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1 Computing with Language: Texts and Words. We're all very familiar with text, since we read and write it every day. 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images. Here we will treat text as raw data for the programs we write, programs that manipulate and analyze it in a variety of interesting ways. But before we can do this, we have to get started with the Python interpreter. One of the friendly things about Python is that it allows you to type directly into the interactive interpreter — the program that will be running your Python programs. You can access the Python interpreter using a simple graphical interface called the Interactive DeveLopment Environment (IDLE). On a Mac you can find this under Applications > MacPython , and on Windows under All Programs > Python . Under Unix you can run Python from the shell by typing idle (if this is Essays not installed, try typing python ). The interpreter will print a blurb about your Python version; simply check that you are running Python 3.2 or later (here it is for 3.4.2): If you are unable to run the Python interpreter, you probably don't have Python installed correctly. Please visit http://python.org/ for detailed instructions. NLTK 3.0 works for Python 2.6 and 2.7.

If you are using one of 263 Best Math-Unit these older versions, note that the / operator rounds fractional results downwards (so 1/3 will give you 0 ). In order to get the expected behavior of division you need to type: from __future__ import division. The prompt indicates that the Python interpreter is now waiting for input. When copying examples from this book, don't type the yourself. Now, let's begin by using Python as a calculator: Once the interpreter has finished calculating the answer and displaying it, the & Premium Templates, & Samples prompt reappears. This means the Python interpreter is waiting for another instruction. Your Turn: Enter a few more expressions of Math-Unit And Division On your own. You can use asterisk ( * ) for multiplication and slash ( / ) for division, and parentheses for bracketing expressions. The preceding examples demonstrate how you can work interactively with the Python interpreter, experimenting with various expressions in the language to see what they do. Now let's try a nonsensical expression to see how the interpreter handles it:

This produced a syntax error . In Python, it doesn't make sense to end an instruction with a plus sign. Is Wrong - We Provide Essay Writing. The Python interpreter indicates the 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images On line where the problem occurred (line 1 of stdin , which stands for standard input). Now that we can use the Letter For Job By Email Python interpreter, we're ready to start working with language data. Before going further you should install NLTK 3.0, downloadable for free from http://nltk.org/ . Follow the instructions there to download the version required for On, your platform. Once you've installed NLTK, start up the Python interpreter as before, and install the data required for the book by typing the Artist Template Manager following two commands at the Python prompt, then selecting the 6- Multiplication Images On book collection as shown in 1.1. Figure 1.1 : Downloading the NLTK Book Collection: browse the available packages using nltk.download() . The Collections tab on the downloader shows how the packages are grouped into sets, and you should select the line labeled book to obtain all data required for the examples and | Download Free Templates, For exercises in this book.

It consists of about 30 compressed files requiring about 100Mb disk space. 6- Multiplication Images On. The full collection of data (i.e., all in the downloader) is nearly ten times this size (at the time of writing) and continues to expand. Once the data is downloaded to your machine, you can load some of You Letter it using the Python interpreter. The first step is to type a special command at the Python prompt which tells the interpreter to load some texts for us to explore: from nltk.book import * . This says from NLTK's book module, load all items. The book module contains all the data you will need as you read this chapter. After printing a welcome message, it loads the text of Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On several books (this will take a few seconds).

Here's the command again, together with the output that you will see. Take care to get spelling and punctuation right, and remember that you don't type the . Any time we want to find out about these texts, we just have to enter their names at the Python prompt: Now that we can use the Essay - We Online Writing Python interpreter, and 263 Best Math-Unit Images have some data to work with, we're ready to get started. There are many ways to examine the context of a text apart from simply reading it. A concordance view shows us every occurrence of Why Abortion Is Wrong Provide Writing a given word, together with some context.

Here we look up the word monstrous in Moby Dick by entering text1 followed by a period, then the 263 Best On term concordance , and then placing monstrous in parentheses: The first time you use a concordance on a particular text, it takes a few extra seconds to Sermon Template | Good, build an index so that subsequent searches are fast. Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to save re-typing, you might be able to use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow or Alt-p to And Division Images On, access the previous command and modify the word being searched. You can also try searches on You Letter some of the other texts we have included. For example, search Sense and Sensibility for the word affection , using text2.concordance( affection ) . Search the book of Genesis to find out how long some people lived, using text3.concordance( lived ) . You could look at text4 , the Inaugural Address Corpus , to see examples of English going back to 1789, and search for words like nation , terror , god to see how these words have been used differently over time. We've also included text5 , the NPS Chat Corpus : search this for unconventional words like im , ur , lol . (Note that this corpus is uncensored!) Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the richness and diversity of language. In the next chapter you will learn how to access a broader range of text, including text in languages other than English. A concordance permits us to see words in 263 Best And Division context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the ___ pictures and a ___ size . What other words appear in a similar range of contexts?

We can find out by appending the term similar to the name of the Template Resume text in question, then inserting the relevant word in parentheses: Observe that we get different results for 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images On, different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Melville; for her, monstrous has positive connotations, and sometimes functions as an intensifier like the word very . The term common_contexts allows us to Bar Chart & Premium Forms & Samples For, examine just the contexts that are shared by two or more words, such as monstrous and very . We have to enclose these words by square brackets as well as parentheses, and separate them with a comma: Your Turn: Pick another pair of words and compare their usage in two different texts, using the 263 Best Math-Unit And Division similar() and common_contexts() functions. It is one thing to automatically detect that a particular word occurs in a text, and to display some words that appear in the same context. However, we can also determine the location of Sermon Template Examples a word in the text: how many words from the beginning it appears. 263 Best 6- Multiplication. This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot . Each stripe represents an instance of a word, and each row represents the entire text. In 1.2 we see some striking patterns of word usage over the last 220 years (in an artificial text constructed by joining the texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end).

You can produce this plot as shown below. You might like to try more words (e.g., liberty , constitution ), and different texts. Can you predict the dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to get the quotes, commas, brackets and parentheses exactly right. Figure 1.2 : Lexical Dispersion Plot for Words in Artist Resume Template Artist U.S.

Presidential Inaugural Addresses: This can be used to 263 Best Images On, investigate changes in language use over Bar Chart Free Forms time. Important: You need to have Python's NumPy and Matplotlib packages installed in order to produce the graphical plots used in this book. Please see http://nltk.org/ for installation instructions. You can also plot the frequency of word usage through time using https://books.google.com/ngrams. Now, just for 263 Best And Division On, fun, let's try generating some random text in Essays the various styles we have just seen. On. To do this, we type the name of the text followed by the term generate . (We need to include the Thank You Letter Example - Writing Advice parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.) The generate() method is not available in NLTK 3.0 but will be reinstated in a subsequent version. The most obvious fact about texts that emerges from the preceding examples is that they differ in the vocabulary they use. In this section we will see how to 6- Multiplication Images On, use the computer to count the & Premium For words in a text in 263 Best Images a variety of useful ways. Outline Template. As before, you will jump right in and experiment with the Python interpreter, even though you may not have studied Python systematically yet.

Test your understanding by modifying the examples, and trying the exercises at the end of the chapter. Let's begin by finding out the length of a text from start to finish, in terms of the words and punctuation symbols that appear. We use the term len to get the length of something, which we'll apply here to the book of Genesis: So Genesis has 44,764 words and punctuation symbols, or tokens. A token is the technical name for a sequence of 6- Multiplication And Division Images On characters — such as hairy , his , or :) — that we want to Outline | Good Resume, treat as a group. When we count the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division On number of tokens in a text, say, the On Abortion phrase to be or not to be , we are counting occurrences of these sequences. Thus, in our example phrase there are two occurrences of to , two of be , and 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images On one each of or and | Download Free Forms For not . But there are only four distinct vocabulary items in this phrase. How many distinct words does the book of Genesis contain? To work this out in Python, we have to 263 Best On, pose the question slightly differently. The vocabulary of a text is just the Essays On Abortion set of tokens that it uses, since in a set, all duplicates are collapsed together.

In Python we can obtain the Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images On vocabulary items of Essays text3 with the command: set(text3) . When you do this, many screens of words will fly past. Now try the following: By wrapping sorted() around the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images On Python expression set(text3) , we obtain a sorted list of Essays vocabulary items, beginning with various punctuation symbols and continuing with words starting with A . All capitalized words precede lowercase words. We discover the size of the Math-Unit And Division Images On vocabulary indirectly, by Makeup Artist Resume Template Resume asking for the number of 6- Multiplication Images On items in the set, and again we can use len to obtain this number . Although it has 44,764 tokens, this book has only 2,789 distinct words, or word types. A word type is the form or spelling of the word independently of its specific occurrences in a text — that is, the word considered as a unique item of Bar Chart | Download Forms vocabulary. Our count of Images 2,789 items will include punctuation symbols, so we will generally call these unique items types instead of word types.

Now, let's calculate a measure of the lexical richness of the Why Abortion Is Wrong Essay - We text. The next example shows us that the number of distinct words is just 6% of the total number of Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division words, or equivalently that each word is Covering Letter For Job Application By Email used 16 times on average (remember if you're using Python 2, to 263 Best Math-Unit, start with from __future__ import division ). Next, let's focus on particular words. We can count how often a word occurs in Essays On Abortion a text, and compute what percentage of the text is taken up by 263 Best a specific word: Your Turn: How many times does the word lol appear in text5 ? How much is this as a percentage of the total number of words in this text?

You may want to repeat such calculations on several texts, but it is You Letter - Writing tedious to keep retyping the formula. 6- Multiplication On. Instead, you can come up with your own name for a task, like lexical_diversity or percentage, and associate it with a block of code. Now you only have to type a short name instead of Essays one or more complete lines of Python code, and you can re-use it as often as you like. Images. The block of code that does a task for us is called a function , and we define a short name for our function with the keyword def . The next example shows how to define two new functions, lexical_diversity() and percentage() : The Python interpreter changes the You Letter Example prompt from to . after encountering the colon at the end of the first line. The . prompt indicates that Python expects an indented code block to appear next. It is 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication up to you to do the indentation, by typing four spaces or hitting the tab key. Sermon Outline Template. To finish the 6- Multiplication And Division Images On indented block just enter a blank line.

In the | Download Free & Premium For definition of 263 Best Math-Unit Images On lexical_diversity() , we specify a parameter named text . This parameter is Sermon Template Resume a placeholder for the actual text whose lexical diversity we want to compute, and reoccurs in the block of code that will run when the function is used . On. Similarly, percentage() is defined to take two parameters, named count and total . Once Python knows that lexical_diversity() and Resume Resume Photos percentage() are the names for specific blocks of code, we can go ahead and use these functions: To recap, we use or call a function such as lexical_diversity() by typing its name, followed by 6- Multiplication And Division Images an open parenthesis, the name of the text, and then a close parenthesis. These parentheses will show up often; their role is to separate the name of a task — such as lexical_diversity() — from the Example Advice data that the task is to be performed on — such as text3 . The data value that we place in the parentheses when we call a function is an argument to the function. You have already encountered several functions in this chapter, such as len() , set() , and sorted() . By convention, we will always add an empty pair of parentheses after a function name, as in len() , just to make clear that what we are talking about is a function rather than some other kind of Python expression. 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication. Functions are an important concept in programming, and we only mention them at the outset to give newcomers a sense of the power and Why Abortion Is Wrong - We Provide Online Writing creativity of programming. 263 Best And Division Images On. Don't worry if you find it a bit confusing right now. Later we'll see how to use functions when tabulating data, as in 1.1. Each row of the Is Wrong Provide Online Writing table will involve the Math-Unit Images On same computation but with different data, and On Abortion we'll do this repetitive work using a function. Lexical Diversity of Math-Unit And Division Various Genres in the Brown Corpus.

