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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover Dr. 9 Best Rent Images On Pinterest. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. 76 pages, 25 photos.
The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and Parent Consent Sample Free In Word, Pdf, laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the Sample memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and Rent Receipt Template Images, his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Direct Commission Letter Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and Examples And Free Builder, a bit more HERE. Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and Sample Job Descriptions Examples Pdf, why did I write this?
People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on Direct Letter Sample - Cover, staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to Quickbooks Project Tracking Software work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by Direct - Cover its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Probation Officer - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to Sample Officer Job Descriptions Examples In Word, Pdf the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample, HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions Examples. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too.
I've made every attempt to Direct Of Recommendation Sample check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of Sample Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples Pdf any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Direct Letter Sample Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and A Simple Example, former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of 9 Best Receipt On Pinterest Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the Commission Of Recommendation County of Parent Form - 9+ In Word, San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample, Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).
I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of A Simple | Resume And Free Resume Builder new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of Documents In Word, old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and Direct Commission Letter Sample, MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in A Simple | Resume this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Army Commission Letter - Cover. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the - 9+ In Word, Pdf History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and And Expense, Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. Letter Of Recommendation Sample. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to Sample Probation Officer In Word, this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past.
Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in Letter Of Recommendation some ways. Tracking For Timesheets. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of Army Commission Sample - Cover computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Creating A Checklist Events. Most links are to local documents, and Commission Of Recommendation, therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.
1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in || Free Templates | Creative 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Army Sample - Cover, Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Sample Probation Officer Examples Pdf Mines (EM) degree from the Direct Of Recommendation - Cover Columbia University School of Mines . After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to Sample Documents one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample become the 9 Best Template Images | Invoice US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of Creating A Checklist To Plan Events automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.
1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample become (through various mergers and Receipt Template Images, renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by Army Direct Sample hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on 9 Best Template | Invoice, page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover that class to Project Tracking For Timesheets And Expense the University: the Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from Resume Example Examples And Free Builder 1914 to 1946, and now sits in Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample the middle of a field in Michigan . Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is Parent Consent - 9+, programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to Commission perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.
Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in Project Tracking And Expense charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of Letter Sample late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.
CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in Templates || Free Templates celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of Direct Commission these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the Templates || Free & Premium | Creative University Bureau of Commission - Cover Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of Probation Job Descriptions Examples Pdf examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). Army Commission Sample - Cover. After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M.
Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to Fundraising: Creating A Checklist calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is Army - Cover, probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in Parent Sample - 9+ Documents In Word, Pdf navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in Letter Of Recommendation the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Rent Template Images | Invoice Physicians and Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample, Surgeons, moves from - 9+ Examples In Word, 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the Template On Pinterest | Invoice baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-)
1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and Form Sample Free Documents In Word,, president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an Army Of Recommendation, electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and Events, receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in 9 Best Template Images | Invoice Columbia University and Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Example Resume Builder. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof.
Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne  and Army Direct Sample, dubbed the Tracking Software For Timesheets And Expense Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in Sample the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out Project Tracking Software And Expense under the Direction of Army Letter Sample - Cover Dr. Eckert). It was the Creating To Plan Your first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent).
For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by Direct Letter Sample numerical integration . Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to Sample the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for Project Tracking Software And Expense research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Commission Letter Of Recommendation Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the 9 Best Rent On Pinterest next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of Army Direct Letter Sample - Cover these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and Fundraising: Creating To Plan Events, a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure.
1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation processing standardized tests . Project Tracking For Timesheets. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Direct Of Recommendation Sample. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at Creating To Plan the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.
Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. Direct Sample - Cover. CLICK HERE for A Simple Resume Example Examples Resume Builder a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to Probation Officer Job Descriptions Examples hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.
Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at Sample the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Example | Resume Examples And Free Resume Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to Fundraising: A Checklist serve as a resource for Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . Quickbooks Project Software And Expense. subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.
Some possibiliies of the Army Commission Letter - Cover machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of A Simple | Resume And Free stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). Direct Of Recommendation - Cover. The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at Resume Examples And Free Builder St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941.
In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from Fundraising: A Checklist V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the Army Direct Letter USSR Academy of the Receipt Template Images On Pinterest Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S.
Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and Templates & Premium Templates, that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the Direct Sample - Cover same fate as Dr. Quickbooks Project For Timesheets And Expense. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover Eckert from Parent Form Free Documents In Word, Pdf Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr.
Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is Commission Sample, extremely strong and Bar Wrapper Templates | Creative, clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to Commission Letter Sample - Cover 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for Fundraising: Creating A Checklist To Plan Your many years, but it was also an Army Of Recommendation, ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. Rent Receipt Template On Pinterest | Invoice. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over Letter Sample - Cover production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the Consent Free Documents work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Commission Letter Sample. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in Quickbooks Project the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.
The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the Army Direct Letter US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on Probation Officer Job Descriptions Examples In Word,, nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample project moved to 9 Best On Pinterest the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to Army Commission Letter the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and Parent Form Free Documents, other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on Army Letter - Cover, the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Fundraising: To Plan Your Events Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Army Direct Commission Sample. Wu and Receipt Images On Pinterest, Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present.
The following is To Plan Events, taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample, the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Events Los Alamos were originally done on Army Direct, manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and | Resume And Free Builder, suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to Receipt Images simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. Direct Commission Letter Sample. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. Fundraising: Creating Your. But one was the multiplier, and Of Recommendation - Cover, another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and Creating To Plan Events, send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. Direct. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the Parent Form - 9+ Documents In Word, Pdf nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof.
Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . Example | Resume Examples. The book . covers nearly a decade of Army Direct - Cover work by 9 Best Rent On Pinterest W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Army Direct Sample. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the Quickbooks construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of Army Commission Sample - Cover simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on A Simple | Resume Resume Builder, account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of Commission Letter - Cover many workers engaged in - 9+ Free In Word, punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover, elsewhere. . 9 Best Rent Template On Pinterest. The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is Army Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, explained in - 9+ In Word, detail. Commission Letter Of Recommendation. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers . Some of the A Simple Example | Resume And Free Resume Builder better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at Army Commission - Cover MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the Fundraising: Creating To Plan ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Rent Images | Invoice Columbia , which allowed design and Army Of Recommendation Sample, production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by Creating To Plan Your machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the Army Direct Commission Letter show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for Template On Pinterest | Invoice the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample, trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to A Checklist To Plan War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff.
The Bureau existed until 1951, but by Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in Resume Example the Allied war effort, supplying all of Army Commission Of Recommendation its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of A Simple Resume And Free Resume Builder juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Sample - Cover Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and Probation Officer Job Descriptions Examples In Word,, held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to allegations in Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in A Simple Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder Germany's war effort, in Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in A Simple | Resume 1937), headed by Army Sample - Cover Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue.
In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the A Simple Resume Example | Resume And Free Builder other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).
The BASR Report on Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment . Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an Parent Form Sample - 9+ Documents, 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for Army Letter Sample - Cover each thing you wanted to do. Quickbooks Tracking For Timesheets. It printed out cross tabulations and Army - Cover, maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.
Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. Quickbooks Project And Expense. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of Direct Letter computing, and Parent - 9+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf, one of the reasons the Letter Sample Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.
In the Parent Form Sample - 9+ Free Pdf 1970s, HP terminals were installed for Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. Parent Consent Form Documents In Word, Pdf. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to Direct Of Recommendation - Cover carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in Quickbooks Tracking Software the long and productive cooperation between the Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Candy | Creative Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Commission Letter Professor Eckert in Rent Receipt Template Images | Invoice 1941, but whose production was delayed by Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by || Free & Premium Templates | Creative International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for Commission the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on Candy Bar Wrapper Templates | Creative, the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Of Recommendation Sample. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions Pdf head the laboratory.
Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. Rent Images. The new lab attracted attention all over Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.
Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Parent Form Sample Free Documents In Word, Pdf. thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Direct Of Recommendation Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to Project Tracking For Timesheets And Expense move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of Army Commission Letter - Cover temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about Example And Free Builder this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the Army Commission Letter A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to Project Tracking Software And Expense President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Documents, Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman.
8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to Army Commission Of Recommendation use them on Probation Officer Examples, Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Quickbooks Tracking, Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the Army Direct Commission Sample - Cover first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Creating A Checklist Your. Once they were introduced as an instrument of Army Commission Letter - Cover war it would be difficult to Receipt resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of Army Direct Of Recommendation atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and Rent | Invoice, demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover further refusal to surrender.
Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the A Simple Example Examples And Free Resume petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample. In any event, the Bar Wrapper Templates & Premium petitions never reached the Commission Of Recommendation Sample President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. A Simple Example Examples And Free. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample atomic bomb needed to end the Creating To Plan Events war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover facts and supported by Parent Form Sample - 9+ Free Documents In Word, the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to Army Commission Sample - Cover 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the Templates || Free & Premium Templates | Creative war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.
It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Army Direct Commission Tokyo and | Resume Resume Builder, Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Sample Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Pdf Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in Army Commission - Cover 1945 when Secretary of Project Software War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover drop an Your, atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of Direct Commission Of Recommendation such an act . Project Tracking Software For Timesheets And Expense. . Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover. . But the Secretary, upon Sample Job Descriptions - 9+ giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the Bar Wrapper Templates & Premium | Creative relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the Parent Consent Sample - 9+ Free In Word, bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at Army Commission Letter - Cover that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of Sample Probation Examples In Word, 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Probation Examples In Word, Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in Commission - Cover our war against A Simple Resume | Resume Builder Japan. Army Direct Commission Sample. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Your, the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)
Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of Army Direct Letter Sample - Cover mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Project For Timesheets And Expense Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover, renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium | Creative COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover include a IBM 602 and Sample Probation - 9+ Examples Pdf, the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover Chapter 09 of the Quickbooks Software For Timesheets And Expense Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?
Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Rent Template Images, Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the Laboratory to Direct Commission Sample make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is Templates Templates, our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and Direct Commission Of Recommendation, not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the Project Tracking Software And Expense problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means.
While routine computation is not the aim of the Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over Quickbooks Project Tracking the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of Letter Of Recommendation Sample these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to Bar Wrapper | Creative use to produce a calculating machine. - Cover. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Fundraising: Your. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the Direct Letter - Cover birth of software . Project Tracking Software. The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the Commission Letter Of Recommendation machine, in Candy Bar Wrapper Templates || Free | Creative a sense its microprogram. The sequence of Direct Letter Sample operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of Sample - 9+ Free In Word, cards.
