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Helmet Efficacy to Reduce Head Injury and Mortality in Motorcycle Crashes. MacLeod, Jana B. A. MD; DiGiacomo, J. Christopher MD; Tinkoff, Glen MD, FACS, FCCM. From the Department of Surgery (J.B.A.M.), Grady Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; The Port Authority Heroes of September 11 Trauma Center (J.C.D.), Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City, New Jersey; and Department of Surgery (G.T.), Christiana Care Health System, Wilmington, Delaware. Submitted for publication March 11, 2010. Accepted for Circulation Manager Letter publication August 22, 2010. Presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, January 1923, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona. Supported and commissioned by Injury Control and Violence Prevention Committee, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Address for Best Developer Example reprints: Jana MacLeod, MD, Glenn Memorial Building, Third Floor, 69 Jesse Hill Jr.
Drive, SE, Atlanta, GA 30303; email: [email protected] According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Association, in 2008, 5,290 motorcyclists died and 96,000 were injured. Motorcycles make up ∼3% of all registered vehicles in the United States and account for Circulation Manager Letter only 0.4% of all vehicle miles traveled. However, motorcycle crashes accounted for ∼10% of all motor vehicle crash fatalities, and per mile traveled, motor cycle crashes are ∼37 times more lethal than automobile crashes. Head injuries are one of the Bill Invoice Template 23 40+ most common injuries after motorcycle crashes and were estimated to be the cause of death in 50% of these fatalities.
In close to a third of these victims, the head injury is the Manager Cover Letter sole organ system that is injured. However, in the majority of patients, estimated as high as 90% of some patient cohorts, a head injury is present along with other injuries. Despite these facts, it is estimated that only 50% of motorcyclists routinely wear helmets. It was intuitive even to Action In Pdf , Word, our earliest ancestors that a hard shell would protect the head from injury. However, establishing the effectiveness of the motorcycle helmet remains a challenging effort especially in light of the Letter powerful opposition to Construction Bill Invoice, universal helmet laws. Furthermore, quantifying the protective effect of helmets supports the promotion of helmet programs regardless of the Letter controversial nature of legislative efforts. In the United States, an increasing recognition that helmet use is associated with reductions in fatalities without apparent harm increased the implementation of universal helmet laws. In response to Free Resources Administrator Resume Example, the 1966 Federal Highway Act, which withheld federal funds from states that did not enact a helmet law, Georgia became the Circulation Manager first state to enact a mandatory universal motorcycle helmet law in 1967.
By 1975, 47 of the 50 states had universal helmet laws. However, public and In Excel. Invoice 23 40+, political concerns over individual rights versus public safety opened a new debate. In the following years, political changes reversed and/or limited previous sanctions and grants that encouraged states to enact universal helmet laws, which further eroded support for helmet laws. An increasing number of Cover Letter states either repealed their mandatory laws altogether or significantly reduced the laws to apply only to minors. Bill 23 40+ Invoice. At present, only 20 states have universal helmet laws, another 26 states require only partial coverage, and 4 states have no helmet laws (Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, and New Hampshire). A large volume of literature has quantified the consequences of not wearing a helmet while riding a motorcycle. Although motorcycle riding and registration are increasing and more states with universal helmet laws are introducing bills to Cover, repeal their laws, the debate continues on the personal advantages of helmet usage. Therefore, we have reviewed the Business Agreement Nz | Create Professional literature and summarize the evidence basis for the use of motorcycle helmets. In particular, we have sought to assess the Manager impact of helmet use on overall mortality, head injury-related mortality, nonlethal head injury after a motorcycle crash, and the impact universal helmet laws on Sample Action Template helmet use. Motorcycles are a significant cause of injury-related fatality and disability. Circulation Manager Cover. In particular, head injury is a common associated cause of death and long-term disability after a motorcycle crash.
Despite these facts, there remains an ongoing controversy as to the survival and disability advantages for riders who wear motorcycle helmets. In the public and legislative sectors, there remains a significant policy controversy resulting in a push to retain partial coverage helmet laws and to Business Template Professional, repeal universal helmet laws in many others. A. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders have a higher or lower overall death rate after a motorcycle crash? B. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of lethal head injury after a motorcycle crash? C. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of Circulation Manager Cover Letter nonlethal head injury or is the nonlethal head injury more or less severe after a motorcycle crash? D. Agreement Template. Do geographical areas (i.e., aggregate states) that have universal helmet laws have a higher or lower death rate or head injury rate after motorcycle crashes when compared with areas without a universal helmet law?
A computerized search of the world's literature was undertaken using , of the US National Library of Medicine, extending back to 1990 to the present (2009) using the key words: helmet + (motorcycle OR crash). There were 507 citations identified. The abstract for each was reviewed, and Circulation Cover Letter, 197 candidate articles having possible applicability to the guideline topic were retrieved and reviewed. Partnership Agreement Template Create Professional. General reviews, letters to the editor, single case reports, and retrospective reviews of poor quality were excluded. Circulation Cover. This left 45 articles that were felt to have sufficient merit to form the basis for the guidelines (Table 1). The articles were reviewed in detail by the authors J.M., G.H.T., and J.C.D. Over the past decades, the volume of literature supporting helmet usage prevents, and ethically so, any randomized control trials or even controlled trials of Free Administrator Example helmet usage. Therefore, the most robust studies published in Circulation Manager Cover the past 20 years are predominantly prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies. As there are no class I studies to review, the studies we did review do not vary across the classes of evidence in a useful manner. 4 Simple Ways To Write Agreement. Therefore, we categorized the articles in this review by study design.
There are prospective cohort and cross-sectional studies. Manager Cover Letter. However, the Ways To Write - Wikihow majority of the studies are retrospective, either before and after cross-sectional studies of helmet law changes or cross-sectional studies of Circulation Cover helmeted in comparison with nonhelmeted riders. Finally, we also identified case-control studies. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to reduce the incidence of head injury and App |, severe head injury after a crash. NB: This statement was made a level recommendation despite a lack of class I data because of the Circulation Manager Cover Letter volume of consistent class II data, including robust prospective data, to support this finding without any methodologically similar data to refute it. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to improve overall survival and reduce head injury-related mortality after a crash. Mandatory universal motorcycle helmet laws should be introduced or reenacted to Construction Format 23 40+ Invoice, reduce mortality and head injury after a crash. The evidence reviewed here that assesses the Letter effectiveness of helmets for motorcyclists comes from the following 45 study designs: Prospective cohort study of motorcycle riders.  Prospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders for Sample Corrective - 8+ Documents different outcomes.  Retrospective before and Circulation Manager Cover Letter, after cross-sectional studies in which outcomes of To Write A Payment - Wikihow motorcycle crashes are compared before and after either the Circulation Manager Cover repeal of or the enactment of a mandatory universal helmet law.  Case-control studies of motorcycle riders.  Retrospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders across different outcomes.  Comparison of Ways Agreement - Wikihow mortality between states with helmet laws and states without helmet laws.  The outcomes reported included any one or more of the following: mortality, head injury-related mortality, prevalence of head injury, and prevalence of severe head injury. Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Have a Higher or Lower Overall Death Rate After a Motorcycle Crash?
Two prospective cross-sectional studies showed a reduction in mortality for Cover Letter helmeted riders in comparison with nonhelmeted riders, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.40 and Business Partnership Template, 0.22, respectively.  However, Kelley's sample size was not adequate to reach statistical significance, and therefore, no death reduction can be concluded from this study. Nine retrospective cross-sectional studies reported mortality as an outcome, but two showed no reduction  while seven showed reductions that varied from a maximal OR estimate of 0.29  to a minimal OR estimate of 0.84.  Of the studies that showed a mortality reduction, only three were adjusted for rider and/or environmental factors. Circulation.  There were five studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law repeal. Two of the Construction Bill In Excel. Template studies showed an Circulation Manager Cover Letter increase in fatality after repeal of the helmet law, 26% and 30% increases, respectively.  However, two further studies had nonsignificant increases in the ORs of death: OR of 1.08  (per 10,000 motorcycle registrations) and OR of 1.01  (per 1,000 crashes). Interestingly, although the Sample Documents In Pdf study of Circulation Cover Letter Bledsoe and Li did not show an overall reduction in mortality, there was a significant increase in riders who were blood alcohol positive at the time of the crash and who were also not wearing a helmet after the repeal when compared with before (14.2% vs.
33.6%, OR: 2.37, p 0.05). There were 12 studies that compared crashes before and Template In Pdf, after helmet law establishment or reenactment. Auman et al. showed close to a halving of the relative risk (RR) of fatality after the law was reenacted (RR: 0.51, 9.3 fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations to 4.7 fatalities per 10,000 registrations). Another five studies showed RRs that reflected statistically significant mortality reductions from 0.57 to 0.81.  One study, by Chiu et al., showed no change in mortality during the study period (4.0%). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Circulation Manager Cover Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Lethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash? The RR of head injury-related mortality was reduced by more than half after the enactment of a helmet law in Partnership Nz | Texas from Circulation Manager Cover 6.8 fatalities to 3.1 fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations  (RR: 2.19, p 0.05). In Pennsylvania, after the repeal of the helmet law, the head injury-related death rate per 10,000 motorcycle registrations increased by Construction Invoice Free 36.9%  (1.6 to 2.2 fatalities per 10,000 registrations, p 0.05). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Nonlethal Head Injury or Severity of Circulation Manager Cover Letter Nonlethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash?
All 25 of the studies that had prevalence of a nonfatal head injury as an outcome had a significantly lower incidence for helmeted riders, after reenactment or before repeal of a helmet law. Business Partnership Professional. One of the prospective studies that observed motorcycle riders to determine the incidence of head injury-associated crashes showed that nonhelmeted riders sustained a head injury more than twice the rate of Circulation Manager Cover helmeted riders  (4.7% vs. 1.9%). Three studies showed an ORs of a head injury after a crash to vary from Bill Format In Excel. Invoice Template 23 40+ Invoice 2.3 times to 4.4 times higher for nonhelmeted riders when compared with helmeted riders  ( p 0.05). Ouellet and Manager Cover, Kasantikul showed an ORs of sustaining a serious injury to Construction Format 23 40+, be 3.5 times higher ( p 0.05) for nonhelmeted riders. Retrospective studies confirm the consistent findings of the prospective studies that head injury is uniformly more frequent and more severe when sustaining a crash without a helmet. The magnitude of the Circulation Manager increased prevalence of a head injury after a nonhelmeted crash is as high as 4.3 times to a low of To Write A Payment Agreement - Wikihow 1.7 times higher than after a helmeted crash in nine retrospective cross-sectional studies. However, for severe head injuries, most commonly defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥2, the magnitude of the estimate is uniformly larger.
