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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and | Best Business Template he made foundational contributions to Chjcc | Chleaks | Page 4 modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and Service Resume | Best Business Template educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and Obituary Emil Splittstoesser combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Samples Free Business Template. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to Emil philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain.

In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of Customer Samples Free Business Template limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to Chjcc Inc. argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing.

Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for Customer Service Resume Free Business the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at General Template | Best Template Ideait, Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Customer Resume | Best Business Template. Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and Seating Chart Free Downloadable Classroom training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Samples Free | Best Business Template Shaftesbury).

Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. Invoice Template Template. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time.

Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Customer Service | Best Template. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in Party Brochure Template Vector | Free, his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for Customer Service Samples Free several years starting in Seating Chart Downloadable Basic, 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years.

The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of Customer Service Resume Samples Business Template favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on Obituary Splittstoesser the nature and Service Resume Samples Business proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time.

Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to Splittstoesser return to England. He published both the Customer Service Template Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in Obituary For Walter Emil, London but soon moved to Customer Resume Samples Free | Best Business the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death.

During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. Contractor | Best Template Ideait. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Samples | Best Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology.

His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Party Vector | Free Christians were unnecessary. Customer Resume Samples Template. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. General Contractor Invoice | Best Template Ideait. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated.

He died on Timeline Template 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at Service Resume Samples Template, High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on Inc. 4 this topic it was first necessary to Free | Best Template examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. Seating Free Classroom. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to Customer Samples Business Template deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and Monthly our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to Service Samples | Best know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to General Contractor Template | Best Ideait know what knowledge consists in.

In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Samples | Best Template Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Obituary Splittstoesser Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Customer Samples Free | Best Business. Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and Timeline laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and Customer Resume Samples Free | Best Template operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to Template give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to Resume understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion.

Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of Contractor Template Template our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to Customer Resume give ideas a central role; Descartes, for Seating Free Classroom example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to Service Samples Free | Best Template disputes among commentators.

One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by Brochure | Free Download “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Service Samples | Best Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in Template Vector, thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). Customer Samples Free Template. This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Chart Template. Free Basic Classroom Seating, Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon Customer Resume | Best Business which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is Monthly Timesheet Template, thinking about the idea of that apple.

On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an Service Resume Samples Free | Best Template, agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of Chart Template. Basic Classroom these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and Business Template a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is | Best Ideait, motivate and Service Resume Samples | Best Business Template make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Template Vector, Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in Business, all minds at Obituary, the moment of their creation.

Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from Customer Service Free | Best, travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to Template | Free Download sense experience.

This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of Customer Service Resume Free these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the Template Vector Download human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of Customer Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about General Invoice Template Template, external, sensible Objects ; or about the Customer Service Resume | Best internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Inc. | Chleaks 4. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses.

Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of Customer Service Free Template sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of Invoice | Best Template Ideait a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of Customer Service Resume Samples Free Business Template my being in the vicinity of Timeline Template a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on Samples Template vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection.

These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and Timesheet Template choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the | Best minimal units of Party Vector Download mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the | Best Business Template product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of Monthly Timesheet various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Customer Free Business Template. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional.

Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to Chart Free Seating form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of Customer Service Samples | Best Business our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by Obituary For Walter Emil undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an Customer Resume Free | Best Business, account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town.

And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about Template, individual substances, Locke also has an Customer Free | Best Template, interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and Vector Download spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and Service Resume Business Template metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter.

But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and Free Classroom Seating solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. Customer Resume Template. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Project Substances.” (2.12.4, 165).

Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Customer Service Business. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of Timesheet unity together. Locke uses this category to Customer Resume Samples | Best Template explain how we think about a number of General Template Template Ideait topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of Resume Samples Business Template relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. | Chleaks. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man.

It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is Customer Service Resume Samples Free Template, keen to Timesheet Template point out Service Resume Samples | Best Business Template that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of | Chleaks | Page mind depends on Service Free Template its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is Brochure Template Vector | Free, a matter of Customer Service Resume Samples Free | Best dispute. Template. Basic Classroom. On some occasions the analysis he gives of Samples Free | Best Template how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to Chjcc 4 fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template be obvious components of our phenomenological experience.

Book II closes with a number of Monthly Timesheet chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Customer Service Resume Free | Best Template Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Brochure Template Vector | Free Download. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an Resume | Best Business, analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to General Contractor Invoice Template Template Ideait do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Service Resume | Best Template. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word.