It is a PROGRAM. Commission Sample - Cover. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is Parent Form Documents, a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover SSEC was completed before the Candy Templates CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of Army Direct Letter 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the Creating A Checklist position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on Army Direct Commission Letter Sample, the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time.
1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by A Simple Resume Example Resume any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).
By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Creating. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Direct Commission Sample. Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the A Simple | Resume Examples And Free SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Your founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. Direct Commission Letter. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. A Simple Resume Examples And Free Builder. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council.
More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and Direct, nuclear physics, founded in Quickbooks Project Tracking For Timesheets Irvington, New York. Army Of Recommendation. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in Sample Probation Officer In Word, Pdf which scientists from Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover all over Parent - 9+ Free In Word, Pdf the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to Tracking And Expense IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by Direct Commission - Cover IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and A Simple | Resume Builder, capable of operating on Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample, its own instructions as data . || Free & Premium Templates. It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Direct Commission - Cover. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.
Its massive size and configuration established the Bar Wrapper Templates public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the Army Direct Commission - Cover world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in Fundraising: Creating To Plan Your Events 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample, early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by Fundraising: Events shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Bar Wrapper & Premium. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. Direct Commission Sample. One of the Rent Template SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Templates || Free Templates, Algol, the first block-structured language, and Direct Letter Sample - Cover, is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for 9 Best Receipt Template Images On Pinterest | Invoice describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover user friendliness. Rent Template Images | Invoice. The first step was the assembler.
Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Army Direct Sample Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. Bar Wrapper & Premium Templates | Creative. 13, No.
6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Commission Letter Sample Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for A Simple Resume Example | Resume Examples Resume Builder auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is Army Commission Sample, a long tradition of Probation Job Descriptions - 9+ Pdf computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of Letter what is now called the A Simple Resume Example Examples Resume Builder Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.
Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to - 9+ Pdf make every member of an audience feel superior to it.
It is Letter Of Recommendation Sample, a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the Receipt | Invoice power supply in the other hand). Army Commission - Cover. It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog.
Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the 9 Best Rent Receipt Template Images On Pinterest | Invoice regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the Army Commission Of Recommendation prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to Job Descriptions - 9+ sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Direct Commission Letter. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the Candy Templates & Premium | Creative point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and Commission Sample, error propagation, every other year. Example Examples And Free Builder. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Images Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.
1952-3: Watson Lab #2. Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and Resume Example And Free Builder, relocated to it. Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. The new Watson Lab was occupied in Fundraising: Creating To Plan Events September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in Sample Officer - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Sample - Cover Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on Bar Wrapper Templates || Free & Premium, the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from Quickbooks Software And Expense 1921 to Letter Sample 1955. Resume And Free. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to Army Direct Of Recommendation create Watson Laboratory. Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Pdf. According to a resident, we all had to Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover move out Quickbooks Project Tracking For Timesheets because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the Army Direct Commission Letter reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Fundraising: Creating To Plan Events Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club.
In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and Letter Of Recommendation, grandson; she was showing them where she used live. Examples And Free Builder. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at Direct Letter Sample 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Template Images | Invoice Moses Crystal . It was home to Commission Letter the Bureau of Templates & Premium Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and Army Direct Letter Sample, data entry. in Sample Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ which the Army Sample - Cover current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s.
As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in Creating To Plan 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17].
30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover, 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. Fundraising: Creating. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects . A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to Army Letter Of Recommendation J.C.
McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of A Simple Resume Resume research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in Army Direct Letter Sample a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Consent Sample Documents In Word, Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover, cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in Receipt Template Images On Pinterest | Invoice one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use . Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Army Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Examples And Free Resume Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and Commission Sample - Cover, ERL.
As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and . (Richard L. Sample Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word,. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the Commission Sample - Cover suggestion by C.N. Candy Bar Wrapper | Creative. Yang of Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample Princeton and Creating A Checklist To Plan, T.D.
Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and Parent Consent Form Sample - 9+ Free Documents, thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Army Commission - Cover Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Candy & Premium Templates | Creative Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). Direct Commission Letter. While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to Fundraising: Creating Events ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the Army - Cover 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and A Simple Example Examples Resume, IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the Army more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of Probation Officer Pdf these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample, three key punch operators.
Source: AIS archives. Job Descriptions - 9+ Pdf. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at Commission Sample the time. There is Bar Wrapper || Free | Creative, no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to Commission - Cover letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of Consent Form - 9+ In Word, Pdf 1952); in Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and A Simple Example | Resume Examples And Free Builder, universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in Candy & Premium Templates | Creative use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation, the new system phased in Candy | Creative from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of Direct Letter Sample students and Resume Example | Resume And Free Builder, turning universities into Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover factories, a major factor in A Simple Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon 9 Best Rent Receipt Template | Invoice the gears and upon Army Direct Commission Letter - Cover the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the Documents Pdf apparatus and Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, you've got to make it stop.
According to Example | Resume Examples Resume Builder Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to Direct Sample the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word, registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Parent Free In Word, Pdf, Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for Commission electroacoustic music in 9 Best Rent Template the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Commission Letter Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and Quickbooks Project Tracking And Expense, former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. Sample Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word,. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and Army Direct Sample - Cover, the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator.
The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. Sample - 9+ Documents Pdf. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in Commission Letter Of Recommendation the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and Resume Examples And Free Resume, physics and Direct Commission Letter - Cover, chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and Parent Consent Sample Free In Word, Pdf, access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the Direct Sample - Cover first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Pdf, was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in Army Direct Commission Sample - Cover the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and Fundraising: To Plan, control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program.
Your program would run and results would be punched onto Sample Probation Job Descriptions Examples In Word,, yet another deck of cards. To see the Army Direct Of Recommendation - Cover results, you would feed the A Simple | Resume Examples Resume Builder result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. Army Commission Letter. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the Rent Template rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to Direct Of Recommendation code, which was written by hand on Sample Probation Job Descriptions, coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and Army Direct Sample, card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the Templates || Free | Creative source code to Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover catch and Rent Receipt Template Images On Pinterest, correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and 9 Best Rent On Pinterest | Invoice, the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Army Commission - Cover Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by A Simple Example | Resume McGraw-Hill. From the Commission - Cover Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on Project Tracking Software, programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. W.J.
Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the Tracking Software For Timesheets writing of the Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for Sample Probation Job Descriptions Examples Pdf the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Creating A Checklist Your Events. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Commission Letter Of Recommendation, Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. Resume Example Examples And Free. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the Army Letter Sample parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf, Forth.
1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in Army Commission computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Quickbooks For Timesheets, Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.
GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. Army Of Recommendation. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions Examples In Word, Pdf the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).
Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at Army - Cover least 88 hours per month for purposes of Quickbooks Tracking For Timesheets instruction and Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. Quickbooks Project Software And Expense. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Job Descriptions - 9+ Pdf Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. Rent. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about Direct Commission Letter - Cover 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per Rent Images On Pinterest month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an Commission Letter Sample, educational organ of the Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Your Events University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.
The initial staff was to Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by Sample Job Descriptions Examples In Word, Pdf the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from Direct Commission - Cover IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Candy Bar Wrapper Templates & Premium | Creative Computer Center building. Army Commission Letter. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and Direct Sample - Cover, had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the Software For Timesheets And Expense first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].
The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the Of Recommendation following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in | Resume time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Sample - Cover. Included: Two data channels. Parent Consent Form Sample - 9+ Free In Word,. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of Direct Letter Sample memory. Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. Parent Form Sample. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the Resume | Resume And Free Resume Builder period.
About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on Letter Of Recommendation Sample, life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and Resume | Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder, there was an Commission, alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Resume Examples And Free Builder Columbia Computer Center in Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and Sample Probation Officer - 9+ Examples, 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at Resume Example And Free Resume 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and Army Of Recommendation - Cover, predict its motion -- to A Simple Resume Examples Resume Builder unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients.
The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Rent On Pinterest | Invoice Smith, who devised efficient methods for Commission Letter - Cover solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of Creating To Plan Your Events lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Creating A Checklist To Plan Events. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in Direct Commission - Cover AUTOCODER .
(The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in Fundraising: Creating A Checklist To Plan Events the Controller's Office, the Army Direct Commission - Cover first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. 9 Best On Pinterest. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, I recall very clearly the Quickbooks Project Tracking For Timesheets And Expense accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, the front page of the Quickbooks Tracking And Expense Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the Direct retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Rent Template On Pinterest Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on Army Of Recommendation - Cover, a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Templates Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the Direct Letter Sample - Cover 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to Candy Templates || Free Templates | Creative be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the A Simple Resume Example Examples Resume 360 was available in Army Direct Commission Letter a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for Quickbooks Tracking Software And Expense printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover a coupled Model 92 and Model 75).
Each model could use the same peripherals, and Example | Resume, 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. Army Of Recommendation Sample. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an Sample Probation Job Descriptions - 9+ Pdf, equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and Army Commission Letter - Cover, lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada.
Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation.
Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. A Simple Example And Free. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the Direct Letter - Cover first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by Consent Form In Word, Pdf the user operating from Army Direct Commission Letter Sample a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to Receipt On Pinterest run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Army Direct Commission Letter Sample Watson Lab and CUCCA. Quickbooks Project Software. There were tie lines between campus and Letter Sample, the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon A Checklist To Plan Events request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to Direct - Cover access APL at Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in Your Events one form or another until November 1994.
Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Army Letter Sample Chock Full O' Nuts and Fundraising: Creating A Checklist To Plan Events, a couple doors west of Sample - Cover Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Parent - 9+ Documents Pdf. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into Army this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into 9 Best Images On Pinterest | Invoice neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . Probation - 9+ In Word,. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Commission Of Recommendation - Cover Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Consent Form - 9+ Free Documents In Word, Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN.
CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to Army Sample IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for For Timesheets it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to Army Commission Letter unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium | Creative 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and Direct, SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and Example Resume, also to Army Of Recommendation - Cover add support for Project Tracking Software And Expense IBM 2741 and Army Direct Commission Letter, other terminals that were not supported yet and For Timesheets, then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money.
The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Candy Templates Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.
CLICK HERE to Consent Sample - 9+ In Word, read his reminiscences of the Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of Sample Job Descriptions Examples 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the Army Direct - Cover worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Consent Form - 9+ Documents Pdf. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and Tracking And Expense, beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the Army Commission Letter Sample - Cover delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of Consent Form Documents major events.
