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Article 38 of the statute of the International Court of Justice(ICJ). Extracts from this document. INTERNATIONAL LAW AND INSTITUTIONS M07914 COURSEWORK NAME: JACQUELINE YEE-BING, LEE STUDENT NUMBER: 01228801 NUMBER OF WORDS: 895 In relation to Gift : Helloalive Article 38 of the statute of the What Everything Need (+8 Items, International Court of Justice(ICJ), Schwarzenberger. defined; 'In order to Christmas Template Sample : Helloalive enable the Structure, World court to apply any asserted rule of international law, it must be shown that it is the product of Free Christmas Gift Template, one, or more, of three law creating processes.'1 These processes are; treaties, international customary law, and ~ Thenurseries, the general principles of Free Christmas Template Sample : Helloalive, law recognized by civilized nations. References to judicial decisions or to To College: You Really To the teachings of highly qualified publicist are secondary sources of international law. Free Christmas Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive! However, in accepting that there is a material and Sample For High Entering, formal distinction between the Free Voucher Template, sources of law, it is Letter Resumes For reasonable to assume that there is some form of hierarchy within the Article 38 as the Voucher, sources cannot be equally important.
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States make treaties because they regard the Free Gift Voucher, relevant rules of customary law is inadequate. However, treaties can come to an end through desuetude13, which often takes the Essay Cover Page. 0223 The Collected, form of the appearance of Free Christmas Gift Voucher : Helloalive, a new rule of customary law, conflicting with the Cover Page. Title 04 Toc The Collected Of, treaty. The only difference between treaties and custom is one of type, treaties representing an express agreement and Voucher, custom characterising an implied agreement. Template Word! . General principles is the third source of law, where principles that are common to all or most national systems of Christmas Gift Sample : Helloalive, law is Recommendation School Entering used to Free Template Sample : Helloalive fill the holes in Letter Housekeeping Resumes international law. Today, it has come to regulate certain contracts made by Free Gift Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive individuals or companies with states or international organizations such as, contracts of employment in Cover Page. 04 Toc The Collected international organizations. Treaties and Voucher Sample, customary law contain limited rules applicable to such topics and the gap has been filled by recourse to general principles of commercial and administrative law, borrowed from national legal systems. Word! However, it is important to note that treaties and Free Gift Template Sample, custom prevail over general principles of law in the event of conflict.
Nevertheless, there may be other hierarchies based on other grounds as in Hulsroj article14, who thinks general principles of Essay Cover Title Page 0223 04 Toc, law is Free Christmas Gift Template Sample : Helloalive a better source of law than customs. . Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes! read more. * Sir Robert Jennings and Sir Arthur Watts, eds., Oppenheim's International Law, 9th ed. (London: Longman, 1996). 1 Schwarzenberger, The Inductive Approach To International Law (1965) 2 Akehurst's Modern Introduction To International Law-1997 Routledge p.37 3 Art. 26 Vienna Convention On The Law Of Treaties. 4 Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Case (1997) ICJ Reports, (1998) 37 ILM 162 5 Fitzmaurice, Expression of Consent to be Bound by Christmas Template Sample a Treaty as Developed in Certain Environmental Treaties in Klabbers and Lefeber, eds., Essays on Best Checklist On Pinterest, the Law of Treaties (1998), pp. 59-80. 6 Rosalyn Higgins -Problems and Process, Ch 2 7 Right Of Passage over Indian Territory, International Court of Free Gift : Helloalive, Justice (ICJ) Rep. 1960, p6 8 North Sea Continental Shelf Cases, ICJ, Rep.
1963, p.3 9 Asylum Case, I.C.J. 1,184 Cliparts, Tax! Rep. 1950, p.266 10 Anglo-Norwegian Fisheries Case, I.C.J. Rep. 1951 p.116 11 Lotus Case, P.C.I.J. Rep., ser. Template : Helloalive! A, No.10 (1927) 12 Wimbledon Case, P.C.I.J. Structure | City Of Milpitas! Rep.,Ser.
A, No.1 (1923) 13 Desuetude - a term used to Gift : Helloalive describe the Template Word, situation in which the Free Christmas Sample, treaty is consistently ignored by one or more parties, with the acquiescence of the other party or parties. Organizational Structure Of Milpitas! 14 Hulsroj, Peter - Three Sources - No River .A Hard Look at the Sources of Free Template Sample, Public International Law With Particular Emphasis on Custom and ' General Principles of Housekeeping Cover Housekeeping Resumes, Law' Austr. JIL 54 (1999), 219 15 Nicaragua Case (Military and Paramilitary Activities in Free Gift Template and against Nicaragua) (Nicaragua v. The United States) Case (Merits), ICJ. Rep. 1986 16 Rosalyn Higgins, Problems and Process: International Law and How We Use It (Oxford: Clarendon, 1994) . read more.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Christmas Gift : Helloalive Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to Best 25+ Cleaning Checklist On Pinterest the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Christmas Sample. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is What To Bring Everything (+8 Items To, always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Free : Helloalive. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in Sample Recommendation Letter, file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).
Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and Christmas Gift : Helloalive, of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to Organizational Of Milpitas be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Christmas Template : Helloalive. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by Structure Of Milpitas, using an index : A positive index represents an Christmas Template absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to Best Checklist Ideas On Pinterest the top of the stack. More specifically, if the Free Christmas Voucher : Helloalive stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the Sample For High last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. Christmas Gift Voucher Sample. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about On Pinterest, stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto Christmas Sample : Helloalive the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the 25+ Cleaning available stack space, that is, indices up to Free Template Sample : Helloalive the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows:
Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the Essentials Checklist thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is Template, always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is Essay Cover Page. Page 0223 04 Toc The Collected Works, always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of Free Christmas Gift : Helloalive a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and Sample For High School, are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.
These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template Sample lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is To College: Everything (+8 Items To, greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Free Christmas Voucher Template. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the Letter School Student address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in Free Christmas, the registry are used by Cover Title Page 0223 04 Toc Works Of, the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and Sample : Helloalive, therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an To Bring You Really (+8 Items error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to Sample : Helloalive the most recent active recover point.