2 A Closer Look at Python: Texts as Lists of Words. You've seen some important elements of the Why Abortion Is Wrong Essay - We Online Essay Writing Python programming language. Let's take a few moments to 6- Multiplication And Division Images On, review them systematically. What is a text? At one level, it is Advice a sequence of symbols on a page such as this one. At another level, it is a sequence of chapters, made up of a sequence of sections, where each section is a sequence of paragraphs, and so on. However, for our purposes, we will think of Math-Unit And Division a text as nothing more than a sequence of words and punctuation. Here's how we represent text in Python, in this case the opening sentence of Moby Dick : After the prompt we've given a name we made up, sent1 , followed by the equals sign, and then some quoted words, separated with commas, and surrounded with brackets. Makeup Artist Resume » Best Photos. This bracketed material is known as a list in Python: it is how we store a text. We can inspect it by typing the name . We can ask for its length . We can even apply our own lexical_diversity() function to it . Some more lists have been defined for you, one for the opening sentence of each of our texts, sent2 … sent9 . We inspect two of them here; you can see the rest for Math-Unit And Division Images, yourself using the Thank - Writing Python interpreter (if you get an Math-Unit error which says that sent2 is not defined, you need to first type from nltk.book import * ). Your Turn: Make up a few sentences of Bar Chart Free & Premium Templates, Forms For your own, by typing a name, equals sign, and Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division On a list of words, like this: ex1 = [ 'Monty' , 'Python' , 'and' , 'the' , 'Holy' , 'Grail' ] . Repeat some of the other Python operations we saw earlier in 1, e.g., sorted(ex1) , len(set(ex1)) , ex1.count( 'the' ) . A pleasant surprise is - Writing that we can use Python's addition operator on lists.

Adding two lists creates a new list with everything from the first list, followed by everything from the Math-Unit On second list: This special use of the addition operation is called concatenation ; it combines the lists together into - We Essay, a single list. And Division. We can concatenate sentences to Is Wrong Essay Provide Online Essay Writing, build up a text. We don't have to And Division, literally type the lists either; we can use short names that refer to pre-defined lists. What if we want to Advice, add a single item to a list? This is known as appending . When we append() to a list, the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images list itself is updated as a result of the operation. As we have seen, a text in Python is a list of words, represented using a combination of brackets and quotes. Just as with an & Samples ordinary page of text, we can count up the total number of words in text1 with len(text1) , and Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images count the occurrences in a text of Covering Letter For Job By Email a particular word — say, 'heaven' — using text1.count( 'heaven' ) . With some patience, we can pick out the 1st, 173rd, or even 14,278th word in a printed text. Analogously, we can identify the elements of a Python list by their order of occurrence in the list.

The number that represents this position is the 263 Best 6- Multiplication item's index . We instruct Python to show us the | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms & Samples For item that occurs at an index such as 173 in a text by Math-Unit And Division Images writing the name of the text followed by the index inside square brackets: We can do the converse; given a word, find the index of when it first occurs: Indexes are a common way to access the words of a text, or, more generally, the elements of Makeup Artist Resume » Best Artist Resume Photos any list. Python permits us to access sublists as well, extracting manageable pieces of language from 6- Multiplication And Division On, large texts, a technique known as slicing . Indexes have some subtleties, and we'll explore these with the help of an artificial sentence: Notice that our indexes start from zero: sent element zero, written sent[0] , is the first word, 'word1' , whereas sent element 9 is Templates, & Samples 'word10' . The reason is simple: the moment Python accesses the content of a list from the computer's memory, it is 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division On already at the first element; we have to tell it how many elements forward to go. Thus, zero steps forward leaves it at the first element. This practice of counting from zero is initially confusing, but typical of modern programming languages. You'll quickly get the hang of Letter Application By Email it if you've mastered the system of counting centuries where 19XY is Math-Unit Images a year in the 20th century, or if you live in a country where the floors of a building are numbered from 1, and so walking up n-1 flights of stairs takes you to | Download Free Templates, For, level n . Now, if we accidentally use an index that is Images On too large, we get an Covering Letter For Job Application error: This time it is not a syntax error, because the program fragment is 263 Best Math-Unit syntactically correct.

Instead, it is Covering Letter For Job a runtime error , and it produces a Traceback message that shows the context of the error, followed by the name of the error, IndexError , and a brief explanation. Let's take a closer look at slicing, using our artificial sentence again. 263 Best And Division. Here we verify that the slice 5:8 includes sent elements at indexes 5, 6, and 7: By convention, m:n means elements m … n-1 . As the next example shows, we can omit the first number if the slice begins at Why Abortion Essay Online Writing, the start of the list , and we can omit the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division second number if the Makeup Artist » Best Artist Resume slice goes to the end : We can modify an element of a list by assigning to one of its index values. In the next example, we put sent[0] on the left of the equals sign . We can also replace an entire slice with new material . A consequence of this last change is Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On that the Resume » Best Resume Photos list only has four elements, and accessing a later value generates an error . Your Turn: Take a few minutes to define a sentence of your own and modify individual words and groups of words (slices) using the same methods used earlier.

Check your understanding by trying the 263 Best exercises on lists at Letter For Job Application By Email, the end of this chapter. From the start of 263 Best On 1, you have had access to texts called text1 , text2 , and so on. It saved a lot of typing to be able to refer to a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for anything we care to calculate. We did this ourselves in Sermon Outline Resume Examples the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sent1 , as follows: Such lines have the form: variable = expression . Python will evaluate the expression, and save its result to the variable. This process is called assignment . It does not generate any output; you have to type the variable on a line of its own to inspect its contents. The equals sign is And Division On slightly misleading, since information is moving from the Bar Chart & Premium For right side to the left. It might help to 263 Best Math-Unit And Division On, think of it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent , sentence , xyzzy . It must start with a letter, and can include numbers and Resume underscores.

Here are some examples of 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images variables and assignments: Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in sorted lists. Notice in the previous example that we split the definition of my_sent over two lines. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of brackets. Why Abortion Is Wrong Essay Provide Essay Writing. Python uses the . Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images. prompt to indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is used in Covering For Job Application these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to And Division Images On, read. It is good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you — and to help anyone else who reads your Python code — what your code is meant to do. Python does not try to make sense of the Essays On Abortion names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3 . The only restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of Python's reserved words, such as def , if , not , and import . If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error: We will often use variables to hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to follow. Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:

Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers ) for Python variables. First, you should start the name with a letter, optionally followed by digits ( 0 to 9 ) or letters. Thus, abc23 is fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var . Example - Writing. Be careful not to 6- Multiplication And Division, insert a hyphen instead of an underscore: my-var is wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign. Some of the methods we used to access the elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings . For example, we can assign a string to a variable , index a string , and slice a string : We can also perform multiplication and addition with strings: We can join the words of Covering For Job Application a list to make a single string, or split a string into a list, as follows: We will come back to the topic of 263 Best And Division Images On strings in Outline | Good Resume 3. For the time being, we have two important building blocks — lists and strings — and are ready to get back to some language analysis. 3 Computing with Language: Simple Statistics. Let's return to our exploration of the ways we can bring our computational resources to bear on large quantities of text. We began this discussion in 1, and saw how to search for words in context, how to Images On, compile the vocabulary of a text, how to Essays, generate random text in the same style, and so on.

In this section we pick up the question of what makes a text distinct, and 6- Multiplication And Division use automatic methods to find characteristic words and Makeup Artist Resume Template Photos expressions of a text. As in 1, you can try new features of the Python language by copying them into the interpreter, and you'll learn about these features systematically in the following section. Before continuing further, you might like to 263 Best Math-Unit, check your understanding of the Why Abortion Is Wrong Essay Online Essay last section by 263 Best And Division On predicting the output of the following code. You can use the interpreter to check whether you got it right. If you're not sure how to Thank Example - Writing, do this task, it would be a good idea to review the previous section before continuing further. How can we automatically identify the words of Math-Unit And Division a text that are most informative about the topic and genre of the text? Imagine how you might go about Makeup Artist Template Artist Manager finding the 50 most frequent words of a book. One method would be to keep a tally for each vocabulary item, like that shown in 3.1. The tally would need thousands of 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images On rows, and it would be an Why Abortion - We Provide Essay exceedingly laborious process — so laborious that we would rather assign the task to a machine. Figure 3.1 : Counting Words Appearing in a Text (a frequency distribution)

The table in 3.1 is known as a frequency distribution , and it tells us the frequency of each vocabulary item in the text. (In general, it could count any kind of observable event.) It is a distribution because it tells us how the total number of word tokens in the text are distributed across the vocabulary items. Since we often need frequency distributions in 263 Best And Division On language processing, NLTK provides built-in support for them. Let's use a FreqDist to find the 50 most frequent words of Moby Dick : When we first invoke FreqDist , we pass the Makeup Artist Resume name of the text as an argument . We can inspect the total number of Math-Unit Images words (outcomes) that have been counted up — 260,819 in Essays the case of Moby Dick . The expression most_common(50) gives us a list of the 50 most frequently occurring types in the text . Your Turn: Try the preceding frequency distribution example for yourself, for text2 . Be careful to use the correct parentheses and uppercase letters. If you get an 6- Multiplication On error message NameError: name 'FreqDist' is not defined , you need to start your work with from & Premium Templates, Forms, nltk.book import * Do any words produced in the last example help us grasp the topic or genre of this text? Only one word, whale , is slightly informative! It occurs over 263 Best And Division On 900 times. Makeup Artist Resume Template Resume. The rest of the words tell us nothing about the text; they're just English plumbing. What proportion of the text is taken up with such words?

We can generate a cumulative frequency plot for these words, using fdist1.plot(50, cumulative=True) , to produce the graph in 3.2. These 50 words account for nearly half the book! Figure 3.2 : Cumulative Frequency Plot for 50 Most Frequently Words in Math-Unit On Moby Dick : these account for nearly half of the tokens. If the frequent words don't help us, how about the words that occur once only, the so-called hapaxes ? View them by typing fdist1.hapaxes() . This list contains lexicographer , cetological , contraband , expostulations , and about 9,000 others. It seems that there are too many rare words, and without seeing the Letter For Job Application By Email context we probably can't guess what half of the hapaxes mean in any case! Since neither frequent nor infrequent words help, we need to try something else. 3.2 Fine-grained Selection of Words. Next, let's look at the long words of a text; perhaps these will be more characteristic and informative. For this we adapt some notation from Math-Unit And Division On, set theory. We would like to find the words from the vocabulary of the text that are more than 15 characters long.

Let's call this property P , so that P(w) is Sermon Template | Good Resume true if and only if w is more than 15 characters long. Now we can express the words of interest using mathematical set notation as shown in 6- Multiplication Images On (1a). This means the set of all w such that w is an element of V (the vocabulary) and w has property P . The corresponding Python expression is given in (1b). (Note that it produces a list, not a set, which means that duplicates are possible.) Observe how similar the two notations are. Let's go one more step and Artist Resume Photos write executable Python code: For each word w in the vocabulary V , we check whether len(w) is greater than 15; all other words will be ignored.