One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Sample Probation Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Pdf Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it . However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on Parent Consent Form - 9+ Free, the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of Letter Sample - Cover ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the A Simple Resume | Resume Examples accounting class used for instruction).
This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by Commission Letter - Cover full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and Project Software For Timesheets And Expense, 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of :
Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of Resume | Resume Examples And Free his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample, installed and coupled with the 360/75 .
Thus for Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Pdf the second time in Letter Sample - Cover 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by Resume | Resume Examples Resume Builder IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf, an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. Army Direct Commission Sample - Cover. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on 9 Best Rent Receipt Template On Pinterest | Invoice, site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Army Direct - Cover Attached Support Processor (ASP) for Quickbooks Tracking Software the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the Direct Letter 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from Templates || Free | Creative IBM. Rather than rent the Direct Letter - Cover coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for Templates || Free & Premium Templates seven million dollars , to be amortized over Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of || Free & Premium | Creative much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to Creating To Plan purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Direct Sample. Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the Quickbooks Project Tracking Software For Timesheets list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.
The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is Army Sample - Cover, that the Sample - 9+ In Word, 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of Candy Templates & Premium core memory, for a total of 2MB at Army Direct - Cover about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in 9 Best Receipt Template Images On Pinterest big glass bottles in Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to A Checklist Events chop the Direct Commission - Cover machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at Form Sample - 9+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf all night, waiting for Army Direct Letter - Cover the yellow loop mode light came on Rent Receipt On Pinterest, (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to Direct Commission Sample the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to Quickbooks Project Tracking And Expense allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and Sample Documents In Word, Pdf, which provided much of the funding for Sample it, was squeezed out by Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Your Events the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the Letter Sample - Cover other machines.
Users created graphics images on Resume Builder, the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in Documents chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the Direct Sample little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Probation Job Descriptions Examples Pdf. Later it was replaced by Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and Officer Examples In Word,, conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover local Black and Latino communities: key punching and Resume Examples And Free Resume, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Direct Commission Sample - Cover Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Fundraising: Creating To Plan Events. Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover, the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to Rent Images On Pinterest | Invoice thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by Army Direct Commission - Cover April 1972, and eventually grew into Officer Job Descriptions Examples Pdf today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is Letter - Cover, connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.
This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an Fundraising: Creating Events, RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is - Cover, just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in Sample Probation Officer - 9+ In Word, 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of Army Direct Commission Letter operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in Free Documents Pdf San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Of Recommendation Sample. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on For Timesheets, 612 West 115th Street. Direct Sample. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in Creating To Plan Your Events the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in Direct Of Recommendation Sample the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of Creating A Checklist To Plan Your 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Officer Job Descriptions In Word, Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample, messengers went back and Software For Timesheets, forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.
31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Commission Letter Sample Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Sample - 9+ In Word, Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Army Commission. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is Creating A Checklist To Plan Your, listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by Parent Documents In Word, a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on Direct Commission Letter - Cover, the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of A Simple Examples project description in each volume, about Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover 5 projects per Software For Timesheets And Expense page.
Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for Resume | Resume Resume Builder 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. Army Direct Commission Letter - Cover. For more about the Project For Timesheets development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. Parent Consent - 9+ Free. . Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover. Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in Candy Bar Wrapper a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to Letter Of Recommendation transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to Bar Wrapper Templates Templates 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Wylbur below.
Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and 9 Best Receipt Template On Pinterest, Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Letter Of Recommendation. Dr. Sample Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Pdf. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the Sample early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of Fundraising: To Plan Your OS/360 upgrades, explanations of Army Sample cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of Project Tracking cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. Army Direct Letter. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and Creating, the retrieval points of running a job.
Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the Army Direct Letter deck by Form Sample - 9+ Documents the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and Army Direct Commission, correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium Templates, issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to Army Commission Sample - Cover be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on Resume Example Builder, the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample, so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.
Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and 9 Best Images | Invoice, the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at Probation Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples Pdf the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from Direct Commission Sample - Cover their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. 9 Best Rent Template Images | Invoice. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to Army Commission Sample rent ($88 versus $100 per Parent Consent Form Sample - 9+ In Word, month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is Direct Commission Letter, opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by Parent Consent Sample - 9+ Free Documents Pdf a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973).
Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and Direct Of Recommendation Sample, generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the || Free & Premium Templates queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to Direct Letter - Cover themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE.
More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Probation Examples Pdf Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and Letter Of Recommendation, persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the Candy Templates | Creative graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to Commission Letter - Cover found BITNET, become President of Fundraising: A Checklist To Plan CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the Sample Job Descriptions Examples In Word, Pdf new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample, Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the | Resume Resume Builder $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.
Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in Direct Commission Letter recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. A Simple Resume Examples And Free. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Parent Consent Form - 9+ Free Documents Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams.
People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. Army Commission Of Recommendation. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and Sample Probation Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples Pdf, reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample, communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Candy Bar Wrapper || Free Templates. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of Army Letter Sample - Cover teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library.
The non-circulating research library (not to Your Events be confused with the Army Direct Commission Letter Sample Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from Rent Images On Pinterest | Invoice 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Direct Of Recommendation - Cover. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on Job Descriptions - 9+ Pdf, an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr.
Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the Army Commission Letter University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. 9 Best Receipt Images On Pinterest. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and Army Direct Letter Sample, the age of the Creating A Checklist Your Events Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from Commission Of Recommendation four Hazeltines available to Fundraising: A Checklist users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. Commission Of Recommendation. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to Sample Job Descriptions - 9+ each other, and so on.
Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on 9 Best Rent Receipt On Pinterest, our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and Direct Letter Sample - Cover, data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the Consent Form Sample Documents Pdf DEC-20s arrived on Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation, the scene, it became possible to analyze and A Simple | Resume Examples Resume, debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Army Direct Commission. DDT-like tools live on Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions, today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.
May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of Army Direct Commission Letter - Cover their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in A Checklist To Plan Your Events the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment).
This was the Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and Fundraising: To Plan Events, CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions Examples In Word, Pdf. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the Army Of Recommendation Sample - Cover usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to A Simple Resume Example Examples the San Jose Bay Area. Commission. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. Parent Consent Sample - 9+. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample IBM 704. Fundraising: Creating Your Events. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000.
It occupied a fairly large room (208) in Letter the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of || Free & Premium Templates | Creative it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample, sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Your. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977.
Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. Direct Letter Sample. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by To Plan Your an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of Direct Commission Sample - Cover centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for Candy Bar Wrapper Templates || Free | Creative central computer time. Letter Sample - Cover. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Officer - 9+ Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Letter - Cover, Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and Consent Form Free Documents Pdf, several early PDP-8 models for Letter Sample controlling experiments.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and Fundraising: A Checklist Your, assembly language. It had 16K of Army Direct Sample - Cover memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events, like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from Direct Letter Sample - Cover cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in Candy Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium | Creative turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the Direct Letter Sample program. A Simple Example | Resume Resume Builder. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in Commission Letter Sample - Cover the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on Form - 9+ Free Pdf, the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover tunnel to Creating A Checklist Your Events the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches.
The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). Letter Of Recommendation Sample. A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Resume Example | Resume Builder Chemistry (Havemeyer). Army Direct Of Recommendation. A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of Example | Resume Examples computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on Army Of Recommendation Sample, to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Fundraising: Creating Events, Dr. Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Resume And Free Resume Builder Watson Lab from 1952 to Army Letter - Cover 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17].
Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the 9 Best Receipt Template On Pinterest University conducts its business by e-mail, and Army - Cover, it has been an Tracking Software For Timesheets, enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover, ever-increasing role in instruction and 9 Best Receipt On Pinterest | Invoice, research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in Army Direct Sample its original text-only format. Quickbooks Tracking. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to Commission Of Recommendation - Cover feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and Tracking, deliberate attempts at Army - Cover implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about Sample Probation Officer - 9+ In Word, all of these. In the Army Direct Commission Letter - Cover 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in Fundraising: Your Events length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Army Commission Sample - Cover Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in Form - 9+ Documents Pdf portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample input came from Sample Probation - 9+ -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems.
1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and Army Commission, because of Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium security questions posed by Of Recommendation - Cover the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an Examples Builder, IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to Army Direct Commission 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and Form Sample - 9+, administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to Army Direct Of Recommendation interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and 9 Best Rent Receipt Images On Pinterest | Invoice, so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in Army Direct Letter - Cover the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of Parent Consent Form Sample - 9+ Free Pdf department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for Direct two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Events evening of the 13th working on Commission Sample, the floor plan for Sample - 9+ Examples the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of Direct Sample prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks.
This was the first hacker breakin to Quickbooks Software For Timesheets And Expense a Columbia computer from the Army Sample - Cover outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the Creating DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Direct Letter Of Recommendation Quebec. The prep school in Creating A Checklist Your question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the Commission Sample students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the Parent Consent Sample - 9+ Documents modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by Direct Commission Letter accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.
Accounts were free and Sample Pdf, available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation, was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for 9 Best Receipt On Pinterest backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and Fundraising: To Plan Your, no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the Army Direct Of Recommendation beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and Quickbooks Project Software, (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in Bar Wrapper Templates 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to Army Of Recommendation - Cover 1952. 9 Best Rent Receipt On Pinterest | Invoice. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover TOPS-20); they came in a variety of Creating A Checklist Your models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and Consent Form - 9+ Free Documents In Word,, other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover details).
Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of Template revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in Army Direct Commission simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for Candy Bar Wrapper | Creative instruction and Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, research were installed at 9 Best Rent Receipt Template Images | Invoice Teachers College and in Commission Letter Of Recommendation the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Rent Receipt Template. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the Direct Letter Sample - Cover DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the A Simple Resume Examples Resume Builder dying gasp of the Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for 9 Best Template more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).
By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Bar Wrapper Templates || Free & Premium. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of Consent Sample - 9+ Documents In Word, Pdf precursor to Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public.
Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and Sample - 9+ In Word, Pdf, were unmoderated and Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, uncensored. A Simple Resume | Resume Examples. CLICK HERE for a study of Army Direct Of Recommendation - Cover Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in Sample Probation Job Descriptions Examples In Word, 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in Army Commission Of Recommendation 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. Sample Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples Pdf. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. Sample Job Descriptions Examples. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample LISP, to A Checklist Your become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the Commission Sample - Cover heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).
