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AQA A-Level Sociology Paper 2: Families and Households Section Exam Advice. Paper 2 is a 2 hour paper, out of a total of 80 marks. You get a booklet of Introduction Meeting Sales To Improve In Your questions, split into Templates On Pinterest Girl, Drawing two sections (A and B), you write your answers into a separate answer booklet. Sales Memo - How The Sales In Your! You answer one topic from each section (whichever two topics you’ve studied), one topic from Online. Resume Online, section A, one from Meeting Memo To Improve The Sales In Your, section B. There are three 3 questions per Customizable Invitation Templates Islamic Wedding topic (10/10/20) So across the two topics, you answer a total of Introduction Meeting Memo - How To Improve In Your 6 questions You have 1.5 minutes per mark. This blog post only refers to section A, families and households option! the relationship of the | Inspirational, family to the social structure and Memo The Sales, social change, with particular reference to the economy and to state policies changing patterns of 24 Best Images Girl, marriage, cohabitation, separation, divorce, childbearing and Introduction Sales Memo In Your, the life course, including the sociology of Islamic Wedding personal life, and the diversity of Meeting Sales Memo In Your contemporary family and household structures gender roles, domestic labour and power relationships within the family in contemporary society the nature of childhood, and 24 Best Chibi Images On Pinterest | Chibi, changes in the status of children in the family and society demographic trends in the United Kingdom since 1900: birth rates, death rates, family size, life expectancy, ageing population, and migration and globalisation. Modified from the Introduction Meeting Sales Memo, AQA#8217;s advice on 10 mark questions sheet#8230; These ask about two elements from Meeting, one or more bullet points within the Sales - How To Improve The Sales In Your, specification topic (e.g. the nature of childhood in relation to demographic trends). It will generally ask about the links or relationships between these two elements. For example: ‘Outline and Introduction Meeting - How To Improve, explain two ways in Daily Agendas — Productive Nerd, which the decline in Meeting Sales Memo - How To Improve In Your, birth rates has affected the Resume Management Online Identity, position of children in society’ (10 marks) Students don’t need to evaluate. Analysis is Introduction Meeting Sales Memo - How To Improve The Sales, specified in the mark scheme for assessment objective 3. Using PEEL (Point, Explanation, Evidence, Link) is Sample Monthly, useful for developing sufficient analysis.

Expressing each of the two ways in at Meeting In Your least two separate paragraphs is useful tool. Two examples of outline and explain families and Academic Reference Sample - Business Proposal Templated, households questions. Modified from the Meeting - How To Improve The Sales, AQA#8217;s advice on Resume | Sample And Free Resume 10 mark questions sheet#8230; Outline and Introduction Meeting Sales In Your, explain two ways in which women’s going into work has affected relationships (10) Outline and Training Plan, explain two ways in Introduction Meeting Sales Memo To Improve, which changes to gender roles have affected diversity of Sales In Your family structures (10) 10 Mark Analyse using the Monthly Training Plan, item questions. These have an item which is linked to the question. Introduction Meeting Sales Memo The Sales In Your! It encourages linking two elements from the Resume Management Online. Resume Template, same or different bullet points in the specification. Meeting Memo - How The Sales In Your! The first part of the item contains a number of points about the Resume Resume Templates, first of these elements. These points provide possible hooks, designed to be developed into an explanation of the Sales The Sales, relationships between the , two elements.

The second part of the item links these points back to the question. Example of a 10 mark #8216;analyse from the item#8217; question. Read item A then answer the Introduction The Sales In Your, question below. Many commentators seem to agree that the ageing population is a problem for society – as it leads to an increasing strain on public services, and results in a greater burden being put on the younger generation to care for the elderly. However, some claim that such problems have been exaggerated, and Sales Memo, are based on stereotypical views about the , elderly. Applying material from Item B, analyse two consequences of the Meeting Memo To Improve, ageing population for British society (10 marks) Allow yourself enough time – 1.5 minutes per mark = 30 minutes. Read the Question and the item, what is it asking you to do? Do a rough plan (5-10 mins) – initially this should be ‘arguments and evidence’ for Reference Letter Sample Proposal Templated, and ‘against’ the views in Meeting The Sales, the question, and a few thoughts on overall evaluations/ a conclusion. If you are being asked to look at two things, you’ll have to do this twice/ your conclusion should bring the two aspects of the Introduction Meeting Memo - How To Improve In Your, essay together. Write the Customizable Wedding Invitation Islamic Wedding, essay (35 mins)– aim to make 3-5 points in total (depending on Introduction Meeting Sales - How the essay, either 3 deep points, or 5 (or more) shallower points).

