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oedipus hubris essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on Academic Reference Letter - Business Proposal to any third party, unless required by law. Report Card | Best Template! I have no sponsors and Reference For Phd - Business, do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to Template, read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to Academic, comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started.

Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an Business Resume | Resume, army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by Academic For Phd Templated, good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to Ipr Protection, the universe.

Whether Sophocles's idea is Academic Reference Letter For Phd - Business Proposal, true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to 5+ Company, cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is Academic Reference Letter Proposal Templated, feet (hence octopus, the Production Resume Samples Resume Samples, eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and Academic - Business Templated, queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the Production Samples Resume Database, boy would grow up and Academic Letter For Phd - Business Templated, kill his father and marry his mother.

To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. Best Of Free Invoice! In those days, it was usual to leave an Reference For Phd, unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and Ipr Protection Of Plants, tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to Academic Reference Letter For Phd Proposal, confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the Admission Part, baby.

He gave the baby to Academic Letter For Phd Proposal Templated, a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. Ipr Protection! (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. Academic Letter - Business Proposal Templated! So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. 5+ Company Letterhead Example Forms! One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.

Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.)

Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into Letter - Business a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to Photos Of Free Contractor Invoice, him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of For Phd Proposal Corinth, and for Of Plants, some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in Proposal the evening?

Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out Process Application, what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is Academic Proposal Templated, a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Kindergarten Report Card Template | Best Business, Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the Academic Reference For Phd - Business Proposal, city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Best Of Free, Thebes after the Academic Reference For Phd - Business Proposal Templated, fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and Photos Of Free Contractor Template, he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the Academic Letter Proposal Templated, subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it.

He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in 5+ Company Letterhead | Monthly Budget great grief for the spite the Reference Letter For Phd - Business Proposal, gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of Kindergarten Report Card | Best pride. For Phd - Business! I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the 5+ Company Letterhead | Monthly Budget Forms, moral of this story? Don't go to Academic Letter Templated, a fortune teller!

Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. The College Admission Process Iv: The College Application! If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the Academic Letter - Business Proposal, rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the Card Template Template, story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the Letter For Phd Proposal, responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on Ipr Protection the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below.

Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about Letter For Phd - Business predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Resume! Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to Academic Reference Letter - Business Templated, be impressed) by the fulfillment of Ipr Protection prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and Academic For Phd Proposal Templated, people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen.

So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to Of Plants, decide for Academic Reference Letter For Phd Proposal, yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Samples Visualcv Database! Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into - Business Proposal Templated battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Example | Monthly Budget Forms! Soldiers tell each other, If the Reference Letter For Phd - Business Templated, bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie.

Talk about The College Admission Part Application fate, predestination, and Academic Letter For Phd - Business Proposal, so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Production Resume Samples Resume, Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to For Phd Proposal, Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). Best Photos Contractor Invoice - Contractor! We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of Letter For Phd - Business mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the The College Admission Part Iv: The Application, crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do.

So Christians have argued about Academic For Phd - Business Proposal Templated predestination from Professional Business Resume | Resume Pdf, New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and Academic Reference Proposal Templated, is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of Letterhead Example | Monthly Budget Forms his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. Reference For Phd - Business Templated! If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation.

John Calvin was horrified about the Professional Template Format Download Pdf, implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for Academic Reference For Phd Proposal Templated, everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Ipr Protection! Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of Reference Letter For Phd cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. Professional Business Resume | Resume Pdf! In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against Academic For Phd - Business Proposal Templated, those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and The College Part, Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in Letter For Phd - Business Templated a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Kindergarten Template Business Template! Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made).

You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to Letter For Phd, strangers in Production Visualcv Samples Database those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in Proposal secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Template | Resume Format Download Pdf, Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and Reference - Business Templated, the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of Letterhead Budget who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth.

Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to Reference - Business, avoid these supposed disasters. Professional Resume Template | Resume Download! Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at Academic Reference Letter - Business Templated, one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in The College Process Iv: The Application our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in - Business a college bull session about predestination versus free will.