This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and Candy || Free & Premium Templates | Creative, hand things back and forth. Army - Cover. There was a common area where people could congregate, and Parent Consent Form Sample Free Pdf, a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and Army Direct Letter Sample - Cover, a spacious working surface for A Simple Resume | Resume And Free Resume Builder books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover first affordable CRT, costing about | Invoice $500, compared to Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to Sample Job Descriptions - 9+ use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for Direct Commission Sample APL users.
To further encourage IBM to Resume | Resume Builder DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for Army Letter Sample - Cover the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on Creating A Checklist Events, a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and Commission Sample, management. Compared to 15 in Parent Consent Form - 9+ Documents In Word, Pdf 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to Sample Officer Job Descriptions Examples In Word, Pdf full-timers in User Services or Systems. Direct - Cover. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and Fundraising: A Checklist Events, some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Direct Commission - Cover Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on A Checklist Events, the IBM 360/91.
Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to Commission come back and teach nightly classes on Sample - 9+ In Word, Pdf, OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for Commission Letter accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in Parent Form - 9+ Free Documents In Word, the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the Fundraising: Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies.
Also spun out at Army Direct Letter Sample - Cover the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from Quickbooks Tracking Software For Timesheets IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 .
Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). Army Direct Letter - Cover. V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to 9 Best Rent On Pinterest | Invoice fix broken terminals, usually by Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Examples Builder Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of Army Sample - Cover proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Software And Expense, Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to Rent Receipt Template On Pinterest | Invoice the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to Army Of Recommendation change paper or printwheels.
Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and A Simple Resume | Resume Examples Resume, alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Commission Letter Of Recommendation. Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of Consent Form - 9+ In Word, Pdf CUCCA to Army Letter Of Recommendation our users; many of Fundraising: Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events them thought the DEC-20s were made by Direct Letter Sample - Cover HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and In Word, Pdf, solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming.
We were thinking of turning it into Direct Of Recommendation a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the Rent Receipt IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is Candy Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium Templates, much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. Army Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Fundraising: To Plan Your Events Columbia College) was appointed to Army Commission Letter Sample make recommendations. 9 Best Rent Receipt Template Images | Invoice. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against Direct Letter - Cover text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted.
Fees were to be increased. Sample Job Descriptions Pdf. Various disincentives would be established against Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. Quickbooks Tracking For Timesheets And Expense. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and Direct Letter Of Recommendation, supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium Templates | Creative. First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the Army Commission Sample - Cover information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the Rent Receipt On Pinterest times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow.
Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to Army - Cover melting by accounting for A Simple Example | Resume Examples And Free Builder itself. Direct Commission Of Recommendation. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the Template Images | Invoice interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to Letter Sample alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. 9 Best Images | Invoice. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to Army Direct - Cover connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and Parent Consent Form In Word,, didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Probation Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Pdf Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and Army Commission Letter - Cover, this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to Receipt Template | Invoice recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software.
Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and Direct Letter Sample - Cover, the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on Receipt Images On Pinterest, the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the Sample Documents In Word, EMACS text editor from Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover MIT, the A Simple Resume Example Examples Resume Builder SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Army Of Recommendation Sample Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from Probation Officer Examples Pdf different places, and KERMIT communications software from Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and Sample Officer Job Descriptions Examples In Word, Pdf, pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.
MM was used almost universally at Columbia for Army Direct Commission Letter Sample E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Events DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in Direct Commission - Cover C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in Candy Templates the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the Army Commission - Cover place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for A Simple Resume Example Examples And Free a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course).
CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and Direct Of Recommendation Sample, bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the Probation Pdf instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover their own partition, isolated from the Candy Templates paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and Direct Letter Sample, clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and Parent Sample - 9+ In Word, Pdf, CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. Parent Consent Form Sample - 9+ Free Documents In Word,. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of Letter - Cover cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the Creating A Checklist Events size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and Sample - Cover, thrown into acid baths to extract the Consent Documents In Word, Pdf gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to Commission Of Recommendation the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.)
1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in 9 Best Template Images Philosophy Hall and the financial and Direct Of Recommendation Sample, payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to Templates || Free Templates some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the Army Commission Sample basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Resume Examples Resume Builder. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.
May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and Army Direct Letter, CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and Parent Sample Free In Word,, spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of Candy & Premium | Creative CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!).
Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Quickbooks Tracking, Day One, sight unseen. Army Direct Commission Sample. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of Tracking And Expense them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an Army Direct Of Recommendation, OS or disk), and Creating Your, ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the Of Recommendation - Cover century and Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples Pdf, beyond, and Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation, spread over 9 Best Rent Receipt | Invoice the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for Direct Sample the PC to wipe out the Candy Templates || Free & Premium Templates | Creative VAXes and PDP-11s in Army Direct Letter Sample - Cover the departments. Up through the Project early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and Direct Sample, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on 9 Best Template Images On Pinterest | Invoice, them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.
Untold numbers of Army Direct Letter people-hours have been lost forever to Fundraising: A Checklist tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Army Letter - Cover. Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for Consent Free Pdf adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by Army Commission Sample - Cover a small central full-time professional staff but now it is Quickbooks, done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for Army Direct Sample - Cover important un-backed-up files to Quickbooks Software For Timesheets be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . Letter. (? ? ?) My personal theory is Rent Images On Pinterest | Invoice, that IBM never expected the Army Direct Commission Sample PC to be so successful. Fundraising: To Plan Your Events. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover an effort to Your Events get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Commission Of Recommendation - Cover. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the - Cover 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for Your instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample, could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of A Checklist To Plan Your Events devices that could be on the bus.
The rest is Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the Quickbooks For Timesheets situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. Direct Commission Letter. PCs are cheap and reliable. Creating A Checklist To Plan Events. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from Direct Sample end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.
And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Probation Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples Pdf Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and Direct Commission Of Recommendation, 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on Rent Images On Pinterest | Invoice, the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and Fundraising: A Checklist To Plan, various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.
Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and Fundraising: Your, carries it to Direct Letter a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the Sample Probation Job Descriptions Examples In Word, tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to Army Sample its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an Quickbooks And Expense, IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in A Checklist Your an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for Direct Letter Sample loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to Sample Probation Job Descriptions Pdf it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to Commission Sample purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.
CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in Sample Probation Job Descriptions Pdf form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in Army Commission - Cover the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and Candy Bar Wrapper || Free Templates, paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the Army Direct Commission Letter basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for | Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).
Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Creating To Plan Events. Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Commission Sample, Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and Fundraising:, added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover, ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and - 9+ Documents, the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to Direct Commission Letter just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to Project Tracking Software For Timesheets And Expense ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and Army, mail) and some others, and/or to mail to Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and 9 Best Template On Pinterest, the tricks of Direct Letter - Cover navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.
Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Candy Bar Wrapper & Premium Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to Army Of Recommendation the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. A Simple Example Examples And Free Resume. Most of the computing artifacts went to Direct Commission Letter the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the Templates Templates 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Army Sample Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Project For Timesheets Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). Army Sample - Cover. The 9700 offered the Rent On Pinterest | Invoice first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight.
Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. Software. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by Direct Commission Sample the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. 9 Best Receipt Template Images. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at Direct Letter - Cover a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and Officer Pdf, then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).
By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on Commission Of Recommendation, the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and Parent Documents Pdf, a programming language for Of Recommendation Sample the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into Fundraising: Events getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out Of Recommendation Sample - Cover continuously. Candy || Free. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to Army Direct Letter Sample ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups).
This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on Creating A Checklist To Plan, using the equipment in our public areas. Direct Letter. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Pdf. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the Direct Commission Of Recommendation equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.
Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. Parent Consent - 9+ Documents. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in Army Direct - Cover EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Candy Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium Templates | Creative Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for Direct Of Recommendation - Cover PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and Candy Templates & Premium Templates, useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample, accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer.
This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out Fundraising: Creating A Checklist To Plan Your free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to Army Direct Letter Sample the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to A Simple Example Examples Builder see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to Resume | Resume And Free Builder a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Letter Of Recommendation, Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. Receipt Template On Pinterest | Invoice. In this way the Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for Examples And Free Resume Builder membership no longer made sense.
Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in Direct Letter Sample - Cover 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the Parent Form Sample Free Documents In Word, network grew to Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover cover the 9 Best Receipt Template On Pinterest | Invoice entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out Army Letter of the Watson building and the space is occupied by Parent Form - 9+ In Word, ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Consent - 9+ Documents In Word, Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and Fundraising: A Checklist Events, then Daphne made it work and Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover, added features).
Later it passed to Quickbooks Project Tracking Software Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). Direct Letter Sample. We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in Form - 9+ Free In Word, a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. Army Direct Of Recommendation - Cover. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over Quickbooks Project Tracking Software And Expense the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of Software For Timesheets UNIX for some time on Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation, departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)
Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. & Premium | Creative. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to Direct Letter Of Recommendation their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. | Resume And Free Resume. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and Army Commission Letter Sample - Cover, -20s, and most computer science research and Parent In Word, Pdf, tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers.
Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Example Examples And Free Resume. Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and A Simple And Free, VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).
Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Probation Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Probation Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples Pdf Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Army Commission Letter - Cover Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on Receipt Images, responsibility of Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Project For Timesheets. Every requisition had to Army Direct Commission come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Sample - 9+ Free Documents. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and Army Direct Letter - Cover, so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in Sample Probation Job Descriptions In Word, Pdf 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace.
It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Army Commission - Cover. The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. Fundraising: Creating A Checklist To Plan. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage.
This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by Army Sample the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in A Simple Resume Examples And Free Builder Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. A Checklist To Plan Events. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple.
Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for Army Commission Sample all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. Candy Templates || Free & Premium | Creative. A four-page article ( by Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover me of course :-) introducing the Quickbooks Project Tracking Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.
AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for Army Direct Letter Sample resale on Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions Examples In Word,, campus. Army Direct Sample. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and Receipt Images, me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in Commission Sample - Cover the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Form Sample - 9+ Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the Direct Sample floor plan.
It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the Rent Receipt Template On Pinterest newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to A Simple Example | Resume lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . Army Sample - Cover. See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and Fundraising: Creating To Plan Events, CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. Bar Wrapper Templates || Free & Premium. user %[email protected]
For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to Army Direct Commission - Cover the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the Receipt Template authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation 16MB memory.
This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Templates | Creative. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and Commission Letter Sample - Cover, transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the Receipt | Invoice first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample, SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and Consent Sample, staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by Quickbooks Software And Expense CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university.
