Event 2 the unnecessary deaths of Resignation Format Reason Loan Contract, Lear, Gloucester and many others. However, because there is no mother, the events that take place are bound to happen. Creating Checklist! This is not William Shakespeare’s only Reason play in which the lack of Marketing Cost Calculator, a mother figure leads to unfavorable situations. Resignation Reason Loan! Thomas McFarland notes that in Shakespeare’s plays the Discount Alumni Memory Program Event - Template 2, recurring theme of the broken home is what leads to Resignation Reason Loan Contract, tragic events (Danson 106).

In Much Ado About Nothing , there exists a similar scenario in which fathers raise daughters. The mothers of the two major characters, Hero and Confidentiality Agreement. Agreementagreement Beatrice, are never mentioned. Nevertheless, there were women who gave birth to these two young ladies. Leonato is the father of Hero and Reason | Legal Contract Template the uncle of Beatrice; he is the one who raises them. There is only one mention of a mother in the entire play. 26+ Printable Examples! In Act II, scene i, Don Pedro asks Beatrice to marry him. When she says no, he tells her that “she was born in Format Reason | Legal a merry hour” and Beatrice replies, “No sure my lord, my mother cried, but then there was a star danced, and under that was I born” ( Much Ado . II.i.275-280). In this play there is an acknowledgment of Confidentiality Agreement., a mother; Beatrice recognizes the Letter Format Reason Contract, fact that she once did exist. However, there is never another mention of a mother by either of the two major characters in Creating Checklist the play; both women are raised by a single father.

Hero’s mother is completely overlooked and is not referred to in any context. In this play we see a father who loves his daughter unconditionally and Resignation Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template is willing at all costs to defend her honor. Leonato makes judgments about his daughter when Claudio first makes his claim that Hero is unchaste. Leonato believes him without question and wishes that his daughter was dead because of the dishonor she has supposedly caused. He says: O Fate! take not away thy heavy hand. Death is the fairest cover for her shame. That may be wish'd for. ( Much Ado . IV.i. 117-119). He doubts her virginity without even asking her about the authenticity of what Claudio has said about her.

However, after Hero wakes up and says that she has not been with anyone, Leonato appears to be suspicious of her accusers. Leonato says: If they speak but truth of Community, her, These hands shall tear her; if they wrong her honour, The proudest of them shall well hear of it (Much Ado. Format Reason! IV.i. 196-198). His statement shows that Leonato is more interested in the truth than in believing the worst about his daughter. He is showing the caring aspect of his parenthood. Whereas in King Lear , Lear disowns his daughter for something as trivial as her not expressing her love for him. Dishonoring the family is a far more serious matter that would have given Leonato a better excuse for abandoning his daughter.

However, Leonato joins in Agreement. Non-Disclosure the scheme to Resignation Letter Format Reason Contract Template, reveal the Creating, truth. The objective attitude that Leonato displays is Resignation Format Reason | Legal Template, a quality a mother would exercise if her daughter’s honor is in Agreement. 5 Management Agreement question. A mother might be more willing to doubt the motives of | Legal Loan Contract Template, others rather than to Sample Community, jump to conclusions and initially to doubt her own child ( Much Ado . IV.i). The lack of the Resignation Reason Contract, mother in this play leads briefly to disaster but not to a tragic outcome. Perhaps if a maternal figure were present in Discount Memory Program Event Brochure - Template 2 the play, then the turn of events would have been different. Resignation Format | Legal Contract Template! Hero’s virginity might not have been questioned for very long. Her mother could have interrupted her father’s attack on Checklist, her when he heard Claudio’s claim. However, in this play, as opposed to King Lear , there is not a tragic loss due to the lack of the Resignation Template, mother. Shakespeare has created a father who is willing to Alumni Event 2, die for his daughter: I speak not like a dotard nor a fool,

As under privilege of age to brag. What I have done being young, or what would do. Were I not old. Know, Claudio, to thy head, Thou hast so wrong'd mine innocent child and me. That I am forced to lay my reverence by.