We will discuss this syntax more carefully later. Your Turn: Try out the previous statements in 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images On the Python interpreter, and experiment with changing the text and changing the length condition. Does it make a difference to your results if you change the variable names, e.g., using [word for word in vocab if . ] ? Let's return to our task of finding words that characterize a text. Notice that the long words in text4 reflect its national focus — constitutionally , transcontinental — whereas those in text5 reflect its informal content: boooooooooooglyyyyyy and yuuuuuuuuuuuummmmmmmmmmmm . Have we succeeded in Sermon Examples automatically extracting words that typify a text? Well, these very long words are often hapaxes (i.e., unique) and perhaps it would be better to find frequently occurring long words. This seems promising since it eliminates frequent short words (e.g., the ) and And Division On infrequent long words (e.g. Essays On Abortion. antiphilosophists ). Here are all words from the chat corpus that are longer than seven characters, that occur more than seven times: Notice how we have used two conditions: len(w) 7 ensures that the words are longer than seven letters, and fdist5[w] 7 ensures that these words occur more than seven times. 263 Best 6- Multiplication On. At last we have managed to automatically identify the frequently-occurring content-bearing words of the text.

It is Forms For a modest but important milestone: a tiny piece of code, processing tens of thousands of Math-Unit And Division words, produces some informative output. A collocation is a sequence of words that occur together unusually often. Thus red wine is a collocation, whereas the wine is not. Essays On Abortion. A characteristic of collocations is that they are resistant to substitution with words that have similar senses; for example, maroon wine sounds definitely odd. To get a handle on collocations, we start off by extracting from a text a list of word pairs, also known as bigrams . 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division. This is easily accomplished with the function bigrams() : If you omitted list() above, and just typed bigrams([ 'more' , . ]) , you would have seen output of the form generator object bigrams at 0x10fb8b3a8 . This is Sermon Outline Resume Examples Python's way of saying that it is ready to compute a sequence of items, in this case, bigrams. For now, you just need to know to tell Python to 263 Best Math-Unit On, convert it into a list, using list() . Here we see that the pair of words than-done is a bigram, and we write it in Python as ( 'than' , 'done' ) . Now, collocations are essentially just frequent bigrams, except that we want to | Download Free, pay more attention to 6- Multiplication And Division, the cases that involve rare words. In particular, we want to find bigrams that occur more often than we would expect based on the frequency of the individual words. Application. The collocations() function does this for us.

We will see how it works later. The collocations that emerge are very specific to the genre of the texts. 263 Best Math-Unit And Division On. In order to find red wine as a collocation, we would need to process a much larger body of text. Counting words is Is Wrong - We Provide Essay Writing useful, but we can count other things too. For example, we can look at the distribution of word lengths in a text, by 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images creating a FreqDist out of a long list of numbers, where each number is the length of the corresponding word in the text: We start by deriving a list of the lengths of Why Abortion Is Wrong Essay Provide Online words in text1 , and the FreqDist then counts the number of times each of these occurs . Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images On. The result is a distribution containing a quarter of Thank You Letter - Writing Advice a million items, each of which is a number corresponding to a word token in the text. But there are at most only 20 distinct items being counted, the numbers 1 through 20, because there are only 20 different word lengths. 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images On. I.e., there are words consisting of just one character, two characters, . twenty characters, but none with twenty one or more characters.

One might wonder how frequent the different lengths of word are (e.g., how many words of length four appear in the text, are there more words of length five than length four, etc). We can do this as follows: From this we see that the most frequent word length is 3, and that words of Essays length 3 account for roughly 50,000 (or 20%) of the words making up the 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division book. Although we will not pursue it here, further analysis of Makeup Artist Resume Template » Best Artist Manager Resume word length might help us understand differences between authors, genres, or languages. 3.1 summarizes the functions defined in frequency distributions. Functions Defined for NLTK's Frequency Distributions. Our discussion of frequency distributions has introduced some important Python concepts, and we will look at them systematically in 4. 4 Back to 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images On, Python: Making Decisions and Taking Control. So far, our little programs have had some interesting qualities: the Artist Resume Template Manager ability to work with language, and the potential to And Division Images, save human effort through automation.

A key feature of programming is the ability of Covering Letter Application machines to Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division On, make decisions on our behalf, executing instructions when certain conditions are met, or repeatedly looping through text data until some condition is satisfied. This feature is Letter Application known as control , and Math-Unit 6- Multiplication is the focus of this section. Python supports a wide range of operators, such as and = , for testing the relationship between values. The full set of these relational operators is shown in 4.1. Numerical Comparison Operators. We can use these to select different words from a sentence of news text.

Here are some examples — only the operator is Thank You Letter changed from one line to Math-Unit On, the next. They all use sent7 , the first sentence from text7 ( Wall Street Journal ). As before, if you get an error saying that sent7 is undefined, you need to first type: from nltk.book import * There is a common pattern to all of Essays On Abortion these examples: [w for w in text if condition ] , where condition is a Python test that yields either true or false. In the cases shown in the previous code example, the condition is always a numerical comparison. However, we can also test various properties of words, using the 263 Best And Division Images On functions listed in 4.2. Some Word Comparison Operators. Here are some examples of these operators being used to For Job Application By Email, select words from 263 Best And Division On, our texts: words ending with -ableness ; words containing gnt ; words having an initial capital; and words consisting entirely of digits. We can also create more complex conditions. If c is a condition, then not c is also a condition. If we have two conditions c 1 and c 2 , then we can combine them to form a new condition using conjunction and disjunction: c 1 and | Download Free & Premium & Samples For c 2 , c 1 or c 2 . Your Turn: Run the 263 Best Math-Unit And Division On following examples and try to explain what is going on in each one.

Next, try to make up some conditions of Covering Letter Application By Email your own. In 3, we saw some examples of counting items other than words. Let's take a closer look at the notation we used: These expressions have the form [f(w) for . ] or [w.f() for . ] , where f is 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division a function that operates on a word to Essays, compute its length, or to convert it to uppercase. For now, you don't need to understand the difference between the notations f(w) and w.f() . Instead, simply learn this Python idiom which performs the same operation on Math-Unit Images On every element of & Premium For a list.

In the preceding examples, it goes through each word in text1 , assigning each one in 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images On turn to the variable w and performing the specified operation on Why Abortion Provide Essay Writing the variable. The notation just described is Images called a list comprehension. This is our first example of a Python idiom, a fixed notation that we use habitually without bothering to analyze each time. Mastering such idioms is an important part of Resume » Best Resume Photos becoming a fluent Python programmer. Let's return to the question of vocabulary size, and apply the Images On same idiom here: Now that we are not double-counting words like This and this , which differ only in capitalization, we've wiped 2,000 off the vocabulary count! We can go a step further and eliminate numbers and punctuation from the vocabulary count by filtering out Essays On Abortion any non-alphabetic items: This example is slightly complicated: it lowercases all the purely alphabetic items. Perhaps it would have been simpler just to Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images On, count the lowercase-only items, but this gives the wrong answer (why?). Don't worry if you don't feel confident with list comprehensions yet, since you'll see many more examples along with explanations in the following chapters. Most programming languages permit us to execute a block of code when a conditional expression , or if statement, is satisfied.

We already saw examples of conditional tests in code like [w for w in sent7 if len(w) 4] . In the following program, we have created a variable called word containing the string value 'cat' . The if statement checks whether the test len(word) 5 is true. It is, so the body of the if statement is invoked and the print statement is executed, displaying a message to the user. Remember to indent the print statement by typing four spaces. When we use the Free & Premium Templates, Python interpreter we have to add an extra blank line in order for it to detect that the nested block is complete. If you are using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you need to 6- Multiplication On, include the following line in order for the above print function to be recognized: If we change the Sermon | Good Resume conditional test to len(word) = 5 , to 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images On, check that the length of word is Essays greater than or equal to 5 , then the test will no longer be true. This time, the body of the 263 Best Math-Unit On if statement will not be executed, and no message is shown to the user: An if statement is known as a control structure because it controls whether the Essays On Abortion code in the indented block will be run.

Another control structure is the for loop. Try the following, and 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images On remember to include the colon and the four spaces: This is called a loop because Python executes the Bar Chart Free & Premium Forms For code in circular fashion. It starts by performing the assignment word = 'Call' , effectively using the word variable to On, name the Examples first item of the list. Then, it displays the value of word to the user. 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images On. Next, it goes back to Template Manager Resume, the for 6- Multiplication And Division On, statement, and performs the assignment word = 'me' , before displaying this new value to the user, and so on. It continues in this fashion until every item of the Outline Template | Good list has been processed. Now we can combine the if and for Images, statements. Letter For Job By Email. We will loop over Math-Unit every item of the list, and print the item only if it ends with the letter l . We'll pick another name for the variable to demonstrate that Python doesn't try to make sense of variable names. You will notice that if and for statements have a colon at the end of the line, before the indentation begins.

In fact, all Python control structures end with a colon. The colon indicates that the Why Abortion - We Essay current statement relates to the indented block that follows. We can also specify an action to be taken if the condition of the if statement is not met. Here we see the elif (else if) statement, and 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images On the else statement. Notice that these also have colons before the indented code. As you can see, even with this small amount of Essays On Abortion Python knowledge, you can start to 6- Multiplication Images On, build multiline Python programs. It's important to develop such programs in pieces, testing that each piece does what you expect before combining them into a program. This is why the Python interactive interpreter is so invaluable, and why you should get comfortable using it.

Finally, let's combine the idioms we've been exploring. First, we create a list of cie and cei words, then we loop over each item and print it. Notice the extra information given in the print statement: end=' ' . This tells Python to print a space (not the default newline) after each word. 5 Automatic Natural Language Understanding. We have been exploring language bottom-up, with the help of texts and the Python programming language. However, we're also interested in exploiting our knowledge of Thank You Letter Example - Writing language and computation by building useful language technologies. We'll take the opportunity now to step back from the nitty-gritty of code in order to paint a bigger picture of natural language processing. At a purely practical level, we all need help to navigate the universe of information locked up in text on the Web. Search engines have been crucial to the growth and popularity of the Web, but have some shortcomings. It takes skill, knowledge, and some luck, to extract answers to such questions as: What tourist sites can I visit between Philadelphia and 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images Pittsburgh on Bar Chart Forms & Samples For a limited budget? What do experts say about digital SLR cameras?

What predictions about the steel market were made by credible commentators in the past week? Getting a computer to 263 Best 6- Multiplication On, answer them automatically involves a range of language processing tasks, including information extraction, inference, and summarization, and would need to be carried out on a scale and Outline with a level of 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images robustness that is Covering Application By Email still beyond our current capabilities. On a more philosophical level, a long-standing challenge within artificial intelligence has been to build intelligent machines, and a major part of intelligent behaviour is understanding language. 263 Best 6- Multiplication On. For many years this goal has been seen as too difficult. However, as NLP technologies become more mature, and robust methods for Template Manager Resume, analyzing unrestricted text become more widespread, the prospect of natural language understanding has re-emerged as a plausible goal. In this section we describe some language understanding technologies, to give you a sense of the interesting challenges that are waiting for you. In word sense disambiguation we want to work out which sense of a word was intended in a given context. Consider the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division On ambiguous words serve and dish : In a sentence containing the phrase: he served the dish , you can detect that both serve and dish are being used with their food meanings. It's unlikely that the topic of discussion shifted from sports to crockery in the space of three words.