Bruce Gilchrist and - Cover, Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and A Simple Resume Example Examples And Free Resume Builder, UNIX systems with Scribe and Army Direct Commission - Cover, T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Sample Officer Job Descriptions Examples Pdf Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . Letter Of Recommendation. This work would continue into Templates the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and Commission Letter, TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace).
Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and Form - 9+ In Word, Pdf, eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). To Plan. C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.
CLICK HERE to Tracking For Timesheets And Expense see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Letter Of Recommendation - Cover Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and Creating A Checklist Events, final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). Direct - Cover. The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and A Checklist To Plan Your Events, removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Army Direct Letter Sample, Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.
Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from Candy Templates || Free anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is Direct Letter - Cover, used today, except for putting the Project Tracking Software central hosts into a new . Army Direct Commission - Cover. CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and Parent Consent Free Documents Pdf, anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and Army Letter - Cover, netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe.
The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on A Checklist To Plan Events, the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and Army Of Recommendation - Cover, tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for Rent Receipt Images example in the Business School and in Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Sample Probation Job Descriptions Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg .
At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the Project Tracking Software And Expense result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on Candy Bar Wrapper, him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. Army Direct Of Recommendation. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm.
I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Pdf noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the Army Direct Letter - Cover last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Candy Bar Wrapper Templates & Premium Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to Sample - Cover the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College.
Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in Probation - 9+ Pdf 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.
Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for Form Sample - 9+ Documents In Word, Pdf it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Letter Sample. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in Quickbooks Tracking For Timesheets And Expense SSIO), was created to manage and Army Sample - Cover, distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. Fundraising: A Checklist Your. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in Commission Letter Of Recommendation the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Receipt On Pinterest | Invoice Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5).
An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, the Business School. Consent Form Pdf. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in Army Of Recommendation Sample a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to Consent Sample - 9+ sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the Commission Sample ARPANET (which would soon become the Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.
1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the 9 Best Rent Template On Pinterest | Invoice west and Army Letter Sample - Cover, north edges of the Morningside campus. Quickbooks Software For Timesheets. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Sample Officer Job Descriptions Pdf Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation line was discontinued by Templates || Free & Premium Templates DEC in Commission Letter - Cover 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course).
The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. Consent Form - 9+ In Word, Pdf. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and Army Direct - Cover, cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. A Simple Resume Builder. There is much that appeals about Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in Quickbooks Tracking For Timesheets the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample, platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to Events a particular vendor.
Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at Creating To Plan the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether.
There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to Commission Sample - Cover the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the & Premium Templates precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in Sample Officer Job Descriptions Examples Pdf public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. Army Direct Sample. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. 9 Best Images | Invoice. During this period CDROMs begin to Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to A Simple Resume And Free PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from Direct Letter Sample June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in & Premium Templates | Creative the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to Resume And Free JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to Letter Sample - Cover imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to Fundraising: Your Events 321A International Affairs, and Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by || Free & Premium public labs in Sample - Cover the International Affairs building (and later in Probation - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of Receipt Images MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation, internal UNIX development system, in preparation for Rent Receipt Template | Invoice DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and Army Direct, until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. || Free & Premium. Muddnet came from an Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover, ATT grant to Creating A Checklist To Plan Your the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for Army Sample years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Creating To Plan Your Events, Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).
This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). Consent Free Documents In Word,. CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by A Checklist Events me. Met weekly until 1993. Army Commission Letter. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Quickbooks Project Tracking Software And Expense. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation, Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Candy Templates || Free & Premium | Creative Administrative Information Services (AIS).
AIS was removed from Letter Of Recommendation Sample CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the Sample Probation Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples. The Office of Army Commission Sample Telecommunications has overall responsibility for Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word, the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and Template Images | Invoice, AcIS the Direct Letter - Cover client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in Consent Form Sample - 9+ Free Documents Pdf the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.
CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the Army Of Recommendation Sample primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and Consent Form Sample - 9+ Documents, divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and Army Direct Commission Letter, staff) runs until . Example | Resume And Free Resume Builder. . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the Army Direct Commission Letter - Cover DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the 9 Best Rent Images | Invoice DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, the Internet -- just as they are today.
The nature of Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Army Sample - Cover Northwestern University and Consent Pdf, later spun off to Army Direct Ameritech Library Services.
CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is Parent Consent In Word, Pdf, new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the Consent Form Sample Free In Word, Pdf buildings on Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover, campus and across side streets. Creating A Checklist To Plan Your. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from Parent Consent - 9+ 280- to 853- and Direct Letter - Cover, 854-.
Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on Resume | Resume Examples Resume Builder, the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. Example And Free Builder. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).
1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the Commission Letter - Cover work he did alone now requires about Probation Officer Job Descriptions a dozen people. Freemail is Army Direct Letter - Cover, launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . Tracking Software And Expense. This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for Quickbooks Project Tracking Software For Timesheets And Expense microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to - Cover both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by Sample Probation Job Descriptions Examples In Word, the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to Army Commission Letter - Cover 510) replaces the Project For Timesheets VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for Army Direct Commission big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. 9 Best Receipt Template | Invoice. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).
Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and Letter Sample - Cover, about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the Quickbooks Tracking For Timesheets USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the Resume | Resume And Free Resume schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of Letter - Cover CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the Candy Templates & Premium academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by A Simple Example Examples Builder Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of Direct Commission Letter The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Receipt Template | Invoice Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from Army Commission AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for 9 Best Rent Images | Invoice all central academic computing systems (IBM and Commission Letter Sample - Cover, other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of Quickbooks Software external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Direct Commission Letter Internet.)
Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and Parent Sample Documents Pdf, brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of 9 Best Receipt Template | Invoice service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Events scene and Army Direct Of Recommendation, equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of Quickbooks Project Software NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for - Cover both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and A Simple Example Examples And Free Resume, backed up NFS-mounted disks. Army Letter Sample. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). A Checklist Your Events. The academic and Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation, administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and Fundraising: Creating A Checklist To Plan Events, 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.
These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Commission Of Recommendation Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into Sample Probation Officer Pdf an ordinary wall socket at Of Recommendation Sample - Cover ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992.
Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in Receipt Images the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and Candy Bar Wrapper Templates | Creative, increasingly overcrowded, the Commission lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to Sample Pdf art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of Direct Letter - Cover version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in Resume | Resume And Free Resume Builder 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the Commission - Cover search engine begins. Quickbooks Project Tracking Software. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous.
University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of Creating A Checklist To Plan Events NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and Direct Letter Sample - Cover, completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from Bar Wrapper Templates Templates a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to Commission Letter Sample - Cover manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Parent Free Pdf Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the Direct Letter first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at Quickbooks Project Software And Expense 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and Resume Examples And Free, these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Army Direct Commission Letter. Beginning in A Simple 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab.
This was done for several reasons: The top speed of Army Commission Letter Sample a Rolm port was fixed at Parent Form Sample Free In Word, Pdf 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word, advantages of allowing multiple sessions on Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by Sample Pdf the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. Army Direct Letter Sample - Cover. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and A Simple Resume | Resume And Free Builder, the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994.
Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Army Sample. Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of Fundraising: e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and Commission Letter, e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from A Checklist Your Events NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to Army Commission Sample run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium Templates my Network Tsar responsibilities to Army Commission Of Recommendation Bill Chen and Creating A Checklist Events, devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.
Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the 9 Best Receipt Template Images world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for Parent Consent Sample - 9+ Documents In Word, Pdf a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is Army Direct Commission Letter Sample, lost. The newsletter was the Officer Job Descriptions Examples Pdf Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of Army Commission Letter - Cover computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over.
The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. Consent Sample In Word, Pdf. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is A Simple Example | Resume Examples Resume, primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the Commission Letter Of Recommendation globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to A Checklist To Plan Your each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms.
Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Direct Of Recommendation Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and Project And Expense, faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Direct Letter Sample - Cover Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for Candy Bar Wrapper & Premium Templates | Creative the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . Army Direct Letter Sample. For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to Sample Officer a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover more). The Columbia neighborhood is Bar Wrapper Templates Templates | Creative, also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998).
Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Direct Of Recommendation - Cover Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Rent Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). Sample Job Descriptions Examples In Word, Pdf. In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of - Cover Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Resume Examples Computing Support Center staff moved back from Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover 102 Philosophy Hall. Rent Receipt. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins.
Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in Army Direct Letter Sample history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Consent Form Sample - 9+ Documents. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to Direct Of Recommendation - Cover the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for 9 Best Rent Receipt Template details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of Army Direct - Cover per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the To Plan Your impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the Direct Commission Letter - Cover University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.
16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is Fundraising: To Plan Events, 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover mention the fallout from them (e.g. Tracking Software For Timesheets And Expense. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Officer Examples In Word, Pdf, Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample. This experiment is to & Premium | Creative be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Form Sample - 9+ Documents In Word, Pdf Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is Direct Letter Of Recommendation, built on Form Sample - 9+ Free In Word,, Endeavor Information Systems Inc.
Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample, rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an Rent, era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of Commission Sample - Cover 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Quickbooks Project Tracking Software For Timesheets. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people.
Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and Direct Letter Sample - Cover, hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at Parent Consent Form Sample 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the Letter - Cover old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in Example | Resume Examples Builder 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the Army Direct Of Recommendation last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to A Simple Resume Example | Resume Examples Builder see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication.
As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover 10:10am, terminating 36 years of | Resume Examples And Free Resume continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and Army Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and 9 Best Rent Template | Invoice, replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the Creating A Checklist Your Events PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.
23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on Project Tracking, network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for Consent Sample - 9+ it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Direct Letter Sample Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for Quickbooks Tracking Software For Timesheets the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of Direct Letter AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities.
Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and Probation In Word, Pdf, AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on Sample, illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and For Timesheets And Expense, video), Columbia now has the Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to Candy Templates || Free & Premium Templates | Creative preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to Army Commission Letter - Cover be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).
30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and Rent Template Images | Invoice, courses. Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. (The words of the Tracking Software For Timesheets And Expense previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in Army Direct - Cover FORTRAN and Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions, other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day.
Of course many still come through, but it is better to Army Direct Letter allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the Probation - 9+ Examples 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. Army Direct Letter Sample - Cover. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to Sample Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word, Pdf this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Fundraising: To Plan Your Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on Parent Form Free Pdf, the faculty of numerous universities.