For three retrospective studies, the ORs of a severe head injury were 18.1 (12.525.3), 4.4 (2.587.37), and 3.7 (1.97.3), respectively.  Lin et al. showed a 41% increase in trauma-induced brain hemorrhage, including subarachnoid, subdural, and Circulation Cover, epidural hematomas when a rider was nonhelmeted during a crash. The case-control studies showed an adjusted OR of 0.26 (0.140.48) and 0.41 (0.210.81), which represents a significant protective effect of wearing a helmet in Construction Bill Format reducing the Circulation Manager incidence of a head injury after a motorcycle crash.  In four retrospective studies in which universal motorcycle helmet laws were enacted, the incidence of nonlethal head injury decreased from 29% to reductions of 63%. In one study in which the Ways To Write A Payment Agreement - Wikihow motorcycle law was repealed, the incidence of hospitalizations for head injury increased by 42%, from 15.4 to 21.9 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations ( p 0.05).  Do Geographical Areas (i.e., Aggregate States) That Have Universal Helmet Laws Have a Higher or Lower Death Rate or Head Injury Rate After Motorcycle Crashes When Compared With Areas Without a Universal Helmet Law? Two studies compared regions with and without helmet laws. Circulation Cover Letter. Houston and Richardson developed a model for motorcycle crash fatality as a function of the state's helmet law while controlling for minimal legal drinking age, partial versus full helmet laws, 0.08 blood alcohol concentration law, roads with maximum speed limit of 65, daily temperature, daily percent precipitation, gender, age, per capita income, per capita alcohol consumption, and population density. Their results showed 1.3 fewer fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in helmet law states that can be attributed in their model to the presence of the Construction App | helmet law. Furthermore, using hospital discharge data from 33 states, Coben et al. calculated a RR of 0.65 ( p 0.05) and 0.72 ( p 0.05), respectively, for severe head injury and fatalities in states with universal helmet laws when compared with states without universal helmet laws. The main limitation of these uncontrolled and observational studies involves the collection and Manager Cover Letter, incorporation in the analysis of potential confounders for the outcomes studied. The wearing of helmets is Sample Corrective Action Documents In Pdf , Word, associated with multiple factors, many of which have also been shown to be associated with the incidence and severity of crashes.
Rider factors include alcohol consumption, seat position on the motorcycle (driver vs. passenger), age, and gender. There are also environmental factors such as weather, time of day; other policy factors such as speed limits and DUI laws; and other intrinsic motorcycle factors such as the size and type of motorcycle itself (the potential kinetic energy of the crash) also contribute to motorcycle crash occurrence and severity and ultimately crash consequences for the rider. Unfortunately, many of these factors are not easy to reliably measure on Circulation Manager Letter a crash-to-crash basis, and therefore, only nine studies, in part, adjusted for at least a portion of these factors. Construction Format In Excel. Template. There were other studies that stratified the Letter study group by Software various factors but did not control for them in their analysis. The majority of the Manager Cover Letter studies did not control for any potential confounders. Best Developer Resume Example | Recentresumes.com. A second methodological concern is selection bias. The subjects in Circulation Manager these studies were not selected randomly, except for the one cohort study that chose the students randomly.
There were missing data, and no studies had information on Format In Excel. Invoice 23 40+ Invoice those “not chosen” to confirm that they were the Circulation Cover Letter same as those included in the study. A large number of the studies reported fatalities and prevalence of head injuries as a rate, a function of either the number of motorcycle registrations or the Format In Excel. number of crashes. This eliminates the misinterpretation of Manager Letter changes in Ways To Write Agreement - Wikihow absolute fatalities that reflect changes in the number of Circulation Manager Cover riders or the Action Plan - 8+ In Pdf number of riders who crash. Cover. However, changes in registrations may not be an accurate denominator to Bill Format In Excel. Template Invoice, reflect the active riders who are engaging in motorcycle usage and, therefore, may obscure difference. Perhaps, vehicle miles driven are a better denominator for this purpose for the same reason it is used in Manager Cover Letter motor vehicle collision fatality rates. A good example is in the study by Bledsoe and Li, in which registrations decreased and 4 Simple Ways A Payment, thereby crashes decreased, but the fatality rate increased. However, perhaps because of the decreases, the absolute increase seems minimal and statistically not significant. The variation in helmet usage in Manager Cover these studies was substantial. Internationally, Conrad et al. reported that the helmet usage was as high as 89% in Indonesia, whereas LaTorre et al. reported only Business a 12% rate of Circulation helmet usage in Italy. Sample Corrective Action Plan Template Documents , Word. Nationally, in America, Brandt et al. reported in their study from Michigan a prevalence of 80.5% of riders wearing a helmet during a crash, whereas a study conducted in Illinois by Kelly et al. Circulation Manager. reported a 14.6% prevalence of helmets in riders involved in Construction Invoice App | crashes. Without nonrandom selection of these studies, the variation in helmet usage can also impact the results obtained.
The studies reviewed here discuss only the use of helmets. However, the issue of misuse as noted by Peek-Asa et al. in his 1999 study in Circulation Cover Letter Thailand can also be a major factor in postcrash injury. Further study is required to better understand and to quantify this problem. Furthermore, in these studies, we did not explore in depth the Sample Corrective - 8+ Documents In Pdf impact of partial helmet laws, although the studies by Houston and Richardson and Tsai SY attempted to address this issue. Interestingly, Houston and Manager Letter, Richardson found that partial helmet laws showed no improvement in outcomes over states with no helmet laws. A. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the overall death rate of motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. B. Agreement Template Professional. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the incidence of lethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. C. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the Circulation Manager severity of Best Software Resume nonlethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. D. Mandatory universal helmet laws reduce mortality and head injury in geographical areas with the law when compared with areas without it. Lin MR, Hwang HF, Kuo NW.
Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in Manager Cover adolescent motorcycle riders. J Trauma. 2001;50:2430. Ouellet JV, Kasantikul V. Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Construction Thailand and the United States. Traffic Inj Prev. 2006;7:4954. LaTorre G, Bertazzoni G, Zotta D, Van Beeck E, Ricciardi G. Epidemiology of Circulation accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles.
A surveillance study in two Italian cities. Eur J Public Health. 2002;12:99103. Conrad P, Bradshaw YS, Lamsudin R, Kasniyah N, Costello C. Partnership Agreement Template Create Professional. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia. Accid Anal Prev. 1996;28:193200. Kelly P, Sanson T, Strange G, Orsay E. A prospective study of the impact of helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20:852856. Mertz KJ, Weiss HB.
Changes in Manager Cover motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and Template Professional, hospital charges following repeal of Pennsylvania's mandatory motorcycle helmet law. Am J Public Health. Manager. 2008;98:14641467. O'Keeffe T, Dearwater SR, Gentilello LM, Cohen TM, Wilkinson JD, McKenney MM. Agreement Nz | Professional. Increased fatalities after motorcycle helmet law repeal: is Manager Letter, it all because of Sample Plan Template - 8+ , Word lack of helmets? J Trauma. 2007;63:10061009. Kyrychenko SY, McCartt AT.
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2004;156:151157. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W, Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for Create motorcyclists in Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:183189. Servadei F, Begliomini C, Gardini E, Giustini M, Taggi F, Kraus J. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries. Inj Prev. 2003;9:257260. Christian WJ, Carroll M, Meyer K, Vitaz TW, Franklin GA.
Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky, 19952000. J Ky Med Assoc. 2003;101:2126. Auman KM, Kufera JA, Ballesteros MF, Smialek JE, Dischinger PC. Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities: the effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. Am J Public Health . Circulation Letter. 2002;92:13521355. Ferrando J, Plasència A, Orós M, Borrell C, Kraus JF. Sample Plan - 8+ In Pdf. Impact of a helmet law on Cover two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in a southern European urban area. Inj Prev. 2000;6:184188. Chiu WT, Kuo CY, Hung CC, Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries.
Am J Public Health. 2000;90:793796. Tsai MC, Hemenway D. Construction Bill In Excel. Invoice. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Taiwan. Inj Prev. 1999;5:290291. Peek-Asa C, Kraus JF. Circulation Cover Letter. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in motorcycle crashes before and after passage of a mandatory helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29:630636.
Kraus JF, Peek C. The impact of In Excel. Invoice Template 23 40+ Invoice two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 19911993. J Neurotrauma. 1995;12:873881. Circulation Cover Letter. Panichaphongse V, Watanakajorn T, Kasantikul V. Effects of law promulgation for compulsory use of protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78:521525. Best Developer. Mock CN, Maier RV, Boyle E, Pilcher S, Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to Manager Cover Letter, promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I trauma center. J Trauma. 1995;39:2935.
Kraus JF, Peek C, McArthur DL, Williams A. The effect of the Software Developer Example 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. JAMA. Manager. 1994;272:15061511. Fleming NS, Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head-related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries. Med Care. 1992;30:832845. Muelleman RL, Mlinek EJ, Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and costs: effect of Construction Invoice Template 23 40+ Invoice a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. Circulation Letter. Ann Emerg Med.
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J Trauma. 2006;60:978984. Javouhey E, Guérin AC, Chiron M. Manager Cover Letter. Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from road accidents: a population-based study. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38:225233. Nakahara S, Chadbunchachai W, Ichikawa M, Tipsuntornsak N, Wakai S. Best Developer. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of Cover fatalities in relation to Business Agreement Professional, age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:833842. Hundley JC, Kilgo PD, Miller PR, et al.
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1999;31:229233. Petridou E, Skalkidou A, Ioannou N, Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of seat belts and helmets in Greece: a nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. Accid Anal Prev. 1998;30:8791. Rowland J, Rivara F, Salzberg P, Soderberg R, Maier R, Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and Best Software, injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington state. Am J Public Health. Circulation Manager Letter. 1996;86: 4145. Orsay E, Holden JA, Williams J, Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in the state of Illinois: analysis of the Format Invoice Template 23 40+ Illinois Department of Manager Public Health Trauma Registry. Resume Example. Ann Emerg Med.
1995;26:455460. Rutledge R, Stutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of Manager motorcycle crash injury when controlling for Construction Invoice crash/injury severity. Accid Anal Prev. 1993;25:347353. Braddock M, Schwartz R, Lapidus G, Banco L, Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injury and costs. Ann Emerg Med. 1992;21:273278.
Offner PJ, Rivara FP, Maier RV. The impact of motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. 1992;32:636641; discussion 641642. Shankar BS, Ramzy AI, Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Clark CC. Helmet use, patterns of injury, medical outcome, and Manager Letter, costs among motorcycle drivers in Maryland. Accid Anal Prev. 1992;24:385396. Houston DJ, Richardson LE Jr. Motorcycle safety and the repeal of universal helmet laws. Am J Public Health.
2007;97:20632069. Coben JH, Steiner CA, Miller TR. Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: comparing states with different helmet laws. Accid Anal Prev. Best Resume | Recentresumes.com. 2007;39:190196. Table 1: References: Citation and Summary for EBR Articles on the Efficacy of Motorcycle Helmets 1990-2009. Prospective Cohort Studies: Lin MR Hwang HF Kuo NW. Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders.
2001 Journal of Circulation Letter Trauma 50:24-30. 4,721 randomly selected junior college students in Taipei were followed prospectively for 20 months, during which time 1,284 were involved in 1,889 motorcycle crashes. 33% of the crashes the rider was wearing a helmet. Head injuries occurred in 4.7% of injured riders without a helmet compared to 1.9% of helmeted riders. Prospective Cross-sectional Studies: Ouellet JV Kasantikul V.
Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Business Template Create Thailand and Manager Cover Letter, the United States. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:49-54. 1,869 motorcycle crashes in Format In Excel. 23 40+ Los Angeles and Thailand were prospectively investigated in detail. Approximately 6%of riders were killed at both locations and 20-25% were hospitalized. Non-helmeted riders were 2.5 times more likely to Circulation Manager Cover, be killed and Ways Agreement - Wikihow, 3.5 times more likely to sustain a serious brain injury. LaTorre G Bertazzoni G Zotta D Van Beeck E Ricciardi G.
Epidemiology of accidents among users of Circulation Cover two-wheeled motor vehicles. A surveillance study in two Italian cities. 2002 European Journal of Public Health 12(2):99-103. Crashes for 14-35 yr olds 2-wheeled riders presenting to 2 hospitals in Italy after a crash were surveyed for a 6 month period of time. Injury and crash data was collected. 12% of the riders wore a helmet at Best Software Resume | Recentresumes.com, the time of the Circulation Cover crash. The risk of head injury is 4.35 times higher when not wearing a helmet. Conrad P Bradshaw YS Lamsudin R Kasniyah N Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: Motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia. 1996 Accident Analysis and Prevention . 28(2): 193-200. Prospective observational study of Create Professional motorcycle riders in Indonesia.
Data collected from street observations, interviews and riders admitted to 4 hospital EDs.89% of drivers wore helmets but only Manager Cover 55% wore them correctly. Indonesia has a mandatory helmet law. The risk of Ways A Payment - Wikihow a head injury was 0.41 for riders in a crash while wearing a helmet. Kelly P Sanson T Strange G Orsay E. A prospective study of the impact of helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. 1991 Annals of Manager Cover Letter Emergency Medicine 20:852-856. Prospectively collected data of motorcycle crash victims presenting to emergency departments in 8 varying institutions across the State of Illinois, over a 7 month period.
Only 14.6% of the Nz | Create 398 patients were wearing helmets at the time of the crash. The incidence of head injuries in Circulation Cover the helmeted group was nearly three times that of the Construction Template helmeted group (12.1% vs. Cover. 32.6%). Retrospective Before-After Cross-Sectional Studies: Mertz KJ Weiss HB. Changes in Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Hospital Charges Following Repeal of Pennsylvania’s Mandatory motorcycle Helmet Law. 2008 American Journal of Public Health 98(8):1464-14667. Retrospective review of motorcycle-head related mortality and injuries comparing the pre-repeal period (2001-2) to the post repeal period (2004-5). There was a 32.8% increase in Partnership Agreement Nz | Professional head injured related mortality and a 42.2% increase in head injury-related hospitalizations per 10,000 motorcycle registrations after repeal of the helmet law. O’Keefe T Dearwater ST Gentilello LM Cohen TM Wilkinson JD McKenney MM. Increased Fatalities After Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal: Is it all Because of lack of helmets?
2007 Journal of Circulation Trauma Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 63:1006-1009. Retrospective review of fatalities pre- and post-motorcycle helmet law repeal (July 1, 2000) in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Police crash and Bill Template Invoice, medical examiners records were reviewed for fatalities per registered motorcycle riders from 1997 to 2003. Motorcycle helmet usage in Manager Cover Letter fatal crashes dropped from 80% to 33%. An absolute number of Partnership Agreement Nz | deaths increased: 72 deaths pre- and 125 post-repeal. But there was no difference in the fatality rate per Circulation Cover registered rider (11.6 pre- to 12.5 deaths post-repeal per 10,000 motorcycle registrations, p=0.61). Kyrychenko SY McCartt AT. Florida’s weakened motorcycle helmet law: Effects of death rates in motorcycle crashes. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:55-60. Retrospective review of police reported crashed 1998-2002 from the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
The helmet law was changed from universal to 4 Simple To Write Agreement, exclude riders 21 years and older with at least $10,000 of Medical Benefit Insurance in mid 2000. Death rates were compared for the two years before to the two years after the Circulation Manager Cover Letter law was changed. The death rate rose from 30.8 deaths per 1000 crashes to 38.8. Bledsoe GH Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal.
2005 Southern Medical Journal 98:436-440. Retrospective review of data from the Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration for motorcycle registrations, motorcycle crash data from the Arkansas State Police Highway Safety Office, and motorcycle fatality data for Construction Invoice App | Invoice Arkansas from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). The Arkansas helmet law was repealed in 1997. The study compares the 4 years before to the 4 years after the repeal. Fatalities per crash increased non- significantly from 41.9 to 42.2 per Circulation Manager Cover Letter 1000 crashes but in the same period of time, crashes and fatalities per 1000 registered motorcycles decreased. The percentage of motorcycle fatalities not wearing a helmet increased from Template Professional 47.0% to Letter, 78.2% after the Construction Bill In Excel. Template repeal. Ho EL Haydel MJ.
Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. 2004 Journal of the Circulation Cover Louisiana State Medical Society 156:151-157. In 1999 Louisiana repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law to exempt riders 18 and older with $10,000 Health Insurance Policies. This is a retrospective review of Corrective Plan - 8+ Documents In Pdf , Word 8,916 motorcycle crashes and 300 fatalities for 1994-2002, except 1999, combining data from NHTSA, Louisiana Highway Safety Commission, and Cover, a level I Trauma Registry. The fatality rate increased from 3.0% per collision to Invoice App | Invoice, 3.7% after repeal. Helmet use decreased from 71.4% to 35% after repeal. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand.
2003 Accident Analysis and Prevention 35:183-189. Retrospective analysis of Trauma Registry data comparing 2 years before to Manager, 2 years after enactment of a motorcycle helmet law in Thailand. 12,002 patients were reviewed, including 129 deaths. As compared to the pre-Law period, head injuries decreased 41.4% and Business Agreement Template Nz | Professional, motorcycle related deaths decreased 20.8%. Servadei F Begliomini C Gardini E Giustini M Taggi F Kraus J. Effect of Manager Cover Letter Italy’s motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries.
2003 Injury Prevention 9: 257-260. Retrospective review of traumatic brain injuries at a regional neurosurgery referral center for one year before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law. There was a reduction from 63 to 43 per 100,000 registrations in head injury related admissions. There was also a 76% decrease in the diagnoses of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and epidural hematoma after the Software Developer Resume | Recentresumes.com enactment of the law. Christian WJ Carroll M Meyer K Vitaz T.
Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Circulation Cover Letter Kentucky 1995-2000. 2003 Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association. Retrospective review of head injury and head injury severity after a motorcycle crash from a single level I trauma center from 1995-2000. Of note, Kentucky repealed their helmet law in 1998. A non-helmeted rider was 4.33 more likely to sustain a head injury than a helmeted rider and they were also 4.36 more likely to sustain a severe head injury than non-helmeted riders. Auman KM Kufera JA Ballesteros MF Smialek JE Dischinger PC.
Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities : The effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. 2002 American Journal of Public Health 92:1352-1355. Retrospective comparison of motorcycle fatalities in Maryland for the 33 months before and after implementation of a universal helmet law. 61.3% of fatalities occurred before the law was enacted and 38.7% after. The fatality rate per 10,000 registrations decreased from 9.3 2 to Sample Action Template Documents , Word, 4.7 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in the 3 year period before and after the enactment.
Ferrando J Plasencia A Oros M Borrell C Kraus JF. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in Manager Letter a southern European urban area. 2000 Injury Prevention 6:184-188. Retrospective study comparing the Bill Format Template Invoice 2 year period before and after implementation of Manager Cover Letter a universal motorcycle helmet law in Spain. Sample Corrective Action Plan Documents , Word. Data was compiled from the Medical Examiner, police records, and the Traffic Authority of Barcelona.
Annual fatalities decreased from 60 in the first year of the review to 32 in Manager Cover Letter the last year, with the crash mortality rate decreasing from Construction Bill In Excel. 23 40+ Invoice 6.9 to 5.2 per 1000 crashes. Circulation Manager Cover Letter. The authors estimated 35 lives were saved in Construction Invoice Invoice Barcelona during the Manager first 2 years of the motorcycle helmet law. Chiu WT Kuo CY Hung CC Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan Motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries. 2000 American Journal of Public Health 90:793-796. Retrospective study comparing motorcycle related head injuries seen at 56 major hospitals across Taiwan for one year before and Software Developer Resume | Recentresumes.com, after implementation of Circulation Manager a universal helmet law, based on the Head Injury Registry of Taiwan. Free Human Resume. Total number of Circulation motorcycle related head injuries decreased 33%. In hospital death rates remained unchanged at 4.0%. Tsai MC Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Free Resources Resume Taiwan.
1999 Injury Prevention 5:290-291. Retrospective review in 3 cities comparing 6 months before to 6 months after enactment of a mandatory motorcycle law in Cover Taiwan. Fatalities after a crash decreased by 14% and head-related fatalities reduced by Construction Invoice 22%. Peek-Asa C Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in Manager Cover Letter motorcycle crashes before and after passage of a mandatory helmet use law.
1997 Annals of Action Plan Template In Pdf Emergency Medicine 29:630-636. Retrospective review comparing 4790 non-fatally injured motorcycle riders for one year before and after enactment of the California mandatory motorcycle law, linking medical records to police reports. The risk of a head injury related impairment after a crash doubled when not wearing a helmet in both adjusted and unadjusted models. Cover Letter. The models adjusted for Business Partnership Template Create Professional alcohol, speeding, gender and being thrown from the Circulation Manager Cover motorcycle. Kraus JF Peek C.
The impact of - Wikihow two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 1991-1993. 1995 Journal of Neurotrauma 12:873-881. Retrospective review of Circulation Cover non-fatally injured motorcycle riders before and after enactment of the California mandatory motorcycle helmet law of 1992. The law resulted in 85.6% of injured riders wearing a helmet. Head injuries decreased from 38.2% of the 4 Simple Ways A Payment Agreement - Wikihow injuries seen before the enactment to 24.1% of the head injuries after the law was enacted. Panichaphongse V Watanakajorn T Kasantikul V. Effects of law promulgation for compulsory use of Manager Cover Letter protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. 1995 Journal of the Free Example Medical Association of Thailand 78:521-525. Retrospective review comparing the 2 years before and after implementation of a motorcycle helmet law. Despite a 24% increase in motorcycle crash injuries, deaths decreased from 2% to 1.4%.
The percentage of patients who died due to Manager Letter, brain injury remained constant over the 4 year period, ranging from 81-86%. Mock CN Maier RV Boyle E Pilcher S Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at A Payment - Wikihow, a level I Trauma Center. 1995 Journal of Trauma 39:29-35. Retrospective review of the Trauma Registry of Cover Letter a level I Trauma Center over 8 years comparing helmeted to non-helmeted motorcycle riders. To Write A Payment Agreement - Wikihow. A universal motorcycle helmet law was enacted during the review period. The mortality rate decreased from 10% before enactment of the helmet law to 6% after, and severe head injury decreased from Letter 20% of crash admissions to Business Partnership Professional, 9%. Kraus JF Peek C McArthur DL Williams A.
The effect of the 1992 California Motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. 1994 Journal of the American Medical Association 272:1506-1511. Retrospective review of all motorcycle fatalities for the year before and after implementation of Circulation a mandatory motorcycle helmet law, based on death certificates and police reports. There was a 37.5% decrease in absolute number of fatalities statewide during the Template Nz | Create Professional first year after enactment, and with a decrease in the fatality ratio from Manager 70.1 to 51.5 fatalities per 100,000 registrations in California. Fleming NS Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries.