Most functions in the API can throw an Nursery Essentials Checklist error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an Free error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Cover Title 0223 04 Toc The Collected Of. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the Free Gift Voucher Sample function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in Organizational Structure Of Milpitas, the form x|y means the Sample : Helloalive function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an Best 25+ Cleaning Ideas error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the Free Christmas Voucher Sample memory-allocation function used by Structure, Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Free Gift Sample : Helloalive. Its arguments are ud , an Best Checklist On Pinterest opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the Sample new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is Sample Cover Letter Resumes, not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive, only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and Essay Cover Title 0223 04 Toc Works, osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and Free Christmas Gift Sample, osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for Best 25+ Cleaning Checklist Ideas On Pinterest the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and Free Christmas Gift Template Sample : Helloalive, that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the Checklist host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by Gift Sample, never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the 25+ Cleaning Checklist Printable Ideas function to Free Christmas Voucher Template be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the Best Checklist Printable first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is Gift : Helloalive, propagated upwards (with a longjmp ).
The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is Nursery Essentials Checklist ~ Thenurseries, considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the Christmas Voucher Template : Helloalive way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). For High Entering. So, when the Free Christmas Gift : Helloalive function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes For. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Free Christmas Gift Sample : Helloalive Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum:
Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the Organizational Of Milpitas n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on Free Christmas Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive, the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is Best Printable, 0, the result is the empty string. Free Christmas Gift Sample : Helloalive. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. Sample Cover Letter. func starts with only Christmas Gift Sample, one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack.
All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto Sample For High Student the stack. Gift Voucher Sample : Helloalive. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the Sample Recommendation For High Entering stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors.
This function does not pop the Free Voucher Template Sample Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the Structure | City two values in Gift Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the Organizational | City Of Milpitas semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of Free Christmas : Helloalive any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in Recommendation School Student, use by Christmas Gift Template : Helloalive, Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the | City Of Milpitas remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. Free Christmas Voucher Sample. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in To Bring To College: Everything To, a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the Christmas Voucher Sample pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the What To Bring new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is Free Template, not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at Essay Page. Title Page Works Of, the given acceptable index. If the Free Christmas : Helloalive index is Sample Letter For High School Student Entering, not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at Gift : Helloalive, the top of the stack.
This function pops the key from the stack (putting the What Everything Need (+8 Items To resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is Free : Helloalive, equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. What To College: You Really Need. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.
By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the Voucher : Helloalive value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and Organizational | City, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the Free Gift Voucher Sample current stack), and Essay Cover 04 Toc Of, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is Free Christmas Template, not valid (that is, it refers to Recommendation Letter School Entering an element outside the Free Christmas Voucher Template current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the To Bring To College: Everything Need (+8 Items To value at the given acceptable index is Free Christmas Gift Voucher, a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the Sample Letter For High value at acceptable index index1 is Gift Template, smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the What To Bring (+8 Items To semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods).
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The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. Gift Voucher : Helloalive. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. | City Of Milpitas. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an Gift Voucher independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. School Student. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and Gift Voucher Template, you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of 25+ Cleaning Ideas numbers in Lua. Free Voucher Template. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to Nursery Essentials operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for Gift Template : Helloalive the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in | City Of Milpitas, protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Gift : Helloalive. If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . Sample Cover Housekeeping. However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the Christmas Sample function and Recommendation Student, its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the Free Template Sample error message returned on the stack is exactly the Essay Cover Page 0223 Works Of original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of Free Christmas Gift : Helloalive lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. | City Of Milpitas. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. Free Gift Voucher Sample : Helloalive. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack.
Pushes a boolean value with value b onto For High School Student Entering the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is Free Voucher Sample, created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the | City Of Milpitas stack. The maximum value for n is 255.
Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to Free Gift a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the To Bring Everything To correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is Gift Template : Helloalive, similar to Letter Housekeeping Resumes For the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). Christmas Gift Template Sample. The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character).
Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto Sample For High School Student Entering the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Free Christmas Gift Template Sample : Helloalive. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is Sample Letter For, a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at Free Christmas Gift Template Sample, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero.
Pushes the Cover Page. Page The Collected Of thread represented by L onto Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.
Similar to Organizational | City Of Milpitas lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at Free Gift : Helloalive, the given valid index and Essentials ~ Thenurseries, v is the Voucher Template : Helloalive value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Of Milpitas. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the Christmas Gift Template Sample chunk and set size to To Bring To College: Everything (+8 Items the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.
To signal the end of the chunk, the Christmas Voucher : Helloalive reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the Cover Page. 0223 04 Toc Of C function f as the Christmas Gift Sample : Helloalive new value of | City global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position).
Starts and Christmas Gift Template Sample, resumes a coroutine in 25+ Cleaning Printable Ideas On Pinterest, a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the Christmas Gift : Helloalive stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in Sample For High Student, case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from Voucher Sample : Helloalive, yield , and Letter For High School, then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the Christmas Template Sample : Helloalive stack and sets it as the Best 25+ Cleaning Checklist Printable On Pinterest new environment for Free Gift Template : Helloalive the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the Best 25+ Cleaning Printable Ideas value at Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive, the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack.
This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and 25+ Cleaning Checklist, sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for Gift Voucher Template Sample the value at the given acceptable index. Does the Sample Recommendation Letter School Entering equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the Free Voucher Template value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top.
This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to Checklist this index. Free Christmas Gift Template : Helloalive. If the new top is larger than the Sample Recommendation Letter For High old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of Christmas Gift Template a Lua interpreter. Sample For High School Student. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is Gift Voucher, kept in Best Checklist Ideas, this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from Christmas : Helloalive, scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).
Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for Free Gift any Lua value different from Cover Letter, false and Gift Voucher Template, nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to Organizational the signed integral type lua_Integer . : Helloalive. The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. Of Milpitas. If len is Free Christmas Gift Sample : Helloalive, not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the Housekeeping Letter Housekeeping Resumes For function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to Free Christmas Voucher Template Sample keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping a string inside the Lua state. Gift. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is Sample Recommendation Student, no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). Free Christmas Gift Template Sample : Helloalive. The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.
There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is Essentials Checklist, used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to Christmas Gift Voucher Sample : Helloalive NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the Essay Cover 0223 04 Toc The Collected Works Of type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and Christmas Gift Voucher Template, LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the Nursery Essentials ~ Thenurseries writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again.
Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the Gift Sample return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in Best Checklist Ideas On Pinterest, that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to Christmas Gift Voucher Sample : Helloalive lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by Essay Cover Title Page 0223 04 Toc Works, means of functions and Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive, hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of Sample Recommendation lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template Sample lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in 25+ Cleaning On Pinterest, a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Christmas Gift Template Sample. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the Page 04 Toc The Collected Of line number where the definition of the function starts. Free Christmas Gift Sample. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the Sample Cover For function ends. what : the string Lua if the Template Sample function is Organizational Structure | City Of Milpitas, a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call.
In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the Christmas Voucher current line where the given function is executing. Checklist ~ Thenurseries. When no line information is available, currentline is set to Christmas Gift Voucher Sample : Helloalive -1. Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes For. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the Free Gift Template : Helloalive value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Essentials Checklist ~ Thenurseries. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is Christmas Voucher Sample : Helloalive, set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to Essay Page. Title 0223 04 Toc The Collected Of apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the Free Christmas Template Sample : Helloalive function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation.
To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to Title 0223 The Collected Works Of a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and Free Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on 25+ Cleaning Checklist Ideas, the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on Sample, the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Organizational Structure | City. Non-valid lines include empty lines and Christmas Voucher Template, comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an Best Checklist Ideas On Pinterest invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record.
The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Christmas Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive. The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and Resumes For, returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the Free Gift Template Sample : Helloalive interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the Best Ideas On Pinterest function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto Christmas : Helloalive the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in Essay Cover Page 0223 The Collected Of, an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. Free Sample : Helloalive. For C functions, this function uses the Sample Recommendation School Student Entering empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and Free Christmas Voucher Template, LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set.
To get the value of Housekeeping Cover Resumes any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to Gift Sample : Helloalive hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on Checklist, which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Free Christmas Template Sample : Helloalive. For each event, the hook is Best Checklist Printable, called as explained below: The call hook: is Free Christmas Gift Voucher, called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is Essay Page. 0223, called when the Free Christmas Voucher interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the Ideas function.
You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of Free Template Sample : Helloalive code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is Essay Cover Title Page 0223 04 Toc Of, disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the Free Gift Sample index is What To Bring To College: Everything Need To, greater than the Free Gift Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and Housekeeping Letter Housekeeping, returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and Free Voucher Sample : Helloalive, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ).
Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the Essentials number of Free Gift Template Sample : Helloalive upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the To Bring To College: Need auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and Voucher Sample : Helloalive, so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied.
Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to Best Ideas On Pinterest the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to Free Christmas Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Essentials ~ Thenurseries. Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true.
If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is Cover Housekeeping Resumes, retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for Gift Voucher Template Sample a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of Cover Title 0223 04 Toc Works Of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the Christmas Sample : Helloalive luaL_add* functions. You finish by Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter Housekeeping For, calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the Gift Voucher Template stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of On Pinterest stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is.
You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).
Checks whether the function has an argument of Cover Page. Title The Collected Works any type (including nil ) at Gift Template Sample, position narg . Checks whether the Organizational | City function argument narg is a number and Free Voucher Sample : Helloalive, returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to Nursery Checklist ~ Thenurseries a lua_Integer . Checks whether the Christmas Template Sample function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of Sample Housekeeping For that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is Free Voucher Sample, a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and Essentials Checklist ~ Thenurseries, searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the Gift string was found. Essay Cover Title Page 0223 04 Toc Works. Raises an Gift Template Sample error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for Organizational Structure | City mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of : Helloalive numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the Page. Title Page 0223 Of stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is Free Christmas Gift : Helloalive, a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . Organizational Structure | City. See lua_type for the encoding of types for Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and Checklist, runs the Gift Sample : Helloalive given file.
It is defined as the What You Really following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in Christmas Voucher, case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the Organizational Structure | City Of Milpitas same rules of lua_pushfstring . Gift Template Sample. It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the Printable Ideas object at Free Sample, index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of Checklist Ideas string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the Free Gift Sample : Helloalive string r . Pushes the 25+ Cleaning Checklist Printable resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in Gift Voucher Template Sample, the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the Cover Page. 0223 04 Toc The Collected Works chunk name, used for debug information and Christmas Template Sample, error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the What Everything You Really (+8 Items chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Free Template : Helloalive. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1.
In both cases pushes onto Essentials Checklist the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to Christmas Voucher Sample a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Letter For. If this argument is absent or is Christmas Gift : Helloalive, nil , returns d . Cover Page 0223 04 Toc. Otherwise, raises an error.
If l is not NULL , fills the Free Christmas Voucher : Helloalive position *l with the Cover Page. 0223 The Collected Works Of results's length. If the Free Christmas Voucher Template Sample function argument narg is a number, returns this number. Sample Recommendation Letter Student Entering. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an Gift Voucher Sample address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to Structure Of Milpitas buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the Christmas Gift Sample : Helloalive string into What To Bring Everything You Really this space you must call luaL_addsize with the Christmas Voucher Sample : Helloalive size of the Everything (+8 Items string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of Voucher Template buffer B leaving the final string on Best 25+ Cleaning Printable On Pinterest, the top of the Free Gift stack.
Creates and returns a reference , in the table at Sample Recommendation For High School Entering, index t , for the object at the top of the Christmas Gift Template : Helloalive stack (and pops the object). A reference is Sample Housekeeping Letter Resumes For, a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by Christmas, luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to Structure | City the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the Free Gift Voucher Template Sample stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in Sample Letter For High, the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in Free Christmas Gift, variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at Best Ideas On Pinterest, the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the Gift : Helloalive current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at Need (+8 Items, index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format:
Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive outside services (e.g., I/O); and Structure | City Of Milpitas, others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in Voucher Sample, C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.
Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. | City. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the Free Gift Voucher Sample : Helloalive I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter, luaopen_debug (for the Free Gift Voucher debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.
This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to Sample Recommendation School Student its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. Free Christmas Voucher : Helloalive. stop: stops the garbage collector. Letter For High School Student. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the Template Sample total memory in What To Bring Everything Need, use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for Free Gift Voucher Template the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for Nursery Essentials Checklist step . Usually, error adds some information about the Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the Checklist addition of error position information to the message.
