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bressay up helly For 24 hours, on the last Tuesday of January, the town of Ex99x1_003.jpg, Lerwick goes more than a little mad. Tuesday 30th January 2018. Report Essay Yourladyfriends? There will be no postponement for weather. That's a defiant boast by Shetland's biggest fire festival, considering it's held in mid-winter on Ex99x1_003.jpg, the same latitude as southern Greenland. But it's true: gales, sleet and snow have never yet stopped the Autumn Bbq Party Template - Download Up Helly Aa guizers of Lerwick from Ex99x1_003.jpg, burning their Viking galley - and then dancing the Biography For Your dawn away.
Up Helly Aa is Ex99x1_003.jpg a lot more than a sub-arctic bonfire and booze-up. Development For School Sports Brochure? It's a superb spectacle, a celebration of Shetland history, and a triumphant demonstration of the islanders' skills and Ex99x1_003.jpg, spirit. Worksheets? This northern Mardi Gras lasts just one day (and night). But it takes several thousand people 364 days to Ex99x1_003.jpg organise. Math Riddle? Much of the preparation is in strictest secrecy. The biggest secret of all is what the head of the festival, the Ex99x1_003.jpg 'Guizer Jarl', will wear and Autumn Bbq Party Free Psd Flyer Template For Photoshop, which character from the Norse Sagas he'll represent.
The Jarl will have been planning (and saving up for) the Ex99x1_003.jpg longest day of his life for Budget Templates Templates, 12 years or more, before he dons his raven-winged helmet, grabs axe and Ex99x1_003.jpg, shield, and Sports Brochure, embarks on a 24-hour sleepless marathon. On the evening of Ex99x1_003.jpg, Up Helly Aa Day, over Biography, 800 heavily-disguised men (no women, thank you, we're vikings!) form ranks in the darkened streets. Ex99x1_003.jpg? They shoulder stout fencing posts, topped with paraffin-soaked sacking. On the stroke of Athletic Development Brochure, 7.30pm, a signal rocket bursts over Ex99x1_003.jpg, the Town Hall. The torches are lit, the Budget band strikes up and Ex99x1_003.jpg, the amazing, blazing procession begins, snaking half a mile astern of the Guizer Jarl, standing proudly at the helm of his doomed replica longship, or 'galley'.
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They're all invited guests at what are still private parties - apart from Athletic Development, a couple of halls where tickets are on Ex99x1_003.jpg, sale to Party | Inkd the general public. At every hall each squad performs its 'act', perhaps a skit on Ex99x1_003.jpg, local events, a dance display in spectacular costume, or a topical send-up of a popular TV show or pop group. Every guizer has a duty (as the Resume Samples 'Up Helly Aa Song' says) to dance with at Ex99x1_003.jpg least one of the ladies in the hall, before taking yet another dram, soaked up with vast quantities of mutton soup and bannocks. That's not the Format Samples end of it, for Ex99x1_003.jpg, throughout the rest of the Bbq Party Free Psd Flyer Template - Download winter each gang of guizers will hold their own 'squad dances' for family and Ex99x1_003.jpg, friends. By early autumn, there'll be the first meetings to arrange the Resume Samples next year's performance, while at Ex99x1_003.jpg the Galley Shed in Physical Exam 8 Documents St Sunniva Street the shipwrights, carpenters and their helpers will be starting work on the new galley, not forgetting 'the boys who made the Ex99x1_003.jpg torches'. 'From grand old Viking centuries, Up Helly Aa has come. ' That's what the Resume Format Samples guizers sing but in Ex99x1_003.jpg fact the Sample Exam Form 8 Documents festival is only just over Ex99x1_003.jpg, 100 years old in Riddle Worksheets its present, highly organised form. Ex99x1_003.jpg? In the 19th century Up Helly Aa was often riotous.
Special constables were called in to Physical 8 Documents curb trigger-happy drunks firing guns in the air - and Ex99x1_003.jpg, dragging a blazing tar barrel through the streets, sometimes leaving it on Winter Holiday | Inkd, the doorstep of the year's least popular worthy burgher. Today's festival is much better behaved. The Up Helly Aa Exhibition in the Galley Shed, St Sunniva Street, Lerwick, welcomes visitors Shetland Museum has extensive photographic archives of the Ex99x1_003.jpg festival Learn more about Up Helly Aa on the official Up Helly Aa website Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Athletic Development Brochure, exploring Shetland's Viking past. Ex99x1_003.jpg? The ingredients in the Up Helly Aa recipe go back 12 centuries and more - fire, feasting, fancy dress and, above all, fun. The torchlit procession and Physical Form 8 Documents, galley burning echo pagan Norse rituals at the cremation of Ex99x1_003.jpg, great chieftains, and Report Style Paper Yourladyfriends, religious ceremonies to mark the Ex99x1_003.jpg Sun's return after the Report Essay Paper winter solstice. Ex99x1_003.jpg? Elaborate disguise was part of Physical Exam Form 8 Documents In Pdf Pre Employment, prehistoric fertility rites. Mediaeval Shetland guizers were called 'skeklers' and Ex99x1_003.jpg, wore costumes of straw. The feasting and dancing continue saga traditions from the Best winter drinking halls of Ex99x1_003.jpg, Viking warriors, while the satirical 'Bill' or proclamation, lampooning local worthies and fixed to the Lerwick Market Cross on Riddle Worksheets, Up Helly Aa morning, has precedents in Ex99x1_003.jpg the sharp wit of the Norse skalds. If you should miss the Holiday Party Lerwick Up Helly Aa (or if it gives you the taste for Ex99x1_003.jpg, more of the same), don't despair - there are another eight fire festivals in various districts of Shetland during the - Find Word late winter. And the country Up Hellies A' do NOT ban women from being torch-bearers and Ex99x1_003.jpg, guizers. Don't mention that in Exam Form 8 Documents Lerwick, though - where the Ex99x1_003.jpg men-only rule is a ticklish topic in these politically correct days.
Each year we do a live stream from Bbq Party Free Psd Flyer Template - Download, Lerwick on Ex99x1_003.jpg, 60 North TV, Shetland's internet broadcasting website, so you can watch the Up Helly Aa magic from the comfort of your own home. Keep an eye on our facebook page for updates on In Pdf Pre Employment, the live broadcast closer to the time. If you would prefer to Ex99x1_003.jpg experience the Biography Examples Career Up Helly Aa event in person, you can watch the morning march as well as the Ex99x1_003.jpg evening torch lit procession and Samples, galley burning - these are all public events. If you would like to join the Ex99x1_003.jpg late night celebrations at Style Term Yourladyfriends Lerwick's Town Hall, keep a look out in the Shetland Times towards the end of the year as a limited number of Ex99x1_003.jpg, tickets will be advertised. If you are not lucky enough to get your hands on Format, one of Ex99x1_003.jpg, these you can call the Shetland Tourist Board in January (+44 (0)1595 693434) and they will put you on the waiting list for Budget Templates - Find Word Templates, tickets.
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Infections following the application of leeches: two case reports and review of the literature. © Maetz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012. Published: 25 October 2012. Since the Ex99x1_003.jpg, 1980s, leeches have been ingeniously used in the management of venous flap congestion. The presence of anticoagulative substances in their saliva improves the blood drainage. Their digestive tract contains several bacterial species, the main ones being Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, which contribute to the digestion of ingested blood. These bacteria can be the cause of infections. We report two cases of septicemia related to Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria that presented after leeches had been applied to congested transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps for delayed mammary reconstructions. Patient number 1 was a 55-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the sixth postoperative day she showed a clinical presentation of Winter Holiday Party septicemia.
Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s skin and blood bacteriological samples. Ex99x1_003.jpg. Her fever ceased after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. Patient number 2 was a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the seventh postoperative day we noticed that she showed a clinical presentation of septicemia. Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s blood cultures and local bacteriological samples. An antibiogram showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Her fever ceased on the eleventh postoperative day after 4 days of Best Biography Examples antibiotic treatment. The rate of infection after application of Ex99x1_003.jpg leeches is not negligible.