1992 Medical Care 30:832-845. Retrospective review of all motorcycle fatalities in Texas from 1984 through 1990, with a helmet law being enacted in 4 Simple Ways To Write A Payment Agreement - Wikihow 1989. Overall mortality reduced from 12.1 to 9.8 per Circulation Manager Cover Letter 10,000 registrations As a percentage of the total annual deaths, head related fatalities decreased from 56% to 31.5%. Muelleman RL Mlinek EJ Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and Free Administrator Resume, costs : Effect of a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:266-272. Retrospective review of Manager Letter one year before and after the re-enactment of the motorcycle helmet law in Nebraska. Both registrations and Action Plan - 8+ In Pdf, crashes reduced in this same time period of 19871989.
The overall death rate dropped from 13 to 8 per 10,000 registrations. The frequency and severity of brain injury were similar for Circulation Cover Letter the two time periods. Case Control Studies: Norvell DC Cummings P. Association of helmet use with death in motorcycle crashes: A matched-pair cohort study. 2002 American Journal of Epidemiology 156:483-487. Matched Pair Cohort Study using the NHTSA-FARS database for fatalities within 30 days of the crash that occurred from 1980-1998. 60.8% of the fatalities involved non-helmeted riders.
The relative risk of death for a helmeted rider was estimated to be 0.61 compared to a non-helmeted rider, controlling for motorcycle and crash related variables, age, gender, and seat position. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the effectiveness of different types of helmets for the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. 1995 American Journal Of Epidemiology 42(9):97481. Motorcycle riders crash admissions in 15 hospitals in Best Resume Example Taipei, Taiwan from for Circulation Manager 3 months in 1990. Free Resources Administrator Resume Example. Cases were head injured motorcycle crash victims. Controls were motorcycle crash victims with injuries other than head. Circulation Cover Letter. Street controls were non-injured motorcycle riders photographed contemporaneously to injured controls. Head Injury was involved in 41.5% of the 1,351 injuries during the study period.
Gabella B Reiner KL. Hoffman RECook MStallones L. Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crashvictims in El Pasocounty, Colorado, 1998-1990. 1995 Accident analysis and Best Software Developer Resume Example, Prevention 27:363-369. A county based study of head injury after motorcycle crashes determined by traffic accident reports and the Injury Epidemiology Program of Colorado. A case was a motorcycle rider with a head injury after a crash in a 2 year period of Circulation Letter time from 1989-1990. A control was a controlwas a motorcycle crash in the same county and Construction In Excel. Template, time period but without a head injury. Manager Letter. Notwearing a helmet increased the likelihood of a head injury from a crash by an odds ratio of 3.34 relative to those riders wearing a helmet. Retrospective Cross-sectional Studies:
Croce MA Zarzaur BL Manotti LJ Fabian TC. Impact of motorcycle Helmets and State Laws on App | Free Invoice Society’s Burden: A National Study. 2009 Annals of Surgery 250:390-394. Retrospective review from 2002-2007 of National Trauma Data Bank. Helmeted trauma patients had lower odds of death as compared to non-helmeted: Adjusted odds ratio of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.93). N=75,644 Helmeted patients had better GCS scores.
Goslar PW Crawford NR Petersen SR Wilson JR Harrington T. Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. 2008 Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care 53:469-471. Retrospective review of trauma registry of one Level I trauma center from July 1st, 2002-June 30th, 2005. Non-helmeted rider was 2X more likely to sustain a brain injury and 3X more likely to die from the crash than a helmeted rider. Houston DJ Richardson LE. Motorcycle Safety and the Repeal of Universal Helmet Laws. 2007 American Journal of Public Health 97(11): 2063-2069. Retrospective review of all 51 states from the NHTSA Fatal Accident Reporting System from 1975 -2004. Mortality was analyzed controlling for other rider and state factors that affect motorcycle-related mortality: demographic, social, traffic safety and population density across states.
There was a 13.7% mortality reduction in states attributable to universal helmet law. Coben JH Steiner CA Miller TR. Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: Comparing states with different helmet laws. 2007 Accident Analysis and Prevention 39:190-196. A one year retrospective review of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) registry. The HCUP State Inpatient Database (SID) contains data from 33 states and captures. 80% of Circulation Manager all hospital discharges in the US.
25,794 cases were identified; 16,105 from states with universal helmet laws, 7,924 from states with partial laws and 1765 from states with no helmet laws. Cases from Sample Action Template - 8+ Documents In Pdf , Word states without universal helmet laws were 52% more likely to sustain the most severe forms of Manager Letter traumatic brain injury (RR: 1.52) and had a mortality rate 39% higher than those states with universal helmet. Lin JW Tsai SH Tsai WC Chiu WT Chu SF Lin CM Yang CM Hung CC. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. 2006 Surgical Neurology S2:20-25. Retrospective review of 90,250 head trauma case admitted to the hospital in Taiwan, excluding dead on arrivals and outpatients over an 8 year period. 47% of all injuries were motorcycle related. Those not wearing a helmet had a 32.9% incidence of intracranial hemorrhage, compared to 25.2% for those who were. The chance of having an intracranial hemorrhage was 1.4 times higher for Developer Resume Example | Recentresumes.com those not wearing a helmet compared to those who did (odds ratio of Manager Letter 1.40).
Eastridge BJ Shafi S Minei JP Culica D McConnel C Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from Template Nz | Create impact to Manager Cover Letter, discharge. 2006 Journal of Construction Bill 23 40+ Invoice Trauma Injury Infection and Manager Letter, Critical Care 60:978-984. Motorcyclists who crashed and found in NHTSA GES database for pre-hospital data and NTDB for hospital data from 1994 to 2002. There was less than half the Construction Invoice risk of death or admission with a head injury for helmeted riders in comparison to non-helmeted riders. Javouhey E Guerin AC Chiron M. Incidence and Circulation Manager Letter, risk factors of Corrective Plan - 8+ In Pdf severe traumatic brain injury resulting from road accidents: A population-based study. 2006 Accident Analysis and Circulation Manager Letter, Prevention 38:225-33. Motorcycle crashes were identified in a population based road trauma registry in France from 1996-2001 to Developer Resume | Recentresumes.com, determine risks for severe head injury. A non-helmeted rider had an 18 fold higher risk of having a severe head injury as defined by AIS of Manager 2 or higher as compared to helmeted riders.
Nakahara S Chadbunchachai W Ichikawa M Tipsuntornsak N Wakai S. Temporal distribution of Resume | Recentresumes.com motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. 2005 Accident Analysis and Prevention 37:833-842. Retrospective review of 9,552 patients injured in motorcycle crashes in Thailand and transferred to the regional Medical Center over 5 years. The case fatality rate was 0.25 for Manager Letter helmeted riders and Agreement, 0.94 for Circulation Manager Cover non-helmeted riders. The fatality was also stratified by alcohol intoxication and time of day of crash. Hundley JK Kilgo PD Miller P R Chang MC Hensberry RA Meredith JW Hoth JJ. Non-helmeted motorcyclists: a burden to society? A study using the National Trauma Data bank. 2004 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 57:944-9. Retrospective review of motorcyclist crashes identified in the NTDB from 1994-2002.
The risk of Software Developer Resume | Recentresumes.com death was 44% lower for helmeted riders than non-helmeted riders. 69.2% of all riders were listed as wearing a helmet. Brandt MM Ahrns KS Corpron CA Franklin GA Wahl Wl. Hospital cost is reduced by motorcycle helmet use. 2002 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 53(3):469-71. Retrospective review of motorcycle crashes in the trauma registry at a Level I trauma centre from 1996 to 2000. The risk of death was 16% lower in helmeted riders as compared to non-helmeted riders. Peek-Asa C McArthur DL Kraus JF. The prevalence of nonstandard helmet use and Circulation Manager, head injuries among motorcycle riders. 1999 Accident Analysis and Prevention 31:229-233. Retrospective review comparing helmets which met the 1992 California Mandatory Helmet Use Law requirements to those which did not.
One third of riders whose crash report indicated a non-standard helmet were killed, compared to 15.5% on non-helmeted riders and 13.6% of helmeted riders. Among all riders wearing non-standard helmets, 75% sustained a head injury of any severity and 62.5% sustained a head injury ³ 3. Free Invoice. This was also significantly higher than those riders not wearing a helmet (51.9% and 37.4%) and Circulation Cover, those wearing a standard helmet (30.7% and 21.8%). Ways To Write - Wikihow. The authors conclude that non-standard helmets do not provide protection. Petridou E Skalkidou A Ioannou N Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of seat belts and helmets in Greece: A nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. 1998 Accident Analysis and Prevention 30:87-91.
Retrospective analysis of all motorcycle crashes in Greece for 1985 and 1994. No motorcycle laws were in effect during either period, and helmet use rates were similar for two periods. In 1985, 3.5% of helmeted riders died in Circulation motorcycle crashes compared to 4.3% of unhelmeted riders. Free Human Resume Example. In 1994, 2.9% of helmeted riders died in motorcycle crashes compared to 5.1% for unhelmeted riders. The authors estimate that 38% of Circulation all motorcycle deaths could potentially be avoided if all motorcycle riders wore helmets. Rivara F Salzberg P Soderberg R Maier R Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and Business Partnership Agreement Template Create, hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington State. 1996 American Journal of Public Health 86:41-45.
Retrospective review combining State crash information, hospital records, and death records for 1989 in Washington State. Cover. There were 2,090 crashes with 59 fatalities (2.8%). Motorcycle riders who were hospitalized after a crash were 2.9 times more likely to be hospitalized with a head injury and Bill Format In Excel. Invoice 23 40+, 3.7 times more likely to have suffered a severe of critical head injury if they were not wearing a helmet. Non-helmeted riders had 1.62 times the risk of a fatal crash compared to helmeted riders. Orsay E Holden JA Williams J Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in the State of Illinois: Analysis of the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. 1995 Annals of Circulation Manager Emergency Medicine 28:455-460. Retrospective review of the Illinois Trauma Registry for 18 months comparing helmeted to Partnership Nz | Professional, unhelmeted motorcycle riders. Of the 1231, 18% were helmeted and 56% were not. 30% of the helmeted riders sustained head injuries compared to 51% for unhelmeted riders.
The unhelmeted riders also had more severe head injuries. Rutledge RStutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of Letter motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. 1993 Accident Analysis and Prevention 25:347-353. Retrospective analysis of the North Carolina State Trauma Registry over To Write 3.5 years, comparing 892 patients.
Helmet information was available for 460 (51.6%). Head injuries with AIS 2-5 occurred in 53% of unhelmeted riders, compared to 28% of Circulation Manager Cover helmeted riders. Braddock M Schwartz R Lapidus G Banco L Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injury and costs. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:273-278.
Retrospective review of 112 motorcycle deaths in Connecticut over a two year period. The fatality rate for Invoice Invoice unhelmeted riders was 26.7 per 1000 crashes, compared to 7.9 for helmeted riders. Offner PF Rivara FP Maier RV. The Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Use. 1992 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 32(5):636-42. Retrospective review of admitted riders after motorcycle crash at one Level I trauma center. The trauma registry identified the cases from Circulation Letter 1985 to 1990. Head injury was reduced by 68% when wearing a helmet while there was no impact on death. Ramzy AI Soderstrom CA Dischinger PC Clark CC. Helmet Use, Patterns of Injury, Medical Outcome and Costs among Motorcycle Drivers in Maryland. 1992 Accident, Analysis and Prevention 24(4): 385-96.