This would force you to invent bizarre images, like a tennis pro taking out his or her frustrations on a china tea-set laid out beside the court. In other words, we automatically disambiguate words using context, exploiting the simple fact that nearby words have closely related meanings. As another example of this contextual effect, consider the word by , which has several meanings, e.g.: the book by Chesterton (agentive — Chesterton was the Sermon Outline Template | Good Resume author of the book); the cup by the stove (locative — the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication stove is where the cup is); and submit by Friday (temporal — Friday is the time of the submitting). Free & Premium & Samples For. Observe in (3c) that the meaning of the italicized word helps us interpret the meaning of by . A deeper kind of 263 Best 6- Multiplication On language understanding is to work out who did what to whom — i.e., to detect the subjects and objects of Makeup Artist Resume » Best Artist Resume Photos verbs. You learnt to do this in elementary school, but it's harder than you might think. In the sentence the thieves stole the paintings it is easy to tell who performed the stealing action. Consider three possible following sentences in 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division (4c), and try to Sermon, determine what was sold, caught, and 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images On found (one case is ambiguous). Answering this question involves finding the Essays On Abortion antecedent of the pronoun they , either thieves or paintings. Computational techniques for 263 Best Images On, tackling this problem include anaphora resolution — identifying what a pronoun or noun phrase refers to — and semantic role labeling — identifying how a noun phrase relates to the verb (as agent, patient, instrument, and so on). If we can automatically solve such problems of language understanding, we will be able to On Abortion, move on to tasks that involve generating language output, such as question answering and machine translation . In the first case, a machine should be able to Math-Unit Images, answer a user's questions relating to Sermon Outline Template | Good Resume, collection of texts:

The machine's answer demonstrates that it has correctly worked out that they refers to 263 Best Math-Unit Images On, paintings and not to thieves. In the second case, the machine should be able to translate the Sermon | Good Resume Examples text into another language, accurately conveying the meaning of the Math-Unit Images On original text. In translating the example text into Artist Resume Artist Resume Photos, French, we are forced to choose the gender of the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On pronoun in the second sentence: ils (masculine) if the Makeup Template » Best Artist Manager Resume Photos thieves are found, and elles (feminine) if the paintings are found. Correct translation actually depends on correct understanding of the pronoun. In all of 263 Best Math-Unit And Division these examples, working out the sense of a word, the subject of a verb, and the antecedent of a pronoun are steps in establishing the meaning of a sentence, things we would expect a language understanding system to be able to do. For a long time now, machine translation (MT) has been the holy grail of language understanding, ultimately seeking to » Best Manager Photos, provide high-quality, idiomatic translation between any pair of languages. Its roots go back to the early days of the Cold War, when the promise of automatic translation led to substantial government sponsorship, and with it, the genesis of NLP itself. Today, practical translation systems exist for particular pairs of languages, and 263 Best Math-Unit Images On some are integrated into Essay Writing, web search engines. However, these systems have some serious shortcomings, which are starkly revealed by translating a sentence back and forth between a pair of languages until equilibrium is reached, e.g.:

Observe that the system correctly translates Alice Springs from English to German (in the 263 Best 6- Multiplication line starting 1 ), but on the way back to English, this ends up as Alice jump (line 2 ). The preposition before is initially translated into the corresponding German preposition vor , but later into the conjunction bevor (line 5). For Job. After line 5 the 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images On sentences become nonsensical (but notice the various phrasings indicated by the commas, and the change from jump to Artist » Best Artist Manager Resume, leap ). The translation system did not recognize when a word was part of a proper name, and it misinterpreted the grammatical structure. Your Turn: Try this yourself using http://translationparty.com/ Machine translation is difficult because a given word could have several possible translations (depending on its meaning), and because word order must be changed in keeping with the grammatical structure of the target language. Today these difficulties are being faced by collecting massive quantities of parallel texts from news and government websites that publish documents in two or more languages. Given a document in German and English, and possibly a bilingual dictionary, we can automatically pair up the 263 Best Images sentences, a process called text alignment . Once we have a million or more sentence pairs, we can detect corresponding words and phrases, and Thank You Letter - Writing Advice build a model that can be used for translating new text.

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Dialogue systems give us an opportunity to mention the commonly assumed pipeline for NLP. 5.1 shows the Math-Unit And Division On architecture of Covering Letter a simple dialogue system. Along the top of the diagram, moving from left to right, is 6- Multiplication a pipeline of Examples some language understanding components . These map from 6- Multiplication On, speech input via syntactic parsing to Sermon Template Examples, some kind of meaning representation. Along the middle, moving from right to left, is the reverse pipeline of components for converting concepts to speech. These components make up the dynamic aspects of the system.

At the bottom of the diagram are some representative bodies of static information: the repositories of language-related data that the processing components draw on to do their work. Your Turn: For an 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images On example of a primitive dialogue system, try having a conversation with an NLTK chatbot. To see the available chatbots, run nltk.chat.chatbots() . (Remember to import nltk first.) The challenge of Bar Chart Free Forms For language understanding has been brought into 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On, focus in recent years by a public shared task called Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). The basic scenario is You Letter Advice simple.

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Indeed, this is one of the goals of this book, and we hope to equip you with the knowledge and skills to build useful NLP systems, and to contribute to the long-term aspiration of building intelligent machines. Texts are represented in Python using lists: [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] . We can use indexing, slicing, and the len() function on Covering Letter lists. A word token is a particular appearance of a given word in a text; a word type is the unique form of the word as a particular sequence of letters. We count word tokens using len(text) and 6- Multiplication And Division On word types using len(set(text)) . We obtain the Templates, & Samples For vocabulary of a text t using sorted(set(t)) . We operate on each item of a text using [f(x) for x in text] . To derive the Math-Unit 6- Multiplication vocabulary, collapsing case distinctions and Artist Template Artist Manager ignoring punctuation, we can write set(w.lower() for 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images On, w in Bar Chart Free & Premium Templates, Forms & Samples For text if w.isalpha()) . We process each word in a text using a for statement, such as for w in t: or for 263 Best Math-Unit On, word in Resume Artist Photos text: . 263 Best And Division Images. This must be followed by Thank Advice the colon character and an indented block of code, to be executed each time through the loop. We test a condition using an 263 Best 6- Multiplication if statement: if len(word) 5: . This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of code, to be executed only if the condition is Bar Chart Free & Premium & Samples For true. A frequency distribution is a collection of items along with their frequency counts (e.g., the words of a text and their frequency of appearance). A function is a block of code that has been assigned a name and can be reused. Functions are defined using the def keyword, as in def mult (x, y) ; x and y are parameters of the function, and act as placeholders for Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On, actual data values. A function is called by specifying its name followed by zero or more arguments inside parentheses, like this: texts() , mult(3, 4) , len(text1) . This chapter has introduced new concepts in programming, natural language processing, and linguistics, all mixed in together. Many of them are consolidated in Essays the following chapters. However, you may also want to consult the online materials provided with this chapter (at http://nltk.org/ ), including links to additional background materials, and links to 263 Best 6- Multiplication On, online NLP systems.

You may also like to read up on some linguistics and NLP-related concepts in Wikipedia (e.g., collocations, the Turing Test, the type-token distinction). You should acquaint yourself with the Python documentation available at http://docs.python.org/ , including the | Download Free Forms & Samples many tutorials and 263 Best Math-Unit On comprehensive reference materials linked there. A Beginner's Guide to Sermon Outline, Python is available at http://wiki.python.org/moin/BeginnersGuide . Miscellaneous questions about Math-Unit Images On Python might be answered in the FAQ at http://python.org/doc/faq/general/ . As you delve into NLTK, you might want to Makeup Resume, subscribe to the mailing list where new releases of the toolkit are announced. There is also an NLTK-Users mailing list, where users help each other as they learn how to use Python and NLTK for language analysis work. Details of these lists are available at 263 Best And Division Images On, http://nltk.org/ . For more information on the topics covered in 5, and on NLP more generally, you might like to consult one of the following excellent books: Indurkhya, Nitin and Fred Damerau (eds, 2010) Handbook of Natural Language Processing (Second Edition) Chapman Hall/CRC. 2010. (Indurkhya Damerau, 2010)(Dale, Moisl, Somers, 2000) Jurafsky, Daniel and James Martin (2008) Speech and Language Processing (Second Edition). Prentice Hall. (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) Mitkov, Ruslan (ed, 2003) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics . Oxford University Press. (second edition expected in 2010). (Mitkov, 2002) The Association for Essays On Abortion, Computational Linguistics is the international organization that represents the field of NLP.

The ACL website ( http://www.aclweb.org/ ) hosts many useful resources, including: information about 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On international and regional conferences and workshops; the ACL Wiki with links to hundreds of useful resources; and the ACL Anthology , which contains most of the NLP research literature from the past 50+ years, fully indexed and freely downloadable. Some excellent introductory Linguistics textbooks are: [Finegan2007]_ , (O'Grady et al, 2004), (OSU, 2007). & Samples. You might like to consult LanguageLog , a popular linguistics blog with occasional posts that use the techniques described in this book. #9788; Try using the Python interpreter as a calculator, and typing expressions like 12 / (4 + 1) . #9788; Given an alphabet of 26 letters, there are 26 to the power 10, or 26 ** 10 , ten-letter strings we can form. That works out to 141167095653376 . 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication. How many hundred-letter strings are possible? #9788; The Python multiplication operation can be applied to Template Resume Examples, lists. What happens when you type [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] * 20 , or 3 * sent1 ? #9788; Review 1 on computing with language.

How many words are there in text2 ? How many distinct words are there? #9788; Compare the lexical diversity scores for humor and romance fiction in 1.1. Which genre is more lexically diverse? #9788; Produce a dispersion plot of the four main protagonists in Sense and Sensibility : Elinor, Marianne, Edward, and Willoughby. What can you observe about the different roles played by the males and females in this novel? Can you identify the couples? #9788; Find the collocations in text5 . #9788; Consider the following Python expression: len(set(text4)) . State the purpose of this expression. Describe the two steps involved in performing this computation. #9788; Review 2 on lists and strings.

Define a string and assign it to a variable, e.g., my_string = 'My String' (but put something more interesting in On the string). Essays On Abortion. Print the contents of this variable in two ways, first by simply typing the variable name and Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On pressing enter, then by using the print statement. Try adding the Essays On Abortion string to itself using my_string + my_string , or multiplying it by a number, e.g., my_string * 3 . 263 Best And Division Images. Notice that the strings are joined together without any spaces. How could you fix this? #9788; Define a variable my_sent to be a list of words, using the syntax my_sent = [ My , sent ] (but with your own words, or a favorite saying). Use ' ' .join(my_sent) to convert this into a string. Use split() to split the string back into Makeup Artist Template Photos, the list form you had to start with. #9788; Define several variables containing lists of words, e.g., phrase1 , phrase2 , and so on. Join them together in various combinations (using the plus operator) to form whole sentences.

What is the relationship between len(phrase1 + phrase2) and len(phrase1) + len(phrase2) ? #9788; Consider the following two expressions, which have the same value. Which one will typically be more relevant in NLP? Why? #9788; We have seen how to represent a sentence as a list of words, where each word is 263 Best Images On a sequence of characters. What does sent1[2][2] do? Why?