The concentration of Aeromonas inside the digestive tracts of Resume Format Samples leeches largely decreases when the patient is Ex99x1_003.jpg under antibiotic therapy. These germs are sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins and Athletic For School, fluoroquinolones and resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. We recommend preventive treatment based on classical measures of asepsis and on Ex99x1_003.jpg, oral antibioprophylaxy with a fluoroquinolone during the whole period of treatment by Best Career leeches. Leeches have been used for Ex99x1_003.jpg, therapeutic purposes since 3500 B.C. Math Riddle Worksheets. Their qualities were discovered in former Egypt, China and India. Ex99x1_003.jpg. A mural painting representing a nurse applying a leech to a patient’s forehead was discovered in a grave in Thebes (origin of the pharaohs of the Math, 18th dynasty). The first written reference goes back to the second century B.C. and deals with the Ex99x1_003.jpg, treatment of Winter Flyer | Inkd poisonous bites. The use of leeches reached a peak in the nineteenth century for Ex99x1_003.jpg, various indications: laryngitis, ophthalmic problems, cerebral apoplexy, obesity, and mental disorders. Biography Examples For Your. In 1884, Haycraft discovered hirudin which is the main anticoagulative substance in leeches’ saliva [ 1 ]. In 1955, Markwardt was the first to isolate hirudin from the pharyngeal glands of leeches. Nowadays, this substance is only produced by genetic engineering.
It was in 1981 that Foucher described for the first time the use of leeches in the treatment of venous congestion during digital replantation [ 2 ]. Ex99x1_003.jpg. Since then leeching has been used particularly for the treatment of venous drainage problems [ 3 ]. Leeches are divided hermaphrodite worms that feed on Samples, blood and they belong to the group of annelids. Many species are known and the two most commonly used in Ex99x1_003.jpg, medical application are the Style Essay Paper Yourladyfriends, Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana [ 4 ] . Their length is about 12cm and their weight is 2g to 5g. The mouth of the leech has three jaws; each jaw has approximately 100 tiny teeth. Ex99x1_003.jpg. A leech also has a posterior suction device that it uses for stability. Medicinal leeches have two different mechanisms through which venous drainage can be achieved. The first mechanism is through the passive bleeding of the Math, patient after each leech bite; this represents the majority of the Ex99x1_003.jpg, average blood meal volume for a leech. They temporarily increase perfusion levels by actively drawing off blood and maintain physiologic requirements within the congested tissue. Best Biography Examples. Laser Doppler flowmetry can demonstrate a significant increase in superficial skin perfusion around the leech bite [ 5 , 6 ]. Moreover, as the leech bite continues, it reduces congestion due to the anticoagulant effect of leech saliva, which contains thrombin inhibitor hirudin, apyrase, collagenase, hyaluronidase, factor Xa inhibitor and Ex99x1_003.jpg, fibrinase I and II [ 2 ]. A leech consumes 5mL to Biography, 15mL of Ex99x1_003.jpg blood and induces oozing on the site of attachment of between 50mL and 100mL of blood during the 24-hour to 48-hour period after the leech is Development For School detached. Venous congestion treated by leeches. In France, medicinal leeches are supplied by Ex99x1_003.jpg Ricarimpex®.
Before being used, leeches are kept in Biography Examples Career, a bowl of sterile water under refrigeration. It is recommended to store leeches at a cool temperature ranging from 5°C to 7°C (42°F to 45°F) and no higher than 20°C (68°F). The water should be changed every week and a bacteriological sample taken once a month. Leeches’ intestinal flora is Ex99x1_003.jpg composed of Aeromonas hydrophila and Math, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria [ 8 ] making the digestion of sampled red blood corpuscles easier. Since 1983, many infections due to these germs have been described after medical application [ 9 ]. We report two cases of septicemia related to A. veronii that presented after leeches had been applied to congested transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps for delayed mammary reconstructions before reviewing the international literature on Ex99x1_003.jpg, the topic. The first patient was a 55-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a mastectomy for a breast cancer followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Three years after those treatments, she underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure with a pedicled TRAM flap. Due to a massive and immediate venous congestion, she had to undergo 12 hours later a second operation and the flap had to Report Paper Yourladyfriends, be moved back to the initial position.
Due to Ex99x1_003.jpg, persistent venous congestion, a treatment with leeches was started 2 days after this second operation. Neither an intraoperative nor a patient-related risk factor could explain the observed venous congestion. On the sixth postoperative day, following 4 days of leeching, the Examples For Your Career, vascular status of the flap improved, but the Ex99x1_003.jpg, patient showed a clinical presentation of septicemia associated with 39.2°C hyperthermia, a white blood cell count of Examples For Your 27,44 10 9 /L and a C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased by 153mg/L. While blood cultures and Ex99x1_003.jpg, local bacteriological swabs were being analyzed, an intravenous antibiotic therapy was started including vancomycin (1.5g/day) and cefotaxime (6g/day) for Holiday Template | Inkd, 10 days, and amikacin (350mg/day) for 2 days. A. Ex99x1_003.jpg. veronii biovar sobria was identified in skin and blood bacteriological samples. The fever ceased after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. After 10 days, oral clindamycin antibiotic therapy was prescribed for 10 days. Sample. The flap was moved back to the mammary position at day 12 after 48 hours of Ex99x1_003.jpg apyrexia. The patient left the hospital at day 19. The second patient was a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a mastectomy for a relapse after a first breast cancer treated by tumorectomy followed by Format radiotherapy. Despite the possibilities of Ex99x1_003.jpg immediate breast reconstruction, she refused to undergo such a procedure.
Ten months later, she was motivated for a delayed procedure. Because we were not used to performing deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps at that time, she had a breast reconstruction using a pedicled TRAM flap. Despite the absence of intraoperative complications and patient-related risk factors, the flap presented an Party early venous congestion that was treated from the second to the fifth postoperative day by Ex99x1_003.jpg leeching and heparin-moist gauzes. A partial necrosis settled in the mammary and abdominal area. On the seventh postoperative day, we noticed a clinical presentation of septicemia associated with 39.8°C hyperthermia, a white blood cell count of 15 ? 10 9 /L and a CRP level increased by 114mg/L. On the Math Worksheets, eighth postoperative day, a necrotic area excision was practiced, associated with an Ex99x1_003.jpg intravenous probabilistic antibiotic therapy including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4g/day) and Brochure, gentamicin (160mg/day) for 2 days. A. veronii biovar sobria was identified in Ex99x1_003.jpg, the patient’s blood cultures and local bacteriological samples. An antibiogram showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, which was stopped at day 10 and replaced by cefotaxime (6g/day) for 10 days followed by oral ofloxacin (400mg/day) for eight days. The fever ceased on the eleventh postoperative day after four days of antibiotic treatment. She left the hospital at Report Essay day 20.
For our two patients, the sample was plated to blood agar, Drigalski agar and a brain-heart infusion. Ex99x1_003.jpg. The isolate was identified by using a Vitek 2 Gram-negative card (bioMerieux Inc., Marcy L’etoile, France). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by using a 24-hour disk-diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar plates incubated at Report Style Paper 37°C in Ex99x1_003.jpg, an ambient air incubator. Similar cases of Math Worksheets infections due to leeching on Ex99x1_003.jpg, TRAM flaps have been described in Athletic Development Sports, the literature [ 10 ]. It was in Ex99x1_003.jpg, 1983 that Whitlock et al . suggested for the first time that there could be a risk of Report Style Term infection by Ex99x1_003.jpg A. hydrophila attached to leeching. Whitlock showed the presence of A. Format. hydrophila on the leech’s body by making bacteriological samples.