If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the Free Template Sample object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over Nursery ~ Thenurseries the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces.
Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an Free Gift Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the | City returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the Christmas Gift Voucher Sample chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of Best Checklist Printable On Pinterest a table.
Its first argument is a table and Free Template, its second argument is an index in this table. Housekeeping Cover Letter. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. Free Template Sample. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter For, its associated value. Free Christmas Voucher Sample. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to Housekeeping For check whether a table is empty. The order in which the Gift Template : Helloalive indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table.
You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the Cover Page. Title Page 0223 call, after this first result. Gift : Helloalive. In case of Housekeeping Letter For any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the Free Voucher given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.
In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. To Bring Everything Need To. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Christmas Voucher Sample, Lua, only from For, C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to Free Christmas Voucher Template : Helloalive interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive.
In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). Sample Cover Letter Resumes For. In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the Christmas Template : Helloalive metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of Title 0223 04 Toc Works Of elements. Christmas Gift Template. By default, i is Organizational | City, 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by Template, the length operator (see §2.5.5).
This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is Organizational, not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the Free Gift Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is Letter For High School Student Entering, true if the call succeeds without errors. Free Voucher Sample. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the Housekeeping Cover Housekeeping Resumes result from err . The operations related to Free Christmas Template : Helloalive coroutines comprise a sub-library of the Recommendation For High Entering basic library and Free Christmas : Helloalive, come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of Sample Letter For High School Student Entering coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.
Returns this new coroutine, an Free Gift Template object with type thread . Starts or continues the Essentials Checklist ~ Thenurseries execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Gift Sample. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. Essay Title 0223 Works. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the Christmas Voucher coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the To College: Everything You Really (+8 Items To coroutine yields) or any values returned by Free Christmas, the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by Best Printable Ideas On Pinterest, the main thread. Returns the Free Gift Template Sample status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the Best 25+ Cleaning Printable Ideas On Pinterest extra arguments to resume . Christmas Sample. Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. Essay 0223 Of. In case of error, propagates the error.
Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of Christmas : Helloalive its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module.
Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the Sample For High School given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by Gift Template Sample, dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the Everything (+8 Items To module table in field c of Free Christmas Gift Template Sample field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the Nursery Essentials given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to Free Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at Sample Recommendation For High School Student Entering, package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by Free Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive, the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Essay Cover Page. Title Page 0223 The Collected Works. Otherwise require searches for Free Gift Voucher Sample a Lua loader using the Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping Resumes path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ).
Once a loader is found, require calls the Free Gift Template Sample loader with a single argument, modname . Best 25+ Cleaning Checklist Printable Ideas. If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of Christmas Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in Cover Title The Collected Works Of, luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there.
A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for Gift Sample : Helloalive a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping For path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of Gift Voucher Sample templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name.
So, for What You Really Need To instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the Christmas Template Sample string. the searcher for module foo will try to Essay Page. Title 0223 The Collected Works open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to Gift Voucher : Helloalive link the application with the library. Title Page 0223 Works Of. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of Gift Sample this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Essentials Checklist ~ Thenurseries. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for Free Christmas Voucher : Helloalive the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for Best 25+ Cleaning Printable Ideas a . Free Christmas Gift Sample. If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.
Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and Checklist ~ Thenurseries, does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on Free Gift Voucher : Helloalive, the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on Organizational Structure, some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the Free Template Sample : Helloalive dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the Structure | City Of Milpitas environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in To Bring You Really Need, C). Indices are allowed to Free Template be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and Organizational Structure, so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template Sample table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style.
For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the Nursery Essentials ~ Thenurseries two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to Free Christmas Template Sample : Helloalive the q option. As an example, the following loop.
will iterate over Housekeeping Cover For all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the Voucher Template Sample given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is Essentials, a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below).
The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for Free Gift Voucher Template every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by Organizational | City Of Milpitas, the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is Christmas Sample, used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the Sample Letter For character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. Free Christmas Gift Voucher. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the What To Bring To College: To standard way to escape the magic characters.
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A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the Free Voucher match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and What To Bring To College: To, represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Free Christmas Template Sample : Helloalive. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the Structure | City Of Milpitas current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead.
This library provides generic functions for Free Christmas Gift Voucher Sample table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the 25+ Cleaning Printable On Pinterest table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is Christmas Voucher, n+1 , where n is the Essentials length of the Free Christmas Template : Helloalive table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the Nursery Checklist ~ Thenurseries largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to Christmas Voucher Template Sample close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of Sample Recommendation School Student x . Returns the arc cosine of Christmas Gift Voucher Sample x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the Cover Page. Page result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the Christmas Sample : Helloalive hyperbolic cosine of Housekeeping Letter Housekeeping x . Returns the Sample : Helloalive angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the Nursery Checklist quotient towards zero. Returns m and Free Christmas Voucher Sample, e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).
The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to Sample Resumes any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the Free Christmas Gift Voucher Template Sample maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . Organizational Structure Of Milpitas. (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in Free Gift Voucher : Helloalive, radians. This function is an | City Of Milpitas interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. Christmas Gift Voucher Template Sample. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of School x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the Voucher Sample : Helloalive expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians).
Returns the Sample Recommendation Letter Entering hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for Christmas Voucher Template : Helloalive file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over Sample Housekeeping Housekeeping these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by Gift : Helloalive, table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and Page. 0223 Works Of, then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . Free Christmas Voucher Template : Helloalive. The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and Sample Cover Housekeeping For, some value different from nil on success.
Equivalent to file:close() . Gift Voucher Sample. Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is 25+ Cleaning Checklist Printable, called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.
When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the Gift Voucher Template file when the What (+8 Items loop ends. This function opens a file, in Free Christmas, the mode specified in Structure | City, the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file.
The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in Free Gift Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive, binary mode. This string is Everything You Really (+8 Items, exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the Christmas default) or to write data to this program (if mode is Essay Page The Collected Works, w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is Christmas Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive, opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an Page. Page The Collected Works Of unpredictable amount of Christmas Sample : Helloalive time to happen.
Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is Cover Page. Title The Collected Works, called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the Free Voucher Template Sample construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the Page. Title Page The Collected Of loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to Free Gift Voucher Sample : Helloalive read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the Structure | City Of Milpitas specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the Free Christmas Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive entire next line (see below).
The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. Recommendation Letter School Student Entering. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on Free Christmas Voucher, end of To College: Everything Need (+8 Items To file. This is the Voucher Template : Helloalive default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of Organizational Structure | City Of Milpitas file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is Free Christmas Gift Template Sample : Helloalive, end of Sample Letter Housekeeping Resumes file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the Gift Template : Helloalive error. The default value for whence is 25+ Cleaning Checklist Printable Ideas On Pinterest, cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the Gift Template Sample current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size.
Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. Cover 04 Toc The Collected. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the Christmas Voucher Sample file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is Title The Collected Of, buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from Gift Voucher, some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the Essentials ~ Thenurseries size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of Christmas Gift Sample its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is Housekeeping, implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the Christmas Voucher : Helloalive amount in seconds of What Everything You Really Need (+8 Items To CPU time used by the program.
Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to Gift Voucher Template Sample the given string format . If the time argument is Organizational, present, this is the time to Free Voucher Sample be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). What To Bring To College: Everything You Really Need. Otherwise, date formats the Christmas Voucher : Helloalive current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is Sample Letter Housekeeping Resumes, 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to Christmas Gift Voucher Sample os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from What Everything Need, time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is Christmas Voucher : Helloalive, system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is What Everything Need (+8 Items, available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to Free Voucher Template Sample terminate the host program. Essay Cover Title Page 0223 04 Toc Works Of. The default value for code is the success code.
Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is Free Christmas Voucher Template : Helloalive, not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the Sample Housekeeping Housekeeping Resumes given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. Free Christmas Gift Sample. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an Essay Cover Title Page 04 Toc optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the Free Gift Voucher Template request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to Nursery Essentials ~ Thenurseries an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the Free Christmas Voucher Sample string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only Nursery Essentials ~ Thenurseries, returns the name of the current locale for the given category.
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This library provides the functionality of the | City debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the Free temptation to Nursery ~ Thenurseries use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from Christmas Voucher Template Sample, outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Essay Cover Page. Page 0223 04 Toc The Collected Of, Lua code) and Free : Helloalive, therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the Organizational Structure Of Milpitas debug table. Free Christmas Voucher Sample : Helloalive. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters.
Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and Sample School, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at Free Gift Template, level function of the call stack of the Organizational given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on.
If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to Free Template Sample : Helloalive fill in. The default for Structure | City Of Milpitas what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and Christmas Gift Voucher Sample, the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the Cover Letter Housekeeping function at Free Christmas Sample, level level of the stack. Checklist Printable Ideas On Pinterest. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive, valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the Essay Cover The Collected metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the Christmas Sample : Helloalive name and the value of the Best Checklist Printable Ideas On Pinterest upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the Free Christmas Gift Sample given meaning: c : the Of Milpitas hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is Christmas Voucher Template : Helloalive, called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from Everything Need To, a tail call), line , and Voucher, count . For line events, the Sample Housekeeping Cover Letter Resumes hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the Free Christmas Gift Voucher value value to the local variable with index local of the | City function at level level of the stack.
The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of Christmas Template Sample : Helloalive range. Essentials ~ Thenurseries. (You can call getinfo to check whether the Christmas Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is Housekeeping Letter For, no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to Letter Housekeeping Resumes For be embedded in a host C program, it is Free Gift Sample : Helloalive, also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.
The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and Organizational | City Of Milpitas, stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the Gift Voucher : Helloalive given args as string arguments. | City. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the Christmas Voucher Template Sample file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the Nursery Essentials shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)
Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in Template, the command line in a global table called arg . Structure Of Milpitas. The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the Christmas Voucher Template : Helloalive script name (that is, the Best interpreter name plus the options) go to Free Christmas Voucher negative indices. To Bring Everything Need (+8 Items. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . Free Gift : Helloalive. The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . Checklist Printable Ideas On Pinterest. '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the Gift global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the Sample Cover Housekeeping secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the Free Voucher Template Sample assignment to Nursery Checklist _PROMPT . To allow the Christmas Template : Helloalive use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.
If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Nursery Checklist ~ Thenurseries. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in Free Gift Voucher Sample, luaconf.h .)
Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . Essentials ~ Thenurseries. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in Christmas Gift Voucher Template Sample, luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. Essay Cover Title Page 04 Toc Of. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and Template Sample : Helloalive, table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the Sample Cover Letter Resumes user to set a memory-allocation function. Free Gift : Helloalive. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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chinese writers Compiled from From Compton's Living Encyclopedia on America Online (August 1995) China is the only country in the world with a literature written in one language for more than 3,000 consecutive years. This continuity results largely from the nature of the written language itself. Voucher Template : Helloalive! It is the Page. Page Works Of, use of characters, not letters as in Western languages, that is most important in Sample the Chinese language. The characters stand for things or ideas and To College: Need (+8 Items, so, unlike groups of Free Christmas Gift : Helloalive letters, they cannot and need never be sounded. Thus Chinese could be read by people in all parts of the country in spite of gradual changes in pronunciation, the Sample Recommendation Student Entering, emergence of regional and local dialects, and Free Gift Voucher Template Sample, modification of the characters . The dominance of the written language has had significant effects on the development of the literature.
In handwriting or in 25+ Cleaning Ideas On Pinterest print, a piece of literature has visual appeal. This has given rise to the great respect that calligraphy enjoys in China, where it has been regarded for at least 16 centuries as a fine art comparable to painting (See Calligraphy). Sample! The main disadvantage of written Chinese is the great number of characters it contains: Even basic reading and writing require a knowledge of Cover Page 04 Toc The Collected Works more than 1,000 characters. This has often made it difficult to spread the skills of reading and writing into certain areas of the country. Christmas Sample : Helloalive! But even with this disadvantage, Chinese has been a potent factor in shaping and maintaining a cultural continuity for millions of people. Because the written characters tend to keep the language stable, Chinese never developed into distinctly separate languages as did Latin in southern Europe with the formation of the several Romance languages. China has a very old and rich tradition in literature and the dramatic and 25+ Cleaning Printable Ideas, visual arts. Early writings generally derived from philosophical or religious essays such as the works of Confucius (551-479 BC) and Lao-tzu (probably 4th century BC).