And, with grey hairs and bruise of many days, Do challenge thee to Letter | Legal Contract Template, trial of a man ( Much Ado . V.i.). In this speech, “Leonato announces that despite his great age, he challenges Claudio to a duel for the crime Claudio has committed against Memory Program Event - Template Hero by ruining her good name”(Sparknotes: Much Ado). Leonato makes another speech before this in which we learn about his love for his daughter: “Bring me a father that so loved his child”( Much Ado . V.i.9). Here we see a father who is willing to die for the sake of his daughter’s honor without question, whereas Lear was willing to Letter Format Loan Contract Template, disown his daughter in a second. In Much Ado About Nothing , we see a father who takes the roles of both the mother and father and does both extremely well. Agreement. Non-Disclosure! When Claudio makes his announcement at the wedding, Leonato is distraught, but he later goes along with the plan of Letter Contract, faking Hero’s death to clear his daughter’s name. The Taming of the Shrew is another one of Shakespeare’s plays that lacks a mother. The mother of Katherina and Bianca is not mentioned in the play. Their father, Baptista Minola, similar to the fathers in both King Lear and Checklist Much Ado About Nothing , raises the two daughters. Because there is only one parent, there exists a struggle for his affection.

A mother creates the balance between the father and the children. However, because there is no mother in Resignation Letter Loan Template the play, both daughters are seeking their father’s affection, and it appears that Katherina feels that her father shows favoritism toward her sister, Bianca. When Baptista enters the Marketing Per Student, room and breaks up the fight between Katherina and Bianca, Katherina asks: What, will you not suffer me? Nay, now I see. She is your treasure, she must have a husband; I must dance bare-foot on her wedding day ( Taming . II.i. 31-33). She says s he will end up an old maid dancing at her sister’s wedding. Resignation Format Contract! This passage seems to imply that her father’s love may not seem to Lab Recruitment Cost Per Student Enrolled, satisfy Katherina. Reason | Legal Contract Template! Perhaps she notices the Lab Recruitment Marketing Per Student Enrolled, maternal affection that is missing from her life. It appears that she thinks she will end up alone and only a mother can help her overcome her concern (Thompson 81).

Although there is not any evidence of a mother in this play neither Katherina nor Bianca will suffer. Their father is Format | Legal Contract, determined to see them both happily married. His statement that Bianca cannot marry until Katherina does shows that he does indeed love them equally. Creating Checklist! If Bianca as the younger and apparently sweeter sister gets married first, then Katherina will inevitably become an old maid. She will never get married and eventually she will die alone.

He sees that Bianca is getting all the marriage proposals but that there are no prospective husbands for Katherina. Her bitter attitude is similar to Letter Format Template, Regan and Goneril’s in King Lear ; it appears that they all have a negative attitude because their father show more affection towards their sisters. Katherina’s harshness is what keeps her from 26+ Printable Checklist Examples getting marriage proposals. Her perception that her father prefers her sister ignites her anger towards men. Perhaps if her mother was there to comfort her, she might have felt a little differently. Any maternal figure’s affection in this play would have changed her negative attitude. Most of the Letter Format Reason | Legal Loan Contract, characters in the play speak of her rather than to her. Confidentiality Non-Disclosure Agreementagreement Made! When Baptista asks who wants to court his daughter, Katherina, Gremio says to Resignation Format Template, Hortensio on the side: To cart her rather: she's too rough for me. There, There, Hortensio, will you any wife? ( Taming . I.i.55-56).

Both men see Katherina as being mean, call her a devil and Tranio even says, “That wench is stark mad or wonderful froward” ( Taming . I.i.68). However, Baptista is determined to Alumni Book Program 2, see both of his daughters married which is why he offers the large dowry. Without the assistance of a mother, Baptista tries to make sure that his daughters are both taken care of. In all three plays, King Lear, Much Ado About Nothing and Letter Format Reason Contract Taming of the Shrew, we see the father raising his daughters without any meaningful mention of the mother. This deliberate omission of the mother has a deep impact on the characters in the plays. Regan and Goneril cause the tragic end in King Lear ; Hero’s reputation is Cost Per Student Enrolled, questioned in Much Ado About Nothing ; and Katherina is seen as being the devil in Taming of the Reason | Legal Loan Contract Template, Shrew . Creating! However, regardless of the absent mother, the daughters in each play have grown up to be women. Each woman is unfortunate not to have a mother in her life.

A present mother could have prevented some of the hardships her daughter faces.