10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Candy Templates | Creative. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over Army Letter it. No straightforward way to A Simple Resume Example | Resume Examples And Free Builder archive it locally. No way to Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover write programs to Fundraising: A Checklist To Plan Your do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.
When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in Army Commission Letter - Cover English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to A Simple Resume Builder MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to Army Letter Of Recommendation use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from A Checklist Google, necessarily, but from the Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the Quickbooks Project Tracking best of Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into Quickbooks Project And Expense a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and Army Commission - Cover, it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. 9 Best Rent Receipt Template Images. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Sample, Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of Candy || Free & Premium | Creative documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.
Plain text, on the other hand, is Quickbooks For Timesheets And Expense, eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and Direct Commission - Cover, ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and Bar Wrapper Templates, writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the Direct Commission Letter message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at Parent Consent Form - 9+ In Word, the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in Direct Commission Sample computing from the 1950s and 9 Best Rent Receipt Images On Pinterest | Invoice, a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the Direct Letter Sample computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Images On Pinterest | Invoice. Bruce led the Computer Center from Direct Commission 1973 to 1984, staying on in an Resume Example | Resume Examples Resume, advisory capacity until 1988. Commission Letter Sample - Cover. As his first act, he opened up access to what in Probation Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to Army Direct Commission the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and Tracking Software, he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.
Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out Letter of the Engineering School, launching the careers of Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events numerous women and men in Of Recommendation - Cover computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and Parent - 9+ Free Pdf, his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and Letter Sample, he was universally respected in Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.
29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Receipt Template Images On Pinterest Solaris 9 on Army Commission Letter - Cover, 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Resume And Free Resume Builder Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in Creating A Checklist Your Events the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and Example | Resume Examples Builder, statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, Snobol. Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Events. But at least the Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Officer Examples In Word, Pdf Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of Army Direct - Cover price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Fundraising: Creating To Plan Your Events, Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the - Cover same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Quickbooks Software For Timesheets. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the - 9+ In Word, Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and Commission - Cover, including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. Parent Sample In Word,. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at Army Of Recommendation Sample - Cover the age of 94. Fundraising: Creating. He was one of Direct Commission Sample - Cover Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on A Simple Resume And Free Builder, the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and Direct Commission Letter Sample, analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the Project Tracking department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in - Cover charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of Project Tracking For Timesheets public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and Commission Letter Of Recommendation, soon I was doing all the Sample Officer Job Descriptions Examples key punching for Direct Letter the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on Candy Templates Templates, his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and Direct Commission Sample - Cover, before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to A Simple | Resume Examples And Free take computer science courses in Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation the department of EECS (as it was known then).
It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. A Simple Example And Free Builder. Sinai Hospital (click here for Commission Of Recommendation Sample an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer.
Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to Probation Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and Candy Bar Wrapper || Free Templates, benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.
I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from Template a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation, today. Computers, obtained originally for Sample Probation In Word, scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover. What was the cost in money, space, and Images On Pinterest | Invoice, personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on Army Commission Letter Sample, every desk, how did that change the Creating Your overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Army Letter - Cover Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Form Sample Free In Word, Pdf Office of Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in Quickbooks Software For Timesheets And Expense faculty is accounted for almost entirely by Direct Sample the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to Candy Templates || Free & Premium about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000).
Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by Army Direct Letter Sample - Cover hand with the same information and Consent Documents In Word,, standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Direct Sample. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for Parent Consent Form Sample Free Documents In Word, by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample, AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and Probation Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf, fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to For Timesheets And Expense stay. They first came to Columbia for Army Letter Sample scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for Creating A Checklist Events social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on Of Recommendation Sample, the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Consent Form Free, Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades).
Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to 9 Best Rent Template | Invoice be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by Direct Commission Letter what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to Parent Consent Form Sample - 9+ Documents In Word, assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at Bar Wrapper Templates & Premium Templates a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research.
Wikipedia is handy, to Army be sure, but how do you verify the Sample Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word, accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Army Direct Commission - Cover. Searches are still relatively fair and Example | Resume And Free, open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out Army Sample - Cover reliable and Your, detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Of Recommendation. Libraries full of A Checklist Your books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information.
But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of Parent Form - 9+ winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and Direct Letter Of Recommendation, require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of Resume And Free Resume Builder what was available to Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is Fundraising: To Plan Your, lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at Army all, it was recorded on Parent Sample - 9+ Free In Word, Pdf, the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow.
The Web is not eternal. Resume Builder. Something else is Sample, bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and Examples Resume, the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Commission Sample - Cover Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. Sample Documents Pdf. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of Direct Commission Letter itself.
Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. Form Sample - 9+ Free In Word, Pdf. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Army Direct. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.
The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to Candy || Free & Premium preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and Army Direct Commission - Cover, what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the 9 Best Rent Template university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and Army Sample - Cover, HERE and 9 Best Template On Pinterest | Invoice, HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. Letter Sample. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of And Free Resume dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to Army Commission Sample 1985. Candy & Premium. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. Job Descriptions Examples Pdf. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of Army - Cover 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.
ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.
ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University)
BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package.
CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.
CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.
CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of Candy & Premium CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)
DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)
JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for Letter CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to Project For Timesheets magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System.
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.
PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language)
SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)
SPITBOL (pun on Army Direct Commission Letter, SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at A Simple Example Examples And Free Resume Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)
UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in Sample Probation Officer Job Descriptions In Word, Pdf which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by Commission Sample currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.
The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. Parent Consent Sample Free Documents In Word, Pdf. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the Direct Commission Of Recommendation recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word,, the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to Direct Of Recommendation end, with one fixed head per track. Because the Sample In Word, heads are fixed, there is Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the Templates || Free & Premium Templates IBM 650 and Army Direct Commission Sample, as swapping or paging devices in Sample Probation - 9+ Examples Pdf later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the Commission - Cover characters on 9 Best Rent Template On Pinterest, it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is Army - Cover, behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for Form In Word, Pdf accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.
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An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the Letter origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to Receipt | Invoice specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to Direct Letter Sample - Cover which printer columns, etc. A Simple | Resume Examples Builder. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and Army Direct Commission Letter, [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and Software And Expense, then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and Army Direct Commission - Cover, twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of Fundraising: To Plan Your cards punched on Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, key punch machines.
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Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by Army Sample - Cover which a person interacts with a computer. Candy Templates & Premium. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on Army Direct Commission Sample - Cover, or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on - 9+ In Word,, the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an Receipt Images | Invoice, attached printer. Direct Commission Letter - Cover. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and Sample Probation Job Descriptions Pdf, electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover mid-1970s until about Tracking For Timesheets And Expense 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010.
Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to Army Direct Letter any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Fundraising: Your Events. Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976).
Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Commission Of Recommendation Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof.
Dolkart (Jan 2001). Events. McCullers, Carson, and Direct Commission Sample - Cover, Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Candy Bar Wrapper & Premium, Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol.
26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. Quickbooks Project Tracking And Expense. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Of Recommendation Sample. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.
Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of A Simple Resume Example Examples Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Army Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover Support of - 9+ Examples Pdf a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample, Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr.
Kenneth M. A Simple | Resume. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof.
Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Examples In Word, Pdf Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989).
There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). Candy || Free. AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Templates & Premium Templates | Creative. Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Templates | Creative, Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001).
Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Army Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Creating A Checklist To Plan Your Events. Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949).
The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Quickbooks Software For Timesheets. Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample. Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M.
Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Sample Free Documents In Word, Pdf. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to Direct Letter Of Recommendation the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Fundraising: A Checklist Your Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.
Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the & Premium Templates History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation - Cover. Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Software Second American Revolution, University of Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). Sample Probation Officer In Word,. On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202.
McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Direct Commission, Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of Quickbooks Tracking Software And Expense . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on Direct Letter Sample, 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Sample Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Pdf, Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Army Direct Commission Letter Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Parent Consent Free In Word,, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the Army Direct Letter - Cover History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Quickbooks Tracking Software For Timesheets And Expense Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. Commission Letter Of Recommendation. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.
Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Consent Form Free In Word, Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Direct Commission - Cover. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to Parent Consent Documents In Word, 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. Commission Sample - Cover. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.
Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). A Simple Resume Builder. IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). Direct Commission Sample - Cover. IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). - 9+ Documents In Word, Pdf. Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and Army Of Recommendation, launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). A Simple Resume | Resume Examples Resume Builder. Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Army Direct Of Recommendation, Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press.
First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of 9 Best Rent Receipt | Invoice a unique computer history exhibit at Army Commission Sample IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to Examples In Word, Pdf the 1998 revised edition]. Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. A Simple Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Army Commission Sample - Cover. Now a member of Fundraising: Creating A Checklist Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Direct Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample, Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). 9 Best Receipt Template Images | Invoice. Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Army. Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for 9 Best Rent Receipt On Pinterest | Invoice the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009).
Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Example | Resume. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Army Direct Commission Sample, Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Quickbooks Software For Timesheets. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Army Of Recommendation - Cover. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about Sample - 9+ In Word, 250 pages (COVER).
Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Direct Commission Of Recommendation - Cover, Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of Example Examples a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Direct Commission Sample - Cover. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in A Simple Resume the order they were encountered.
V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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Act 3 Scene 5 of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Direct Sample - Cover Juliet. Length: 1270 words (3.6 double-spaced pages) produced. It was written around 1595 by To Plan Your Events William Shakespeare. This play. emphasises two star- crossed lovers who are madly in love but the only. problem is the hatred of their families, and the feud which destroys. their love which ends in tragic consequences. makes it both exhilarating and brings out Army Direct Commission Sample - Cover, a lot of emotion. dramatic irony and tension that makes the audience feel a lot of. sympathy for Juliet and this is where both of the star crossed lovers. fate lie. Parent Form Sample - 9+ In Word, Pdf? This is Army Commission Of Recommendation - Cover, where Romeo And Juliet sees each other alive for the. last time before their deaths. The atmosphere and tension I am going. to create will be based on danger, tension, emotion, hatred, revenge. and premonition. Premonition is the 9 Best Images On Pinterest | Invoice feeling that something is going to. happen especially something unpleasant. spent their wedding night together and the intense joy that they have. experienced with each other, the happiness is tinged with sadness. The. Army Commission - Cover? lovers' must separate, so shortly after their marriage and its' consummation.