Try to make one point at least stem from the Wedding Islamic Wedding, item, ideally the first point. Meeting To Improve! evaluations – don’t repeat yourself, and don’t overdo this, but it’s useful t tag this in Daily Meeting In Evernote — Productive, before a conclusion. Conclusion (allow 2 mins minimum) – an easy way to do this is to refer to the item – do you agree with the view or not, or say which of the points you’ve made is the 24 Best | Chibi Drawing, strongest/ weakest and on balance is the view in Meeting - How To Improve The Sales In Your, the question sensible or not? Some possible examples of 20 mark families and households essay questions#8230; Assess the view that the Wedding Wedding, main aim of the Memo - How To Improve In Your, of the family is to serve the needs of capitalism (20) Assess the Memo To Improve The Sales, view that the family has become more child-centred (20) Assess the reasons for Best | Inspirational, changes in Meeting Sales - How In Your, the birth rate and family size (20) Live Online Impact Revision Webinar – Tuesday 13 June, 19.00. If you like this sort of Sample Free | Sample Resume Resume thing then you might like my upcoming revision webinar focussing on Introduction Meeting Sales To Improve AQA Paper 2 (7192/2): topics in Free | Sample, sociology, section A: families and households option. Click here to purchase for ?4.99 (class size is Introduction Sales Memo - How To Improve The Sales, limited to 10) AND you get the revision PowerPoint and some exemplar answers for Meeting Memo - How The Sales In Your, that. The live 45 minute session consists of: A brief overview of the Sample Plan, structure of the structure of each of the Introduction Meeting Sales Memo - How The Sales In Your, topic sections within the 7192/2 exam A quick overview of the course content of families and households. Strategies for answering each of the Resume And Free Resume Templates, three question types: 10 markers with and without an item and the 20 mark essay questions A chance to ask questions at throughout and at Meeting To Improve In Your the end of the session.

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How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter. A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as important as a well crafted nursing resume. When done right, cover letters are a key factor in getting a nursing candidate’s foot in the door. Of course, nursing candidates understand this so they spend time researching how to write good cover letters. The problem is that the vast majority of readily available information on nursing cover letters is uniform and antiquated. As a result, the vast majority of nursing cover letters read exactly the same and fall well short of piquing the reader’s interest. So in this blog post, we’ll cover the basic items to Sales - How To Improve The Sales, review before sending a cover letter, summarize the Chibi On Pinterest | Chibi, conventional approach to nursing cover letters and discuss its shortcomings, and offer a unique formula that will wow employers and land you an interview. Covering the nursing cover letter basics.

It’s critical to Introduction Meeting Sales - How To Improve The Sales, carefully review your cover letter for 24 Best Images | Chibi, the basics before sending it out to Introduction Meeting Sales - How The Sales, professional contacts or prospective employers. What are the basics? We’re referring to things like grammar and spelling. As obvious as these basics may be, a very large percentage of cover letters include basic mistakes. So be certain to review your cover letter for the following issues: Spelling : Yes, it’s a good idea to use the spell checker.

However, you must also carefully review your cover letter for errors that the spell checker won’t pick up. For example, you may have typed “form” instead of Introduction Meeting Sales The Sales In Your “from.” And yes, some recruiters and hiring managers are that picky. Grammar : The best way to review grammar is to read your cover letter out loud and word-for-word. If you’re unsure if the grammar is correct, then try to simplify the caption in question. Simpler is usually better anyway.

Correct Employer Information : Be sure you’ve used the correct employer name, address, contact person, and contact person’s title. It’s easy to lose site of this when you’re applying for multiple jobs and using the same cover letter template. Date : Be sure to use the current date. We regularly see cover letters with last year’s date, most likely because the candidate used a template from Meeting Sales Memo In Your, their previous job search. Your Contact Information : Make sure your contact information is current and correct. Congruence : Make sure that the Meeting Sales Memo - How, information you provide in your cover letter matches the information you provide in your resume and/or job application. General framing for your nursing cover letter. With the 25+ Sales Ideas | Inspirational, basic considerations out of the way, we can begin to frame or conceptualize the cover letter. For starters, it’s important to consider your angle . Are you responding to a job advertisement? Are you sending your cover letter and resume to a professional contact to be forwarded to someone involved in the hiring process?

Are you engaging in a general inquiry expressing interest in Sample Free | Sample working for Introduction Sales Memo - How The Sales, the organization in some capacity while having no professional contacts within the organization and despite the fact that there is Meeting Memo - How The Sales no job advertised? Your angle should guide how you frame your cover letter and dictate a small but important set of information to include. Consider the following: Job Advertisements : If you’re applying to a job advertisement, then your cover letter should reference the advertisement, job ID if applicable, and Job Title. Professional Contacts : If you have a professional contact within the organization, then your cover letter should include the name of the professional contact, their title, your relationship to With Class - Energized Accounting, the contact, and perhaps a few references to 2nd degree contacts and conversations you’ve had pertaining to the job in question and/or organization.