Retrospective review of all motorcycle crashes in the State of Maryland for one year, 1987 to Plan Template Documents, 1988. Riders wore a helmet in 35% of the crashes.
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Times Roman fonts have been used the most, however the smaller the font size the harder these become to read because of their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda. Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. Many applicants may be surprised to learn that there is no one single correct resume font size. Agreement. There are “safe bets” like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in many different styles, however this is a very one-size-fits all approach to Manager Letter, what is a very delicate process. Resume writing is not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and the more attention given to precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at 10.5 while another font looks best at Business Partnership Agreement Template Create Professional 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5.
To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust it’s size accordingly, using one –tenth of a decimal place to Manager Cover, fine tune the final size. See how the Software Developer Resume Example style makes the type look much different even though they are the same size? Do not make the mistake of letting page length dictate font size. If an Manager Cover Letter applicant’s resume is just exceeding one page by a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to make them shorter and more succinct. Only after an applicant has exhausted their ability to shorten their resume with language should they turn to minor margin and font size and style adjustments. Just remember, don’t sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the Construction App | Invoice single-minded goal of fitting to one page. A resume is valued for the sum of all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and font selection the overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and strategic use of lines and bullet points. These are the Manager only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the eye from reading further momentarily , allowing the brain to process the just read information for a fraction of Free Administrator Example a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place.
Such break lines can be inserted into a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for Circulation Cover, example to emphasize the 4 Simple To Write Agreement - Wikihow statement above. Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the page into too many pieces and obstruct the readers eye from moving fluidly from section to section, ultimately frustrating the reader. Symbols may only Manager, be used in the form of bullet points or spacers. The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of 4 Simple Ways Agreement - Wikihow a small black dot. This is the Manager preferred form of using bullet points, and is the Best Software Developer Resume Example safest choice.
Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in their style could perhaps consider an alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is about as big of a deviation as is acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to Circulation Cover Letter, choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message. Only use one style on Corrective Action Template - 8+ Documents In Pdf , Word a resume, never mix and Letter, match circle and square bullet points horribly ugly travesty. Resumes are traditionally written in Template black, as it is the most widely accepted, safest and conservative approach. Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of color throughout to Circulation Manager, help them stand out in a stack of Ways A Payment Agreement - Wikihow nearly identical black and white documents.
Here are a few examples of how you can use color on your resume. If an Circulation Manager Letter applicant does choose to use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and subtle reigns supreme in the resume world. The key with color in resumes is Construction Bill Format In Excel. Invoice 23 40+, retaining the focus on the experiences, achievements and skills in the words rather than moving focus to colors. Colors on resumes are meant to Circulation Letter, assist the communication of the information, not detract or take away from its central importance. Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is Ways, chosen for a purpose and is the best possible choice.
After the content of a resume, next in importance comes the formatting, the margins, the fonts and Circulation Cover, the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in hand, it’s time to print and distribute. App | Invoice. This is where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of paper is best for you? Check out our resume paper comparison where we rate the Circulation Manager Letter top 7 styles that you can buy. White paper is the traditional color choice for resumes written by amateurs and professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the words on the page but doesn’t contribute anything either.
White is traditional and a safe choice for resumes of all career levels and for all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to add style to any resume for years now, as next to a bunch of true white documents a slightly yellowed or “cream” hued resume will instantly stand out without being obnoxious. While this isn’t the Action Template - 8+ In Pdf conservative approach, it is by no means “radical” and thus a fair option for anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in Cover standing out amongst others for a highly competitive position. A common resume paper weight in 4 Simple Ways A Payment - Wikihow office and Letter, home printers is about 20lbs bond. This is Resources Resume, acceptable for a resume however for such an Cover important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is just slightly weightier and feels better in the hand. Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is bordering on excessive. Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the sweet spot for Partnership Nz | Professional, resume paper weight.
Paper texture is determined by its composition and the press used to manufacture it. Some premium papers are pressed with very subtle crosshatching while others have even less noticeable imperfections pressed upon Circulation Letter them to give them a unique feel to Invoice Free, the touch. Look for a well-weighted paper, with texture or not, with at Circulation Cover Letter least 25% cotton composition. The more cotton the Free Administrator Resume Example stronger the paper and crisper it feels. Circulation Manager Cover Letter. Many colored and textured papers are already manufactured as “premium” and will thus have a cotton fiber percentage of 50-100%, resulting in 4 Simple A Payment Agreement - Wikihow a very impressive document. All resume paper should be 8.5” X 11”; there are NO EXCEPTIONS to this rule. 8.5” X 11” is the size that filing units are built to contain, the size scanners are by default set to process, and the size common manila envelopes are made to contain, so it is highly inadvisable to print paper any smaller or larger. By taking into consideration all of the Circulation above guidelines, any job applicant can write a perfect resume sure to Sample Corrective Action Template In Pdf, be impressive to even the most critical of human resources managers.
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Formative assessment and feedback. This page addresses feedback from tutors to students intended to help students learn; the use of feedback from students to teachers (intended to enhance teaching) is discussed on the Evaluating your teaching page. The Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) says: Formative assessment has a developmental purpose and is designed to help learners learn more effectively by giving them feedback on their performance and on how it can be improved and/or maintained (QAA, 2006, p35). Formative assessment is usually contrasted with summative assessment: Summative assessment is used to indicate the extent of a learner's success in meeting the assessment criteria used to gauge the intended learning outcomes of a module or programme (QAA, 2006, p36). While formative assessment usually takes place during the learning process, summative assessment usually takes place at the end of a unit, module, course or programme.
Central to formative assessment is the feedback given to learners: Feedback. is usually defined in Circulation Manager Letter, terms of information about Invoice how successfully something has been or is Manager Cover Letter being done (Sadler, 1989, p120). Good feedback practice is anything that might strengthen the Action Template - 8+ Documents , Word, student’s capacity to self-regulate their own performance (Nicol Macfarlane-Dick, 2006, p205). The notion of self-regulation is vital to effective feedback insofar as our goal is to develop independence in learning. Self-regulation means the student has internalised an idea of what good performance is, is able to compare his or her own work with that standard, and knows what needs to be done to meet the standard (Sadler, 1989, cited in Circulation Cover, Nicol Macfarlane-Dick, 2006). Independent learning requires self-regulation. Self-regulation also explains the connection between students’ understanding of the assessment criteria (internalising what good performance looks like) and feedback. We’ll look at this in the Oxford context in the next section. Across the UK, students report less satisfaction with the feedback they receive than with other aspects of their university experience (National Student Survey, 2011) and this holds true in Oxford too.
Given Oxford’s tutorial-based teaching and consequent high tutor-student ratio, a better satisfaction rating for assessment and Free Human Administrator, feedback might be expected. In fact, Oxford results have consistently revealed that students are least satisfied with the clarity of marking criteria and the quality of feedback they receive. For instance only Manager Cover, 57% of undergraduate finalists responding to the 2011 NSS survey agreed that criteria were clear in Partnership Agreement Template Nz | Create, advance, compared with 93% who said they were satisfied with the Letter, course overall. Nearly a quarter of the students disagreed that “feedback on my work has been prompt” or that they “received detailed feedback on Format In Excel. Invoice my work”. Nearly a quarter disagreed that “feedback on my work has helped me clarify things I did not understand”. When oral feedback is explicitly mentioned in the question, levels of agreement improved slightly but were still substantially lower than in the other areas about which students were asked (i.e. teaching, academic support, organisation and management, learning resources, personal development). With the intention of supplementing earlier NSS data, Oxford University Student Union’s (OUSU) Initial Response to Oxford’s Review of its Teaching Model obtained more than 400 students’ views on teaching at the University through a large scale focus group exercise in Circulation Manager Cover, Trinity Term 2010. Construction Bill Format 23 40+ Invoice? Many students talked about feedback, wanting information about “what aspects of their work needed improvement” and feedback on the structure of the essay”. Others wanted to use feedback to monitor progress, often specifically towards preparedness for examinations. Comments such as “No-one ever tells you how to do better; just that you’re going wrong” demonstrate a level of anxiety about the standards they are aiming for.
Students are also unclear about how assessment criteria are applied in examinations. In Humanities and Social Sciences, especially, they find it difficult to see tutorial essays as authentic preparation for examination essays; tutorial essays are written over Circulation a week, which is different to completing an essay in Format In Excel., an hour under exam conditions. It was suggested, though, that tutors could help by giving feedback in the tutorial on how the essay under discussion might be written under examination conditions. It may help if tutors promote an understanding of tutorial work as developing deep understanding of the Letter, subject area, rather than the ability to pass examinations; if the former is in place the latter will be a natural consequence. Explaining to students how tutors apply criteria to tutorial essays and other work, and 4 Simple A Payment Agreement, how examiners do so in examinations, is also helpful for Manager Cover students. Relationship between feedback and clarity of Developer | Recentresumes.com, marking criteria. The two issues of clarity of marking criteria and feedback are related because students’ interpretation of feedback requires understanding of what constitutes good performance. Cover? The key principles of good feedback are rooted in helping students internalise good performance standards. Feedback (or marks) which refer to ‘assessment criteria’ are valued by students only if they have a clear understanding of the Bill Format Invoice, criteria in use (Ferguson, 2011, pp55-56).
Marking criteria and learning outcomes, however, often use terminology students do not yet understand. Although more sophisticated understandings of the meanings of assessment criteria come with experience, spending time at an early stage working through criteria with students pays dividends in enhanced understanding and a better standard of work produced (Gibbs, 2007). Some terminology used in the marking criteria of two disciplines at Oxford (Economics, History) Analysis (competent, skilful) Argument (incisive, sophisticated) Breadth of reference. Evidence of extensive reading. Solidly competent work. Structure (clear, logical) Style (clear, elegant)
These terms appear to be generic, but their interpretation depends on context. Is an ‘incisive argument’ in Manager Letter, History the same as a ‘logical structure of argument’ in 4 Simple Ways A Payment Agreement - Wikihow, Economics? Knowledge about Manager such terminology in use is frequently tacit; experts may not realise the Bill Invoice 23 40+, extent to which disciplinary novices misunderstand it. If feedback on an essay aiming to Letter meet these criteria is to be effective in Best Software Resume Example, bringing about improvement, the Circulation Cover Letter, tutorial discussion must develop shared understandings of complex concepts such as “critical evaluation”, “incisive argument” and “originality”. See Ideas and tools (below) for examples of exercises to develop students’ understanding of assessment criteria. In 2003-4 Archer (2007) investigated Oxford History and Archaeology students’ experiences of the formative assessment of essays.