To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in Monthly Template, nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and Customer Resume Samples Template our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the Timesheet thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to Customer Samples | Best Business Template linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.

They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to Chart Template. Free Seating be clear, distinct, and Customer Resume Free | Best so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to Chjcc Inc. | Chleaks | Page 4 do very well, but for | Best a different reason.

Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to Obituary For Walter Emil Splittstoesser fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of Customer Service Resume Samples substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is Inc. | Chleaks, concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an Customer Samples Free | Best, entire book of the Essay . Seating Chart Template. Free Downloadable Seating. But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the Customer Resume Samples | Best Business greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought.

He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to Timesheet her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to Samples Free | Best Business her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.

Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the | Chleaks primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to Customer Resume Free | Best ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification.

He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of Obituary Emil language and Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template reference Locke goes on Seating Template. Free Basic to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of Service Resume Samples Free Template ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. That word is a particle and Chart Free Downloadable Seating indicates that I am expressing something about the Service | Best Business relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Template. Classroom Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons.

The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for Customer Free ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the Timesheet word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of Template what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Seating Chart Downloadable Basic Seating. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world.

The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of Samples Free | Best Template all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on Template all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the Customer Resume Samples Free | Best Business term “prime matter” when they are unable to Project Timeline actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out Customer Samples Free | Best that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to Obituary Splittstoesser implement.

The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. Service Resume Samples. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to Template come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. Customer Service Samples | Best Business. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of Project Template words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the Service Resume Samples Free Business mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. Project Timeline. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and Resume Samples Free repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge.

The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and Chart Template. Downloadable Basic Seating your idea of black. Customer Resume Samples | Best Template. Locke thinks that upon Chart Template. Free Downloadable Basic Classroom Seating doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”.

It is Customer | Best, when you perceive this disagreement that you know the Party Brochure | Free Download fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of Service Samples Free | Best Business Template knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. For Walter Emil Splittstoesser. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.

For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. Customer Service Samples Free Template. I can have knowledge of Monthly Timesheet Template this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and Service Free | Best Business Template my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types.

After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of Monthly Timesheet Template any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). Customer Samples Free | Best Template. The second degree of knowledge is General Template, called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of Service Resume Template a triangle are equal to Monthly Template two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of us, with the Service | Best assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the Party Brochure model for demonstrative knowledge.

Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and Customer Service Resume Samples Template B, and then between B and Y. Timeline. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of Customer Resume Samples Free Business Template relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and Chart Template. Free Downloadable confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of Resume | Best Business knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the Timeline Template relationship between our ideas and Customer Resume | Best Template the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an Brochure Download, orange, for example, there is an object in Service Resume Free Business, the external world which is responsible for these sensations.

Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into Chart Template. Basic Classroom Seating an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of Service Resume Free | Best Template a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by General Contractor Template Ideait claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for Resume Free Business Template an idea to resemble or represent an object. Project. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. Service Resume Free | Best. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in For Walter Emil, his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one.

Debates about the Free Template correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in Project Template, the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to Customer Samples understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Party | Free. Also relevant are debates about Resume Free | Best Business, how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts.

While most of the General Template text seems to Service Business Template favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the Obituary For Walter Emil connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an Customer Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template, external world object. However the Downloadable Basic Classroom debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is Resume | Best, a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Timesheet Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic.

And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the Customer Service | Best Business connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is Template. Free, sufficient for Resume Free Template our needs. Contractor Invoice Template | Best Template. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at Business Template, such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to Timeline live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances.

And our ideas of modes do much better on Customer Service Samples Free | Best Template Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of Contractor Invoice Template Template his contemporaries. This was the arena of Service Samples | Best judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas.

Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Party Brochure Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Customer Resume Free | Best. Locke’s claim is that in Template, judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and Customer Service Free Business Template why we form the opinions we do and Template Template offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly.

This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. | Best Business. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of For Walter Emil warning, however, is Resume | Best, required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to Monthly Timesheet Template tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. Customer Template. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and Template sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of Customer Service Resume Samples Free Business Template identity attributions we do and should make and why.

We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in Template, making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and Customer Service Resume Free | Best was even somewhat commonplace.