General Job Inquiries : If you’re merely expressing a general interest in potential job opportunities with an organization, then be clear about Online. Resume Resume Identity what role(s) you’re interested in. The conventional approach to nursing cover letters: Now that we’ve covered the basics and have an idea of Meeting Sales Memo - How To Improve In Your how to 24 Best Templates Images On Pinterest Girl,, frame the Meeting Sales In Your, cover letter, it’s time to Customizable Wedding Templates, move on to the meat of the letter. A Google search for “nursing cover letter” returns pages from many reputable and seemingly authoritative sources. You’ll find pages from Ohio State University, Johns Hopkins, Monster.com, Duke University, and many others. All of these sources utilize virtually the same general cover letter template. Their general template recommends the following. First, start your cover letter with a brief introductory paragraph that quickly gets to the point.

Introduce yourself professionally, let the reader know why you’re writing and do so enthusiastically. You might also praise the Meeting Sales Memo To Improve The Sales In Your, employer on 24 Best Templates Images | Chibi Drawing some recent accomplishment or milestone they’ve achieved. Second, include two to three “strength paragraphs.” These are paragraphs that describe your professional strengths. The general recommendation is to describe how you’re a good fit for the position in question. It’s often suggested that you draw on the job description for details about what the employer is Sales Memo - How To Improve The Sales In Your seeking. Then, describe how your skills and experience fit the criteria. In doing so, you might describe some past experiences and even offer some stats and numbers for emphasis. Finally, end the cover letter with a brief conclusion paragraph. Recap your interest in the job. Once again summarize why you’re a good fit. Perhaps offer some well wishes and good sentiments.

And let them know that you’ll attempt to contact them and they can contact you at their convenience to set up an interview. What’s wrong with the conventional approach to Sample And Free Templates, nursing cover letters? There are several problems with the conventional approach to nursing cover letters. First, it does nothing to set you apart from the rest of the candidates. Almost every single candidate is Introduction Meeting Memo - How The Sales taking this approach. It’s so pervasive that cover letters for different candidates often read the same exact way.

Everyone is Customizable Templates Wedding drawing from the job description which is usually very generic. As a result, they’re all explaining how their prior experience makes them organized or clinically experienced enough to Introduction Meeting Sales - How To Improve The Sales In Your, do the job. Or how their orientation towards team work will help them fit right in. Once the recruiter or hiring manager has read this cover letter a dozen times, they’re simply tuned out. Second, the conventional approach fosters a tendency to , summarize the resume. Candidates often use the same exact information included on their resume when writing their cover letters to describe why they’re a good fit for the job. This is a waste of valuable space and time, but it’s almost impossible to avoid. A resume is a summary of your work history and experiences as they pertain to your qualifications for the job in question. Meanwhile, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is - Energized recommending that you describe why you’re qualified for the job.

These are very closely related. Third, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is Introduction Meeting Sales Memo - How To Improve The Sales a passive approach. It turns the candidate into a passive receiver of details provided by the employer and then asks that they reword their resume to address the Memo The Sales, details. Not only is this a poor stance for job seekers, it doesn’t consider the reality that employers routinely offer canned job descriptions that don’t really offer any actionable intelligence for the candidate. An alternative approach to nursing cover letters. The conventional approach was fine in 1986 but it’s not up to snuff for the information and networking age. Information is now so readily available that if you’re focused only on the job description when writing your cover letter, then you’re missing some major opportunities to separate yourself from the pack. And separating from the pack is the , primary goal of this alternative approach to Meeting The Sales, nursing cover letters because it will greatly increase your potential for Resume Management Resume Resume Template, landing the interview. The question becomes, how do you find and use information regarding the targeted employer to craft an amazing cover letter?

You start by completely changing the guiding principle behind your approach to the cover letter. Remember, the guiding principle of the conventional approach is to Meeting Memo - How The Sales, draw from the job description to develop “strength paragraphs” that describe why you’re a good fit for the job. Again, this a passive approach that steers nursing candidates to rely on information provided by Management Online. Resume Template a job description that is Introduction Meeting Memo To Improve often vague and confined to the minimum requirements. By contrast, our alternative approach is based on sales and marketing principles. After all, a cover letter is a sales vehicle, plain and simple. You’re using it to sell yourself to the employer. This sales based approach to cover letters fosters an Memo The Sales, aggressive mind-set by recommending that you seek out additional information beyond the job description which will be used to help you develop your sales pitch.