These bacteria can be pathogenic for the human body especially when the flap has a bad vascularization [ 9 ]. In fact, each leech’s bite potentially introduces the bacteria into tissue with poor microcirculation, setting the stage for a possible infection. Ex99x1_003.jpg. In the literature, many cases of infection after leeching have been described [ 11 ]: 18 cases in Math Riddle, 1992 by Lineaweaver [ 12 ], 19 cases in 1996 by De Chalain [ 13 ], 7 cases in 2002 by Sartor [ 14 ], and 47 cases in 2007 by Bauters [ 15 ]. Ex99x1_003.jpg. The rate of infection can be important varying from 2.4% to 20.0% according to the literature: 17% in De Chalain [ 13 ] and 3% in Sartor’s cases [ 14 ]. De Chalain et al. [ 13 ] described 19 cases of leeche-related Aeromonas infection. The flap salvage rate in infected patients dropped to 30% compared to an 83% flap survival rate in uninfected patients. The severity ranges from mild cellulitis and trivial episodes of wound drainage to more serious infections with abscess, tissue necrosis, septicemia and meningitis [ 16 ]. Several infections were observed at the donor site and at Winter Holiday Party Flyer other sites far from the flap [ 12 ]. Ex99x1_003.jpg. Unlike our two patients, in general, many patient-related risk factors were found that could explain the infection rate: immune deficiency, diabetes, hepatobiliary disease (cirrhosis), obesity, and tobacco use. Infection starts most of the time during the Style Essay Term Paper, first 10 days, but in some cases infection can appear a few weeks after leeching [ 16 ]. In our two cases, the delay between leeching and the beginning of septicemia ranges from 4 to Ex99x1_003.jpg, 7 days. Best Biography Career. In Lineaweaver’s [ 12 ] series of 18 patients infected after leeching, this delay ranges from 1 day to Ex99x1_003.jpg, 10 days.
In Sartor’s series [ 14 ] of seven patients infected after leeching, this delay ranges from 2 days to 11 days. Numerous germs have been identified from leeches [ 17 ]. The saliva from H. Athletic For School Brochure. medicinalis, which is the most commonly used medicinal leech in Europe and Northern America, was put into culture by Mackay et al . and they showed the Ex99x1_003.jpg, presence of A. Development For School Sports Brochure. hydrophila and Ex99x1_003.jpg, Aeromonas sobria [ 18 ]. The most common germ is A. hydrophila but other pathogens that cause wound infections following leeching include A. sobria [ 19 ], and there are isolated reports of 8 Documents Serratia marcescens [ 20 ] and Vibrio fluvialis [ 21 ]. A. veronii biovar sobria was found in Ex99x1_003.jpg, blood cultures as well as in local bacteriological samples of our two patients. R: Resistant, S: Sensitive. Before use and in order to avoid human infection, some authors propose immersing leeches in a solution of antibiotics for a few days or in a solution of chlorhexidine at 1:5000 before therapeutic use. Use of povidone iodine is excluded due to Athletic Sports Brochure, its absolute toxicity on leeches.
Hokelek et al . consider that incubation of leeches with the appropriate antibiotics before application may contribute to prevent patients’ infection [ 24 ]. Leeches’ suction activity is preserved notwithstanding this treatment. Different solutions of antibiotics were compared and Ex99x1_003.jpg, analyzed; their efficiency and their impact on Term, bacterial concentration inside the leeches’ digestive tract was studied. The results showed that optimum eradication of bacteria from leeches was obtained with a dosage of 500?g per Ex99x1_003.jpg, mL of ciprofloxacin and 1000?g per Flyer Template | Inkd, mL of ceftriaxone. Hokelek proposed the use of a solution of antibiotics with ciprofloxacin that was superior to ceftriaxone. Despite these preventive measures, some infectious cases were identified. Ex99x1_003.jpg. In fact, no solution of antibiotics can totally eradicate the bacterial flora from the digestive tracts of leeches. Lineaweaver [ 25 ] nevertheless noticed an important decrease in the concentration of bacteria inside the Math Worksheets, digestive tracts of leeches when the patient is under an effective antibiotic therapy. Ex99x1_003.jpg. Consequently, only the patients’ antibioprophylaxy is able to reduce the risk of infection.
In 2002, Chepeha et al . [ 26 ] used double coverage with ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis in eight patients treated for venous congestion with an average of Sample Physical In Pdf 215 leeches per Ex99x1_003.jpg, patient without any Aeromonas infection reported. In 2004, Whitaker et al . [ 27 ] proposed a prophylactic protocol for the patient based on an intravenous antibioprophylaxy associating a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin and Development Sports Brochure, an aminosid during the complete period of leeching. This treatment is followed by an oral one until complete healing is achieved. In 2007, Knobloch et al . [ 28 ] recommended a prophylactic antibiotic therapy with fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as 500mg of ciprofloxacin three times a day for 7 days. In the presence of necrotic tissue or an open wound, oral antibiotic cover should be continued until wound closure. Effective antibiotic treatment may reduce the possibility of Aeromonas colonization of a devitalized portion of tissue and prevent late A. Ex99x1_003.jpg. hydrophila infection [ 29 ]. Established infection is treated with antibiotics such as third-generation cephalosporins, along with aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole [ 29 ]. As for our two patients, Hermansdorfer’s and Math, Braga’s studies reveal that the Ex99x1_003.jpg, Aeromonas is sensitive to fluoroquinolone, particularly ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin [ 23 , 30 ]. Ciprofloxacin is the most recommended prophylactic antibiotic for leech therapy because studies have consistently shown 100% sensitivity of Aeromonas strains isolated from medicinal leeches.
So, an antibioprophylaxy with ofloxacin at 400mg/day or with ciprofloxacin 1g/day efficiently reduces the infection rate during the whole period of treatment. Tissue penetration is good and Holiday Party Flyer | Inkd, side effects are limited. Ofloxacin has an excellent oral bioavailability (close to 95%) and a lower cost considering the relatively few cases in which leeches are employed [ 31 ]. In 2011, Wang et al . described a ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant Aeromonas infection associated with leech therapy [ 32 ]. Ex99x1_003.jpg. Studies that examined the Sample Physical Form In Pdf, antibiotic resistance profile of Ex99x1_003.jpg Aeromonas strains in Resume Format Samples, industrial fish farms found a resistance to Ex99x1_003.jpg, ciprofloxacin and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole estimated to be 3% and 1%, respectively [ 33 , 34 ]. Currently, ciprofloxacin and Sports, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistances in Aeromonas are rare. In order to determine appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis on Ex99x1_003.jpg, local resistance patterns, surgeons and infectious disease specialists have to collaborate. Template. The increase in fluoroquinolone resistance needs to be cautiously monitored. The rate of infection after leeching is not negligible. Ex99x1_003.jpg. It varies from 2.4% to 20.0% according to Report Paper Yourladyfriends, the literature [ 11 , 12 ]. The concentration of Ex99x1_003.jpg Aeromonas inside the digestive tracts of leeches largely decreases when the patient is under antibiotic therapy. These germs are sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin. We recommend preventive treatment based on classical measures of asepsis and on oral antibioprophylaxy with fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin at 200mg twice a day during the Best, whole period of treatment by leeches. Written informed consent was obtained from the Ex99x1_003.jpg, two patients for publication of these case reports and Format, any accompanying images.
A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal. Authors' original submitted files for images. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. BM and RA were involved in patients’ management and wrote the manuscript. CBR also reviewed the literature. Ex99x1_003.jpg. CBR operated on the first patient and JBA on the second one. All authors read and Resume, approved the final manuscript. Whitaker IS, Rao J, Izadi D, Butler PE: Historical Article: Hirudo medicinalis: ancient origins of, and Ex99x1_003.jpg, trends in the use of medicinal leeches throughout history. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004, 42 (2): 133-137. 10.1016/S0266-4356(03)00242-0.
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View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Fenollar F, Fournier PE, Legre R: Unusual case of Aeromonas sobria cellulitis associated with the use of leeches. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999, 18 (1): 72-73. 10.1007/s100960050232. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Pereira JA, Greig JR, Liddy H, Ion L, Moss AL: Leech-borne Serratia marcescens infection following complex hand injury. Br J Plast Surg. 1998, 51 (8): 640-641.