He conceptualised the Human Resources Administrator Resume Example, essay as an artefact (p28) that could be used to diagnose student learning attainment, indicating a starting point for Manager using the tutorial to develop learning further. Archer’s findings indicate that student’ essay-writing benefits from explicit student-tutor discussion (and mutual understanding) of various points: What are tutorial essays for? Tutors say, a means for students to “organise themselves intellectually (p9)” or opportunities for practice in analysis, argument formulation and marshalling evidence (p11), whilst students often see them as being about subject knowledge (p9). How did the student use the reading lists? What did the student find difficult about the essay-writing process and Business Nz |, why? What is the relationship between tutorial essays and examination essays? Students who see the purpose of the tutorial as coverage of the material also see essays as revision material for Manager Cover Letter examinations; tutors tend not to endorse this view (p11). What makes a good Archaeology/History essay?
What does the student understand by the tutor’s comments on the essay? History students interviewed about their educational experience typically said they wanted more feedback. Nz |? However this was rarely expressed in terms of wanting a grade, rather they asked for “more advice on style and structure” (Archer, 2006). Does feedback require giving a mark? In the Policy and Guidance on Undergraduate Learning and Teaching the University makes it clear tutors should explain their feedback approach explicitly to students, but does not legislate on whether or not marks or grades should be assigned to tutorial work. Paragraph 3.10 states: The scale and extent of feedback provided through tutorial teaching is a core element of the collegiate University’s learning support for Circulation Cover Letter undergraduates. Tutorial teaching provides regular and substantial feedback and formative assessment, although it is Sample - 8+ In Pdf , Word acknowledged that the precise form will vary from one subject to another, and from tutor to tutor. Manager? For example, tutors take different approaches to Human Resources Administrator Resume the provision of marks. Some prefer written or oral feedback that does not include marks and focuses at least as much on the growth of intellectual understanding as on preparation for future summative assessment. Others see marks as part of a range of appropriate feedback, alongside specific comments and constructive criticism. [. ] What is of most significance is that tutors explain, and students understand, the individual approaches taken (p9).
The Commission of Inquiry’s (COI) report, published in 1997, stated that “undergraduates are entitled to effective and Circulation Manager Letter, helpful written comments on their work” and “marking with grades is not always appropriate” (paragraph 9.37). The question about grades was influenced by the idea of expected standards varying according to Bill Format In Excel. Template 23 40+ the stage reached and grades possibly not being comparable. Other views stress grades as actively unhelpful to students, having a de-motivating and ego-involving potential, whilst effective feedback comments promote task involvement and efforts to Manager Cover Letter improve (Juwah et al, 2004). The Commission’s recommendation that undergraduates be better informed on the grading and commenting on tutorial work” (COI, 1997, Recommendation 55) suggests tutors should discuss explicitly with students their reasoning and approaches to feedback and marking. The COI Report (1997) responded to Oxford undergraduates’ complaints “that tutors did not provide enough feedback on essays, either by giving an overall grade for Best Example an essay or by making specific comments on the content of an essay (paragraph 9.35)” by saying they believed this “represented a misunderstanding of the tutorial process”. The Report declared that “the central part of the business in a tutorial should be active, two-way discussion of the student’s work” (paragraph 9.36). Feedback takes place at Circulation Letter, the point of Administrator Resume Example, learning, i.e. in the classroom, the tutorial or the lecture. Considered in this light, we can interpret the ‘two-way discussion’ recommended by the Commission as the tutor continuing the assessment which began with reading the essay, and supplementing it by questioning the student and giving oral feedback.
However, tutors must make it explicit to students that this whole process is Circulation Letter about giving feedback. In addition to weekly tutorials, Collections (college examinations) offer an 4 Simple Ways A Payment, opportunity for formative assessment and Cover, constructive feedback. Students in the OUSU focus groups, though, seem to believe that Collections are “not taken seriously”. Corrective Action Documents In Pdf? They see evidence for Circulation Cover Letter this in Collections being returned late and with minimal feedback. Tutors can use Collections to help students monitor their progress and feel better prepared for Corrective Action Plan Template - 8+ Documents In Pdf , Word Finals. The University’s Policy and Guidance on Undergraduate Learning and Teaching makes it clear tutors must ensure students both understand the Circulation Manager Cover, purpose of Construction Bill Invoice Template 23 40+, Collections and receive feedback on these written examinations “within a reasonable timescale”. It seems reasonable to expect that students receive feedback very soon after the examination; this is critical because, other than by Collections, explicit preparation for writing examination essays is Circulation Letter difficult to provide.
Feedback on taught master’s programmes. Like undergraduates, taught master’s students at Oxford also want more feedback on their work. In OUSU’s 2011 report on students’ responses concerning postgraduate taught courses, a widespread concern about feedback was evident, across all divisions. These graduate students clearly saw feedback on their work as a vital taught course element, without which they could not understand the marking criteria being applied, gauge the 4 Simple A Payment - Wikihow, standard they had achieved or work out Cover, how to Human Resources Resume improve. Students reported inconsistency in the availability of good, usable feedback. On short, one-year courses, they needed early feedback to Manager Cover determine tutors’ expectations, establish whether they were meeting the requirements and Invoice, understand how to improve. PGT students would like to receive both comments or annotations written on Cover Letter their essays and supplementary oral feedback.
They found it de-motivating to 4 Simple Ways To Write A Payment Agreement - Wikihow receive inadequate feedback or none. On most courses there was concern over the timing of Cover, assignments, both in terms of uneven workloads from Free Human Resources term to term, and because it was difficult to use learning gained from feedback on one assignment to understand and meet the requirements on the next one. Circulation Cover Letter? In particular, it was a problem for some students that feedback was rarely given on assignments being assessed summatively, even if they occurred early in the course, because of sensitivity over contact between students and examiners. In response to such concerns, the Education Committee has now agreed that all students should receive written feedback on at least one designated piece of formative assessment, e.g. essay or assignment, during the course of the first term, with the purpose of: providing guidance to Best Software Developer | Recentresumes.com students for Cover Letter whom extended pieces of writing are unfamiliar forms of assessment; indicating to students their areas of strength and weakness in relation to the assessment task; providing course members with an indication of the Partnership Agreement Template Create, expectations and standards towards which they are working. In addition the Education Committee has established the principle that limited feedback must be given to students on Circulation Letter any elements of summative assessment which are undertaken prior to the final term of the course. It is also Education Committee’s intention that written feedback will be provided for all PGT dissertations or theses of 5,000 words or over, in accordance with an agreed divisional format or template. Feedback to postgraduate research students. Research students also benefit from Business Agreement Nz | Professional regular feedback.
The stages of Cover, Transfer and Confirmation of Status are important occasions for Sample Corrective Action Plan Documents In Pdf formal feedback but doctoral students also express the need for regular formative feedback which enables them to understand whether they are progressing sufficiently and attaining expected standards in their work. See Giving and receiving feedback (with DPhil students). While students may “accept a teacher’s judgement without demur” (Sadler, 1989, p121) we really want them to Manager Cover Letter develop their own judgement and learn to regulate for themselves the quality of Template Nz | Create Professional, their work. Letter? The teacher’s role is to provide constructive and timely feedback comments, assisting students to internalise an appropriate concept of App | Free, good quality in their subject area. “Students have to be able to judge the quality of what they are producing and be able to regulate what they are doing during the doing of it” (p121). Thus feedback is teaching. A teacher conveys disciplinary standards in several different ways: As a role model , i.e. through demonstrating (modelling) disciplinary practice. This might be through lecturing, constructing argument in tutorial discussions or in small group seminars, research papers, etc. A good learning environment requires “a teacher who knows which skills are to be learned, and who can recognize and Manager Cover, describe a fine performance, demonstrate a fine performance, and indicate how a poor performance can be improved” (Sadler, 1989, p120).
As a judge , through both written and oral feedback. Good written feedback based on criteria effectively develops student independence by encouraging them to Construction App | Invoice use the criteria autonomously for checking their work. Feedback should be sufficiently detailed to enable students to determine how to improve the work, without actually telling them what to do. Circulation Letter? Remember that oral feedback can sometimes be mistaken by Human Resources Example, students for general discussion, so this must be made explicit. As one of the subject experts who set the assessment criteria . Manager Cover? If criteria genuinely encapsulate the qualities, skills, knowledge and understanding that characterise graduates in the discipline, at a level which helps students to understand what they are aiming for without prescriptive detail, they help students develop independence as learners with skills to regulate the standard of their work. As a fellow learner . Both tutor and student are engaged in separate and joint endeavours to learn more within the discipline, and on specific topics within the discipline. Be open-minded and prepared to both learn and teach when you interact.
Hounsell et al’s Guidance and Free Human, Feedback Loop (398kb) diagram highlights challenges facing students at each of the points during the lifecycle of an assignment. Difficulties can occur at each of Manager Cover Letter, several steps: Correct conception of Business Nz | Create Professional, task, assignment or goal (e.g. Letter? what does ‘critical analysis’ mean?) If a student performs poorly, it may be because they did not understand the task itself. Hadwyn (2006) says, “Academic tasks constitute much more than a list of Ways Agreement, specific instructions and Circulation Manager Letter, criteria in a course outline. They are: layered with both explicit and implicit requirements, deeply embedded in discipline specific thinking and presentation genres, and described with discipline specific language”. Further, Lea Street (2000) contend that dealing with these layered issues is Example | Recentresumes.com not simply a matter of “study skills” or “academic socialisation” but of “academic literacies”, where the student must negotiate conflicting literary practices (p34, Fig 2.1). Devising appropriate strategies for Letter achieving the goal (e.g. Sample Corrective Template In Pdf , Word? understanding and using a reading list). Completing the task as understood.
Seeking clarification when needed. Interpreting the feedback received: recognising feedback as such, understanding tutor comments, relating feedback received to own assessment of work, recognising implications for action. Oral feedback, especially in an oral performance environment (tutorial discussion, debate, etc.) can be just as important as written feedback. One way of Cover, encouraging students to make oral feedback ‘usable’ is by Resources Resume, suggesting they take notes of Manager Cover, discussions about Construction Invoice essays (if not during then immediately afterwards), especially when they plan to use them for revision purposes. Action in response (or “feed-forward”): changing strategies or changing understanding of Cover Letter, goals for Partnership Create future assignments or examinations. It is Circulation Manager Cover Letter more difficult but important - to apply feedback on essay 1 to essay 2 (on a different topic). While schedules are very tight, finding a way to allow students to 4 Simple Ways Agreement revise and resubmit the same essay can ensure students engage with and respond to feedback. Essay cover sheets can be used to direct students’ attention to certain parts of the Circulation Cover Letter, task, by ensuring they self-assess their work against questions you pose. An essay cover sheet can be structured to hold students accountable for acting on the feedback you’ve already given them by describing how they’ve addressed it in a subsequent essay. This Essay Cover Sheet (12kb) from Law includes some discipline-specific questions. To ensure students pay attention to analysing an essay or other assignment task before setting about it, what questions or items would best help students in your discipline?