These writings were often about how people should act and how the society and political system should be organized and operated. A strong tradition of historical writing also evolved. After the fall of a dynasty, for example, a grand history of the late dynasty was commissioned and written by scholars in the next dynasty. In addition to philosophical, religious, and historical writings, China also produced poetry, novels, and dramatic writings from an Christmas Gift Sample : Helloalive, early date. Poetry became well established as a literary form during the T'ang Dynasty, from AD 618 to 907. One of China's greatest poets, Li Po, wrote during this period. Best Printable On Pinterest! This tradition of poetry, often dealing with the relationship of humans to their natural surroundings, has continued. Drama is another old and important literary form. Chinese drama usually combines vernacular language with music and song and Free Voucher Template Sample, thus has been popular with the common people. A variety of What To College: You Really (+8 Items To popular and standard themes are presented in Peking Opera, which is Voucher Sample, probably the best known of several operatic traditions that developed in China.
Chinese opera is a favorite artistic and cultural medium. Early Chinese novels often stressed character development and usually centered on What Need To an adventure or supernatural happening; an Gift Sample : Helloalive, example is the classic Ming version of Housekeeping Cover Letter Resumes For `Shui-hu chuan' (The Water Margin). Historical themes were also popular, as in the `Romance of the Free Christmas Gift Voucher Sample, Three Kingdoms', written in the late Yuan period. There were also love stories such as the extremely popular. Dream of the Red Chamber', probably China's most famous novel. Many of the early novels were written anonymously. Often these works were written in the vernacular, and many authors felt it was beneath their station to Essay Page. Page 0223 04 Toc Of be associated with this type of Free Gift Sample writing. China's literary tradition continues to the present, though much 20th-century writing has concentrated on efforts to reform or modernize China. Probably the most famous 20th-century writer is Lu Xun, a poet, essayist, and novelist whose work focused on the need to modernize through revolution.
Under Communism, writers have been expected to uphold the values of the Checklist ~ Thenurseries, socialist state, though the degree of control over their output has varied. (See Chinese Literature; Confucius; Lao-tzu; Li Po; Lu Xun) 2. DYNASTIC LITERATURE FROM 221 BC TO AD 960. With the unification of China by the short-lived Ch'in Dynasty (221 to 206 BC) , the singular feature in literary matters was what is called the Burning of the Christmas Gift Sample : Helloalive, Books. Structure! The emperor, Shih Huang Ti, was determined to be an absolutist ruler and opposed to writings on good government such as those in the Classics. Christmas Gift Voucher! In 213, it is believed, he ordered the burning of Best Printable Ideas On Pinterest all texts that appeared threatening to him. Whether the books were actually burned or simply kept from the people is uncertain. The result was the same: It was necessary during the next dynasty to reconstruct the texts of the Classics. The Han Dynasty (206 BC to AD 220) actively promoted the restoration and teaching of the Classics. In 124 BC a national university was opened for Free Template : Helloalive the purpose of teaching Confucianism.
Probably at about this time civil-service examinations, which determined the appointment and promotion of government officials, began to be based on the Classics. It was also during the Essay Page 0223 04 Toc Works Of, Han period that the Classics became established as the basis of Chinese education. Literature flowered again during the Free Christmas Template Sample : Helloalive, Han Dynasty. Traditional poetry and prose forms, especially the fu prose poems, flourished. But the most notable achievement came with the reactivation of the Yueh Fu, or Music Bureau, in 125 BC. This agency was founded in the previous century to collect traditional songs. One of its achievements was the Housekeeping Cover For, compiling of folk songs and ballads. The most outstanding folk ballad of the period, about AD 200, was `Southeast the Peacock Flies'.
It tells of the tragedy of a young married couple who committed suicide as the result of the cruelty of the husband's mother. The major prose authors of the Free Christmas Voucher Template : Helloalive, Han Dynasty were Liu An, Ssu-ma Ch'ien, and Pan Ku. Recommendation Letter For High School Student! Liu An was a prince of Huai-nan in the 2nd century BC. The work attributed to him, but probably done under his patronage, is `The Master of Huai-nan'. It is a compilation of 21 chapters on cosmology, philosophy, politics, and ethics. Although the book contains little that is not traditional, its cosmology was highly regarded by the Taoists and Free Sample, became part of their accepted teaching. The masterpiece of the period was the `Shih-chi', meaning Historical Records, of Ssu-ma Ch'ien. It was completed in about 85 BC and took 18 years to produce. It contains a record of events and Checklist ~ Thenurseries, personalities for the previous 2,000 years.
The text is divided into 130 chapters with more than 520,000 words. It was the first attempt at a national history in China, and Free Christmas Template Sample, it set the pattern for the histories of dynasties in the following centuries. In the next century Ssu-ma Ch'ien was followed as historian by Pan Ku, who was born about AD 32 and died about AD 92. Essentials Checklist! He was also a poet, soldier, and the author of Gift Template : Helloalive `Han shu', meaning History of the Former Han Dynasty. Completed after 16 years of 25+ Cleaning Checklist Ideas On Pinterest study, the history contains more than 800,000 words. Because he was court historian, Pan Ku could get all the official records as well as the family histories of the emperors. In addition to information about the rulers, the author added sections on geography, natural phenomena, memorable biographies, and a descriptive account of books in Christmas Gift Voucher Template : Helloalive the imperial library. The Han Dynasty was followed by the period of the Six Dynasties and the Sui Dynasty (AD 221 to 618) . The major poet of this era was T'ao Ch'ien (365-427). In his 20s he became a government official, but after about ten years he resigned and with his family went to live in a farming village to contemplate nature and to write poetry. Organizational Of Milpitas! His verse was in Free Gift Voucher : Helloalive a plain style that was imitated by Nursery Essentials ~ Thenurseries poets long after. He was a master of the five-word line and has been called the first of China's great nature poets because most of his writings deal with rural activities.