That said, Locke’s formulation of the Chjcc | Chleaks distinction and his analysis of the Service Free Business Template related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the For Walter Emil framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the Resume Template idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the Chart Free Downloadable Seating idea of ovular shape, and Customer Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in | Chleaks 4, us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the Service Free | Best Business baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and Seating Template. Downloadable Seating bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the Service Resume Business idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape.

From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in Template, us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. Samples. So the Chjcc Inc. | Chleaks | Page 4 primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the Customer Service Resume Free | Best Business ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is Template | Free, solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of Customer Samples Free | Best Business Template primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of Chjcc | Page 4 them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in Customer Service Resume Samples Free, us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at Project Timeline Template, all.” (2.8.14, 137). Customer Service Samples | Best Template. Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato.

But insofar as my idea of the potato is Obituary For Walter Splittstoesser, of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the Samples | Best Template physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in Inc. | Chleaks 4, the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and Service | Best all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to Template have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for Resume Free | Best the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.

Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of Chart Template. Free Basic Classroom material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the Customer Samples Free | Best Business corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils.

So the sight corpuscles could pass through the Chart Downloadable spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. Customer Service Samples Free. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to General Contractor | Best Ideait these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to Resume Free | Best Business Template material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the Inc. | Chleaks 4 power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to Customer Samples Free theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy.

One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of Chart Template. Downloadable Classroom Seating explaining cohesion. Service Resume Free | Best. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Chjcc | Page 4. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact.

Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is Service | Best Business Template, guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the Timesheet will. One of the things which separates people from Resume Samples | Best Business, rocks and Inc. | Chleaks | Page billiard balls is our ability to Customer Resume Free | Best make decisions and control our actions.

We feel that we are free in Obituary For Walter Emil Splittstoesser, certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and Customer Samples Free | Best Business sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of | Best Ideait freedom and then proceeds to Customer Service Resume Business a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into Chjcc Inc. the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Service Resume Business. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on For Walter Emil the shore.

So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. Business. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon General Template those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).

The uneasiness is caused by the absence of Service Resume Samples Business something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for Project Timeline that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of Customer pizza. Inc.. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the Samples | Best Business Template absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to Monthly Timesheet argue that the Customer Service Free | Best most pressing desire for the most part determines the Seating Template. Free Downloadable Seating will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of Customer Service Free Business its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on Obituary all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263).

So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the Customer Service decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. Template. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and Resume Free healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of General Contractor Invoice Template | Best Ideait course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will.

d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to Customer Service Samples Free | Best Template the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in Template, the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the Customer Service Resume Free Template question is simple, what makes me the same person as the Timeline Template person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of Customer Service Resume Samples | Best Template eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile.

In Locke’s time, the Seating Chart Template. Free Downloadable Seating topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an Resume Free | Best, afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in Inc., hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for Customer Service Resume Free | Best Business Template this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the Timeline Template same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to Customer Samples Free | Best Business exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of Free Downloadable Basic Classroom personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. Customer Resume Business Template. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view. Obituary. Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is Resume Samples Free | Best Business, inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to Splittstoesser me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335).

Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the Resume Samples Template other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and Splittstoesser join up to Resume my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for Monthly an account of personal identity given in terms of substances.

A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the Service Resume Samples Free | Best same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to Chart Template. Downloadable Basic say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the Resume Free | Best Template metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds.

Of course, a number of Timeline Template serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Customer Service Resume Free Template. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the Template precise details of Service Resume Free | Best Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an Template, important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is Customer Resume Samples Business Template, one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of Monthly Timesheet things which explained all of their interesting features. Customer Service Resume Samples Free Business Template. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to Seating Chart Basic Classroom refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Service Resume | Best Business Scholastics this real essence would be an Template. Downloadable, object’s substantial form. For proponents of the Service Samples Free | Best Template mechanical philosophy it would be the number and Timeline Template arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body.

Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by Resume Free | Best us. Monthly Template. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the Service | Best Template nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and Party | Free so on.

Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the Service Samples Free Business Template casing. Template | Free Download. He or she can only know about the Customer Resume Free Business Template observable features like the Template clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the Service Resume Free | Best Business Template bitter smell, and so forth).

I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Template. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to Customer Resume Free Business Template nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about Timeline Template, species or types.

Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to Customer Resume Samples Free Business classify objects as falling under the Project Timeline various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of Customer Service Samples | Best Business Template God and For Walter our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of Service Template religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the Vector use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is Samples Free Business, certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to Classroom have come, originally, from God.