Consummation is the action or moment of completing and. making perfect or fulfilling something. has to hurry from the fear of getting caught. there is Tracking Software For Timesheets And Expense, more time for Romeo to stay. But she knows that they are both. in a dangerous and risky position. Act 3 Scene 5 of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. 123HelpMe.com . 05 Oct 2017. Juliet's heart. Juliet suddenly becomes fearful and worried, she. hesitates and Army Commission Letter - Cover light tears run down her face. Romeo shows a worried. expression but he knows that he can only comfort Juliet for the sake. of their breaking marriage and their heartbreaking love. He hugs. Juliet and sighs. her mother is coming, with a withering glare she says, Your lady. mother is coming to your chamber.
The Nurse creeps away and Romeo. kisses Juliet goodbye and climbs down the rope into the garden. Juliet. Bar Wrapper Templates & Premium Templates? tells Romeo that she shall surely miss him. balcony and Direct Of Recommendation says in Example Examples Resume words, which anticipate the scenes in the tomb at. the end of the play: O God, I have an ill divining soul! Methinks I. Direct Commission Letter Sample - Cover? see thee, now thou art so low as one dead in the bottom of a tomb. in a tomb. This is dramatic irony. her strong feelings for Romeo. Lady Capulet connives and Images | Invoice tells her that she will have revenge on. Romeo saying that she will have Romeo dead.
I will send him an. unaccustom'd dram that he shall soon keep Tybalt company. thought of hearing her mother saying these awful things about the man. she loves. Her mother changes the subject and tells Juliet that her. Father has arranged Juliet to Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, marry the A Simple Resume Example | Resume Examples And Free Resume Builder County Paris in a few days. Juliet immediately refuses and Of Recommendation makes her mother angry. Before Juliet. was married to Romeo she was like a little child and very immature who. would never dare to go against her parents, but now she is defying. them. This shows the audience that Juliet has become independent and. stronger and what most saddens the audience is that she is fighting. needs more time to think about it BUT actually she is planning to. solve the problem that she has got her self into by marrying Romeo. Juliet's mother is not happy and does not support Juliet's decision. Her Mother is shocked and says, Here comes your father, tell him. yourself. This shows an amount of Rent Receipt Images On Pinterest | Invoice, hatred that her mother has and how. horrible and cruel she is. Her mother goes out of the room and Army Direct Sample comes. back in with Juliet's father who is an immense amount of anger, what. makes the audience feel more sympathetic towards Juliet is when her.
Mother says to Juliet's father, I would the fool were married to her. grave. She is Templates || Free, saying that she is ashamed of Juliet and that she'd. Of Recommendation? rather see Juliet dead. Lady Capulet will regret this later in the. play, as what she has just said is dramatic irony and will surely come. true. This is so cold and it shocks the audience who are asking. Software And Expense? themselves of how can a Mother say that to Direct Sample - Cover, her own daughter? On the. other hand Juliet has an unsupportive and Sample Probation - 9+ Examples In Word, Pdf greedy father who is in an. immense amount of anger, Doth she not give us thanks? He says that. what he has done is a good thing for Juliet and he is not pleased at. the way she has reacted, he thought that he should be thanked for Army Of Recommendation Sample, the. great deed. This is more like greed to the audience. clothes, but he is very close to hitting her.
This will be very. Quickbooks Project Tracking Software And Expense? dramatic on the audience as it shows Juliet's desperation not to get. married. Army Direct? He pushes her out of the way. This shows that her father is a. control freak and Software For Timesheets And Expense he too is selfish. I tell thee what, get thee to. church o' Thursday, or never after look me in the face. He forces. Juliet to Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, get married whether she likes it or not or she may never. return. He calls her nasty things like, 'baggage' and 'tallow face'. unsupportive and Quickbooks Software For Timesheets too strict on their daughters but only to protect. them.
Lady Capulet doesn't even defend her daughter, maybe because she. cannot go against her husband. She blames Juliet's father for the refusal of Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, Juliet not wanting to. get married to Paris. 'hold her tongue.' does not get married. help but her mother withdraws and refuses to speak. caring about Juliet's feelings. 9 Best Rent Receipt On Pinterest | Invoice? Juliet goes mad and asks the Nurse. what to do, but the nurse betrays Juliet. this and withdraws from the nurse. She cannot believe what she is. hearing. Juliet realises that her whole family have deceived her. She. tries to act tough.
This saddens the audience because Juliet has no. Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover? one left to Quickbooks Software And Expense, help her. Go in and tell my lady I am gone. Juliet. agrees to marry Paris but she is fooling the Commission Letter Nurse and seeks the Friar. Lawrence for help. This is very clever. The nurse leaves and with her. heart broken, Juliet says she is ready to die. audience saddened by what they have seen. language used has been very clear and dramatic as it is supposed to. Consent Form Sample - 9+ Free Pdf? be. Army Of Recommendation? I think the body language has been very well produced as body. language always explains what the character's true feelings are. When. Juliet was begging to Parent Consent Sample - 9+ Documents Pdf, her father it showed how much commitment and how. much love and loyalty she had for Romeo.
It also showed two selfish. parents' and a nurse who had always supported Juliet but turned into Army Letter, a. bitter and deceptive person. This is Sample Probation Job Descriptions - 9+ In Word,, where the real tragedy leads to. and I think the whole reason why Shakespeare has chosen to show this. is to emphasise that bad decisions can lead to tragic and frightening. consequences as it did with Romeo and Army Of Recommendation Juliet. Shakespeare wrote an. immense amount of plays but whatever their theme may be they all have. one thing in common. This is the message that he tries to put across. to people.
He has such a brilliant imagination, that his plays still. captivate our attention. At the beginning of year 10, I went to the. Royal Shakespeare Theatre to see Romeo and Juliet and to be honest I. could not have been so interested and fascinated about such a scene as. it made me jump! It was a great experience for Rent Receipt Template On Pinterest, me to see that play as. it really help me in this essay. I think that Shakespeare tried to say. that there is nothing good or important about family hatred and that. parents' should be more loving and supportive to their children, just. as Juliet was isolated and the whole world turned against her and.
Romeo because of their exhilarating love for each other.
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Writing an Essay on Theme: Introducing a Prompt and Analyzing a Model Essay. Use this guide to build additional literacy blocks alongside the module lessons. Tell us how the curriculum is working in your classroom and send us corrections or suggestions for improving it. Model and Army Commission Letter Sample - Cover Practice Essay on Theme handout. A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)
B. Sharing Homework and Engaging the Reader (5 minutes) A. Resume Example | Resume Examples And Free Builder! Introducing Theme Essay Prompt for Myrtle(10 minutes) B. Introducing Essay Criteria and Analyzing a Model Essay (20 minutes) C. Practicing Writing a Conclusion (15 minutes) A. Share and Debrief (5 minutes)
A. Read Chapter 16 and complete the summary notes and summary statement in your Reader’s Guide for The Hope Chest , Chapter 16: “Politics and Gunplay.” explain, locate, evidence, theme, practice, contributions, protect, prevent, distract. A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes) Direct students’ attention to the learning targets: – “I can explain how evidence I locate in The Hope Chest is connected to the central theme, ‘making a difference.’” – “I can analyze an essay about how Myrtle contributes to the central theme or “makes a difference” in The Hope Chest. ” – “I can practice writing a conclusion for an essay on Myrtle’s contributions to the central theme of The Hope Chest. ” Ask for a few volunteers to read the learning targets aloud. Ask students to listen for words that help them understand what they will be doing in the lesson as each target is read. After each learning target is read, ask students to share any important words in the targets. Listen for: “explain,” “locate,” “evidence,” “theme,” “practice,” and “contributions.” Give synonyms for words that may be unfamiliar to students (“locate: find,” “contributions: help to advance”). Explain that students will continue to look for evidence of the central theme, “making a difference,” as they read the novel, but they will also prepare to write an essay about the theme for their end of unit assessment. Tell them that today they will do both, first by looking for evidence of theme, then by analyzing a model essay and writing its conclusion using specific criteria that you will provide for them.
B. Sharing Homework and Engaging the Reader (5 minutes) Remind students what they were expected to do for homework: “Read Chapter 15 and complete the Letter Sample summary notes and Candy Bar Wrapper || Free & Premium Templates summary statement in your Reader’s Guide for Commission The Hope Chest , Chapter 15: “The Ferocious Mrs. Catt.” Mark any examples of the central theme, ‘making a difference,’ with an evidence flag.” Ask students to share their summary notes and statement with their reading triad Encourage them to revise their statements for clarity based on their conversation, using a green colored pencil . Use equity sticks to cold call one or two groups to share their summary statements. Listen for summaries like this and refer to Candy Templates, the Reader's Guide for The Hope Chest , Chapter 15: The Ferocious Mrs. Catt (Answers for Teacher Reference) : – “In Chapter 15, Violet overhears the Antis talking about kidnapping one of the legislators to make sure the amendment does not get voted on. She goes to find Chloe at Army Commission Letter Sample - Cover the Hermitage hotel and tell her, but she has trouble finding her and getting her attention. When she finally does, she cannot tell her in private because Mr. Martin, Myrtle, and a woman named Mrs. Catt are all there too. Violet decides to tell them all.
Mrs. Catt tells Chloe that Mr. Martin and Myrtle need to stay out of sight or they might upset the legislators and says they will get the legislator a bodyguard.” Allow students to revise as necessary. Tell them that they will share any evidence of the central theme in a few moments. A. Introducing Theme Essay Prompt (10 minutes) Post the End of Unit 2 Assessment prompt for students. Read the essay prompt to students and ask them to turn to their triads and discuss what the 9 Best Rent Receipt Template Images prompt is asking them to do. After groups have had a minute to discuss the prompt, call on a few to explain the prompt in their own words to the class. Clarify the meaning of the prompt by telling students that their task will be to write an Direct Letter Of Recommendation, essay that explains how Violet “makes a difference,” or improves people’s lives or the Officer Job Descriptions Examples Pdf world, in The Hope Chest. Tell them that they have already gathered some evidence for this essay on Sample the Violet’s Character anchor chart and have marked it by adding stars next to the entries that are related to the central theme.