10.1054/bjps.1998.0128. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Varghese MR, Farr RW, Wax MK, Chafin BJ, Owens RM: Vibrio fluvialis wound infection associated with medicinal leech therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 1996, 22 (4): 709-710. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Haycox CL, Odland PB, Coltrera MD, Raugi GJ: Indications and Ex99x1_003.jpg, complications of medicinal leech therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995, 33 (6): 1053-1055. 10.1016/0190-9622(95)90320-8. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Hermansdorfer J, Lineaweaver W, Follansbee S, Valauri FA, Buncke HJ: Antibiotic sensitivities of Aeromonas hydrophila cultured from medicinal leeches. Style. Br J Plast Surg. 1988, 41 (6): 649-651.
10.1016/0007-1226(88)90176-2. Ex99x1_003.jpg. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Hokelek M, Guneren E, Eroglu C: An experimental study to sterilize medicinal leeches. Eur J Plast Surg. 2002, 25: 81-85. 10.1007/s00238-002-0348-x. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Lineaweaver WC, Furnas H, Follansbee S, Buncke GH, Whitney TM, Canales F: Postprandial Aeromonas hydrophila cultures and antibiotic levels of enteric aspirates from medicinal leeches applied to Career, patients receiving antibiotics. Ann Plast Surg. Ex99x1_003.jpg. 1992, 29 (3): 245-249. 10.1097/00000637-199209000-00009. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Chepeha DB, Nussenbaum B, Bradford CR, Teknos TN: Leech therapy for patients with surgically unsalvageable venous obstruction after revascularized free tissue transfer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.
2002, 128 (8): 960-965. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Whitaker IS, Izadi D, Oliver DW, Monteath G, Butler PE: Hirudo medicinalis and the plastic surgeon. Resume. Br J Plast Surg. 2004, 57 (4): 348-353. 10.1016/j.bjps.2003.12.016. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Knobloch K, Gohritz A, Busch K, Spies M, Vogt PM: Hirudo medicinalis – leech applications in plastic and reconstructive microsurgery – a literature review. Ex99x1_003.jpg. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2007, 39 (2): 103-107.
10.1055/s-2007-965138. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Ardehali B, Hand K, Nduka C, Holmes A, Wood S: Delayed leech-borne infection with Aeromonas hydrophila in escharotic flap wound. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006, 59: 94-95. 10.1016/j.bjps.2005.04.030. Essay Yourladyfriends. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Braga A, Lineweaver WC, Whitney TM, Follansbee S, Buncke HJ: Sensitivities of Aeromonas hydrophila cultured from medicinal leeches to oral antibiotics.
J Reconstr Microsurg. Ex99x1_003.jpg. 1990, 6 (2): 135-137. Holiday. 10.1055/s-2007-1006813. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Wolfson JS, Hooper DC: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. Ex99x1_003.jpg. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1989, 2: 378-424. Best Biography Career. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Wang EW, Warren DK, Ferris VM, Casabar E, Nussenbaum B: Leech-transmitted ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila. Ex99x1_003.jpg. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Math Riddle Worksheets. 2011, 137 (2): 190-193. 10.1001/archoto.2010.257. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Akinbowale OL, Peng H, Grant P, Barton MD: Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance in motile aeromonads and Ex99x1_003.jpg, pseudomonads from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in Australia.
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007, 30 (2): 177-182. Biography Examples Career. 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.03.012. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Penders J, Stobberingh EE: Antibiotic resistance of motile aeromonads in Ex99x1_003.jpg, indoor catfish and eel farms in the southern part of the Netherlands. Best Biography Examples Career. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008, 31 (3): 261-265. 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.10.002. Ex99x1_003.jpg. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.
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Teaching Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes Please log in to add your comment. Transcript of Teaching Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes the Thousand Paper Cranes EDUC 409 Assignment 1. By Rita Vruwink The Book Addressing the General Outcomes from the Alberta Program of Ex99x1_003.jpg, Studies Addressing the Framework for Student Learning Competencies Learning Activity 2 Learning Activity 3 Learning Activity 1 There are several ways in which the use of this novel addresses the competencies set out in the Framework for Student Learning. Japan Quest Another activity would be one in which the students choose a project in which they could creatively represent the novel. This could be any number of things, for example:
creating their own book cover. making an animated video. writing a letter as one of the characters in the novel. writing a newspaper article about the novel(hiroshima, the monument, etc.) These are only Biography, a few of the Ex99x1_003.jpg possibilities that students could do to represent and Exam share what they learned through reading the novel. World Peace Division 2(4-6) Would probably use in a grade 4 classroom. I will look at Ex99x1_003.jpg, the General Outcomes as if it is for a grade 4 class. This is the story of Sadako Sasaki a young Japanese girl who survived the bombing of Essay Paper, Hiroshima only to Ex99x1_003.jpg, be diagnosed with Leukemia due to Holiday Party Flyer, the bomb at age 11.
The story follows her through her illness and her journey to try and make 1000 paper cranes, which are supposed to symbolize good heath. In the Ex99x1_003.jpg end Sadako died after only For School, completing 644 paper cranes but her classmates took up the job of Ex99x1_003.jpg, finishing for her and Sadako and the paper cranes became a symbol for world peace. General Outcome 1 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. This novel provides many opportunities for students to accomplish this outcome. It deals with the Best For Your Career more serious topic of war, which is one that they may not have encountered before, and thus it lends to the students comparing the events that occur in the book, such as death, sickness, family and others, to their previous experiences and asking questions about the material to learn more. The serious topic also provides good opportunity to Ex99x1_003.jpg, begin the use of personal reflections on the topics presented. This book also brings in Athletic Development For School Sports, multiple perspectives in that it addresses the different cultural perspective of Sadako and the Japanese people towards the bombing of Hiroshima. General Outcome 2 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and.
respond personally and critically to. oral, print and other media texts. This outcome deals more with the Ex99x1_003.jpg students understanding of the text and encourages critical thinking. The format of this text is that of a novel, probably one of the first of which the students will encounter in Math, schools. Novels allow for the students to deepen their understanding of Ex99x1_003.jpg, story structure. There is also more complex and complicated structure and grammar to a novel compared to Career, some of the Ex99x1_003.jpg storybooks that they may have encountered before. General Outcome 3 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and.
respond personally and critically to. oral, print and other media texts. This outcome is about the students being able to Format Samples, respond to the texts meaningfully. Because of the background and history involved in this novel it allows for many opportunities for Ex99x1_003.jpg, the students to reasearch various topics such as Japanese culture or poetry, sickness such as cancer, and a simplified history of the events that occurred in the book. This type of research would allow students to further their understanding and apply it in different ways as well as practice on doing presentations, using various multimodal forms, and Examples For Your Career possibly group work. General Outcome 4 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the.
clarity and artistry of communication. Ex99x1_003.jpg! General Outcome 5 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support. and collaborate with others. This outcome is very much in Term Paper, relation to Outcome 3 in that it is about the students ability to Ex99x1_003.jpg, represent their understanding of the text to others. As mentioned under outcome 3 the idea of a presentation works very well for encompassing this outcome as it displays the students understanding in a way in which the Resume Samples other students should understand.
To do this the Ex99x1_003.jpg students would have to use their knowledge of the English language to present the information that they want in a way that can be understood(proper spelling, etc.) This outcome encompases both the Physical Pre Employment students ability to work within a group as well as to understand the texts that are looked at under a wider more cultural lens. Because the Ex99x1_003.jpg novel takes place in Japan it does help to bring the perspective of another culture into the class. It also deals with the subjects of Worksheets, war and peace which can be seen in many aspects of today's world and that has an impact on Ex99x1_003.jpg our lives. It shows respect for others beliefs and traditions through the Math Riddle Worksheets idea with the novel that folding paper cranes would somehow bring healing and how in the novel that belief is as strong as prayer might be to some people. The novel also provides a forum for the students to Ex99x1_003.jpg, have group discussions on these more critical issues. If presentations are done alongside the novel then they could easily involve group work as it makes it easier on the students as well as encourages the development of collaborative skills. Collaboration and Leadership. This novel could provide many opportunies for Term Paper, the students to develop skills in collaboration and leadership. Activities such as group discussions and group presentations are the most obvious but there is also the Ex99x1_003.jpg possibility for Biography Examples Career, the students to engage in some sort of Ex99x1_003.jpg, fund raising activity for Athletic Development Sports, the school, community or elsewhere through the Ex99x1_003.jpg making of paper cranes or some other medium.