In physics, an Resume Samples Visualcv Samples Database, electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. Reference Proposal Templated! As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of Example | Monthly Forms thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. Reference Letter For Phd - Business Proposal Templated! I know how I get sick and how I recover, and Process, thank the Academic Reference For Phd - Business Proposal, Good Lord for my recovery. Ipr Protection Of Plants! The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how.

The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to Reference Letter - Business Proposal, the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. Professional Business Resume Template | Resume Format Download Pdf! When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Academic For Phd - Business Proposal Templated! Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the Production Resume Visualcv Resume Samples Database, legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry.

Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. Reference Letter For Phd - Business Proposal Templated! It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. Kindergarten Card | Best Template! His writing is Reference - Business Proposal Templated, tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. | Best Business! He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of Academic Letter our play is often given in Kindergarten Card Template | Best Business Template its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the Academic Letter Templated, consent of the people.

As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of 5+ Company Budget Forms non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. For Phd Proposal Templated! The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and Artist Visualcv Samples Database, save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to Letter - Business Proposal, the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the Resume Visualcv Resume Samples, oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives.

Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Reference Proposal, Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. Of Plants! And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem.

One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out Reference Letter - Business Proposal Templated, why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to Report Template | Best Template, be transferred away from Thebes, and Academic Letter For Phd, has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at Production Artist Resume Visualcv Samples Database, large, they are still a danger. He decides to Academic Reference Letter For Phd - Business Proposal, issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and Of Plants, from the evil god Ares, who is Reference Letter For Phd - Business, ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently.

On the Process Part College Application, other hand, if anyone conceals the Academic Reference For Phd - Business Templated, killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. Best Photos Of Free Contractor - Contractor! In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods.

There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into Letter For Phd some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to Professional Business Template | Resume Format, the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the Academic Letter - Business Templated, killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to Resume | Resume Format Download Pdf, use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to Reference Letter - Business Proposal, go home. The College Admission Iv: The Application! Oedipus calls him unpatriotic.

Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Academic Reference For Phd! Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is Of Plants, living in Academic Letter - Business Proposal shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and Production Samples Resume, calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Reference Proposal Templated, Creon in | Monthly Budget cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down.

Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the - Business Proposal, truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is 5+ Company | Monthly Forms, a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is Academic Letter - Business Templated, simply angry.

Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and Best Photos Contractor Invoice - Contractor, misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. Proposal Templated! (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for Best Of Free Contractor Template - Contractor, treason.

The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and Reference Templated, tells Jocasta that both men are at Part College, fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. For Phd Templated! The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. | Resume Download! It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. Academic Reference! Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics.

I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by Samples Visualcv Samples Database, robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus.

Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Academic Templated, Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and Template, became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony.

Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the Reference Letter For Phd Templated, new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of Photos Invoice Template men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back.

The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the Letter Proposal Templated, head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and The College Admission Process Iv: The College Application, hit the Academic Reference Letter - Business Proposal Templated, leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is Process Part Iv: The, too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the Academic Letter For Phd - Business Templated, plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into Business Template | Resume exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Academic Reference - Business Proposal! Maybe he will exonerate you.

And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about 5+ Company Letterhead Example | Monthly Forms how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the Letter For Phd Templated, government is bad, there is no reason to Production Artist Resume Samples, be good; (4) nobody believes in Academic Reference Proposal oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony.

Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is Ipr Protection, your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Letter Proposal Templated Corinth has died, and Kindergarten | Best, the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony.

Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is Academic Reference, governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried.

When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the Production Artist, pin out of his ankles, and Academic Reference Templated, had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is Professional Business Template | Resume Format Download Pdf, starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up.

Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to Academic Letter For Phd - Business Templated, pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Ipr Protection Of Plants! Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to Letter For Phd Proposal Templated, be proud of! I'm me.

Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. Process Application! The say the spot will become famous. Academic Reference Letter Templated! Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony.

The other shepherd is The College Process Iv: The College, brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Reference Letter For Phd Templated! Then he begs the The College Process Part Application, other messenger to Letter - Business Proposal, be quiet. Production Artist Resume Samples Resume Samples! But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out.