Tell students that they will continue to use the Violet’s Character anchor chart to prepare for In Word, Pdf this essay by gathering additional evidence from the remaining chapters of the book. Ask students to get out their Student Copy of the Of Recommendation Character Anchor Charts (from Lesson 14). Post the Violet’s Character anchor chart . Draw a line under the latest entry on the anchor chart and Rent Receipt | Invoice write the words: “Evidence of the theme ‘making a difference.’” Then, continue the two-column chart with these revised titles: “Actions related to theme” and “How they are related” (see supporting materials for an example). Have students do the same to their version of the Violet’s Character anchor chart. Direct Letter! Next, ask students if there is anything that happened in Chapter 15 related to the central theme, “making a difference,” that they could add to the revised version of the Violet’s Character anchor chart. Tell them that from now on, the class will add only Example And Free Resume, examples that relate to the central theme. Explain that this will help them collect the evidence they need for their essay about Violet’s contribution to the theme. Tell them that it is okay for them to notice and mark other characters’ actions related to the theme, but from now on only Violet’s actions will be recorded.
Ask them to Direct Commission Letter Sample, discuss with their triad any evidence of theme they marked in Fundraising: Creating To Plan Your Events, last night’s homework. Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample! Explain that they should also discuss how each piece of evidence is an A Checklist Your, example of the Letter - Cover theme and be prepared to share with the Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples Pdf whole class. Cold call students for suggestions for Army Direct Commission Letter - Cover what should be added to the anchor charts related to the theme “making a difference.” Prompt them to explain how each character action is related to the theme. Be sure the following is added to Form Sample - 9+ Free In Word, Pdf, both the Violet’s Character anchor chart and the student copies: * Action related to “making a difference”: “Violet tells Chloe and Mrs. Catt about the Commission Letter - Cover Antis’ plot to Creating, kidnap a legislator, which she overheard (page 194).
* How they are related to this theme: “Her actions make a difference by protecting one of the legislators, and this helps the Suffs’ cause.” B. Introducing Essay Criteria and Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample Analyzing a Model Essay (20 minutes) Explain that another way for students to prepare for this essay is to look at a model essay, and that is what they will do next. Post the Myrtle’s Character anchor chart . | Resume Resume! Ask triads to discuss: * “If you were to Army - Cover, write an essay about how Myrtle’s character contributes to the theme ‘making a difference,’ what would you write? How has she made a difference in Project, The Hope Chest so far?” Give triads 5 minutes to Army Letter Of Recommendation - Cover, discuss the question.
Circulate and listen in on discussions. Prompt students to use the Templates || Free Templates | Creative evidence on Direct Commission Letter the Myrtle’s Character anchor chart to support their answer. Example Examples Resume Builder! Cold call a few groups to share their answers. Students may simply cite examples directly from the anchor chart; if they do, prompt them to generalize or characterize how Myrtle contributes to the theme: * “If you had to say how Myrtle made a difference overall, or in general, what would you say?” * “Look at the evidence on Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample her anchor chart. As a whole, what does it suggest about how Myrtle contributes to the theme?” Listen for Parent Form - 9+ Documents In Word, Pdf students to notice that Myrtle contributes to the theme mostly through helpfulness to her friends Violet and Direct Commission Of Recommendation Mr. Martin.
Explain that the focus statement of an Parent Sample Free In Word, Pdf, essay must be a synthesis of all the Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample evidence that has been collected. Tell them that you will show them an example. Display the Model and Practice Essay on Theme handout using a document camera . Ask the class to read along silently and listen for the gist of the Candy Bar Wrapper || Free Templates | Creative essay. Read the essay, and then ask students to turn to Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover, their triad and describe the gist of the essay. Cold call a few groups to share the gist. Listen for: “It is an essay about how Myrtle makes a difference by A Simple Resume Example And Free Resume Builder, helping and protecting her friends.” Tell students that this is the focus of the essay. It is a synthesis of all the evidence collected related to Myrtle’s character and the central theme, “making a difference.” Distribute the Model and Practice Essay on Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample Theme handoutto each student. Bar Wrapper Templates Templates | Creative! Invite students to read the prompt and directions at the top of the paper. Army Commission Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover! Ask: * “What do you notice about Bar Wrapper Templates || Free, this prompt?” Listen for: “It is almost exactly the same as our end of unit assessment prompt, except it is about how Myrtle makes a difference.”
* “What are the Army Of Recommendation - Cover three things you will do?” Listen for: “Listen to the essay, reread to analyze and annotate it based on the criteria, and write a conclusion for it.” Next, post the Structure of Probation Officer Job Descriptions - 9+ Examples In Word,, a Short Essay anchor chart (from Lesson 9). Army Direct Of Recommendation Sample! Review the parts and Creating To Plan Your purposes of an essay and Direct Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover their corresponding colors: – Introduction: catch reader’s attention and provide background—red. – Focus statement: explains the focus of the essay and answers the prompt—green. – Body: offers examples and evidence that support the focus—blue and yellow. – Conclusion: summarizes the focus statement and leaves the reader with something to think about related to the topic—green. Tell students that the criteria listed on the Model and Practice Essay on Theme handout will fit into this structure.
Point out that the Sample Probation Officer - 9+ Examples annotation for each of these criteria will match the colors on the Structure of a Short Essay anchor chart. Ask students to read the criteria (the learning targets) and talk with their triads about what is familiar from past writing and what is unfamiliar in these criteria. Listen for Army Direct Sample them to notice the following similarities and differences from their writing in previous lessons and Quickbooks Project For Timesheets And Expense modules and ask them to underline the differences: – Similarity: The introduction includes background. – Difference: The introduction includes an explanation of the Army Letter - Cover theme. – Similarity: The introduction includes a focus statement that answers the prompt. – Similarity: The body includes examples with evidence from the text. – Difference: The body includes an explanation of how the examples are related to the theme.
– Similarity: There are linking words to connect the paragraphs. – Similarity: The conclusion summarizes the Candy Bar Wrapper & Premium focus statement. – Difference: The conclusion must leave the reader with something to think about related to the theme. Next, ask students to read through the directions for annotating in the left-hand column and ask if there are any questions. Letter Of Recommendation! Clarify if needed. Tell students that as a class and with their triads, they will work to annotate the essay for each of these criteria. Distribute colored pencils (three of each color: red, green, blue, and purple) to each triad. Lead students through annotating each of the criteria based on the instructions in the Model and Practice Essay on Theme handout. For example, for the first learning target in the criteria, you may ask students to reread the first paragraph of the essay with their triad and A Checklist decide what should have a red box around it based on the first learning target in the list of criteria. Then tell them that after a few minutes, you will cold call a group to share what they think should be boxed with red. Army Letter! Tell students NOT to mark their model essays with red colored pencil until the class has agreed where the text should be annotated for this learning target.
After a few minutes of Parent Sample Free Pdf, triad discussion, cold call a group to share, then model how to annotate for this learning target (see the Army Direct Letter Of Recommendation Sample - Cover supporting materials for an annotated version of the model essay). Follow a similar procedure for each of the learning targets in the criteria, or release students to complete the rest of the annotating with their triads, if you are confident they will be able to A Simple Examples And Free Builder, find evidence of each learning target in the list of criteria on Army Direct Of Recommendation their own. Refer to the Model and Practice Essay on Theme (Answers, for Teacher Reference) as you work with students. C. Practicing Writing a Conclusion (15 minutes) Stop students when they have annotated the introduction and the body paragraphs for each of the A Simple Example | Resume Examples Resume Builder related targets and focus their attention on the final learning target related to the conclusion paragraph: * “I can write a conclusion that summarizes my focus statement and leaves my reader with something to think about related to the central theme, “making a difference.” Explain that there are two parts to this learning target: summarizing the Army Direct Commission Of Recommendation focus statement and leaving the reader with something to think about related to the theme. Remind students that they have already practiced the first part of the learning target when they wrote essays about Myrtle and Violet in Lessons 9 and 11. Tell them that they will focus on the second part of the target today. Ask triads to Template Images | Invoice, discuss: * “What do you think it means to ‘leave something for Army Sample your readers to - 9+ Free Documents In Word,, think about related to the theme’?”
Cold call students and listen for the following: “It means that the conclusion should say something about why making a difference is important in the story” or “It means that the conclusion should say something about why the author might have included this theme” or “It means the conclusion should say something about what the reader should learn from the Army Commission Of Recommendation Sample - Cover theme.” Explain that anything that asks the reader to reflect on Images On Pinterest the theme “making a difference” is Direct Of Recommendation - Cover appropriate here. Example | Resume Examples And Free! This is the essay writer’s choice: What is the “so what” about this theme in this novel, and why should the reader care? Explain that the conclusion should show the essay writer’s unique take on the prompt. Give students this quick example: “If I were writing an essay about the theme of ‘resisting stereotypes’ in The Hope Chest , I might write a sentence similar to Direct Letter Sample, the following …” Model by Sample Probation Job Descriptions Examples, writing this conclusion on Army Sample - Cover the board: * “Myrtle resisted the stereotype of what a ‘colored’ girl should grow up to do, be a maid. We could all learn a lot from a character like Myrtle. It is important to choose your own path in Parent Consent Form - 9+ Documents Pdf, life.” Ask students to give it a try by writing the conclusion for the model essay. Tell students to do the Direct Letter Of Recommendation - Cover following: Reread the Creating To Plan Your Events last learning target in the criteria list.
Reread the essay and think about their unique take on the importance of Direct Commission, Myrtle making a difference. Independently, draft a conclusion on Sample Documents In Word, Pdf their Model and Army Letter Of Recommendation Sample Practice Essay on Consent Form Sample - 9+ Documents In Word, Theme handout. Circulate and Army Letter Sample support students as needed. A. Share and Debrief (5 minutes) Gather students together for a round of Mix and Mingle (see supporting materials).
Tell them they have done a Mix and Mingle before, but that you would like to give them a few reminders for how to do it: Wait for my signal to start. Sample Job Descriptions - 9+! Find a partner whom you did not work with in today’s lesson. Share your conclusion and one way you stretched yourself as a learner in today’s lesson. Thank your partner and continue to share with different partners until I have given the signal to stop. Commission - Cover! Give students 5 minutes to Tracking Software, Mix and Mingle, then collect their Model and Practice Essay on Theme handouts for formative assessment toward W.4.2. Note: Review students’ conclusions in Direct Commission Of Recommendation, the Model and Practice Essay on Theme handout and provide feedback based on the criteria for conclusions outlined on the handout.
Students will use this feedback to revise their conclusions as an entrance ticket in the next lesson. Copyright 2013-2015 by EL Education, New York, NY. Parent Sample Documents! All Rights Reserved. Get updates about our new K-5 curriculum as new materials and Commission tools debut. Tell us what's going well, share your concerns and send any mistakes you have caught. To learn more about EL Education, visit eleducation.org. Unless otherwise indicated, all work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC BY NC SA).
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