Critical Thinking, Problem Solving and Decision Making. Because of it's subject matter this novel can provide many opportunities for critical thinking. There are many questions that can be posed to the students in relation to the subject matter such as What might you have done?, How would you have reacted?, Do you think this still effects us today?, or Is there anything you think we could do about this? These kinds of Resume Samples, questions would encourage critical thinking by the students as well as develop their skills in solving problems and making decisions in terms of the Ex99x1_003.jpg ideas and issues presented. Creativity and Innovation. Many things can be done in Sample Physical 8 Documents, conjunction with this novel to foster creativity and innovation. An activity commonly done when doing this novel is to fold paper cranes. There can also be other sorts of art projects or presentations done in Ex99x1_003.jpg, different creative manners. Social, Global, Cultural and Environmental Responsibility. As was covered under many of the general outcomes this novel is situated within another culture and society and Resume deals with issues surch as war and peace.
The discussions that could arise through studying this book should help to encourage growth of Ex99x1_003.jpg, students sense of responsibilities in all of the Holiday Template above matters. Communication and Digital/Technological Fluency. In terms of these two competencies I believe that they would be accomplished in similar ways. Part of communication would of course be the classroom discussions that the class would engage in. The other part could be from the projects or presentations that could be done in conjunction with this novel as presenting would improve students competency in communication and they would almost certainly in today's world use some form of technology to research, create and present their findings or at Ex99x1_003.jpg, least have the Resume Format option to do so. This activity would involve the students doing research to learn about Japan and it's culture. The students would learn about Ex99x1_003.jpg, basic facts about Japan and then make up a list of things they might want to know more about. Another way to approach this is to teach the students about the different kinds of Japanese poetry(Haiku, Tanka, Renga) and have them learn about them and writing the different kinds. For School! A creative aspect could also be added to Ex99x1_003.jpg, this by doing some sort of Report Style Essay Term Paper, art project to creatively display the poems. Analysis As a class, design an activity that promotes peace.
Brainstorm ideas for an activity that promotes peace somehow. This activity could be in the school, community or somewhere larger. For example in the school it could deal with promoting peace by trying to stop school bullying. Once the activity is chosen, you can ask students in other classes, schools, cities, provinces etc… to participate. Resources used for class activities: http://www.proteacher.org/c/733_novel_unit_-_sadako_and_the_thousand_paper_cranes.html This activity adresses all of the outcomes in some way. The main outcomes that are addressed are Outcomes 3, 4, and 5 as these are the outcomes that deal with the students ability to understand, inquire and represent their learning of a particular topic. This kind of research project would encourage the students to inquire about things they find interesting and be able to translate their findings into their own work.
It also addresses outcomes 1 and 2 in that hopefully the students would carry the underlying issues brought up by the text throughout their inquiry and be thinking and analyzing thise issues throughout. In terms of the seven competencies many of these are covered through this activity as well, as many of them can be seen through the outcomes. The research would require competency in Ex99x1_003.jpg, digital and technological fluency. Creativity, Communication and collaboration are interlaced throughout this activity as it would require students to Physical Exam Form In Pdf, work together and Ex99x1_003.jpg create their own poems and be able to communicate their ideas to their classmates. For example, Renga poems are a type in which it is two people writing the poem together each one writing responses to the other as if there are two parties in the poem that are talking. This requires all three of the competencies mentioned before. Underlying the whole activity should be an understanding of the Development For School social, cultural and global issues surrounding it and it should always encourage critical thinking as well as the Ex99x1_003.jpg students understanding of the issues in relation to their own lives and well-being. Lifelong Learning, Professional Management and Well-being.
This is Development Sports, perhaps the hardest competency to pin down in terms of how this novel relates to it. I would hope that the students would have a better understanding of the issues presented in the novel, such as sickness and war, and also a drive to want to better the world through the Ex99x1_003.jpg novel's message of world peace. This video was done by an 11-year old girl. It is just an example of the kinds of things that could be done for an activity like this. Like activity 1 this activity does cover all of the general outcomes and Resume the competencies of the framework. It is another project that is very much centered on outcomes 4 and 5 in that it is about representing their learning in a creative way and sharing it with their class as well as having the option to Ex99x1_003.jpg, work together as a group in some choices of Riddle Worksheets, this activity. It also catches outcome 3 as some of the choices might involve research as to how to do them, such as making an animation. Like activity 1, outcomes 1 and 2 should be underlying throughout this activity as critical thinking is something that should always be encouraged.
This activity also covers many of the competencies, with a focus on creativity, digital and technological fluency, communication and collaboration. The other three competencies should be underlying in this activity, they are not the focus but they should be understood to always be a part of learning. This activity is Ex99x1_003.jpg, one that I think addresses the competencies the Report Style Yourladyfriends most obviously, with the general outcomes being interwoven into whatever activities the class might choose to Ex99x1_003.jpg, engage in to Sample Physical Exam Form In Pdf, promote world peace. Unlike the other two activities this one's focus is on the competencies of Ex99x1_003.jpg, critical thinking and social, cultural, global and environmental responsibilities. Style Yourladyfriends! This is the kind of activity in which you can get the students engaged in some larger activity to help change and influence the Ex99x1_003.jpg world. Whether it is inside of the school or community or perhaps applies to something larger than that it encourages the students to take a more active role in their world. This also addresses collaboration and leadership in a large way as the students would have to work together to create and carry out an idea and there would be ample opportunities for student leadership. The students would have to Report Style Essay, be creative and innovative in order to communicate their ideas and they would most likely rely on their technological fluency to find some way in which to communicate their ideas. This kind of community outreach is the kind of thing that can influence a students own sense of their lifelong learning and their own well-being as it brings the ideas that they learned about through the novel into Ex99x1_003.jpg a situation that applies to their real lives. The general outcomes would all also apply to an activity like this because they are the general ways by which the Math competencies can be carried out in the classroom. I think the main competency for which there is very little guidance on how to carry out is Ex99x1_003.jpg, that of Lifelong Learning, Personal Management and Sample Physical Exam 8 Documents Well-being.
These seem to be the kinds of topics that are just not addressed within the outcomes that are set out in the program of studies and thus it is hard to know exactly how they might apply to Ex99x1_003.jpg, the novel. However, I feel that the other competencies are fairly well addressed in terms of the general outcomes that are set out by the program of studies. I feel like once these two documents are combined and Athletic Development For School Brochure refied that we will hopefully have a document that will provide us with guidance as teachers.
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95 theses activity Against the Sale of Ex99x1_003.jpg, Indulgences. by Martin Luther. by Jim Jones, West Chester University of Pennsylvania (c.2012) Martin Luther (1483-1546) was born in Thuringia (Saxony) in what is now the country of Germany. His father was a successful foundry owner and Riddle Worksheets mine operator, so he had enough money to sent his son to study law in the town of Erfurt. Instead, Luther joined the religious order of the Augustinian Hermits and Ex99x1_003.jpg studied theology. He studied under Johann von Staupitz, and eventually replaced him as the professor of Biblical studies at the University of Wittenburg. Luther remained there for most of the rest of Samples, his life. While in his early thirties, Luther began to Ex99x1_003.jpg have doubts about the Riddle Worksheets, theological basis for much of the daily practices of the Catholic Church. In other words, he wondered if all of the things done by Catholic leaders could be justified.
To organize his thinking, Luther composed a list of statements and questions that became known as the Ex99x1_003.jpg, 95 Theses. In November 1517 someone printed and distributed them without his permission, causing a stir throughout the highest levels of the Catholic Church. The Pope condemned him in 1520 (papal bull Exsurge Domine ) but all that did was make Luther more radical. In the same year, Luther wrote the Freedom of a Christian , The Pagan Servitude of the Church , and An Appeal to the Ruling Class of the German Nation . They explained Luther's theory of Paper, salvation ( soteriology ), his theory of the church ( ecclesiology ) and his theory of the role of the state in church reform. Although his writings made Luther the philosophical leader of the Protestant Reformation, they also increased the pressure on him to recant. The Holy Roman Emperor found him guilty of heresy at a religious trial at the city of Worms, but when Luther refused to Ex99x1_003.jpg back down, he became the Reformation's moral leader as well.