Experiment with other index values. #9788; The first sentence of text3 is provided to you in the variable sent3 . Is Wrong - We. The index of the in sent3 is 1, because sent3[1] gives us 'the' . What are the indexes of the two other occurrences of this word in sent3 ? #9788; Review the discussion of conditionals in 263 Best 6- Multiplication 4. Find all words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ) starting with the Why Abortion - We Provide Online Essay letter b . Show them in alphabetical order. #9788; Type the expression list(range(10)) at the interpreter prompt. 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images. Now try list(range(10, 20)) , list(range(10, 20, 2)) , and list(range(20, 10, -2)) . Essays. We will see a variety of uses for this built-in function in later chapters. #9681; Use text9.index() to find the index of the word sunset . You'll need to insert this word as an argument between the parentheses. By a process of trial and 6- Multiplication error, find the slice for On Abortion, the complete sentence that contains this word.

#9681; Using list addition, and the set and sorted operations, compute the vocabulary of the sentences sent1 . sent8 . #9681; What is the Math-Unit difference between the following two lines? Which one will give a larger value? Will this be the case for other texts? #9681; What is the difference between the following two tests: w.isupper() and not w.islower() ? #9681; Write the slice expression that extracts the last two words of text2 . #9681; Find all the four-letter words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ). With the help of a frequency distribution ( FreqDist ), show these words in decreasing order of frequency. #9681; Review the discussion of looping with conditions in 4. Use a combination of for and if statements to loop over the words of the movie script for Monty Python and the Holy Grail ( text6 ) and print all the uppercase words, one per Thank Example line. #9681; Write expressions for finding all words in text6 that meet the conditions listed below.

The result should be in the form of a list of 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images On words: [ 'word1' , 'word2' , . Why Abortion Is Wrong Essay Provide Essay. ] . Ending in ize Containing the letter z Containing the sequence of letters pt Having all lowercase letters except for an initial capital (i.e., titlecase ) #9681; Define sent to be the list of 263 Best Math-Unit words [ 'she' , 'sells' , 'sea' , 'shells' , 'by' , 'the' , 'sea' , 'shore' ] . Now write code to perform the Thank Example Advice following tasks: Print all words beginning with sh Print all words longer than four characters. #9681; What does the 6- Multiplication Images On following Python code do? sum(len(w) for w in Covering Letter Application By Email text1) Can you use it to work out the average word length of Math-Unit a text? #9681; Define a function called vocab_size(text) that has a single parameter for the text, and which returns the Letter For Job By Email vocabulary size of the text. #9681; Define a function percent(word, text) that calculates how often a given word occurs in a text, and expresses the result as a percentage. #9681; We have been using sets to store vocabularies. Try the following Python expression: set(sent3) set(text1) . 263 Best And Division Images On. Experiment with this using different arguments to set() . What does it do?

Can you think of a practical application for this? About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. This is a chapter from Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and Edward Loper, Copyright © 2014 the authors. Thank You Letter Example. It is distributed with the 6- Multiplication And Division Natural Language Toolkit [ http://nltk.org/ ], Version 3.0, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/].

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20 Most Affordable MBA Online Programs at Small Colleges 2018. 6- Multiplication And Division Images. In this article, we profile the 20 most affordable small private colleges for online master’s in business administration (online MBA) programs. According to the United States Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics, wage premiums coincide with education. This is especially true for business occupations. But work experience is also valuable to Outline Template | Good, employers. Individuals do not want to give up current jobs to go back to school and earn a master’s degree. 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images On. To accommodate the balance between work and school, online MBA programs have become the norm.

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University of the Southwest is ranked by U.S. News and World Report as a top regional university in the West. Online Master of Business Administration. Johnson and Wales University has an online MBA that can be completed in 18 months. One of the most affordable online MBA programs on our list from small private colleges is the online MBA from Johnson and Wales University. 6- Multiplication And Division Images. In just 18 months, students may complete the degree by taking online courses that run 11 weeks in length.

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Aside from You Letter Advice, completing the required coursework, a comprehensive final assessment is necessary to finish the program. Students should expect to spend about 15 hours each week on coursework. University of Saint Mary is ranked by U.S. News and World Report as a best regional university in the Midwest, and its online MBA programs have earned recognition among the top MBA programs in the country. 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division. Online Master of Covering Letter For Job Business Administration. Math-Unit Images. Concordia University#8217;s online MBA does not require a thesis to Bar Chart Forms, graduate. Concordia University offers one of the cheapest online MBA programs on our list. The program is designed for busy and working professionals who want to complete their degree by taking online classes.

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Online Master of Business Administration. Crown College#8217;s online MBA is great for working students. Crown College offers an 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images On accredited MBA online program designed to prepare individuals for leadership and management roles in all areas of business. The general MBA requires courses in Essays On Abortion, business law and ethics, financial management, international finance, marketing management, and operations management. There is also a non-profit management concentration for those interested in pursuing careers in non-profit agencies. Courses for this highly specialized area include fundraising and philanthropy, leadership and management for 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division nonprofits, and non-profit law.

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essay office space Mike Ludwig of Truthout: Trump's nominee to head the 6- Multiplication Images, EPA's clean air program has represented industry groups opposed to new standards meant to protect workers from Is Wrong Essay - We Provide Essay cancerous dust. Trump's Quest to Enrich the Richest: An Interview With Noam Chomsky. The Trump administration's policies at home and abroad represent the current form of the 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images, Republican Party: a wrecking ball wielded by the powerful. Work Sucks: How the Movie Office Space Proves Radicalism Lives in the Mainstream.

Few films in recent decades have so successfully spoken to the day-to-day realities of service sector employment as 1999's Office Space. Written and Covering For Job Application, directed by Mike Judge, the fictional film is extraordinarily witty and remarkably popular. Though a comedy, it subtly confronts its viewers with a number of questions which thinkers within radical and leftist political circles have pondered for 263 Best quite some time: Why are jobs often so dissatisfying? Why do many of us constantly seek out ways of escaping? Can anything be done about it? Why a Radical Analysis, and Why Office Space? Obviously, in Is Wrong - We Online Writing seeking to do a radical analysis of anything, it is imperative that the reader have some understanding of what one means when employing the term radical. As political scientist Stephen R. Shalom explains, the term 'radical' means relating to 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division On, the root, or fundamental. More specifically, in the pursuit of changing society so as to improve people's lives, a radical is | Download Free For someone who wants fundamental change - not just a few cosmetic adjustments. Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division? [1] Therefore, the word radical is used here to convey the Essays On Abortion, specific type of lens through which this paper will analyze Office Space. Math-Unit And Division Images? Traditionally, this lens is associated with the political left, which effectively means that its subjects are studied, first and foremost, in the context of the socioeconomic system we call capitalism.

This system - as opposed to specific governments, employers, individuals, policies, etcetera - is the root with which radicals are chiefly concerned and seek to Is Wrong - We Online Writing, change, to Math-Unit And Division, one extent or another (and at one speed or another), in order to improve people's social, political and | Good Resume Examples, economic lives. Before proceeding further, a quick disclosure is 263 Best On probably in order for Makeup Artist » Best Resume Photos those who may be new to radical modes of analysis. Very often, radical literature incorporates elements of Marxism - concepts developed by Images On the 19th-century philosopher and Example - Writing, political-economist Karl Marx. This is important to disclose because it is 263 Best 6- Multiplication On difficult to think of a political figure whose name alone can generate more discomfort (save, perhaps, for Is Wrong Essay Provide Online Hitler or Stalin) than Karl Marx. As Mary Gabriel, a recent biographer of Marx and his family, explains, the Marxist label is generally only used as toxic sludge against political opponents, often without any real understanding of 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division what such a term connotes.[2] Yet we should be very careful not to banish all of Marx's work from political discussion simply because of the heinous atrocities committed (to one extent or another) by Is Wrong Essay - We Provide Online Essay those purporting to be Marxists, in 6- Multiplication countries he never set foot in, many decades after his death. Because the overwhelming majority of his time was spent critiquing capitalism - not designing a communist system to replace it - fans of Office Space might find that he, and those who have since followed in his tradition, actually had diverse and interesting things to say about the nature of our working lives. So why, then, would Office Space merit a radical analysis? As hinted at by the film's pithy tagline, Work Sucks, one of the basic premises of my analysis is that Office Space cleverly raises many questions that radical thinkers have long discussed in great detail (thereby rendering the film politically important).

And given its mainstream popularity, the film provides us a unique opportunity to On Abortion, discuss aspects of radical political theory in ways that a far greater number of And Division Images people relate to than those already present within activist and intellectual circles. The Plot and Main Characters. The basic, surface-level plot of Thank You Letter Example - Writing Office Space is relatively straightforward: the mild-mannered protagonist, Peter Gibbons, despises his job at 6- Multiplication Images the computer software firm Initech. The first 15 minutes brilliantly illuminate the Resume » Best Artist Manager Resume Photos, setting and tone of the film, and Math-Unit And Division, are thus extremely important. The viewer is shown every detail of Peter's work-life, from the alarm clock shrieking, to driving in agonizingly slow traffic, to the daily electric zap he receives upon opening the door to his thoroughly sterilized, cubicle-filled workroom. The very first camera shot inside of the room is clearly intended to impress upon the viewer the dreariness of Peter's station in Essays On Abortion life - we are confronted with an endless, impersonal sea of people, all working quietly in tiny cubicles, amid the electronic clamor of innumerable machines and illumined by stale fluorescent lighting. It happens to be a Monday, but the viewer instinctively senses that what Peter has just experienced is Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On remarkably unexceptional. After observing his daily routine and watching him get hassled by Application several bosses over Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On a mundane company regulation, Peter becomes a sympathetic, if not deeply relatable, character to Bar Chart | Download Forms & Samples For, the viewer. But after a botched occupational hypnotherapy session, in which Peter is left suspended in a hypnotized state, his outlook and behavior completely change.

He disregards the Images On, alarm clock, hangs up on his girlfriend, ignores calls from Outline Template | Good Resume Examples his job, all while remaining completely unfazed and unapologetic. During a meeting with the On, efficiency consultants - a callous duo referred to collectively as The Bobs - Peter is told that his office comrades, Michael and Samir, are soon going to be laid off, and his outlook takes another dramatic turn. He hatches a plot with Michael and Samir to install a virus in Initech's computer mainframe that will deposit money into an account every day. When the three meet to discuss the plan, we can see how much Peter has changed since the Makeup Artist Resume Template Artist Manager, start of the film: he finally feels confident, autonomous and empowered (albeit for unethical reasons). We soon learn that the virus was programmed incorrectly. 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images? Fully aware that this will be quickly discovered by Initech, Peter decides to take full responsibility for Essay - We Provide Online the plot.

He writes a letter of apology and returns the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images, money under the On Abortion, cover of night, but, fortunately for him, the building burns down (at the hand of his comically strange co-worker, Milton) the following morning. Peter goes on to take a job with a construction company. The Film and Political Theory. So how should we interpret the film? In what we could call the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication, fatalistic interpretation, Peter's actions, and the film itself, would not be in favor of anything so much as against something: the realities and drudgeries of life itself. Peter would be akin to the child who cries and acts out in anger when a favorite pet dies. He feels, in the depths of his being, that the situation is unfair, indecent and Essays On Abortion, wrong, but is failing to accept what is ultimately inevitable. While that may make him sympathetic to us, it would not make him brave. Alternatively, a conservative interpretation would stress that Peter's initial situation merits no sympathy from the viewer - for, after all, he freely chooses to work at Initech - and his diatribes about what work should be like amount to little more than foolish naivete.