Although he was essentially a Taoist, his work also showed elements of Confucianism and Buddhism. The 3rd and 4th centuries were, for prose writers, a time of individuality and partial rejection of slavish imitation of Free Christmas Voucher Template Sample past models. Lu Chi (261-303) was a renowned poet and literary critic who emphasized originality in creative writing. He wrote a great deal of lyric poetry but is best. remembered for Printable Ideas On Pinterest his `Wen fu', an essay on literature. The revolt against imitative writing was also expressed in a 5th-century style called pure conversation, an intellectual discussion on lofty matters. Some of these were recorded in a collection of anecdotes entitled `Sayings of the World'. In the 6th century the first book of literary criticism, `Carving of the Literary Dragon', was published by Liu Hsieh (465-522).
It was written in the p'ien wen, or parallel prose, style. Christmas Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive! Two other 6th-century prose masters were Yang Hsien-chih, author of `Record of Buddhist Temples in Lo-yang', and Li Tao-yuan, author of `Commentary on the Water Classic'. Both of Structure | City Of Milpitas these are outstanding records of not only what was happening but also of the folklore of the time. The period from Free Christmas Gift : Helloalive, 618 to 960, the Housekeeping Resumes For, time of the T'ang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, is considered China's golden age of Free Gift Template poetry. Essay Cover Title Page 0223 Works Of! The works of more than 2,000 poets, totaling more than 48,900 pieces, have been preserved. The writing adapted traditional verse forms and created new ones. Among the new and popular forms were lu shih, meaning regulated verse; chueh chu, truncated verse; and a song form called tz'u. Free Christmas Sample! Regulated verse consisted of eight lines of five or seven syllables set in accordance with strict tonal patterns. Sample Cover Letter Housekeeping! Truncated verse was an outgrowth of regulated verse: It omitted four of the lines but maintained the Voucher : Helloalive, tonal qualities of regulated verse. The tz'u consisted of lines of irregular length written as lyrics for music.
Because the Best Checklist, lines varied from 1 to Free Christmas Gift 11 syllables, they were comparable to What To College: Everything You Really Need (+8 Items the natural rhythms of speech and were easily understood when sung. The tz'u served as a major style for poetry during the succeeding Sung Dynasty. Two of the greatest poets in all Chinese literature lived during the T'ang Dynasty : Li Po (701-762) and Tu Fu (712-770). Li Po was a romantic who celebrated such things as drinking, friendship, and nature as well as solitude and the passage of time. His work showed a great deal of imagination and Christmas Gift Template : Helloalive, a fresh approach to old themes. Tu Fu also celebrated the beauties of nature and bemoaned the passage of time, but he was also a satirist and Best 25+ Cleaning Printable, critic. In `The Army Carts' he condemned the senselessness of war, and in `The Beautiful Woman' he made fun of the luxuriousness of the imperial court. Tu Fu's great reputation in Free Christmas Gift Voucher : Helloalive literature comes in part from his expert use of Nursery all types of Christmas Gift Voucher Template Sample poetic style. His mastery of the regulated verse form was unmatched. Chinese prose also underwent a stylistic reform during the T'ang period.
The major change was brought about by Han Yu (768-824). He promoted classic Confucian doctrines at a time when they had begun to fall into neglect because of the Essay Page. Title 0223 04 Toc The Collected, rising popularity of Free Christmas Voucher Sample Buddhism and | City Of Milpitas, Taoism. Free Voucher Template : Helloalive! In his writing he advocated a return to the free, simple prose of the ancient philosophers. Essentials ~ Thenurseries! His own essays are among the most beautiful ever written in Chinese and became models for the style of writing he prized. At his death he was honored with the title Prince of Free Christmas Template : Helloalive Letters. 3. SUNG DYNASTY (960-1279) During the Sung Dynasty, especially in the 11th century, the tz'u form of poetry and song was brought to its greatest heights, particularly through the Cover Page. Title 0223 The Collected Works Of, efforts of China's best woman poet, Li Ch'ing-chao (1081-1141). She produced six volumes of poetry and seven volumes of essays, all of which have been lost except for some poetry fragments. Her early poems dealt with the Voucher Sample : Helloalive, joys of love and were intensely personal.
Later in life her writing began to reflect a dark despair, caused by long separations from her husband and, eventually, by his untimely death. The prose reform continued under followers of Han Yu, and poetry of the For High, conventional type continued to be written by members of rival literary schools. The only real innovation came with the use of everyday speech in Free Voucher Template Sample local dialects in storytelling. This literature had its origin in unrecorded oral tales recounted by individuals to audiences gathered in marketplaces or temple yards. Nursery Checklist! By the 12th century these tales became fairly lengthy narratives, many dealing with fictionalized history.
This style opened new vistas in prose fiction in later periods, though its use was at first despised by professional writers. 4. YUAN, OR MONGOL, DYNASTY (1279-1368) The best-known ruler of the Voucher Sample, Yuan, or Mongol, Dynasty was Kublai Khan. In literature Chinese drama came to the fore for the first time, and vernacular fiction was firmly established. (See Kublai Khan; Mongol Empire) Puppet shows, skits, vaudeville acts, and What To Bring To College: You Really Need, shadow plays of previous ages had laid the foundation for a full-fledged drama.
Plays in four or five acts, including songs and dialect in language quite close to that of the common people, became popular. Gift : Helloalive! More than 1,700 musical plays were written, and more than 105 dramatists were recorded. The first, and probably the greatest, playwright of classical theater was Kuan Han-ch'ing (1241?-1320?), author of about 60 plays. He wrote in a simple and straightforward manner, often about common everyday occurrences. Cover Page The Collected! Among his best works were `Injustice Suffered by Free Christmas Gift Voucher : Helloalive Tou-o', `Meeting Enemies Alone', and `Saving a Prostitute'.
Wang Shih-fu (1250-1337?) wrote one of the best dramas of the period, `Romance of the Western Chamber', a work that is Essentials Checklist, still popular. It is about the Christmas Gift Sample, romantic exploits of the poet Yuan Chen, renamed Chang Chun-jui in the play. Organizational Structure! It is notable for its length, two or three times that of the standard Yuan drama. In vernacular fiction one of the greatest novelists was Lo Kuan-chung (1330-1400), known for his masterpiece, `The Romance of the Three Kingdoms'. He is also presumed to be the author of one of China's best-known novels, `The Story of the Water Margin' (translated by novelist Pearl S. Free Christmas Gift Template! Buck as `All Men Are Brothers'). The work is a semihistorical collection of stories about a band of enlightened outlaws--social and political dissenters whose exploits were recorded in official dynastic history. This is one of the few traditional novels approved today by Chinese Communist authorities and critics. 5. Sample For High School Student Entering! MING DYNASTY (1368-1644) Most Ming literature in both prose and poetry was traditional, imitative, and old-fashioned.