This reading contains the text of Luther's 95 Theses, which express his concerns about the sale of indulgences by the Catholic church. Samples! Definitions canon law: rules made by councils of prelates of the Catholic church (distinct from rules found in the Bible, like the Ten Commandments) Diet of Ex99x1_003.jpg, Worms: a Catholic court that met in the German city of Worms and confirmed Martin Luther's excommunication in 1521 indulgence: a pardon for certain types of sin. The Catholic Church sold indulgences in the late medieval period, and their sale motivated Martin Luther to present his 95 Theses. Martin Luther: German monk who questioned the leadership and theology of the Catholic Church in 1517. His questions provided the Sample Physical Form 8 Documents Pre Employment, basis for Ex99x1_003.jpg the Protestant Reformation. John Tetzel: monk who sold indulgences in Germany in Development For School Sports, 1517 for Albert of Hohenzollern (a German noble) and Pope Leo X. That triggered Martin Luther's posting of the Ex99x1_003.jpg, 95 Theses in Math Worksheets, Wittenburg. Wartburg: German castle owned by Frederick the Wise, To avoid execution for Ex99x1_003.jpg his questioning of the papacy, Martin Luther hid there from 1520-1521, and used the time to translate the New Testament of the Christian Bible into German. Wittenburg: university town where Martin Luther studied, became a professor, and Samples posted his 95 Theses in 1517, thereby challenging Catholic teaching and Ex99x1_003.jpg leadership. As we have seen in this course, understanding the metaphysical world with certainty is impossible.
As a consequence, individuals have frequently expressed doubts about the teachings of their religious leaders. The teachings of the Catholic popes, whose authority over religion resembled that of emperors over the physical world, were no exception. In the 14th century, after the Crusades, the Mongol invasions and various scandals, the pressure for Riddle Worksheets reform increased. Most reform movements were unsuccessful, but in the early 16th century, several movements succeeded at the same time, leading to the an Ex99x1_003.jpg, era in Flyer | Inkd, history called the Protestant Reformation . It became the last stage of reaction against Ex99x1_003.jpg Christianity's engagement in political affairs -- a history that began with Constantine's declaration of Christianity as the Style Essay Yourladyfriends, Roman state religion in Ex99x1_003.jpg, the 4th century. As a result of the Reformation, a substantial number of Europeans ceased to recognize the Term Paper Yourladyfriends, supremacy of the pope. Although reformers had many complaints about the Catholic Church of the 16th century, the Ex99x1_003.jpg, practice of selling indulgences raised the most opposition. An indulgence was a payment to the Catholic Church that purchased an exemption from punishment (penance) for some types of sins. You could not get an indulgence to excuse a murder, but you could get one to Sample Exam 8 Documents In Pdf Pre Employment excuse many lesser sins, such as thinking lustful thoughts about someone who was not your spouse. The customers for indulgences were Catholic believers who feared that if one of their sins went unnoticed or unconfessed, they would spend extra time in purgatory before reaching heaven or worse, wind up in hell for failing to repent. The sale of indulgences was a byproduct of the Crusades in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Because they risked dying without the benefit of a priest to perform the appropriate ceremonies, Crusaders were promised immediate salvation if they died while fighting to liberate the Christian holy city at Jerusalem. Church leaders justified this by Ex99x1_003.jpg arguing that good works earned salvation, and Report Term making Jerusalem accessible to Christians was an example of a good work. Over time, Church leaders decided that paying money to Ex99x1_003.jpg support good works was just as good as performing good works, and Physical Exam Form 8 Documents In Pdf it evened things up for Ex99x1_003.jpg people who were physically incapable of fighting a Crusade. Over several centuries, the practice expanded, and Church leaders justified it by arguing that they had inherited an unlimited amount of good works from Jesus, and Biography the credit for these good works could be sold to believers in the form of indulgences. In other words, indulgences functioned like confession insurance against eternal damnation because, if you purchased an indulgence, then you wouldn't go to hell if you died suddenly or forgot to Ex99x1_003.jpg confess something. In later years, the sale of indulgences spread to include forgiveness for the sins of Holiday Party, people who were already dead. That is evident in this passage from a sermon by John Tetzel, the monk who sold indulgences in Germany and inspired Martin Luther's protest in 1517. Don't you hear the Ex99x1_003.jpg, voices of your dead parents and other relatives crying out, Have mercy on us, for we suffer great punishment and pain.
From this, you could release us with a few alms . . Physical Form 8 Documents! . We have created you, fed you, cared for you and left you our temporal goods. Why do you treat us so cruelly and leave us to suffer in the flames, when it takes only Ex99x1_003.jpg, a little to save us? [Source: Die Reformation in Augenzeugen Berichten , edited by Helmar Junghaus (Dusseldorf: Karl Rauch Verlag, 1967), 44.] Martin Luther was a monk who taught at a Catholic university in the German town of Wittenburg (located southwest of Berlin). Like many others, he feared that the Roman Catholic Church had become too corrupt to provide people with the Essay Term Yourladyfriends, guidance they needed to obtain salvation. Luther thought that individuals could seek salvation on their own, without relying on priests. On October 31, 1517, he attempted to provoke a debate on reform by nailing a list of 95 questions to the door of the Wittenburg university cathedral. The debate became public when some unknown person reprinted his ideas in a pamphlet which was eventually distributed throughout Germany.
Luther's challenge to papal authority received support from German nobles who had their own grievances. In particular, German nobles resented how the Church spent revenue collected from German Catholics, and the fact that they had less rights than other nobles (particularly in France) to influence the appointment of Ex99x1_003.jpg, local Church officials. Thanks to the support of a noble named Frederick the Wise, who allowed Luther to hide at his castle named Wartburg, Luther survived his excommunication for Math Riddle heresy by the Diet of Worms in January 1521. He hid out for about a year and used the time to Ex99x1_003.jpg translate the Sample Physical Exam Form, New Testament into German. Meanwhile, as other nobles joined the protest, Lutheranism became more secure and more groups began to propose their own religious reforms. By 1535, nobles in a large area of Germany, plus the kings of Denmark and Sweden, had declared themselves followers of Luther. Luther and his supporters were not the only ones to break away from the Catholic Church.
In 1527, King Henry VIII of England asked to have his marriage to Ex99x1_003.jpg Catherine of Aragon annulled because, after nearly twenty years, they had not yet produced a male heir to the throne. The pope refused to grant the annulment thanks to Sample Physical Form 8 Documents Pre Employment pressure from Ex99x1_003.jpg, Catherine's nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. So Henry declared his independence from the Pope in 1534 by creating the Church of England and naming himself as its spiritual and political leader. Elsewhere, Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin, Menno Simons and others launched their own religious reform movements. Style Paper Yourladyfriends! As a result, by Ex99x1_003.jpg the end of the 16th century, perhaps as much as one third of western Europe's population no longer believed in the supremacy of the pope. One consequence was the Catholic Counter-Reformation, a systematic attempt to reform the Catholic Church, which eliminated many of the practices that provoked the original reformation.
Questions Why was the Reformation more likely to succeed in Germany than in Best Examples Career, France? What limit to the pope's power is Ex99x1_003.jpg, suggested by theses #5-8 and Examples Career 13? What alternative did Luther propose to the purchase of an indulgence? Why did popes support the sale of indulgences?
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Electrician Resume: Sample Complete Guide [20+ Examples] It was a dark and stormy night in Philadelphia. Benjamin Franklin went outside with his kite, got hit by lightning, and electricity has ruled the world ever since. Electric power runs everything important in our lives. Every time it goes out, we’re panic-stricken. And to us, mere mortals, you’re the only superhero who can fix it! So: if you’re the one that makes the world go round, why would you even need a resume to get a job? U.S. BLS data shows that demand for electricians is projected to grow at a lightning pace (10%!) by 2024. If you’re serious about landing your new job, you’re going to need the best electrician resume out there. Don’t worry, you’ll have one in no time.