In other words, Peter has chosen his station in life and, though he is free to complain about his job all he pleases, he has little grounds for Math-Unit 6- Multiplication doing so. If there is | Download Free & Premium Forms & Samples For anyone or anything to blame, this interpretation would suggest, it is Peter himself. This essay, on the contrary, argues something different. Part of Office Space's wonderful appeal is that it is not explicitly political or ideological. Admittedly, though, this results in mixed messages and, consequently, several reasonable - but markedly different - possible ways of 6- Multiplication And Division Images interpreting the film. On Abortion? In contrast to the aforementioned interpretations, I argue that Peter's situation is 6- Multiplication And Division Images On not a mere reaction to Letter Application By Email, some fatalistic human condition, nor is it completely of his own making. Office Space is popular, in large part, precisely because Peter represents a kind of hero. But to Math-Unit Images On, answer why he is perceived that way, we must first see that Peter's dissatisfaction ultimately springs from disempowerment and Thank Advice, a deep sense of what should be but, at this moment in Math-Unit Images On history, is | Download Templates, Forms not. 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images? One way to see this scenario is by Sermon Outline Template | Good Examples observing Office Space alongside elements of radical political theory. The dominant ideologies in American political discourse provide us with few tools (if any) to analyze Office Space as a political film. Images? Conservatives and libertarians would likely subscribe to the second interpretation above and would dwell on Peter's so-called personal responsibility to do that which is in his self-interest.

But even liberalism, for all its merits, regularly falls short of Resume Template » Best Manager meaningfully connecting with the daily life of 263 Best any working person. For example, liberals calling themselves progressive may advocate for Bar Chart | Download Free Templates, Forms For full employment as part of 6- Multiplication And Division macroeconomic policymaking, but they are largely silent on the issue of what that employment might actually entail, whether or not it is empowering for Sermon Outline Template | Good Resume Examples each worker, meaningful, etcetera. A job is thus viewed simply as that which provides the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication On, recipient with a means of securing an income and having something to do with his or her time and energy. Any inquiry into the nature of this potential employment - as experienced by the individual worker on a daily basis - is deemed by the liberal to fall well outside of pragmatic policy concerns, perhaps because the very principles of workplace democracy and worker self-management are themselves regarded as hopelessly utopian. Out of both political expediency and a paternalistic attitude toward the competence of working people, therefore, the rallying cry is restricted to Jobs! rather than Empowering Jobs! But what do workplace democracy and worker self-management have to do with Office Space? Much of Peter's own misery seems to arise from Makeup Artist Template Resume his being disempowered by Initech. 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images On? But by Why Abortion Essay Provide Online Writing choosing solidarity over an upper-management job - as when he devises the scheme with Michael and 263 Best Math-Unit And Division On, Samir after being informed that they will be fired - he hints that power for himself was not his only aim. The film suggests that Peter's true gripe seems to be with a system in Outline Template | Good Resume Examples which a small group of people is able to Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images On, exert a disproportionate amount of | Download & Premium & Samples For control over On the respective fates of a far larger group of people - a system in which the daily debasement of Sermon Template | Good human potential and dignity becomes not only acceptable, but perhaps even profitable, a system in 263 Best Math-Unit And Division On which stock prices, standardization, routine and efficiency seem to have take precedence over human beings (as when Peter reveals that laying off Michael and Samir will increase Initech's stock price). Early on, Peter senses that this situation is On Abortion unfair, but he - as many of us often do - frequently chooses to escape from these feelings rather than confront them. If there is one dominant theme throughout Office Space, it is that of 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images escape.

It occurs with multiple characters and in myriad ways throughout the film. For example, Peter tries to Resume, escape from 263 Best Math-Unit On reality by going to the hypnotherapist and asking to be made to think he has been fishing all day upon coming home from Covering Application By Email work; co-worker Tom Smykowski is severely injured in a car accident after trying to kill himself - the ultimate form of escape; the entire scheme of uploading a computer virus was not only an attack against Initech, but also a means of permanently escaping from the 263 Best Math-Unit And Division On, company and all other jobs where one could be fired for Covering Letter For Job Application By Email no reason, as Peter puts it. Even Milton escapes to a tropical island for what we can only assume is an 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division, extended vacation from Thank work. Alienation, the Division of 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images On Labor, and Hostility. But why is there such a drive toward escapism?

What is it about their jobs and Bar Chart | Download Templates, & Samples, lives that compels our characters toward the pursuit of escape? Out of all the concepts within the radical political tradition, it would be difficult to find one more appropriate for 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images On Office Space than the concept of alienation. The theory of Artist Resume Template » Best Artist Manager Resume alienation, as radical political scientist Bertell Ollman explains, is the 6- Multiplication Images On, intellectual construct in | Download For which [Karl] Marx displays the devastating effect of capitalist production on human beings, on their physical and mental states and on 263 Best Math-Unit Images On, the social processes of which they are a part.[3] The effect is devastating, Marx argued, in Writing no small part because the jobs that most of us perform do not satisfy any of our inherent needs as human beings. Rather, our labor only serves as a means toward satisfying an external need - that is, making money to survive. The alien character of work becomes abundantly clear, Marx writes, in the fact that as soon as no physical or other compulsion exists, labor is shunned like the plague.[4] Therefore, when Peter tells his next-door neighbor, Lawrence, that if money were not an issue, I would relax, I would sit on 263 Best 6- Multiplication On, my ass, all day, I would do nothing, he is doing much more than expressing his dissatisfaction with Initech; he is confirming Marx's suspicions about how human beings react toward a life of alienated labor. Alienation is Why Abortion Is Wrong Essay Provide Online Essay Writing so crushing, radicals argue, precisely because it exists on numerous levels: as if by some invisible force outside of human control, we are compelled to And Division, do work that is not enriching or meaningful, and is therefore alien (remember Peter's nightmare wherein the judge deems he has lived a trite and meaningless life); the very things we make or work on - like Peter's TPS reports - have essentially no real meaning for us and are therefore alien; the people who have an interest in getting us to do this unpleasant work, like Lumbergh, quickly become antagonists, and therefore alien to us; and, as a result of all these daily processes, our potentialities and aspirations as human beings are frequently abandoned - as when Peter wishes to do nothing - and are thereby rendered alien to us.[5] It is Resume » Best Artist Resume precisely due to 263 Best And Division Images, this last alienation from our species that Marx argued working people will eventually only feel free when satisfying what he called our animal functions, such as eating, drinking and Advice, procreating. It is thus no accident that when Lawrence is asked by Peter what he would do if he had a million dollars - in other words, what he would truly want to do with his life were money not an issue - his response is a sexual fantasy.

Thus, radicals would generally agree with the famous Office Space tagline, Work Sucks, but with one small, yet crucial alteration: Alienated Work Sucks. And Division? But what is it about the nature of modern work that makes it so alienating? Radicals often point to the highly evolved division of labor - that is, the breaking down of work into simple, repetitive tasks that each individual becomes responsible for, while much of the thinking about and Letter Application By Email, overseeing of work is carried out by a coordinator class.[6] However, as the renowned psychoanalyst and critical theorist Erich Fromm argued, this intense division of labor also lead[s] to an organization of work where the individual loses his individuality, where he becomes an expendable cog in the machine.[7] This process occurs regularly under capitalism, Fromm argued, precisely because the worker is viewed as part of the equipment hired by [capitalists], and his role and function are determined by this quality of being a piece of equipment.[8] If Peter's wish to do nothing is indeed a key message of Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Office Space, then we must again yield to Fromm, who, writing in Essays On Abortion 1955, argued that, The alienated and profoundly unsatisfactory character of work results in two reactions: one, the ideal of complete laziness ; the other, a deep-seated, though often unconscious hostility toward work and everything and 263 Best And Division Images, everybody connected with it.[9] In addition to his point about laziness, Fromm's point regarding hostility is also apparent throughout Office Space. Whether it is Peter's contempt for the receptionist seated in the cubicle across from him, Michael's contempt for the woman who hands out the employee mail, Joanna's contempt for the eccentric waiter, or Peter, Michael, and Samir's mutual contempt for Essays On Abortion the office printer, it must be considered that their hostility does not merely spring from 263 Best 6- Multiplication On differences in personality or problems with the functioning of a particular machine. Makeup Resume Template Manager Resume? Rather, it is the sheer undesirability of 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images their work situation that creates a setting in which it becomes remarkably easy to You Letter - Writing Advice, grow hostile toward everything and everybody connected with it.

Because the worker becomes an appendage of the 6- Multiplication And Division Images On, machine who must learn only the most simple, most monotonous, most easily acquired knack,[10] all while placed under the command of a perfect hierarchy of | Good Resume officers and sergeants[11] (such as Lumbergh, Dom, The Bobs, etcetera), the irrepressible feeling that one's needs as a human being are being relentlessly subordinated to Math-Unit And Division On, the company's need to Application By Email, make money can, over And Division time, lead to hostility and even violence. Bar Chart Free Templates, & Samples? To this point, we must marvel at some of Marx's and Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images On, Friedrich Engels' observations in The Communist Manifesto. As if foreseeing Office Space by 150 years, the You Letter - Writing, authors noted that many workers will at first destroy the instruments of production rather than the system of production which forces the great majority of them to sell themselves piecemeal.[12] Thus, when the authors write of these disgruntled workers that they smash to pieces machinery,[13] we quickly recall the epic printer scene, where Peter, Michael and Samir destroy the 263 Best Math-Unit And Division On, temperamental printer in the middle of a barren field; and when Marx and Engels write they set factories ablaze,[14] we cannot help but think of Milton nervously fleeing the scene as the Initech building is | Good Resume reduced to ashes. Office Space reminds us that much radical sentiment exists in the mainstream, but is rarely identified as such. This example should lead us to Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images, consider the many arguments for worker ownership, worker self-management and workplace democracy. The general tendency of such arguments is that if alienation is to ever be successfully eliminated, what is necessary (though not necessarily sufficient by Essays itself) [15] is a true democratization of decision-making authority in the workplace. Such a democratization is also necessary if the 263 Best And Division On, worker versus coordinator effect is to be eliminated (or at least severely minimized).[16] Hierarchical organization of authority often leads to a situation of mutual mistrust between the Peters and Makeup Resume Template Manager Resume Photos, the Lumberghs of the world. In contrast, within Spain's massive Mondragon cooperative community, asymmetries in power and information are thus negated by Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images On a conscious arrangement which most of us value quite dearly: democracy. But simply fantasizing about such a situation will, of course, not bring it into existence. For that, nothing but good old-fashioned action will do.[17] Peters of the world, unite! Stephen Rosskamm Shalom, Which Side Are You On?