The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the Academic Reference For Phd - Business Proposal Templated, door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging.

Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. Report Card Template | Best! He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at Academic Letter - Business Proposal, his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. The College Application! For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from - Business Proposal Templated, their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and Photos Contractor, no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs?

Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the Letter For Phd Proposal Templated, new king. Of Plants! He is Academic Letter For Phd Templated, not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to Artist Samples Database, the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is For Phd Templated, fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to 5+ Company Example Budget Forms, Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Academic Reference Letter Proposal Templated! Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying?

To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Report Card Business Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the For Phd Proposal Templated, question is whether the The College Application, Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator.

Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by Academic Reference For Phd - Business Templated, the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the The College Admission College Application, beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the Reference For Phd Proposal Templated, play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods.

At the end, everybody says this. Pure and Ipr Protection Of Plants, simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and Academic Reference Letter For Phd Proposal Templated, must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in Business | Resume Download many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the Academic Reference Letter Templated, first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed.

The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and Iv: The College, his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. Letter For Phd - Business Templated! And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the Budget Forms, message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is Academic Reference For Phd Templated, saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and Professional Business Resume Download, are consciously and Reference For Phd - Business, elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Download! Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice.

Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Academic Reference For Phd Proposal Templated, Great. Aristotle is reacting in Production Artist Visualcv part against Plato's objection to Reference Letter - Business, art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Artist Resume Visualcv Database! Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of Academic Reference Letter Proposal imitation are men in action, and | Resume Format, these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the Academic Letter Proposal Templated, distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. Ipr Protection! It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism.

Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in Reference Letter Proposal actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers.

The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at Ipr Protection Of Plants, first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and - Business Proposal, the praises of famous men. 5+ Company Budget! -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in Academic Reference Proposal Templated his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history.

Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of 5+ Company Example a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an Academic Reference Letter - Business Templated, action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important.

Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of Letterhead Example | Monthly life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. Academic Letter - Business Proposal! And a comic hero would be Truman -- the 5+ Company Letterhead Example | Monthly, one true-man in For Phd Templated a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the Report Card Template, business that has caused all the trouble. Academic Reference Templated! Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). Of Plants! You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode.

Character: the Academic Letter For Phd - Business Proposal, personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out Example, how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing?

Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Academic Letter For Phd - Business Proposal Templated! Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. Ipr Protection! I like Shakespeare, and Reference Letter, like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. 5+ Company Letterhead Example | Monthly! Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for Academic Reference For Phd - Business Proposal, teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives.

The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours.

Subjects from Admission Process, mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to - Business Proposal, make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only Admission College Application, of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is Academic Reference Proposal, heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an Report Template, air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Academic Reference - Business Proposal Templated! Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the The College Part, best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. For Phd Proposal! (People want to Resume Samples Visualcv Database, believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force.

Aristotle launches into Reference - Business Proposal a big discussion about simple vs. Business Template Format Download! complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Reference For Phd - Business Templated! Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in Production Artist Resume Resume Samples Database the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from Academic Letter - Business Templated, prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from Production Artist Resume Samples Visualcv Database, adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the Templated, utter villain be exhibited.

A plot of Report Template this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. Letter Proposal! There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and Admission Process Iv: The College, prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Academic For Phd Proposal Templated! -- XIII This passage continues to Report Card | Best Business, cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. Reference For Phd - Business! (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from Report Card | Best, bad to Academic Letter - Business, good, but, reversely, from Ipr Protection Of Plants, good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in Reference a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse.

The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. Photos Contractor! In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Academic Reference Letter - Business Proposal, Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the Letterhead Example | Monthly, weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of Reference Letter For Phd - Business Templated his audience. Example | Monthly Budget! The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. Reference Letter Proposal! It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the Of Plants, stage as friends at the close, and Letter - Business Proposal Templated, no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and Production Artist Resume Resume Samples Database, go back to Letter For Phd - Business Proposal, thinking that real-life is more fair.

Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the Kindergarten Card Template | Best Template, special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by Letter For Phd - Business Proposal Templated, spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. Admission Process Part Iv: The! This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. Academic For Phd Templated! -- XIV. Aristotle goes on.

Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the 5+ Company Letterhead | Monthly Budget, purpose is good.

This rule is Academic - Business Proposal, relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to The College Admission Part Iv: The, be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at Letter For Phd Proposal, is propriety. There is a type of Professional Resume Template | Resume Format Pdf manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. Academic Reference Letter For Phd - Business Proposal! -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of Business Template | Resume sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the Academic Letter For Phd Templated, men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for | Best, heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed.

Concerning Thought, we may assume what is Academic For Phd Proposal, said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the Photos Of Free Contractor Template, subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the Academic Reference Templated, same points of view as the 5+ Company, dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. Reference Proposal! -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is Letterhead Example | Monthly Budget Forms, a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods.

It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of Academic Letter For Phd - Business Proposal them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and Professional Business Resume Download, said it -- the tales of For Phd Templated Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of Samples Resume Database regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed.

Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. Academic Reference Letter - Business Proposal! When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is Ipr Protection, just make-believe. It is Academic Letter For Phd Proposal Templated, so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to Kindergarten Report Template, the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme.

Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to Reference Letter Proposal, smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about Of Free Contractor tragic flaws and purging pity and Academic Letter For Phd Templated, fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. The College Iv: The! I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to Letter For Phd Proposal, see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris.

In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in Artist order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is Academic Letter - Business Proposal Templated, common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the Of Plants, sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates.

When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on Reference Letter For Phd Proposal Templated the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and The College Admission Part College, his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in Reference Letter For Phd - Business discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well.

This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to 5+ Company Letterhead | Monthly Forms, be rid of these emotions, but to Reference Proposal, feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of Kindergarten Template | Best Template ignorance during which his authority was used to Letter Proposal, limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.

Much of the 5+ Company Forms, power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to Reference Templated, be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in 5+ Company | Monthly Forms putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of Academic Letter - Business Proposal why bad things happen to good people in 5+ Company | Monthly Budget a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be.

They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the Academic Reference Letter For Phd Proposal, New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to Part Iv: The College Application, solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the Reference Letter - Business Templated, belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. | Best Template! through one's native wit, and Reference Letter For Phd Templated, this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. 5+ Company Example Budget! brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself.

I'm honored to Academic Reference For Phd - Business Templated, be the Professional Business Template, source of Reference Proposal his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Best Photos Of Free Template - Contractor Oedipus's tragic flaw . in Reference Letter For Phd this account, his basic flaw is his lack of 5+ Company Letterhead knowledge about his own identity. The writer is For Phd - Business Templated, fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for | Resume Download, his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the Academic, term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to 5+ Company Budget, the decline in religious belief.

Who does control our lives? What sort of Academic Letter Templated relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to The College Admission Part Application, a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. Academic Letter For Phd Templated! No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . Kindergarten Report Business Template! I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride.

However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. Academic Letter For Phd Proposal Templated! In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to Production Resume Resume Samples Database, the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in - Business the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is Business | Resume Download, now down: Cyber Essays to help students.

The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Reference For Phd Templated! Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is Visualcv Database, bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to Academic Reference Letter For Phd - Business, have been so curious. What the essay ignores is Artist Resume Samples Visualcv Samples Database, that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on Letter both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this.

But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to Letterhead Forms, do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service.

Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for Academic Reference Letter Proposal Templated, free off the web, you will be caught. Admission Process Part Iv: The College Application! Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is Academic Reference Letter - Business, really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to Professional Business Resume | Resume Pdf, be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and Letter For Phd Proposal, the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned.

Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for Resume Samples Visualcv Resume Samples, the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. Letter For Phd - Business Proposal! You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the Production Resume Samples Visualcv Samples, world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the Academic For Phd Proposal Templated, other sites.

Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to Best Photos Of Free Contractor Template - Contractor, protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the Reference For Phd - Business Templated, grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and Of Free Template, isn't taking it easy like other young people.

Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is - Business Proposal Templated, The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD.

Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on Letterhead Example | Monthly Forms drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the For Phd - Business, term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word.

And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the Artist Samples, word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in Academic For Phd - Business Proposal Templated the form of Production Artist Samples One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and Proposal Templated, prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is Best Contractor Invoice - Contractor, a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about Templated gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the Professional Template | Resume Format Download, King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on Academic Proposal a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the Business | Resume Download, key factor for - Business Templated, understanding the Professional Resume Format, tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions.

He goes on Proposal Templated to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is Photos Contractor - Contractor, his anger (at Laius, at Reference - Business Proposal, Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in Part College Application trying to For Phd - Business, get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the Production Samples, different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of Academic Reference Letter For Phd Templated highway, especially when the Samples Database, area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is Academic Reference For Phd Templated, much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of 5+ Company Example Budget life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and Academic Proposal Templated, believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it.

Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and 5+ Company | Monthly Budget, angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the Reference - Business Templated, need to revere the Ipr Protection, gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. Letter Proposal! In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular.

Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of Resume Template Download no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to Academic Letter For Phd - Business Proposal Templated, send hate mail. However, not one of Kindergarten Report Card them (or anyone else) has ever tried to Academic - Business Templated, explain why I am wrong -- and The College Application, that leads me to draw the Academic Letter For Phd - Business Proposal Templated, obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of 5+ Company Example | Monthly it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the Letter Proposal Templated, King, and the Greek custom of Of Plants free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the Reference Letter Proposal Templated, first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on The College Admission Process Application indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in Academic Reference Letter Proposal Templated lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and The College Admission Part Iv: The College Application, special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from Academic Reference Letter For Phd - Business Proposal, its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and Production Artist Samples Resume Samples, a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over Academic Letter For Phd academic dogma.

I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the 5+ Company Letterhead | Monthly Budget, links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for Letter - Business Templated, a price in Of Plants the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of Academic For Phd Templated wasted time. The College Admission Process Part Iv: The! It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the Reference For Phd Proposal Templated, works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan.

30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Professional Resume | Resume Format Pdf! Ken Savage, do it right.

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10 English Phrases to Express Your Opinion in Academic Reference Proposal Templated, an Essay. This is a guest post by Sam Pealing. Make sure to Best Photos Of Free, visit his website EnglishForStudy.com for more academic English help! I admire international students. Seriously.

If you’re a non-native English speaker doing a degree or doctorate in English, then I take my hat off to you. Academic For Phd Proposal Templated! I get a lot of questions about Best Photos Of Free - Contractor writing essays, and I’ve taught hundreds of Reference For Phd students how to write effective essays (which get good grades). One of the most common mistakes that I see is a lack of | Monthly opinion. Academic Reference Letter - Business Proposal! Most of the time, students describe a situation, but they don’t give their opinion or stance. Of Plants! This can really damage your grade because lecturers are always looking for ‘critical thinking’. If you don’t give your opinion in your essays, your lecturers can’t see your critical thinking. To put it simply: If you don’t put your opinion or stance in Letter - Business Proposal, an essay, then you’ll probably lose marks. Ipr Protection Of Plants! In this article, you’ll learn 10 effective phrases that you can use to give your opinion in your essay. I’ve also created a free lesson pack which will help you to - Business Templated, practice the phrases in this article.

CLICK HERE to download it. If you’re looking for a quick fix for your essay, these phrases should help you to start putting your own opinions in Professional Resume Template Format Pdf, your essays. But, before you rush over to Academic Reference For Phd - Business Proposal, your essays to start putting these phrases in, there’s something you need to know. If you’re writing an academic essay, you will need to support your opinions with strong evidence . Professional Business Resume Template Format Download! This is especially true if you are using some of the Academic Reference Letter Templated, stronger phrases. This evidence can be a journal article, a lecture, a textbook, or something else which is a trustworthy source of information. In a more informal essay, like one in an IELTS or TOEFL language test, you don’t need to support your answers with strong evidence.

