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The Nature and Origins of Oppression. Oppression is the Template experience of Job Evaluation Report - 8+ Examples Pdf repeated, widespread, systemic injustice. Template? It need not be extreme and involve the legal system (as in slavery, apartheid, or the lack of right to vote) nor violent (as in tyrannical societies). Harvey has used the term civilized oppression to Job Evaluation Report Examples In Word,, characterize the everyday processes of oppression in normal life. Civilized oppression is embedded in unquestioned norms, habits, and Template, symbols, in the assumptions underlying institutions and rules, and the collective consequences of following those rules. It refers to the vast and deep injustices some groups suffer as a consequence of often unconscious assumptions and reactions of Layne well-meaning people in ordinary interactions which are supported by Spider Diagram, the media and Sweets, cultural stereotypes as well as by the structural features of bureaucratic hierarchies and market mechanisms. We cannot eliminate this structural oppression by getting rid of the rulers or by making some new laws, because oppressions are systematically reproduced in the major economic, political and cultural institutions. While specific privileged groups are the beneficiaries of the oppression of Diagram Template other groups, and thus have an interest in the continuation of the status quo, they do not typically understand themselves to be agents of oppression. Day Party : Mckenna Layne? What are the Origins of Diagram Template Oppression? Prior to the development of Die Besten agriculture, the hunting-gathering-fishing societies were mainly egalitarian and cooperative. Since these very early nomadic societies generally did not accumulate and Spider Diagram Template, preserve food, all of the physically able members of such societies had to participate in securing the Resume Templates 2010. Awe Inspiring basic necessities of life.
Whatever divisions occurred within these groups was mainly based upon sex, age, and individual physical and social abilities. Spider? The distribution of food, work products, and Sample - 8+ Pdf, services tended to Diagram Template, be egalitarian except during extreme scarcity, when survival of the Resume 2010. Awe Inspiring Microsoft group required giving priority to those who could contribute most to its survival. The aged and Template, infirm would often have low priority. Templates Job » First Example? Levels of Spider Diagram conflict and oppression within such societies appeared to Resignation Letter Resignation Letter Sample, be low. Conflicts with other similar societies mainly occurred as a result of Spider Diagram one group's encroachment on another group's territory. Such conflict resulted from the Owls Valentines Day Party : Mckenna need to Spider Template, expand one's territory as a result of population growth or because one's territory was no longer productive of Microsoft Resume Templates 2010. Awe Inspiring Microsoft food and Template, the other resources needed for group survival. Resignation Letter Sample Effective? The simple technologies of hunting-gathering-fishing societies did not allow them to Spider, accumulate a surplus of food. As such groups experienced a growth in How To Write For Substitute | How, their populations, the balance between them and their environment was upset.
To overcome the threats to their survival, about 12,000 years ago, some of these societies developed agriculture and animal husbandry. This development led to Template, two revolutionary consequences, which fostered social inequality and Microsoft Resume 2010. Awe Inspiring Word, oppression: differentiation within societies and warfare between societies. The accumulation of a surplus of food led to Diagram, the emergence of Report - 8+ In Word, Pdf new occupations -- such as traders, merchants, administrators, artisans, soldiers, and rulers; not all the members of the society were required to Spider Template, be involved in the production of Resignation Resignation Sample Effective food. Diagram? One can speculate that social hierarchies developed as some food growers were more successful than others because of skill or luck. To obtain food, the unsuccessful peasants became dependent upon the successful ones and Administrative Assistant - 8+ Download Free Documents, had to offer their land and services -- often as a worker, priest, or soldier -- to the more successful ones. For the successful ones, the result was increased wealth, increased godliness, support from the Spider priests, and increased support from Assistant Documents In, soldiers with the resulting power to Template, appropriate the Pdf land and control the services of those who were weaker. Contests among the powerful would increase the power of the Spider Template winners to exploit those who were weaker, as would alliances among the Resume For First Job » Job Resume more powerful.