An Introduction to Politics (New York: Longman Publishers, 2003), 29-30. Mary Gabriel, Who Was Karl Marx? CNN, 10/29/11. (Accessed on | Download & Premium Templates, & Samples For, 06/12/12) Bertell Ollman, Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society (New York: Cambridge University Press), 131. Karl Marx, edited by Dirk J. Struik, The Economic Philosophical Manuscripts of 263 Best Math-Unit Images 1844 (New York: International Publishers, 2001) 110-111. The criteria for what constitutes a coordinator are not precise, but, as the originators of the term describe, . the & Samples For, coordinator wants to preserve a relative monopoly of conceptual skills and expertise giving him or her an Images, interest in preventing the widespread intellectual advance of workers, as well as a paternal, elitist attitude toward them. Michael Albert and Robin Hahnel, Socialism Today and Tomorrow (MA: South End Press, 1981), 32-33, 38. Erich Fromm, The Art of Loving (New York: HarperCollins, 2006), 79. Erich Fromm, The Sane Society (New York: Fawcett World Library, 1955), 162. Fromm (1955), 163, italics in original. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (New York: Penguin Books, 2002), 227.

Also available online. (Accessed on Thank Example, 06/12/12) The degree to which instituting workplace democracy can, by itself, resolve the core defects of capitalism is the source of considerable debate among radicals themselves. For overviews of this debate and Images On, various perspectives on it, see, for Covering Application By Email example, Against the Market by David McNally, Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists, edited by Bertell Ollman;, Remaking Scarcity (specifically Chapters 8 and 9) by Costas Panayotakis; and, Against the Market Economy: Advice to Venezuelan Friends by Robin Hahnel. (Accessed on 06/12/12) The lopsided power imbalance between those who coordinate the work and those who do the work quickly creates two distinct, opposing forces: one either gives orders, or one takes them. And, once this dynamic is set in motion, a kind of 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images On spiritual impulse exists whereby it feels good to disobey and defy the orders (especially if one does so without getting caught). Covering Application? Thus Peter at one point, for example, fillets a fish at his desk and throws the entrails onto the TPS report cover sheets that he was disciplined for Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images not using at the start of the film. In addition to Artist Manager, the various sources cited in this paper, the 6- Multiplication Images, following texts might prove useful for readers somewhat new to radical arguments: Phil Gasper's concise article Another World is Possible; Gar Alperovitz, America Beyond Capitalism; Michael A. Lebowitz's Build It Now: Socialism for the 21st Century; Michael Albert's Parecon: Life After Capitalism; Richard D. Wolff's Democracy at Work (forthcoming); Erich Fromm's Marx's Concept of Man; Mary Gabriel's Love and Capital: Karl and Jenny Marx and the Birth of a Revolution; and, Robert Heilbroner's Marxism: For and Against.

John Kane is a recent graduate of New York University's Center for Global Affairs. He currently teaches political science at St. Joseph's College in Makeup Artist Template » Best Photos Patchogue, New York, and has been published in New Politics and on ZNet and Politifact.com. 263 Best And Division Images? He is Why Abortion Essay Provide Online currently working toward a Ph.D. in Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images political science and can be reached at [emailprotected] . Study Shows Kids' Test Scores Drop When Their Food Stamps Run Out. States and Local Advocates Lead the Way for Criminal Legal System Reform.

University of New Haven and Saudi Police: Big Money Makes Strange Bedfellows. Puerto Ricans Protest Trump's Visit, Denounce Militarization Amid Lack of Aid Distribution. They Don't Care Who the Guns Go To: Experts Warn Trump Administration Plans to Widen US Weapons Exports. Work Sucks: How the Bar Chart | Download Free & Premium Templates, For, Movie Office Space Proves Radicalism Lives in the Mainstream. Few films in recent decades have so successfully spoken to the day-to-day realities of service sector employment as 1999's Office Space. 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images? Written and directed by Mike Judge, the fictional film is extraordinarily witty and On Abortion, remarkably popular. Though a comedy, it subtly confronts its viewers with a number of questions which thinkers within radical and leftist political circles have pondered for quite some time: Why are jobs often so dissatisfying? Why do many of us constantly seek out ways of escaping? Can anything be done about it? Why a Radical Analysis, and 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images On, Why Office Space?

Obviously, in seeking to do a radical analysis of anything, it is imperative that the reader have some understanding of what one means when employing the term radical. As political scientist Stephen R. Shalom explains, the term 'radical' means relating to the root, or fundamental. More specifically, in the pursuit of changing society so as to improve people's lives, a radical is someone who wants fundamental change - not just a few cosmetic adjustments. [1] Therefore, the word radical is used here to convey the specific type of lens through which this paper will analyze Office Space. Traditionally, this lens is associated with the political left, which effectively means that its subjects are studied, first and Free & Premium Forms & Samples For, foremost, in 263 Best 6- Multiplication On the context of the socioeconomic system we call capitalism. This system - as opposed to specific governments, employers, individuals, policies, etcetera - is the root with which radicals are chiefly concerned and seek to change, to one extent or another (and at one speed or another), in order to improve people's social, political and economic lives. Before proceeding further, a quick disclosure is probably in order for those who may be new to radical modes of analysis. Very often, radical literature incorporates elements of Makeup Resume Template » Best Manager Resume Marxism - concepts developed by Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images the 19th-century philosopher and Covering, political-economist Karl Marx. This is important to disclose because it is difficult to think of 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images a political figure whose name alone can generate more discomfort (save, perhaps, for Hitler or Stalin) than Karl Marx. As Mary Gabriel, a recent biographer of Marx and his family, explains, the Marxist label is generally only used as toxic sludge against political opponents, often without any real understanding of what such a term connotes.[2] Yet we should be very careful not to banish all of Marx's work from political discussion simply because of the heinous atrocities committed (to one extent or another) by - We Online Writing those purporting to be Marxists, in 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images countries he never set foot in, many decades after his death. Because the overwhelming majority of Bar Chart & Premium Forms For his time was spent critiquing capitalism - not designing a communist system to replace it - fans of Office Space might find that he, and those who have since followed in 6- Multiplication Images On his tradition, actually had diverse and interesting things to say about the On Abortion, nature of 263 Best Math-Unit On our working lives.

So why, then, would Office Space merit a radical analysis? As hinted at by the film's pithy tagline, Work Sucks, one of the basic premises of my analysis is that Office Space cleverly raises many questions that radical thinkers have long discussed in great detail (thereby rendering the film politically important). And given its mainstream popularity, the film provides us a unique opportunity to discuss aspects of radical political theory in ways that a far greater number of people relate to than those already present within activist and intellectual circles. The Plot and Main Characters. The basic, surface-level plot of Office Space is Outline | Good Examples relatively straightforward: the mild-mannered protagonist, Peter Gibbons, despises his job at the computer software firm Initech. The first 15 minutes brilliantly illuminate the setting and tone of the film, and are thus extremely important. The viewer is 263 Best Math-Unit And Division On shown every detail of Peter's work-life, from the alarm clock shrieking, to driving in Outline Template | Good agonizingly slow traffic, to the daily electric zap he receives upon opening the door to his thoroughly sterilized, cubicle-filled workroom. The very first camera shot inside of the room is clearly intended to impress upon the viewer the dreariness of Peter's station in life - we are confronted with an endless, impersonal sea of people, all working quietly in tiny cubicles, amid the electronic clamor of innumerable machines and illumined by stale fluorescent lighting. It happens to be a Monday, but the viewer instinctively senses that what Peter has just experienced is remarkably unexceptional.

After observing his daily routine and watching him get hassled by several bosses over a mundane company regulation, Peter becomes a sympathetic, if not deeply relatable, character to the viewer. But after a botched occupational hypnotherapy session, in which Peter is Math-Unit And Division Images left suspended in a hypnotized state, his outlook and behavior completely change. He disregards the alarm clock, hangs up on his girlfriend, ignores calls from his job, all while remaining completely unfazed and unapologetic. During a meeting with the efficiency consultants - a callous duo referred to collectively as The Bobs - Peter is told that his office comrades, Michael and Samir, are soon going to be laid off, and his outlook takes another dramatic turn. He hatches a plot with Michael and Samir to install a virus in Covering Letter Application By Email Initech's computer mainframe that will deposit money into 263 Best 6- Multiplication an account every day. When the three meet to discuss the plan, we can see how much Peter has changed since the start of the film: he finally feels confident, autonomous and empowered (albeit for unethical reasons). We soon learn that the virus was programmed incorrectly. Template Resume Examples? Fully aware that this will be quickly discovered by Initech, Peter decides to Math-Unit 6- Multiplication, take full responsibility for the plot. He writes a letter of apology and You Letter Advice, returns the money under the cover of night, but, fortunately for Math-Unit Images On him, the building burns down (at the hand of his comically strange co-worker, Milton) the following morning. Peter goes on to take a job with a construction company. The Film and Political Theory.

So how should we interpret the film? In what we could call the Essays On Abortion, fatalistic interpretation, Peter's actions, and the film itself, would not be in favor of Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images On anything so much as against something: the realities and drudgeries of life itself. Peter would be akin to the child who cries and acts out in anger when a favorite pet dies. Letter For Job Application? He feels, in the depths of his being, that the situation is unfair, indecent and wrong, but is Images On failing to accept what is ultimately inevitable. While that may make him sympathetic to us, it would not make him brave. Alternatively, a conservative interpretation would stress that Peter's initial situation merits no sympathy from the viewer - for, after all, he freely chooses to work at Initech - and his diatribes about | Download Free Templates,, what work should be like amount to little more than foolish naivete.

In other words, Peter has chosen his station in life and, though he is free to complain about Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division, his job all he pleases, he has little grounds for doing so. If there is anyone or anything to blame, this interpretation would suggest, it is Peter himself. This essay, on the contrary, argues something different. Part of Office Space's wonderful appeal is that it is On Abortion not explicitly political or ideological. Admittedly, though, this results in mixed messages and, consequently, several reasonable - but markedly different - possible ways of interpreting the film. In contrast to the aforementioned interpretations, I argue that Peter's situation is not a mere reaction to 263 Best, some fatalistic human condition, nor is it completely of his own making. Office Space is popular, in large part, precisely because Peter represents a kind of hero. But to answer why he is perceived that way, we must first see that Peter's dissatisfaction ultimately springs from disempowerment and a deep sense of what should be but, at Essays this moment in history, is not. One way to 263 Best Images, see this scenario is by observing Office Space alongside elements of radical political theory. The dominant ideologies in American political discourse provide us with few tools (if any) to | Good Resume Examples, analyze Office Space as a political film. 263 Best And Division? Conservatives and libertarians would likely subscribe to the second interpretation above and Letter For Job Application, would dwell on 263 Best On, Peter's so-called personal responsibility to do that which is in his self-interest.

But even liberalism, for Sermon Outline Template | Good Examples all its merits, regularly falls short of 263 Best Math-Unit Images meaningfully connecting with the daily life of any working person. Artist Manager? For example, liberals calling themselves progressive may advocate for full employment as part of macroeconomic policymaking, but they are largely silent on the issue of Math-Unit Images what that employment might actually entail, whether or not it is empowering for each worker, meaningful, etcetera. A job is thus viewed simply as that which provides the recipient with a means of securing an income and having something to do with his or her time and energy. Any inquiry into the nature of this potential employment - as experienced by the individual worker on a daily basis - is | Download & Premium Templates, & Samples For deemed by the liberal to fall well outside of pragmatic policy concerns, perhaps because the very principles of 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images On workplace democracy and worker self-management are themselves regarded as hopelessly utopian. Bar Chart Free Templates, & Samples For? Out of both political expediency and a paternalistic attitude toward the competence of working people, therefore, the 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication, rallying cry is restricted to Jobs! rather than Empowering Jobs! But what do workplace democracy and worker self-management have to Sermon | Good Resume Examples, do with Office Space? Much of Peter's own misery seems to arise from 263 Best 6- Multiplication And Division Images On his being disempowered by Essays On Abortion Initech.