Another idea, perhaps best suited to the ‘problem-set’ assignment style found in Physics or Engineering, is used by Stephen Clark who tells his students “to make a cover sheet for Software Resume Example | Recentresumes.com your tutorial work in which you write down unresolved problems or issues you had while tackling any part of the work we have done so far”. Cover Letter? This “unstructured” cover sheet approach, i.e. not telling students what to write about, is used to make them examine and isolate what exactly they struggled with. Sample Corrective - 8+ Documents , Word? Stephen finds that requiring students to comment on problems they cannot answer often leads them to solving the problem (resulting in no cover sheet) or acts as a self-appraisal process which better directs the subsequent tutorial discussions. Manager Cover? In Editing as tutor-, self- and peer-assessment (26kb) Liz Baigent describes her approach to fostering a standard of disciplinary writing among groups of Free Human Resources Administrator Resume, visiting students using a model of “professional scholarly life”. Tutors themselves edit parts of students’ first essays, modelling academic writing style and improved communication of ideas. Cover Letter? Students receive handbooks and instruction on Invoice App | Free Invoice editing their own work and Circulation, (optional) peer editing activities are also encouraged. Try offering the Software Resume Example | Recentresumes.com, opportunity, perhaps once a term (perhaps over the vacation), for students to revise and resubmit a tutorial essay. Cover Letter? Having received feedback comments which suggest improvements, the opportunity of putting tutor recommendations into Software Resume | Recentresumes.com effect by reworking and resubmitting the Circulation Manager Cover Letter, essay, will enable students to get to grips more effectively with applying criteria and meeting a required standard. See Gibbs, Student understanding of assessment standards (34kb), which, in the context of comparing Oxford’s approach to Best Software Developer Example assessment with that of other UK universities, also includes an Manager Letter, example of an exercise which involved students marking and discussing assignments, as well as comparison of the subsequent end-of-course assessments for participant students against those of a control group. See illuminatio 2012 (1,340kb). Clarifying essay marking criteria in history through a student marking workshop . This article by Agreement Template Create, Tracey Sowerby begins on page 2 of this issue of Illuminatio.
It discusses using “a pool of anonymised essays by former students who have given their permission” to give students experience of Letter, applying criteria to marking another person’s work, then applying the same guidelines to Construction Bill Format 23 40+ a critical appraisal of their own work. Understanding Coursework Requirements Assessment Criteria (173kb) gives a number of Oxford examples of suitable activities for helping students to Circulation Manager understand requirements and criteria at different stages of their courses. In 2006, Archer compared assessment practice in his Faculty with Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick’s (2006) Seven Principles - see Feedback principles in action? The Oxford History Faculty (461kb) . You could use the list of principles in Construction Format Invoice, Helping students take control of their own learning (234kb) to reflect on Circulation Manager Cover your own practice in Resources Resume Example, the same way. Similarly, Gibbs and Simpson’s Conditions under which assessment supports student learning (171kb) could be used to analyse your own practice and the learning and teaching environment you establish for your students. In this Extract from the Code of Practice on assessment of students (104kb) the QAA lists a number of assessment examples intended to Circulation Manager Cover Letter help tutors ensure student learning is supported. Insights from research and literature. A number of studies have focused on students’ responses to feedback; whether they understand it (Chanock, 2000) and how they perceive and value it (Weaver, 2006). Chanock (2000) looked at the problem of students misunderstanding what tutors write on their essays, examining what students and tutors in different Humanities subjects understood by the comment “Too much description; not enough analysis”.
She found terminology was frequently understood differently by academics in different disciplines, and students often failed to Software Resume interpret such comments in Manager, the way their tutor intended. 4 Simple To Write A Payment - Wikihow? Chanock concluded by recommending: explanation needs to Circulation Cover Letter be accompanied by models and these are already to hand. When a lecturer explores a question in the classroom; when a tutorial group goes to work on a document; when a student reads an Best Software Resume Example | Recentresumes.com, article; all of these are models of Circulation Letter, analysis in the discipline. What is often lacking is Template Nz | some explicit commentary by the teacher, drawing students’ attention to how exactly this activity or this reading exemplifies the process of analysis. Process is Circulation Letter as important here as product ; students will not get far simply by imitating an end product without knowing how to reach it (Chanock, 2000, p103.
Emphasis added). Walker (2009) set out to discover what makes teacher comments usable by Business Partnership Agreement Template, students. She identified three categories of comments: about content; about the Circulation Manager Letter, student’s development of skill (e.g. in analysis, in structuring argument, etc.); or designed to motivate the student. 62% of all feedback comments Walker analysed (n=3095) were either about content or skills development. 14% of these offered an explanation (as opposed to Partnership Agreement Template merely indicating a content or skills problem existed or offering a correction for the problem). Walker interviewed students about the feedback they received and results indicated that, to be usable, feedback comments concerning content or skills development must be fully explained. Overall, her students found skills development comments more usable than those in other categories: respondents said about two-thirds of Circulation Manager Cover, these comments were “useful/ helpful for future work”. Motivating comments were seen as being useful in the affective domain, and students were “pleased/encouraged” by Agreement Template Professional, 73% of such comments, although 15% of them led to “lack of understanding of the comment and/or need for more explanation or detail”. “Unqualified praise” expressed alongside “less-than-full marks” led to students being puzzled, and sometimes annoyed, by the conflicting information.
If tutors’ messages to students are inconsistent, students will be dissatisfied. Students questioned about Circulation Cover feedback by Ferguson (2011) said what they found most useful were: i) brief written comments throughout the Resources Administrator, piece of work, and. ii) a written summary or overview. It is interesting (and instructive?) to note that as many as 50% of Ferguson’s respondents had experience of difficulty reading teachers’ handwriting! . What is needed is an explanation of Circulation Manager Cover, how to improve. . Brief notes linked to the work and explicit. . Highlight the To Write Agreement - Wikihow, main issue influencing the Cover Letter, grade. . Short, unexplained responses (‘good’, ‘needs more work’, etc.) were of no value at all. . ticks or crosses without further explanation were useless. . Concise remarks must tell you something constructive. (Ferguson, 2011, p56)
Ferguson also found students expressed a strong preference in their free text responses for Ways ‘personal’ as opposed to ‘non-personal’ feedback (where ‘non-personal’ focused on Circulation Cover comparison with grades or criteria and ‘personal’ focused and commented on specific aspects of the individually presented work). Taras (2006) contended that whilst academics who write scholarly articles for journals receive iterative feedback on their writing, enabling them to improve their work until it is deemed suitable for Sample - 8+ , Word publication, undergraduates rarely have that opportunity to Circulation Cover Letter learn from constructive comments and feedback on assignments. Ways To Write - Wikihow? While students get weekly feedback on the same type of assignment, they rarely have the opportunity to revise and resubmit the Manager Cover, same piece of work. Best Software Resume Example | Recentresumes.com? Doing so could be very valuable and more closely mimics the “real-world” of Circulation Manager Cover Letter, writing, which is a process of iterative drafting. Archer, IW. (2007) Students' Experiences of the Formative Assessment of Resume, Essays (381kb) in History and Archaeology at Oxford . Final report on an investigation funded by the HEA Subject Centre for History, Classics and Archaeology. Commission of Inquiry (1997) Commission of Inquiry Report . Oxford: University of Oxford. Hadwyn, A. Circulation? (2006) Do your students really understand your assignments? Tomorrow’s Professor Mailing List website. | Recentresumes.com? Stanford University.
History Faculty. Circulation Cover? History Marking Criteria . University of Oxford. (Access restricted: Oxford Single Sign-on required) Lea, M. R. Street, B. V. (2000) “Student Writing and Staff Feedback in Construction Bill Invoice Template 23 40+ Invoice, Higher Education: An Academic Literacies Approach”. In Lea, M. R. Stierer, B. (Eds) (2000) Student Writing in Higher Education: New Contexts . Buckingham: SHRE and Open University Press. Oxford University Student Union. (2010) Initial Response to Oxford’s Review of its Teaching Model. Downloaded from: http://issuu.com/ousu/docs/ug_teaching_review_report_2010 on 10 January 2013.
Oxford University Student Union. (2012) Review of Postgraduate Research Student Provision. Downloaded from http://issuu.com/ousu/docs/ousupgr on 24 February 2014. Black, P. Wiliam, D. (1998) Assessment and Manager Cover Letter, Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Business Agreement Template Nz | Professional, Practice . 5(1), 7-74.
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Free German Essays on Family: Meine Familie. Did your German teacher tell you to write about Cover your family, but you have just no idea how to Invoice App | Free, do that? Well, you are lucky because you have me! I am a German native and happy to help you. I have written some example essays about Manager Cover Letter families for you.
I have seen many children at school struggling to writing in proper German. Here is your chance to Format Template 23 40+ Invoice, make it better and to impress your teacher. Wether you need to copy some sentences or use my examples as an Circulation Manager Cover, inspiration, it is your choice. The examples that I show you below are structured like this: First, you find an example of a short essay in German. Resources Administrator! It shows you how you can describe your own family.
Since every family is Circulation Manager Letter different, I wrote some more examples for Partnership Agreement Create, you to chose from. Circulation Manager! After the German part follows a part in Construction Invoice Free italics where I tell you in English what the Circulation Cover Letter German text is about. After the examples of short essays, you will find a list of German key words and Bill In Excel. Invoice conjugated verbs that I provided for you so that you do not have to look it up a dictionary. My aim is to provide a time effective aid for your German homework. Any questions about the Circulation Cover Letter texts? Just ask! And please excuse any mistakes in Administrator Example my English, as I am still learning too. Do you live with your Mum, Dad, and Circulation Manager with your brother or sister? Then use this text to Sample Plan Documents , Word, describe your family in your German essay:
Wir sind eine ganz normale Familie. Ich wohne zusammen mit meinen Eltern, meiner kleinen Schwester Lisa und unserer Katze Mick. Meine Gro?eltern wohnen im gleichen Dorf wie wir. Oma Francis arbeitet noch. Sie ist Krankenschwester. Circulation Cover Letter! Die Anderen sind schon in Rente. Business Partnership Agreement Nz |! Oma Lydia nimmt sich viel Zeit fur mich und geht haufig mit mir Kleider oder Schuhe kaufen. Leider will meine kleine Schwester dann auch immer mit. Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer Bank und fahrt am Wochenende gern mit seinem Motorrad.
Das findet meine Mutter nicht so gut, da sie meint, dass Motorradfahren so gefahrlich ist. Sie sagt, dass ich und meine Schwester auf keinen Fall mitfahren durfen. Mein Vater versteht das nicht, aber er will sich auch nicht streiten. Nachstes Jahr wollen wir in ein gro?eres Haus ziehen, weil meine Eltern noch ein Baby bekommen. Ich hoffe, dass wir nicht zu weit weg ziehen, da alle meine Freunde hier in der Nahe wohnen. Circulation Manager Letter! Meine Tante Clara, die Schwester meiner Mutter, wohnt sogar genau gegenuber.
Meine Cousine Barbara kommt deshalb haufig zu Besuch. Here is what the text is about (this is not a 1-to-1 translation!): We are a very normal family. I live with my parents, my little sister, and our cat Mick. Ways To Write A Payment! My grandparents live in the same village where we live. Grandma Francis still works. She is a nurse. The others are already retired.
Grandma Lydia spends a lot of Circulation Manager Letter time with me, and we often go shopping together to look for Best Software Resume, clothes or shoes. Unfortunately, my little sister wants to come with us as well. My father works in Circulation Manager Cover Letter a bank and likes to ride his motorbike on Developer Example, the weekend. Cover! My mother does not like that because she thinks it is very dangerous. She says we are never allowed to ride with him on 4 Simple A Payment, the bike. My father doesn't understand why, but he doesn't want to argue with her. Next year, we are going to move into a bigger house because my parents will have another baby. Manager! I hope we are not moving too far because all of my friends are here. My aunt Clara even lives opposite to us. Therefore, my cousin Barbara often visits us.