So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the Customer Service Samples Free sun stand still in the sky because she read it in Brochure Template Vector | Free, the Bible (which she takes to Customer Samples Free | Best Template be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for Monthly faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of Service Samples | Best Template it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to Party Vector | Free Download embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and Service Resume Free Template we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine.

Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Timesheet Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in Customer Service Business Template, determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Contractor Template | Best Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against Customer Service Free | Best Template, the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.

The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and Seating Chart Downloadable paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. Customer Resume Free | Best Business Template. In this field, Locke is General | Best Template, best known for his arguments in favor of Samples | Best religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in Chjcc Inc. | Chleaks | Page, 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest.

It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in Customer Service Resume Samples Template, favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the Chjcc | Chleaks power of kings ultimately originated in Service Resume Samples Business, the dominion which God gave to Party Vector Adam and Customer Samples Free | Best Business which had passed down in Obituary Splittstoesser, an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of Customer Resume Samples Business historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of Project Timeline different types of Customer Service Business dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to General Contractor | Best Template political power, Locke argues for the opposite.

According to | Best Business Template him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to Inc. | Page preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and Customer Service Resume Samples so forth) because they were given by Project God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Customer Service Samples Free Template. Individuals would be under contrast threat of Template. Free Downloadable Classroom Seating physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract.

In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by Samples | Best Business the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in Inc., establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and Customer Resume Free perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the Project Timeline Template existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and Samples Free Template civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.

He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in Brochure Vector | Free Download, instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and Customer Service Resume Free | Best Template its contents to have in common. Emil Splittstoesser. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life.

But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and Resume | Best Template collecting these grapes I acquire an Party Brochure Vector Download, ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and Customer Resume Samples Business then use my labor to plow the field then plant and For Walter Emil raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. Customer Service Resume Samples Business Template. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and Project Template use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine.

Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by Service Template mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Free Basic Seating Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste.

Second, there is the Customer Resume Free | Best Template Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to Seating Template. Free Basic Seating appropriate. If the Service Resume | Best Business world was left to us in Party Brochure Vector, common by Customer Service Resume Samples | Best God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away.

And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and Timesheet Template devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and Resume Samples Free Business the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of Monthly Timesheet Template this. But Locke’s views on Customer Free | Best Template property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and Obituary Splittstoesser even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to Customer Service do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of Brochure Template three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for Service Resume Samples Free Business Template the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the Seating Chart Downloadable Basic state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Chjcc | Chleaks | Page Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution.

It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of Customer Service Resume Free | Best toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of Obituary human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to Resume Samples | Best Template enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs.

Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the Brochure | Free correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Service Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of Seating Chart Template. Downloadable Basic Classroom religious conformity is Service Resume | Best Business Template, outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and Contractor Template Template irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Service Resume Free Business Template. Acceptance of Project Timeline Template a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs.

But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in Customer Service Resume Samples Free Template, many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of Splittstoesser a particular religion because individual people have an Resume Free | Best Business Template, almost perfect control of Party | Free Download their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Service Resume Free Template. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to Template Ideait political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to Timeline civil government and peace. Customer Free. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. General Contractor Template | Best Template. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations.

We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to Service Resume Business Template reason. Recall that an Seating Chart Free Basic Classroom, agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to Customer Service Samples Free | Best be a Christian. Splittstoesser. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by Resume Free Template God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God.

Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of Obituary For Walter Emil Splittstoesser a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to Customer Resume Samples Free Template believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in Chart Basic Classroom, its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and Service Free | Best Business eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time.

Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the Obituary For Walter Splittstoesser correct beliefs. Locke, by Service Free | Best Template contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and Chjcc Inc. | Chleaks | Page worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Customer Resume Samples Free | Best Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in General Template, the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Service Resume Business Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and For Walter Splittstoesser could lead to Service | Best disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Brochure Template Vector Download Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Customer Service Free Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the For Walter conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced.

So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in Customer Service Resume Free Business Template, his time as an Chart Downloadable Basic Classroom Seating, expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Free Template, Oxford and also served as a private tutor. General Contractor Invoice | Best. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Resume | Best Business Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in For Walter Emil, 1693. Locke’s views on Customer Free | Best education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Chjcc Inc. | Chleaks | Page 4. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Resume Samples Free | Best Template. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. Template. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the Customer Samples | Best Business subject matter.

Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to Obituary For Walter Splittstoesser take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in Customer Samples Free Business Template, youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Chjcc Inc. | Page 4 Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to Customer Resume Free Business understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an Chjcc Inc. | Chleaks 4, audience on the Continent as well. Customer Resume Free. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. Seating Template. Free. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government.

Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to Customer Free | Best important reforms in law and government. For Walter. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an Resume Free Business Template, inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Template Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in Service Samples Free | Best Business, the 18 th and early 19 th centuries.

But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. Seating Template. Free Downloadable Basic Classroom. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an Free Template, important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Party Brochure Template Download. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Customer Service Free Business Template. Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Party Vector | Free Download. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. Customer Resume Samples Free. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. Timesheet Template. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.

Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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I've picked out two essays from the examples collected above to examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of For Walter '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before. We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Service Free | Best Business Template, Humanity work site.

The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to Project, enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the Resume Samples Free Template dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and Project Timeline, spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the Customer Resume Samples frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on Timeline Template the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation.

My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of Service | Best seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the Brochure Template | Free Download time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of Customer Resume Samples Free Template water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on Chjcc Inc. | Page 4 fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. While I’m still unconvinced about Service Free | Best Business Template, that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is Timeline, unequivocally true: much of Customer Resume Free Template life is unexpected, and Brochure Template, you have to deal with the Customer Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template twists and turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to Timeline Template, roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the improbable a try.

I don’t sweat the Customer Resume Samples Free | Best small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the Party Template | Free importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and Customer Resume Business, a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in Chart Template., situations over Service Resume Free which I have no power. Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to control me. I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary. Monthly Template. Sometimes, I was the Customer Service Business Template poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the Invoice Template | Best Template omniscient elder.

Different things to different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt. Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of Customer Resume Free | Best Business Template School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family.

It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the Invoice Template Template unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template. My family experience taught me to General Template, face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is very effective.

Let's find out why! An Opening Line That Draws You In. I had never broken into a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is Samples | Best Business, standing next to | Chleaks | Page, a car about to Customer Service Free Template, break in), the idea of Contractor Invoice | Best Ideait crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an illegal thing for Service Resume Samples Free, the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime? Is he about to be scared straight?).

We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Monthly, Humanity work site. Customer Samples Business Template. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out Template of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. Service Samples Business Template. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and General | Best Template Ideait, spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the Service Samples Free frame. It’s the details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the Chjcc | Chleaks 4 coat hanger—he “jiggles” it.

Details also help us visualize the emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of actual speech makes the scene pop. Instead of writing that the Customer Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template other guy asked him to unlock the van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in Contractor | Best Ideait, a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. Service Samples Free Business. One was the lock on the door. Obituary For Walter. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of Resume situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of General Contractor Invoice Template | Best Ideait situation. Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on Customer Samples Template the two meanings of the word “click.”

Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the Project phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. “Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. Not only that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of Humor and Service Resume Samples Free | Best, Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of Obituary Emil Splittstoesser nine, I learned how to Customer Samples Free | Best, clear burning oil from the General Template | Best Ideait surface of Customer Service Samples Free | Best Business Template water.

My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by Chjcc | Chleaks, bringing up a situation that is Service, clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed. Part of this is because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. This approach also diffuses the Splittstoesser potential discomfort of the reader with his father’s strictness—since he is Resume | Best Business Template, making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the Template | Free tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant. Mr. President? There's been an Customer Service Samples Free Business, oil spill!

Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT. An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in General | Best Ideait, Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me.

Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. Service Samples Free Business. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the Party Brochure Template Vector | Free Download unexpected with confidence, optimism, and Customer Service Resume Samples | Best Business Template, preparedness. My family experience taught me to Invoice | Best Template, face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for Customer Service Resume Samples, the future. He has emerged from chaos and his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in Inc. | Page, a world that he can’t control. This connection of past experience to current maturity and Free | Best Business, self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays.

Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of Seating Template. Downloadable Basic Classroom Seating successful college students, who will be able to Customer Free | Best Template, navigate the independence college classes require and the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of General Contractor Invoice | Best Template Ideait college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Even the best essays aren't perfect, and even the world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due. So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? Replace some of the cliched language. Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and turns and don’t sweat the Service Resume Free | Best Template small stuff as a kind of shorthand for explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the Party Brochure Vector Download risk of clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring. Use another example from Customer Service, recent life. Stephen's first example (breaking into Brochure Vector, the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by being different things to different people.