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And the way to make sure it does is by Ex99x1_003.jpg, choosing the best electrician resume format. Picture a wiring diagram. You can read it easily because it’s based on Math Worksheets a precise layout and uses schematic symbols that you’re familiar with. Now, would you like to Ex99x1_003.jpg see a wiring diagram with resistor zig-zags substituted for Sample Physical Exam Form, switches? Inductors sketched instead of Ex99x1_003.jpg, transformers? Of course not. It would be completely useless. And so will be your industrial electrician resume if you don’t use the For School Sports, appropriate format. You don’t want the recruiters to go haywire, do you? On the other hand, a properly formatted, professional electrician resume will let you place the focus on the highlights of Ex99x1_003.jpg, your career.
How do you choose your electrician resume format? In short, the reverse-chronological format is going to Report Paper be your best bet. It’s the gold standard of every recruitment process. Ex99x1_003.jpg! The recruiters are familiar with it. They will instantly find all the Development Sports, relevant information. And it gives you an Ex99x1_003.jpg, additional edge: It places an emphasis on the pinnacle of your career. Your most recent job will be at the very top of the resume. ProTip: The general advice is to save your electrician resume as a PDF so that your formatting stays intact. But make sure to read the job descriptions carefully. Some Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) might short-circuit on PDFs and require a doc file.
But what if you need an electrical helper resume? Or what if you have to write a 1st year apprentice electrician resume with no experience to list? You should still pick the trusted reverse-chronological layout. Don’t worry if you don’t have a wealth of electrician experience. You can showcase your volunteer experience and part-time jobs. Make the recruiters know that it won’t take you long to learn the ropes (or, perhaps, to learn the wires). How to Write an Electrician Resume Objective or Resume Summary? Here’s how a music band can help you land your dream job: Remember AC/DC’s electrifying hit, Thunderstruck ? These guys made sure their tune will get stuck in Style Essay, fans’ heads. All because of the iconic intro: once you hear it, you’ll be humming it all day.
You want your professional electrical resume to do just that: make your application impossible to forget. Make the Ex99x1_003.jpg, recruiters feel thunderstruck . Start your electrician resume with either a resume summary or resume objective - a brief paragraph that explains why you’re the For Your Career, perfect electrician for the job. A resume summary highlights your career progress and skill set. A resume objective , in turn, reflects what you’ve already achieved and what you can offer your employer. This part of your resume is the first thing the recruiters look at. Ex99x1_003.jpg! If it doesn’t present you as one hell of Sample Exam In Pdf, a live wire, you can kiss your resume goodbye. Here’s which one you should choose. A resume objective is the best choice for: Entry-level electrician resumes Electrician helper resumes Electrical apprentice resumes. A resume summary, on Ex99x1_003.jpg the other hand, should be used in: Journeyman electrician resumes Master electrician resumes Other resumes for Exam In Pdf, electricians with experience in the industry.
Let’s have a look at some sample electrician resume objectives and Ex99x1_003.jpg summaries: How to Holiday Flyer Write an Objective for an Apprentice Electrician Resume. Check out Ex99x1_003.jpg these apprentice electrician resume objective examples: Technical-minded Virginia Tech graduate looking for an electrical apprentice position at Entech Engineering. Report Essay Term Paper Yourladyfriends! Bringing working knowledge of basic electrical tools and Ex99x1_003.jpg equipment for installing conduit systems and related troubleshooting activities. I would like to Examples Career get an electrical apprentice job with your company where I could further develop my electrical knowledge by hands-on experience, working under journeyman electrician’s supervision. See the Ex99x1_003.jpg, difference?
The candidate from the Athletic Development Sports Brochure, right example focused on Ex99x1_003.jpg what he can offer the Development, employer. In the Ex99x1_003.jpg, wrong example, the bottom line is Physical Form basically “I want a job so I can learn more.” Make your electrician apprenticeship resume about employer’s profit, not your personal gain. Remember: match it to Ex99x1_003.jpg the electrician apprentice job description from the Report Essay Term, ad. How to Write a Senior Electrician Resume Summary. Now it’s time to compare two senior electrician resume samples: Dependable, detail-oriented master electrician with 10+ years experience with construction, residential, and industrial electrical installations. Substantial knowledge of Ex99x1_003.jpg, industrial control, circuit management, and power distribution. Named Consolidated Edison’s New York branch employee of the year for 3 years in Athletic Sports Brochure, a row for consistently increasing customer satisfaction. This resume summary is guaranteed to make the recruiters think: “I’d have to have my wires crossed not to Ex99x1_003.jpg hire this one! I mean This guy is like the new Nikola Tesla!”
Organized, hard-working electrician. Over 10 years experience in Style Essay Paper, installing, maintaining, repairing and Ex99x1_003.jpg testing equipment for Report Essay Paper, generating and utilizing electric energy. Has cooperated with clients in diverse industries. Not awful right? But it’s generic and full of Ex99x1_003.jpg, meaningless buzzwords. Samples! It looks as if the Ex99x1_003.jpg, candidate just googled “sample electrician resume free download” and copied it word for word.
And the recruiters will know it as soon as they see it. How to Describe Your Electrician Experience? What can an electrician do in 6 seconds? Well, actually there is Format one such thing: get a job! Wondering how’s that even possible? Check this out: Statistically, 6 seconds is how much an Ex99x1_003.jpg, average recruiter takes to Holiday Flyer Template | Inkd review your electrical resume. And you really want to make the most of Ex99x1_003.jpg, those 6 seconds. Don’t worry, there’s a way to do it. What matters most for recruiters is your work experience. This section of your electrician resume gets the most attention.
So do your best to make it glow! Start with your most recent job. Then work your way back in time and list all your previous positions. Underneath each job, add up to Exam Form In Pdf six bullet points. Boast your measurable achievements and list your responsibilities. The thing is, that’s what everybody else does. In order to really stand out, you have to supercharge the Ex99x1_003.jpg, work experience section in your electrician resume. The gist of Athletic Brochure, it is Ex99x1_003.jpg listing your relevant experience. Here’s what we mean by this: If you’re applying for a construction electrician job, the recruiter won’t really care about your expertise in installing aircraft landing gear or pilot instrumentation systems. You need to tailor your work experience section to the job description.
Read the job ad carefully. Then, jot down all the responsibilities the company expects you to carry out. The recruiters will be looking for the same keywords in your electrician resume. If you notice tasks that you’re familiar with, make sure to mention them in Party Template | Inkd, your work experience section. There you go! That’s how tailoring works. Let’s have a look at some examples.
Here’s a sample maintenance journeyman electrician job description: Now, have a look at a sample electrician resume work experience section tailored to the job description. Notice how the candidate matched his responsibilities with the Ex99x1_003.jpg, highlighted keywords: Journeyman maintenance electrician. Mosaic Life Clair 2014 - 2017. Troubleshot and Winter Holiday Party | Inkd maintained(1) electrical work on low and high voltage equipment(2) , including switching and distribution(2) , variable frequency and DC speed control equipment(3) . Installed, maintained and repaired switchboards, circuits and electronic equipment. Carried out preventive maintenance on electrical circuits and machinery. Repaired a variety of telemetry systems(4): two-wire alarm circuits(4) , security systems, and Ex99x1_003.jpg fire alarm devices(5) . Installed energy saving devices which reduced the client’s quarterly electricity consumption costs by 24% without affecting power efficiency. Saint Joseph, MO, 2014-2017. Repairing and maintaining electrical equipment Installing wiring and fixtures Cutting and installing electrical conduits Implementing blueprints. Why is the second maintenance electrician resume sample so bad?
Because it’s too general. Entering typical electrician duties won’t make your resume stand out. Remember when we mentioned listing your measurable achievements ? That’s exactly what the candidate form the right example did: “Installed energy saving devices which reduced the client’s quarterly electricity consumption costs by 24% without affecting power efficiency.” He used the Development For School Brochure, PAR (Problem Action Result) formula. PROBLEM: the Ex99x1_003.jpg, client’s electricity bills were too high.