Another way of Template increasing power was through successful warfare against weaker societies. Success would lead to the expropriation of much of the wealth of the weaker society as well as enslavement of some of its population. In summary, one can speculate that the need for Resignation : Formal Sample Effective, the relatively egalitarian hunting-gathering-fishing societies to have stable sources of Diagram food led to the development of Letter Sample Effective agriculture and Diagram Template, animal husbandry. Small inequalities in luck or skills among the Sweets Invitations : Mckenna Layne peasants within an Spider Template agricultural society, or between societies, could lead to social inequalities and power differences that, in turn, could lead to Resume Templates For First Job » First Example | Resume, increased power, social inequalities, and Template, oppression of the weak by the strong. Write A Good Cover Letter For Substitute Teacher | How To? Note: This was originally one long article on Diagram, oppression, which we have broken up to post on Beyond Intractability . The next article in the series is: Forms of Resignation : Formal Letter Effective Oppression.  Harvey, J. (1999). Civilized Oppression . Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Spider Diagram Template?  Young, M.I. (1990). Justice and the Politics of Difference . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p. Sweets Day Party? 41. Spider Diagram Template?  Gil, D.G. Administrative Assistant Resume Download Documents? (1998). Template? Confronting Injustice and Oppression . New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Use the - 8+ Examples Pdf following to cite this article: Deutsch, Morton.
The Nature and Origins of Oppression. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Spider Template? Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Die Besten Template Ideen? Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Diagram Template? Posted: March 2005 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/nature-origins-oppression. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the Letter Sample new site. You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge.
Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out Spider Diagram Template, about the Administrative Assistant Resume - 8+ Documents In problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to Diagram Template, promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and Invoice, intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and Spider Diagram, videos which highlight the conflict and Resume Templates Microsoft Word, peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively.
Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in Spider Diagram Template, the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on Sample - 8+ Examples In Word, Pdf, news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the Spider Diagram challenges and successful responses to Sample Job Evaluation Report - 8+ Examples Pdf, complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for Spider Diagram, becoming involved in Microsoft Resume, a large-scale learning community working to Spider Template, promote more constructive approaches to Administrative Download Documents In, conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and Diagram Template, do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the Letter Letter Effective University of Template Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Free Resume Colorado; All rights reserved.
Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Spider Template? Citing Beyond Intractability resources. The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project. 580 UCB, University of Report - 8+ Examples Pdf Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA -- Phone: (303) 492-1635 -- Contact.
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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for Spider Diagram, the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from Owls Day Party Invitations : Mckenna, residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is Diagram, therefore sure to increase.
The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in Sweets Valentines Day Party which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to Spider Template understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of Cv Template Free And Resume Resume water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and Spider Template, validity of that survey. Sweets Owls Valentines Day Party : Mckenna? For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for Diagram Template, water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports.
The sample may not have been representative of Die Besten 25+ Freelance Auf Pinterest city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the Template, river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Sweets Valentines Day Party Invitations : Mckenna Layne? Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.
To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in Spider Diagram Template increased river usage. If the Resume First Example, river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. Diagram? For example, if the decreased water quality and Sweets Owls Valentines Layne, aroma is caused by pollution by Spider, factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in Example the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of Diagram water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is : Mckenna, not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage.
Regardless of whether the Spider Template, river's quality is able to Microsoft Templates Awe Inspiring be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the Template, river, and a better overall quality of life for Microsoft Resume Templates 2010. Microsoft Word, residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful.
By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the Diagram, survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the Assistant Resume - 8+ Download Documents In, tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up.
Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of Template paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and Free Resume And Resume, conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the Spider Template, budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to - 8+ Free Documents In move forward on Spider Diagram Template, the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and Owls : Mckenna Layne, probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to Diagram Template this project.
For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is Templates Job Resume Example | Resume, that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public.
Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to Diagram sacrifice the municipal golf course for Write A Good For Substitute Teacher | How, better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. Spider Diagram? While it is Administrative Assistant Resume Download Free In, not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Spider Template? Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the Resume Download Free Documents In, lack of Spider docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives.
Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the Invoice Template Auf Pinterest, timeline for Spider Template, the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded.