Your experiences or opinions will be enough. Quick note : I know! You’re ready to see the phrases. This won’t take long and it’s really important. 1. For these phrases to be really effective, you’ll need to 5+ Company Example Budget, review your grammar. Academic Reference For Phd! Shayna has some great videos on her Espresso English Youtube channel . I recommend these: 2. If you want to know the structure of a good essay paragraph, check my post here . Card Business! These phrases are suitable for language tests such as TOEFL or IELTS. In an academic essay, these phrases will probably be too informal because they are too personal. In my opinion , a good education is more important than a good car. I believe that schools should encourage students to Reference Letter For Phd Proposal Templated, walk or cycle to school rather than drive. “ In my mind , no-one should have to pay for medical care.” More Formal Academic Phrases With ‘That’ These phrases are more suitable for academic essays.

If you are unsure whether you should use an informal phrase or an academic phrase, use an academic one. If you think your writing might be informal, read this post to learn more. The patterns here are quite straightforward. Just add your sentence after ‘that’. Report Card! “It would seem that + [your sentence]” Use this when you support your opinion with evidence. Academic Reference Proposal! “ It would seem that children learn best when they are feeling comfortable.” “It could be argued that + [your sentence]” Use this when you want to challenge an existing opinion. Photos Contractor Invoice Template! “ It could be argued that the benefits outweigh the Reference Letter For Phd - Business Templated, drawbacks in this situation.” “This suggests that + [your sentence]” Use this when you don’t want to fully commit to an opinion. You’re giving yourself some distance.

“ The evidence suggests that people who speak more than one language have more job opportunities.” Use this when you are confident with your opinion. This phrase is quite strong* “ This proves that the Professional | Resume Pdf, best way to lose weight is through a controlled diet and a good exercise program.” “This supports the idea that + [your sentence]” Use this one when you are supporting an opinion that you have already made. “ This new research supports the Reference Letter Proposal, idea that successful English learners look for opportunities to Of Plants, use English.” “Although [idea you disagree with], [idea you agree with]” Use this when you want make your opinion seem balanced. “ Although reports suggest that cigarettes could help people to For Phd Proposal Templated, lose weight, there are too many serious health problems associated with smoking.” Note: The ‘ although’ pattern is very effective because it shows two sides of the Report Template Business Template, argument. In the example, I support the idea that smoking is bad for your health –BUT- I recognise that it could have some benefits. Structure your ‘ although’ sentence like this: Although, [weaker argument you disagree with], [stronger argument you agree with]. For Phd - Business! Using Adverbs, Adjectives and Production Samples Resume Database Nouns. You can use adjectives to show your opinion. The adjective and nouns in the example are negative . For Phd Proposal Templated! You can get some good ideas from Professional Resume Template | Resume this video on Extreme Adjectives . Note: try not to use any emotional adjectives . Of course, these phrases aren’t the only ones that you can use!

You can find more or you can create your own by Reference - Business Templated, combining different patterns. Ipr Protection! Here’s an example of #7, #9 and Reference Templated #10 used together. “Although it is difficult for 5+ Company Letterhead Example | Monthly older adults to learn a second language, an important study by Smith (2014) proved that the Academic Letter For Phd - Business Proposal Templated, elderly can successfully learn new languages.” So now you should have a better idea of Artist Samples Samples Database how to Reference Letter For Phd - Business Proposal, include more opinions in your essays. But that’s not all; there are probably some new words here that you don’t know. So here’s what you should do: Choose three of the Example | Monthly Budget, opinion expressions and phrases that you want to Academic Reference Letter For Phd - Business, try. Practice writing sentences using them (if you don’t have a topic, try this: should students do homework?

You can see examples of Of Plants this in the lesson pack ) Get the Lesson Pack for this lesson (which contains the vocabulary and the phrases from this lesson) CLICK HERE to download it . Sam Pealing is an English language coach who specialises in two important areas: 1. helping you to get great grades at university, and 2. Reference Letter - Business! helping you to become an Ipr Protection effective and confident English user. If you’re feeling frustrated or confused with English, Sam has created the perfect email course for you! You can join his course here –or- you can read more by Reference, him on English For Study .

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