But by choosing solidarity over an upper-management job - as when he devises the scheme with Michael and Math-Unit Images On, Samir after being informed that they will be fired - he hints that power for Essay Provide Online Essay Writing himself was not his only aim. The film suggests that Peter's true gripe seems to be with a system in 263 Best which a small group of people is able to exert a disproportionate amount of Essays control over the respective fates of a far larger group of people - a system in which the daily debasement of human potential and dignity becomes not only acceptable, but perhaps even profitable, a system in which stock prices, standardization, routine and efficiency seem to have take precedence over human beings (as when Peter reveals that laying off Michael and Samir will increase Initech's stock price). Early on, Peter senses that this situation is 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images On unfair, but he - as many of us often do - frequently chooses to Outline Template Resume Examples, escape from 263 Best Images these feelings rather than confront them. Is Wrong Essay - We Essay Writing? If there is one dominant theme throughout Office Space, it is that of escape. It occurs with multiple characters and in myriad ways throughout the film. Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division On? For example, Peter tries to escape from reality by going to the hypnotherapist and asking to be made to think he has been fishing all day upon Why Abortion Is Wrong Writing coming home from work; co-worker Tom Smykowski is severely injured in a car accident after trying to kill himself - the ultimate form of 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images escape; the entire scheme of uploading a computer virus was not only an attack against Initech, but also a means of Template » Best Photos permanently escaping from the company and all other jobs where one could be fired for no reason, as Peter puts it.

Even Milton escapes to a tropical island for what we can only assume is an 263 Best Math-Unit And Division On, extended vacation from work. Alienation, the Division of Labor, and Hostility. But why is there such a drive toward escapism? What is it about their jobs and lives that compels our characters toward the pursuit of escape? Out of all the concepts within the radical political tradition, it would be difficult to find one more appropriate for Office Space than the concept of alienation. The theory of alienation, as radical political scientist Bertell Ollman explains, is the intellectual construct in Bar Chart | Download Free Forms which [Karl] Marx displays the devastating effect of capitalist production on human beings, on their physical and mental states and on 6- Multiplication On, the social processes of which they are a part.[3] The effect is devastating, Marx argued, in no small part because the jobs that most of us perform do not satisfy any of our inherent needs as human beings.

Rather, our labor only serves as a means toward satisfying an external need - that is, making money to survive. Resume » Best? The alien character of 263 Best Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images On work becomes abundantly clear, Marx writes, in the fact that as soon as no physical or other compulsion exists, labor is shunned like the plague.[4] Therefore, when Peter tells his next-door neighbor, Lawrence, that if money were not an issue, I would relax, I would sit on my ass, all day, I would do nothing, he is doing much more than expressing his dissatisfaction with Initech; he is confirming Marx's suspicions about how human beings react toward a life of alienated labor. Alienation is so crushing, radicals argue, precisely because it exists on numerous levels: as if by Essays some invisible force outside of 263 Best human control, we are compelled to do work that is not enriching or meaningful, and is therefore alien (remember Peter's nightmare wherein the judge deems he has lived a trite and meaningless life); the very things we make or work on - like Peter's TPS reports - have essentially no real meaning for us and are therefore alien; the - Writing Advice, people who have an interest in getting us to 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images, do this unpleasant work, like Lumbergh, quickly become antagonists, and therefore alien to us; and, as a result of all these daily processes, our potentialities and aspirations as human beings are frequently abandoned - as when Peter wishes to Is Wrong Essay Provide Essay Writing, do nothing - and are thereby rendered alien to 6- Multiplication On, us.[5] It is precisely due to this last alienation from our species that Marx argued working people will eventually only feel free when satisfying what he called our animal functions, such as eating, drinking and procreating. It is thus no accident that when Lawrence is asked by Peter what he would do if he had a million dollars - in other words, what he would truly want to do with his life were money not an issue - his response is a sexual fantasy. Thus, radicals would generally agree with the famous Office Space tagline, Work Sucks, but with one small, yet crucial alteration: Alienated Work Sucks. But what is it about the Bar Chart | Download & Samples, nature of modern work that makes it so alienating? Radicals often point to 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images On, the highly evolved division of labor - that is, the breaking down of work into simple, repetitive tasks that each individual becomes responsible for, while much of the thinking about and overseeing of work is carried out by a coordinator class.[6] However, as the renowned psychoanalyst and Outline Template | Good, critical theorist Erich Fromm argued, this intense division of labor also lead[s] to an organization of 263 Best Math-Unit On work where the - Writing, individual loses his individuality, where he becomes an Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images, expendable cog in the machine.[7] This process occurs regularly under capitalism, Fromm argued, precisely because the worker is viewed as part of the equipment hired by [capitalists], and his role and function are determined by this quality of being a piece of equipment.[8] If Peter's wish to do nothing is indeed a key message of Office Space, then we must again yield to Fromm, who, writing in 1955, argued that, The alienated and profoundly unsatisfactory character of work results in two reactions: one, the Essays, ideal of complete laziness ; the other, a deep-seated, though often unconscious hostility toward work and everything and everybody connected with it.[9] In addition to his point about 6- Multiplication And Division On, laziness, Fromm's point regarding hostility is also apparent throughout Office Space.

Whether it is Peter's contempt for the receptionist seated in the cubicle across from him, Michael's contempt for the woman who hands out the employee mail, Joanna's contempt for the eccentric waiter, or Peter, Michael, and Samir's mutual contempt for the office printer, it must be considered that their hostility does not merely spring from differences in personality or problems with the functioning of a particular machine. Rather, it is the | Download Free Templates,, sheer undesirability of their work situation that creates a setting in 263 Best Math-Unit And Division Images which it becomes remarkably easy to Why Abortion Is Wrong Essay Provide Essay, grow hostile toward everything and Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images, everybody connected with it. Because the worker becomes an appendage of the machine who must learn only the most simple, most monotonous, most easily acquired knack,[10] all while placed under the command of You Letter Example Advice a perfect hierarchy of officers and sergeants[11] (such as Lumbergh, Dom, The Bobs, etcetera), the irrepressible feeling that one's needs as a human being are being relentlessly subordinated to And Division, the company's need to make money can, over time, lead to Sermon Outline Template | Good Resume, hostility and even violence. To this point, we must marvel at some of 6- Multiplication Marx's and Friedrich Engels' observations in The Communist Manifesto. As if foreseeing Office Space by 150 years, the authors noted that many workers will at first destroy the instruments of production rather than the system of Essays production which forces the great majority of them to sell themselves piecemeal.[12] Thus, when the authors write of these disgruntled workers that they smash to pieces machinery,[13] we quickly recall the 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images, epic printer scene, where Peter, Michael and Samir destroy the temperamental printer in the middle of a barren field; and when Marx and Engels write they set factories ablaze,[14] we cannot help but think of Artist Resume » Best Artist Manager Milton nervously fleeing the scene as the 263 Best And Division On, Initech building is Essays On Abortion reduced to ashes. Office Space reminds us that much radical sentiment exists in the mainstream, but is rarely identified as such. This example should lead us to consider the 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images, many arguments for worker ownership, worker self-management and Covering Letter Application, workplace democracy. The general tendency of such arguments is that if alienation is to ever be successfully eliminated, what is necessary (though not necessarily sufficient by itself) [15] is Math-Unit 6- Multiplication And Division Images a true democratization of decision-making authority in the workplace. Such a democratization is also necessary if the worker versus coordinator effect is to be eliminated (or at least severely minimized).[16] Hierarchical organization of authority often leads to a situation of mutual mistrust between the Peters and Essays, the Lumberghs of the world. In contrast, within Spain's massive Mondragon cooperative community, asymmetries in power and information are thus negated by a conscious arrangement which most of us value quite dearly: democracy.

But simply fantasizing about such a situation will, of course, not bring it into existence. For that, nothing but good old-fashioned action will do.[17] Peters of the Math-Unit 6- Multiplication Images, world, unite! Stephen Rosskamm Shalom, Which Side Are You On? An Introduction to Politics (New York: Longman Publishers, 2003), 29-30. Mary Gabriel, Who Was Karl Marx? CNN, 10/29/11. (Accessed on 06/12/12)

Bertell Ollman, Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Example - Writing Advice Capitalist Society (New York: Cambridge University Press), 131. Karl Marx, edited by Dirk J. 263 Best 6- Multiplication Images On? Struik, The Economic Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 (New York: International Publishers, 2001) 110-111. The criteria for what constitutes a coordinator are not precise, but, as the On Abortion, originators of the term describe, . the 263 Best Math-Unit Images, coordinator wants to preserve a relative monopoly of conceptual skills and expertise giving him or her an interest in preventing the widespread intellectual advance of workers, as well as a paternal, elitist attitude toward them. Thank - Writing? Michael Albert and Robin Hahnel, Socialism Today and 263 Best Math-Unit, Tomorrow (MA: South End Press, 1981), 32-33, 38. Erich Fromm, The Art of Loving (New York: HarperCollins, 2006), 79.

Erich Fromm, The Sane Society (New York: Fawcett World Library, 1955), 162. Fromm (1955), 163, italics in original. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (New York: Penguin Books, 2002), 227. Also available online. (Accessed on Letter For Job Application By Email, 06/12/12) The degree to which instituting workplace democracy can, by itself, resolve the core defects of 6- Multiplication Images On capitalism is the Essays, source of 263 Best Math-Unit And Division considerable debate among radicals themselves.

For overviews of this debate and various perspectives on it, see, for You Letter - Writing example, Against the Market by David McNally, Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists, edited by Bertell Ollman;, Remaking Scarcity (specifically Chapters 8 and 9) by Costas Panayotakis; and, Against the Market Economy: Advice to Venezuelan Friends by Robin Hahnel. 263 Best And Division? (Accessed on 06/12/12) The lopsided power imbalance between those who coordinate the work and those who do the work quickly creates two distinct, opposing forces: one either gives orders, or one takes them. And, once this dynamic is set in motion, a kind of spiritual impulse exists whereby it feels good to disobey and defy the orders (especially if one does so without getting caught). Thus Peter at Sermon Outline Template Resume Examples one point, for example, fillets a fish at his desk and throws the entrails onto Math-Unit And Division On, the TPS report cover sheets that he was disciplined for not using at the start of the film. In addition to the various sources cited in this paper, the Outline | Good Examples, following texts might prove useful for 263 Best 6- Multiplication On readers somewhat new to radical arguments: Phil Gasper's concise article Another World is Possible; Gar Alperovitz, America Beyond Capitalism; Michael A. Lebowitz's Build It Now: Socialism for the 21st Century; Michael Albert's Parecon: Life After Capitalism; Richard D. - Writing? Wolff's Democracy at Work (forthcoming); Erich Fromm's Marx's Concept of Math-Unit And Division Images On Man; Mary Gabriel's Love and Essays On Abortion, Capital: Karl and Jenny Marx and the Birth of On a Revolution; and, Robert Heilbroner's Marxism: For and Against.