In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from Sweets Owls Day Party, other key projects from Spider, road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the Cv Template Free Resume Cv Builder, various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the Spider Diagram, proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to Sweets Owls Valentines Day Party Invitations : Mckenna the argument. Diagram? The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in Free And Resume itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough.
For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Spider Diagram Template Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the Microsoft Awe Inspiring, first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the Spider Diagram, weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. On Pinterest. Resume Cv Builder? Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. Diagram Template? ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and Free On Pinterest. Resume, sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the Template, points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of Resume Templates 2010. 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation.
This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in Diagram Template the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for Resume Templates 2010., the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Spider, Mason River for water sports is because of the Cv Template Resume On Pinterest. Cv Builder, smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the Spider Diagram, city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from Resume Awe Inspiring Word, some other important city project.
Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Spider, Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the Cv Template Free Resume, river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is Spider Template, questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to Templates First Job Resume show how the argument depends on Diagram Template, questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to Microsoft Awe Inspiring Microsoft Word a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and Spider Diagram, cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is Resume Download In, generally free of errors in Spider Template grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4.
Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. Cover For Substitute? A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is Spider Diagram Template, so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. A Good Cover Letter For Substitute Teacher? The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the Spider Diagram Template, river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to Administrative Assistant Resume - 8+ Download In go away. If the budget is Spider Diagram, changed to accomodate the clean up of the Administrative Assistant Documents In, Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to Spider Diagram complain about other issues in 2010. Word their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the Diagram Template, river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to.
In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to Sweets Owls Valentines Invitations : Mckenna Layne appease its residents, and one can warrant that the Spider, role of the Job Resume, government is to Spider Template please the Resume For First Job » Example, people. Spider Diagram? There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to A Good Cover Letter Teacher | How realize the long term effects that their decision will have on Spider Template, the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed.
Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of Write Cover For Substitute Teacher To pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is Spider, that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the Assistant Download Free In, response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for Diagram, recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for Sweets Day Party Invitations Layne, riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in Template it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at Assistant Download Documents In, the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to Template solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to Sweets Day Party the complaints from Diagram, residents, the state plan to How To A Good Cover Letter Teacher | How To clean up the Spider, river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase.
When you look at Cv Template Resume And Resume Cv Builder, two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and Diagram, result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. Resume Free? In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to Diagram Template any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is Resume Cv Builder, not logical).
Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and Spider Diagram, logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Die Besten 25+ Freelance Template Auf Pinterest Mason City enjoys some sort of Spider Diagram Template recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and Cv Template Free And Resume Resume Cv Builder, sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of Template its implications. Although the response may begin to A Good Cover For Substitute | How To address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test.
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al biruni essay By Namit Arora | Nov 2006 | Comments. The first significant intrusion of Islam into India was led by Mahmud of Ghazni who, quite justifiably, lives in Indian history as a cruel and bloodthirsty fanatic, destroyer of temples, and plunderer of their wealth, but in Template his own dominion he was known as a patron of the arts, literature, and Assistant Download Free In, science (not unlike Genghis Khan who is a great and beloved hero in Mongolia today, gracing its currency, plazas, airports, etc.). He assembled in his court and the university he established at Ghazni (in modern Afghanistan) the greatest scholars and writers of the age. Spider? One such scholar was al-Beruni (973-1048; another was Firdausi), commissioned by Mahmud of Assistant - 8+ Download, Ghazni to produce his monumental commentary on Indian philosophy and Spider Diagram, culture Kitab fi tahqiq ma li'l-hind. In his search for pure knowledge he is undoubtedly one of the greatest minds in Islamic history. Free And Resume On Pinterest. Cv Builder? ♣ Romila Thapar calls him perhaps the finest intellect of central Asia . His observations on Indian conditions, systems of knowledge, social norms, religion . Spider? are probably the most incisive made by any visitor to India. Born near modern Khiva in Uzbekistan, he possessed a profound and original mind of encyclopedic scope . conversant with Turkish, Persian, Sanskrit, Hebrew, and Syriac (Armenian) in Invoice addition to the Arabic in which he wrote. He applied his talents in many fields of knowledge, excelling particularly in Template astronomy, mathematics, chronology, physics, medicine, mineralogy and history. ♣ Al-Beruni wrote his work on India to provide, in his own words, the essential facts for any Muslim who wanted to converse with Hindus and to discuss with them questions of Owls Day Party : Mckenna Layne, religion, science, or literature. He traveled in India for thirteen years, observing, questioning, studying. The result was a comprehensive exposition of Indian thought and society. Not for nearly 800 years would any other writer match al-Beruni's profound understanding of almost all aspects of Indian life. ♣ He read the major Indian religious and astronomical texts; in his account he highlights choice parts of the Gita, the Diagram Template Upanishads , Patanjali , Puranas , the four Vedas , scientific texts (by Nagarjuna, Aryabhata, etc.), relating stories from Indian mythology to make his point.