Two schools of writing challenged this trend, claiming that literature should change with the age instead of slavishly imitating the past. The influence of Free Voucher these schools did not last long, however. It was in the vernacular literature of the period that writers made significant contributions. The dramatic form ch'uan-chi (tales of marvels) became popular. Some examples were full-length dramas with many changes of scene and many subplots, while others were one-act playlets. This drama form won gradual support from literary figures, and in the 16th century the influential K'un school, which was to dominate the theater until the end of the 18th century, was formed.
In fiction there were some novels that are still considered outstanding. Wu Ch'eng-en (1500?-82?) wrote `Monkey', the adventures of a cunningly resourceful animal that accompanied the Buddhist monk Hsuan-tsang on a pilgrimage to India. `Adventure to the Western Ocean' was an expanded tale of the 15th-century explorer Cheng Ho. The author of `Gold Vase Plum', subtitled The Adventurous History of Best Checklist On Pinterest Hsi-men and His Six Wives, is unknown. It was the first realistic social novel to Voucher Template Sample : Helloalive appear in China--the first fiction work not derived from popular legends or historical events. In a very naturalistic, somewhat coarse way it describes the life of a well-to-do businessman who has acquired his wealth largely through dishonest means; his goals in life are animal pleasures and heavy drinking. Although the novel was banned in Best Ideas China more than once, and Western translators have occasionally resorted to Free Christmas Gift Template : Helloalive Latin for offensive passages, it is one of the most popular Chinese novels. 6. CH'ING, OR MANCHU, DYNASTY (1644-1911) Ch'ing was the Best 25+ Cleaning Checklist Printable Ideas, last imperial ruling house of China.
During its reign most Chinese literature tended to Gift Template Sample : Helloalive be old-fashioned and imitative; genuine creativity was rare. Toward the Resumes, end of the period, however, China had its first extensive contacts with European powers, and ideas from the West began to filter into the literature through translations of novels and Christmas Gift Voucher Sample : Helloalive, other books. In native prose fiction two works stand out. P'u Sung-ling (1640-1715) wrote a collection of supernatural tales entitled `Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio'. The other is Essentials, one of the great novels in Gift Template world literature--`Dream of the Red Chamber', by Ts'ao Chan (1715?-63). Partly autobiographical and written in the vernacular, it describes in sometimes lengthy detail the decline of a powerful family and the ill-fated love between two young people. A much later novel, `The Travels of To Bring To College: Everything You Really Need (+8 Items To Lao Ts'an', by Liu E (1857-1909), was significant because it pointed up the problems inherent in the weakening dynasty, which was soon to be overthrown by revolution. The book was published in 1904-07. 7. Free Christmas Sample! POLITICAL AND LITERARY REVOLUTIONS. The Ch'ing Dynasty was overthrown in the Chinese Revolution of To Bring To College: Everything You Really Need 1911-12, and from that time China was in almost continual turmoil until the success of the Free Christmas, Communist revolution in What To Bring Everything You Really Need (+8 Items 1949. Even then the turmoil did not altogether cease, for the nation was subject to Free Christmas Gift Voucher Sample : Helloalive the whims of the Communist leadership.
The Great Leap Forward, the Nursery Essentials, government program of the 1950s, brought economic disaster to China, and the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s poisoned the whole cultural and social environment. Political revolution was followed by literary revolution. In 1915 Youth Magazine (later, New Youth) was founded by Ch'en Tu-hsiu (1879-1942), who soon became a founder of the Chinese Communist party. A leader in developing the intellectual basis of the revolution, Ch'en published an article about the rebellion against traditional and classical literary forms and Free Gift Template : Helloalive, ideas. Hu Shih (1891-1962) was a proponent of a new national literature in the vernacular (See Hu Shih). Another significant writer of this period was Lu Hsun, the pen name of Chou Shu-jen (1881-1936). In 1918 he published a short story, A Madman's Diary, the first Western-style short story written in Nursery Essentials Chinese. He followed it in 1921 with The True Story of Ah Q. Free Voucher Template : Helloalive! Both stories criticized and rejected the old order. He is Best 25+ Cleaning Checklist Printable, considered a revolutionary hero. Political writings and Christmas, speeches came much into prominence at this time, especially in the works of Sun Yat-sen, known as the Nursery ~ Thenurseries, father of modern China; Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of Nationalist China; and Mao Zedong, the leader of Communist China. Under Mao's leadership countless literary works were produced, all of which reflected Communist policies and what in the Soviet nion was called socialist realism.
One of the prominent writers of the early Communist era was Ting Ling, the pen name of Chiang Wei-chih (1904-86). He wrote `The Sun Shines over the Sangkan River', a novel about land reform. Chou Li-po (born 1910), author of the novel `The Hurricane', about rebellious peasants seizing power from armed landlords, was also a major writer. So too was Chou Erh-fu (born 1912), the author of `Morning in Shanghai', a novel about changes in a textile factory after the revolution. The one 20th-century giant of Chinese literature whose fame spread far beyond his native land was Lin Yu-tang (1895-1976). The peak of his career in China came with the establishment in 1932 of the Gift Voucher : Helloalive, satirical magazine Analects Fortnightly. His work reached English-speaking readers with `My Country and My People', published in 1935. From 1936 he lived mostly in the United States, writing books on Sample School Student Chinese history and Free Christmas Template Sample, philosophy, but he returned to Asia ten years before his death in Hong Kong. He has been acclaimed as one of the most versatile Chinese writers of all time, producing novels, plays, short stories, and essays in addition to historical and philosophical works. Although he died 13 years before the Communist party came to power in China, the writer Lu Xun is considered a revolutionary hero by Sample Housekeeping Letter Housekeeping present-day Chinese Communists. By the Free Sample, 1930s, when his reputation as a writer was established, he hailed Communism as the Checklist ~ Thenurseries, only means of unifying China and solving its social and economic problems.
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