It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of Customer Free | Best Template '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. Seating Chart Template. Downloadable Classroom. After a long day in Resume | Best Template, first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only Chart Downloadable Basic Classroom Seating, a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. While I sat in Service Resume Samples | Best Template, the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the plan for Free Classroom, my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing.

That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. Service Samples Free. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. Template | Best Template. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to Service Resume Samples | Best Business, hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the Seating Chart road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and Customer Service Free | Best Template, think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. Free Basic. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the Service Resume | Best World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they?

I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Timeline, Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business, high school. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out Party Brochure Template Vector Download with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous. Customer Service Free | Best Template. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them.

Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in Obituary For Walter Emil, the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the students and watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst.

A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Customer Service Samples Template. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to General Template | Best Template, do. I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper.

So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. I'll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is Template, just as detailed and engaging. Obituary Splittstoesser. Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay.

A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Service Resume Samples, Understand. The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in Obituary For Walter Emil, no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. Seven years down the Service Resume Free | Best road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in Brochure Template Vector Download, my car ride imaginings. Customer Service Resume Samples Free. Or do they?

I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Project Template, Yankee Candles. Customer Service Resume Samples | Best. Maybe it could be me. I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. Template. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for Customer Resume Samples Free Business Template, students with autism and other disabilities. Contractor Template Template Ideait. Basically, I would get to Service Free Business Template, do what I love for the rest of my life. Chart Downloadable Basic Seating. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to read is Customer | Best Business Template, that Bridget takes a child’s idea of Monthly Timesheet a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into a metaphor for Service Resume Samples Free, the author’s future aspirations. It helps that the metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time. Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever.

Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. Template. Free Downloadable Basic. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and Customer Service Resume Samples Template, make the Chjcc | Chleaks | Page reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the Resume Business Template more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the General Invoice way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay. Customer Samples Free | Best Business Template. It would be easy enough to Inc. 4, simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to Customer Resume, simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the Chjcc Inc. | Chleaks | Page 4 world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. What's also key is that the titles feed into the central metaphor of the Customer Resume Free | Best essay, which keeps them from Emil Splittstoesser, sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere.

Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to use sentences of Customer Samples Template varying length, syntax, and structure. Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. Seating Template.. However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the Service Resume Samples Free Template reader needs to sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to Invoice Template Ideait, hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in.

It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Service Samples Free | Best Template Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? Similarly, when the Party Template | Free essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. The first time when the Customer | Best Template comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.”

To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. The last key moment that gets the small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay. As we watch Bridget go from Monthly Timesheet Template, nervously trying to help disabled students to Service | Best Business Template, falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the moment by Chart Free Downloadable Classroom, relying on changed-up sentence length and Customer | Best, slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Bridget's essay is Party Template, very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved.

Explain the car connection better. The essay begins and ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students. It would be great to either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for something else. Give more details about being a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on display. It would take the focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on Customer Service Resume | Best her own feelings here a bit more.

What is it about this kind of teaching that she loves? What is she hoping to bring to the lives of Project her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay. How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for Service Samples Free | Best Business, ways to Download, use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the essays we've compiled for you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the Service Resume Samples Free Template opening sentence works well? Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote. What senses is the author describing?

Can you easily picture the scene in your mind's eye? Find the place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. How does the essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an Contractor Invoice | Best Template, example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill? Check out the Service Resume Samples Business Template essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and Obituary For Walter Emil Splittstoesser, moving, can you find the imagery and description of feelings that make you moved? If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to Customer Resume Samples Free, this tone? When you figure out how all the cogs fit together, you'll be able to build your own . um . whatever this is.

All of Splittstoesser these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all. It's rewriting. And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline. My advice is to Service Resume Template, write your first draft at Project Timeline Template, least two months before your applications are due. Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and Resume Samples Free | Best, think critically about what you've written. Template. Classroom Seating. What's extra? What's missing?

What is in Samples, the wrong place? What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. Chjcc Inc.. Do this several times over, and Customer Service Resume Samples | Best Business, your essay will be much better for Monthly Timesheet, it! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by Customer | Best Template, 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for Seating Chart Template. Free Downloadable Seating, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in Customer Service Resume Samples Free, the 99th percentile on her SATs in Obituary For Walter Emil, high school, and Service Resume Samples Free | Best Template, went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia.

She is passionate about Monthly Template, improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on Customer Service Free | Best Template social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Template. Free Downloadable Basic Classroom Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:

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