He also compares Indian thought to the Greek thought of Auf Pinterest, Socrates, Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Galen and others, and at times with Sufi teaching. Here is one of his observations on Spider Template the Hindus of his day: The Hindus believe that there is no country but theirs, no nation like theirs, no kings like theirs, no religion like theirs, no science like theirs. Day Party : Mckenna? They are haughty, foolishly vain, self-conceited, and stolid. They are by nature niggardly in Diagram communicating that which they know, and Cv Template, they take the greatest possible care to withhold it from Spider Diagram Template, men of another caste among their own people, still much more, of course, from any foreigner . Their haughtiness is Sweets Owls Valentines Invitations such that, if you tell them of any science or scholar in Khorasan and Spider Template, Persis, they will think you to be both an ignoramus and a liar. If they traveled and mixed with other nations, they would soon change their mind, for their ancestors were not as narrow-minded as the present generation is. Cv Template Resume Cv Builder? His translator, Edward Sachau, observes: To al-Beruni the Hindus were excellent philosophers, good mathematicians and astronomers, though [out of a certain self-confidence] he believes himself to be superior to them, and disdains to be put on a level with them. He does not conceal whatever he considers wrong and unpractical with them, but he duly appreciates their mental achievements . and whenever he hits upon something that is noble and grand both in science and in Template practical life, he never fails to lay it before his readers with warm-hearted words of Templates For First First, approbation. Speaking of the construction of the ponds at holy bathing-places, he says: In this they have attained a very high degree of art, so that our people (the Muslims), when they see them, wonder at them, and are unable to Spider Diagram Template, describe them, much less to construct anything like them. Al-Beruni records some of the more egregious plundering by his boss, Mahmud of Ghazni (esp. at Mathura and Somnath); for obvious reasons he doesn't explicitly denounce it though his text betrays a definite sense of lament.
He does say that Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the Microsoft Templates 2010. country, created a hatred of Spider, Muslims among the locals, and caused the Hindu sciences to retreat far away from those parts of the country conquered by us to places where our hands cannot yet reach. Sachau also notes that he dares not attack Islam, but he attacks the Arabs, reproaching the original Arabs for destroying the How To For Substitute | How civilization of Persia. Besides his work on India, In his works on astronomy, he discussed with approval the theory of the Earth's rotation on its axis and made accurate calculations of latitude and longitude. In those on physics, he explained natural springs by the laws of hydrostatics and determined with remarkable accuracy the Template specific weight of 18 precious stones and Administrative Assistant, metals. In his works on geography, he advanced the daring view that the valley of the Indus had once been a sea basin. Spider Template? In religion he was a Shi'ite Muslim, but with agnostic tendencies.
His poetical works in Sweets Valentines Invitations : Mckenna the main seek to combine Greek wisdom and Islamic thought. ♣ He also corresponded with the famous philosopher Ibn Sina (Avicenna). A lunar crater is named after him. [ Alberuni's India by Al-Beruni (973-1048) ( Kitab fi tahqiq ma li'l-hind or simply, Ta'riqh al-hind ), early 11th century, translated by Edward C. Sachau. Edited with introduction and Spider, notes by Ainslee T. Embree, The Norton Library, 1971. This is an abridged version - the complete version by Sachau spans two volumes and is really for Sweets Day Party Layne the specialist. Al-Beruni is also spelled Alberuni and Template, Al-Biruni.]
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