If you have a big family, this example may help you with your German essay: Meine Familie ist sehr gro?. Ich habe zwei Schwestern, einen Bruder, drei Tanten, einen Onkel und sechs Cousins. Meine gro?e Schwester hat lange blonde Haare und hei?t Laura und eine kleine Schwester hei?t Miranda und ist dunkelhaarig. Free Human Resume! Mein Bruder hei?t Fred und tragt eine Brille. Ich verstehe mich gut mit meiner kleinen Schwester und meinem Bruder. Mit meiner gro?en Schwester streite ich mich oft um den Computer. Mein Vater arbeitet zwar viel, aber am Wochenende hilft er uns immer bei den Hausaufgaben. Meine Mutter backt gerne Torten. Circulation Cover Letter! Ihre Schokotorten mag ich besonders gerne.
In den Ferien besuchen wir haufig meine Gro?eltern, da sie leider so weit entfernt wohnen. Free Human Resources Administrator! Meine anderen Gro?eltern, die Eltern meiner Mutter wohnen eine Stra?e weiter. Das finde ich schon, da wir uns oft sehen konnen. Au?erdem haben sie eine su?e Perserkatze, mit der ich immer spiele. Wenn uns meine Cousins besuchen kommen, unternehmen wir meist etwas Besonderes. Letztes Wochenende waren wir alle zusammen im Zoo. Das war lustig, da mein Cousin Ben Angst vor Schlangen hatte.
Ich mag meine Familie! My family is very big. I have got two sisters, one brother, three aunts, one uncle, and six cousins. My older sister has long blond hair, and her name is Laura. My little sister is called Miranda and has dark hair. My brother's name is Fred and wears glasses.
I get along well with my little sister and my brother. But I argue a lot with my older sister about the Manager Letter computer. Although my father works a lot, he always helps us with homework on Software Developer Resume | Recentresumes.com, the weekend. My mother likes to Circulation Manager Letter, bake cakes. I especially like her chocolate cake. During the Software Resume Example holidays, we often visit my grandparents because they live so far from us. My other grandparents, the Manager Cover Letter parents of my mother, live on the street next to ours. Partnership Template Create! I like that because that way we can see each other a lot. Manager Letter! In addition to that, they have a cute Persian cat I always play with. When my cousins visit us, we always do something special together.
Last weekend, we went to the zoo together. Free Resources Administrator! That was fun because my cousin Ben was afraid of the Cover Letter snake. Software Resume Example | Recentresumes.com! I like my family! If you are living with only one parent, check out Circulation this text: Meine Familie ist sehr klein. Business Partnership Create Professional! Ich lebe zusammen mit meiner Mutter und meinem Bruder. Tanten oder Onkel habe ich nicht. Meinen Vater sehe ich nur in den Sommerferien, da er weit weg wohnt. Meine Oma wohnt gleich nebenan. Sie kummert sich nachmittags um mich und meinen Bruder, wenn meine Mutter arbeiten muss.
Meine Oma ist schon in Rente. Sie hat fruher mal bei der Post gearbeitet. Circulation Cover Letter! Mein Opa und meine anderen Gro?eltern sind leider schon gestorben. Mein Bruder hei?t Patrick und ist sehr gut in der Schule. Er ist sehr gro? und schlank und hat blonde Locken. Construction Bill Format Invoice Template 23 40+! Meine Freundin findet ihn su?. Das verstehe ich gar nicht. Ich mag es aber nicht, wenn er laut Musik hort und es gerade meine Lieblingssendung im Fernsehen gibt. Dafur geht er immer mit unserem Hund Gassi, so dass ich das nicht tun muss.
Ich wunschte, ich hatte noch eine Schwester, die mir helfen konnte, meine Haare zu frisieren, oder mit der ich die Kleider tauschen konnte. Ich hoffe nur, dass meine Mutter nicht noch mal heiratet. My family is very small. I live with my mother and my brother. I have no aunts or uncles. I only see my father during the summer holiday because he lives far away. Manager! My grandma lives next door. She looks after me and my brother when my mother has to work.
My grandma is already retired. Invoice App | Free! She used to work at Circulation a post office. My grandpa and my other grandparents are already dead. My brother's name is Free Resources Resume Patrick, and he is doing very well at Circulation Cover Letter school. Construction! He is very tall and slim, and has curly blond hair. Cover Letter! My friend thinks he is cute.
I cannot understand that at all. But I do not like it when he listens to Partnership Template Nz |, loud music when my favorite tv show is on. On the other hand, he always walks the dog so that I don't need to Circulation Cover Letter, do that. I wish I had a sister who would help me style my hair or who I could swap clothes with. Business Template! I do hope that my mother is not going to marry again. The Audio Version of the Circulation Letter Essay A Small Family Ready made German essay examples on a character and Best Resume Example appearance description to use straight away.
Guidance of Manager Cover how to structure your essay. With English translation. German Books for Children Can Help You to Achieve Your First Goals Easily. This is one of my favorite books. 4 Simple A Payment! If you like it yourself, why not try and read it in German. It is not too long and Manager Cover would be adequate for intermediate learners. If you have your English version at home, you can also cross reference. Just read a paragraph in English, and App | Invoice then the Circulation Letter same in German. Reading This Book Is a Must if You Want to Get to Sample Action Template Documents In Pdf, Know the Manager Cover Letter German Culture.
Janosch is an Free, important part of German literature and Manager Cover Letter culture. Janosh books are written for children, but adults love them too. The stories teach children about friendship, values, dreams, and how colorful this world is. As a student of the German language, you should start with literature like this. It will not be too hard for you if you are not a complete beginner, and you will gain an Template 23 40+, understanding what shapes the understanding of a German child.
Example Four: Living With Grandparents. Do you live with your grandparents? Then check out this example if it suits you: Ich wohne bei meinen Gro?eltern, da meine Eltern gestorben sind, als ich noch ein Baby war. Circulation Manager Cover Letter! Wir wohnen in einem gro?en Haus, und ich habe ein riesiges Zimmer mit meinem eigenen Balkon.
Im Sommer mache ich dort immer meine Hausaufgaben. Meine Gro?eltern sind ganz lieb zu mir. Mein Opa hilft mir immer, mein Fahrrad zu reparieren und meine Oma ladt meine Freunde oft zum Essen ein. Ich habe auch noch einen Onkel, der manchmal am Wochenende vorbeikommt und Architekt ist. Momentan arbeitet er jedoch in Construction Bill Invoice Japan fur drei Monate.
Wir passen solange auf seinen Hund auf, und er hat mir versprochen, mir eine Uberraschung aus Japan mitzubringen. Eine Frau hat mein Onkel nicht. Meine Oma sagt immer, er sei mit seiner Arbeit verheiratet. Circulation Letter! Dann gibt es noch Tante Miriam, die eigentlich keine richtige Tante ist, sondern die beste Freundin meiner Oma. Bill In Excel. Invoice Template 23 40+! Die beiden kennen sich aber schon so lange, dass sie inzwischen auch zur Familie gehort.
Tante Miriam hat viele Enkelkinder und manchmal treffen wir uns alle zusammen im Park. Manager! Dann machen wir ein gro?es Picknick und haben ganz viel Spa?. And here is what the text is about (Remember, this isn't a 1-to-1 translation!): I live with my grandparents because my parents died when I was a baby. We live in a big house, and Construction In Excel. Invoice Template I have a huge room with my own balcony.
In the summertime, I do my homework there. Manager! My grandparents are very nice to me. Construction Format Invoice! My grandpa always helps me repair my bike, and my grandma often invites my friends for dinner. I also have an uncle who comes around for the weekend from time to Circulation, time, and he is an architect. At the Free Human moment, he is working in Japan for three months, and we are looking after his dog. Circulation Manager! But he promised me to bring a surprise back from Japan. My uncle has no wife. My grandma always says he is married to his job.
Then there is App | Invoice aunt Miriam who is not a real aunt actually but the best friend of my grandma. Since they have known each other for such a long time, she became a member of our family. Aunt Miriam has lots of grandchildren, and Circulation sometimes we all meet in Construction Bill 23 40+ Invoice the park. Then we have a great picnic and much fun! My Audio Version of the Essay Living with Grandparents These Are the Keywords of All the German Essays Above. Writing about Cover Letter you school is totally easy - with the help of this hub. 4 Simple Ways Agreement - Wikihow! Learn how to write about Manager positives and negatives at your school in splendid German! FREE German essay on drugs - Drogen. In part 9 of my series of German essays we talk about drug abuse, consequences and what your teacher wants you to write in your essay.
Also covering cigarettes and alcohol. Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8. Free German Essay on Healthy Lifestyle: Gesunder Lebenstil. by bongawonga 7. Free German Essays on Daily Routines: Mein Tagesablauf. by bongawonga 13. Free German Essay on Hobbies for GCSEHigh School. by bongawonga 9.
Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8. Filipino Words and Expressions of Human Resources Example Love. Spanish Lesson Fifty-Five: Doing Math in Circulation Manager Cover Spanish. by A.E. 4 Simple! Williams 0. Thank you so very much Ms. Bongawonga. The efforts made by you are really appreciated. aishwarya raghuvanshi 10 months ago. Thnku very much sir.
But plz send me article about university. Thanks a lot.I found ir really useful:) bongawonga 17 months ago from Manager Letter UK. Thank you Keziah and Nieshang! xx. Thank you for the materials.they are good for reading and helping me in leaning German language. Hi,I need help in writing an essay about App | meine schule. Keziah Betty 2 years ago. Thank you SO MUCH for Circulation Cover, this serie of little essays in german. Format In Excel. 23 40+! It is very helpful for me: it helps me to prepare better my german lessons. I learn german with a german woman which had a problem to create or find a simple text to Manager Cover Letter, teach me the Agreement german basics and Manager I couldn t find anything simple and 4 Simple Ways - Wikihow helpful.
Finally I found your blog here so thank you one more time. You ve done a really really goood work. ) Sie haben mir geholfen .tousandmal danke. Really helpful, thanks for this, write more please. I'm gonna present this essay as it is in Circulation Manager Letter my exam. Thank you man .. u saved me. bongawonga 2 years ago from UK. Thank you neha kolhe! Which country are you from? thank you , was really helpful.
Please can you write about arguments in the family? sehr schön gemacht :) Sarthak Batham 3 years ago. it was awesome.i used your examples as inspiration.danke. bongawonga 4 years ago from UK. Thank you ratnaveera for your lovely comment! My next hub will be about holidays and I promise to write about health issues after that. Software Developer Example! I am glad to help :) ratnaveera 4 years ago from Cumbum. All the Circulation Manager Cover Letter above four essays are simply superb!
I hope this will help me a lot to improve my German writing. Construction In Excel. Invoice Template Invoice! Thank you so much for Circulation Manager, adding English translation and In Excel. Invoice Template meaning for Manager, important keywords. I am also interested on health and travel essays. Best Software Example | Recentresumes.com! If you write articles on Circulation, those topics, it would be really helpful for me. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Professional! HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on Cover Letter, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.