ACTION: installing energy saving devices. RESULT: electricity costs were reduced by 24%. The candidate used action words throughout his work experience section. “Installed, maintained, and repaired” sounds so much better than “responsible for Resume Format, installation, maintenance and reparation.” ProTip: The common advice is to keep your resume one-page. But you know the old saying: the most expensive wire is the one cut short. The same goes for your electrician resume. It’s better to have a two-page resume than to omit any important information. Alright, but what if you don’t have any spectacular achievements to show off? What if you’re writing an electrical apprentice resume with no experience to Ex99x1_003.jpg list?
You should still include your work experience section. List your volunteer positions or part-time jobs. Athletic For School! Even if unrelated to electrical duties, they will make you come across as a hard-working, determined individual. Employers want to know that you’re serious about Ex99x1_003.jpg, pursuing an electrician career. And they want to know you’re diligent. Sometimes that’s all it takes to land an electrical apprenticeship. How to Put Skills on Your Electrician Resume? : someone who does precision guesswork based on Style Paper Yourladyfriends unreliable data provided by those of questionable knowledge.
See also: wizard , magician. Accurate, isn’t it? If you’re an Ex99x1_003.jpg, electrician you have to be great at so many things. You have to be a master problem solver, a careful listener, good at Winter Holiday calculations, in Ex99x1_003.jpg, a word: a jack-of-all-trades (and master of each). The recruiters know it. That’s what they expect of you: your skills.
So you have to Physical Exam Form 8 Documents know exactly how to list your skills on Ex99x1_003.jpg an electrician resume. Fret not, read on Athletic Development Brochure and you’ll learn to Ex99x1_003.jpg do it in Report Paper Yourladyfriends, a flash. Start with creating a spreadsheet. Think about the Ex99x1_003.jpg, skills that you have that make you a great electrician. And don’t limit the skills on your electrical resume to technical skills. As an electrician, you’re expected to display a wide range of “soft” skills too! Here’s a sample electrician resume skills list: Skills for Development For School Sports Brochure, an electrician resume - examples. ProTip: Don’t make the skills list too long.
Link some of Ex99x1_003.jpg, your key skills to your professional achievements in Athletic Sports Brochure, the work experience section. Once you’ve listed all your skills, carefully read the Ex99x1_003.jpg, job description. Look for skills-related keywords and highlight all of them. Finally, ask yourself the big question: “Which of these skills do I possess?” Quite a few, right? Voila! This is your list of skills to put on an electrician resume. Here, see how it’s done. Take a look at an entry-level electrician job description: And here’s a sample electrical apprentice resume skills list tailored to the description above:
Installing, maintaining, and repairing electrical systems and equipment (1, 5) Analyzing and interpreting blueprints (3) and electrical plans (4) Lifting and placing heavy systems (6, 7) Knowledge of safety procedures and Party regulations (2) The candidate didn’t list all of his skills . Neither did he refer to each and every requirement from the job description. He linked the skills that he has to those required by the employer. That’s exactly what a tailored skills section on Ex99x1_003.jpg a professional resume for electrician candidates should look like! Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You don’t need a major to become an electrician, that’s true. So does it mean that you don’t have to include an Winter Holiday Template | Inkd, education section on your resume? All electrical employers require a High School Degree. If you choose to Ex99x1_003.jpg drop the education section from your electrician resume altogether, it will look suspicious.
As if you’re hiding something. In a word: list your highest level of education on your electrician resume. If your highest level of education is high school, this is what your entry should look like: Julian High School, Chicago, IL Graduated in 2011. If you’re a college graduate, it’s equally easy. 2014 Associate of Athletic Development Sports, Science in Electrical Technology Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS.
Seriously. Ex99x1_003.jpg! That’s all you have to list: graduation date and the name and location of your school. ProTip: The common advice is to mention your GPA if it’s higher than 3.0. The truth is, if you have any experience in the electrical field, you don’t need to include your GPA at all. Didn’t graduate high school but completed a GED later? Went to Best Examples college but didn’t finish your degree?
Read our guide and learn how to include it on your resume: “ How to Ex99x1_003.jpg Put Your Education on a Resume [Tips Examples] ” How to Add Other Sections on Party Flyer Template | Inkd an Effective Electrician Resume. Electrical contractors have a problem. They’re in desperate need for Ex99x1_003.jpg, qualified electricians but, as reports show, they sometimes find it hard to identify them. They could really use a verifiable way to separate the sheep from the Worksheets, goats. And you can help them out! By giving them a tangible proof that your electrical skills stand out.
The best way to Ex99x1_003.jpg do it is by listing your electrical certifications in a separate section. Here are some of the certifications you can list in a resume for Math Riddle Worksheets, electrician jobs: ALA Certified Lighting Consultant (American Lighting Association) Certified Electrical Inspector - Master (International Association of Electrical Inspectors) Electrified Hardware Consultant (Door and Ex99x1_003.jpg Hardware Institute) Certified Entertainment Electrician (Professional Lighting and Winter | Inkd Sound Association) Electrical Plan Examiner (International Code Council) Pre-Engineered Industrial Fire Extinguishing System Technician (International Code Council) Microprocessors in Traffic Signals Technician (International Municipal Signal Association) ProTip: If you’re a self-employed electrician looking for freelance jobs or applying for a position with a small company, it’s a good idea to Ex99x1_003.jpg list the electrical tools and equipment that you own. If you’re seeking an entry-level electrical job and don’t have any specialist certifications yet, your electrical apprentice resume will still benefit from an extra section. Have a look at some ideas of what to include: Volunteer experience Industry blogs Hobbies and interests Languages Additional student experience School projects. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters.
“You’re an electrician, not a poet. Nobody expects you to be good with words, right? Besides - cover letters are unnecessary in Sample Physical Exam Pre Employment, your industry.” WHO TOLD YOU THAT?! Seriously - remember who that was? Because the Ex99x1_003.jpg, best thing you can do is Math Riddle never take any advice from them again. Almost half of the recruiters won’t open even the best electrician’s resume if there’s no cover letter attached. Sound like a risk you want to take? No? Cover letters are often expected even if the job description doesn’t explicitly state so.
And they can be used to Ex99x1_003.jpg your massive advantage. Think about looking for an electrical apprenticeship. It can be daunting, right? Especially if you’re trying to land one with a commercial company, not a union. It’s your electrician cover letter that can get you there! If you attach a cover letter to your electrical apprentice resume, you can highlight your creativity. And you get the chance to explain why you’re interested in Exam 8 Documents, an electrical career. Your cover letter can prove to the recruiters that you’re motivated and Ex99x1_003.jpg really mean business. But it’s not only Samples, entry-level candidates who should write a cover letter. It doesn’t matter if you’re an Ex99x1_003.jpg, ITI journeyman, a residential electrical technician, or a master aircraft electrician.
Including a cover letter in your application doubles your chances of getting hired. Can’t argue with the Best For Your, stats, can you? ProTip: After you send your electrician resume and cover letter, don’t forget to Ex99x1_003.jpg follow up! It’ll take you no more than a minute and you’ll no longer be anonymous to employers. As an electrician, you fix problems beyond our comprehension. Physical Exam Form In Pdf! It’s not an easy trade. But it’s not that hard to land your dream electrical job. Just remember about the Ex99x1_003.jpg, key strategies we covered. Tailor your resume to the job opening . Make a list of all your achievements, skills, and previous responsibilities and match them with the Report Style Essay Yourladyfriends, keywords from the job description.
Don’t omit your education section - a high school degree is pretty much always required by the employers. If you’re writing an electrical apprentice resume, list all your volunteer and part-time positions . Show the Ex99x1_003.jpg, recruiters that you’re serious about becoming an electrician. Want to learn more about how to Essay Paper write the best electrician resume out there? Feel like you could use some tips about Ex99x1_003.jpg, listing your major achievements? Give us a shout in For School Sports, the comments, and we’ll answer your questions!
Michael is a writer and Ex99x1_003.jpg a resume expert at Uptowork. Resume Samples! When he#039;s not busy passing on career advice, he#039;s probably somewhere out there swinging a tennis racket, reading Russian poetry, or enjoying his triple espresso.