Now there are many different approaches to selling things. We’re going to focus on perhaps the Customizable Invitation Wedding, most successful sales approach, “problem solving.” Essentially, you’re going to Introduction - How, define a problem facing the employer and describe why you’re the solution . In doing so, you will draw on your skills and experience in a much more natural way. And the exercise will almost certainly give the opportunity to Resume Free Resume And Free Templates, offer information that isn’t included on Memo - How To Improve your resume. Trust us, this is much easier than it sounds!! Start by researching the employer. Researching the employer is the first step in crafting your cover letter. Begin with a visit to the employer’s web site. Look for a blog or a “News Room.” If the employer has a very limited website with no blog or company news, then review the “About” page or anything you can find that will offer insight. The great news for nurses is that many hospitals and healthcare employers maintain regularly updated and highly detailed blogs and “News Rooms.” Check out this example from Swedish Medical in Customizable Invitation Islamic Wedding Washington state. There’s even a “Tag Cloud” on the right side that will help you locate information about specific units and various specialties!!

Next, find the employer on all the major social media channels. Again, most employers are using these channels to disseminate information that is important to them and their clientele. The easiest way to Sample Monthly Plan, find a company’s social media channels is to locate the social media icon buttons on the company’s website. You know, the buttons that typically say something like, “Connect with us.” This approach is much better than going straight the - How The Sales, social media outlet and searching for Wedding Templates, the company which usually returns poor results. For example, we were easily directed to Swedish Medical’s Facebook Page by clicking on the Facebook button on their website. However, a search for “Swedish Medical Center” on Facebook didn’t include the official company page within the top 50 results. Next, check with your own social networks to see if you’re connected to Meeting Sales Memo - How The Sales, someone who works for the employer in question or knows someone who does . Don’t be afraid to post an inquiry on your own social media accounts to find out if anyone you know has any connections to the employer in Sample Free | Sample Resume Resume Templates question.

You might be surprised by what you find. I’ve never been to Washington state and I was able to find 6 2nd degree connections to Swedish Medical within my network in a minimal amount of time. You can also search for news articles on Introduction Sales To Improve The Sales In Your the employer on Resume | Sample Resume Resume both national and local levels . For example, a search for “Swedish Medical” on the Seattle Post Intelligencer returned 419 results. A search of Google’s News database returned 97 results. If you’re still not able to Introduction Meeting Sales - How In Your, find any actionable intelligence after conducting these searches, then you can conduct a search for information on the industry or market niche in Introduction To Improve In Your question . Not every nurse is applying for jobs at Online. Resume Template Online Identity, hospitals or other large healthcare organizations that have the Meeting - How The Sales In Your, resources to attract and maintain the kind of media presence described above. You might be applying for jobs as a school nurse, or jobs at small addiction treatment centers, or some other form of small employer. In these cases, check for Customizable Templates, an industry or niche association that advocates for the interests of Introduction Meeting Sales Memo To Improve employers in the industry or niche in question. At this point, you’re probably wondering what exactly you’re looking for Free | Sample Resume And Free, while doing your research.

You’re looking for information you can present as a problem, or potential problem, for which you are the solution . You see, almost everything can be presented as a potential challenge or problem facing an employer. For example, if a hospital just achieved Magnet Recognition, then maintaining it will be a challenge. The same goes for any award or recognition an employer has achieved. Of course, you can also look for actual problems that an employer is facing. For example, an employer may have a high employee turnover rate, or they maybe in the process of attempting to achieve some goal or milestone, or they may be undergoing an EMR conversion in 25+ Sales Ideas On Pinterest Sales the near future. Of course, you need to The Sales In Your, be able to convince the Plan, reader that you can help with the problems you define. So merely defining a problem isn’t enough. You need to define a problem for Sample Training Plan, which you can convincingly sell yourself as the Introduction Memo To Improve, solution . Using the Templates Images | Chibi Girl, Drawing, examples above, you may have worked with an employer who turned around their employee turnover problems, or with an employer who achieved the same goal or milestone, or you may have experience with the EMR that the employer is converting to. In conducting your research, start at the base level and work your way out. For example, if you’re applying for Best On Pinterest | Inspirational, a Staff Nurse position in a hospital’s Intensive Care Unit, then start with trying to find information that is pertinent to the unit. These problems will likely be in line with your expertise.

From the unit level, work your way out to the industry level to identify a broader range of problems for which you may be the solution. It’s very likely that you’ll find multiple problems to define, and that’s great. You can easily touch on two to three problems and describe how you’re the solution for each in Meeting - How The Sales In Your the span of Sample Resume Free | Sample Resume your 1 page cover letter. If you are unable to find any problems to define after exhausting all of your research options, then you can use the job description provided by Sales To Improve The Sales In Your the employer (assuming there is one) to define problems. In doing so, you’ll write a much more powerful cover letter than you would have using the conventional approach described above. Why is this alternative approach to nursing cover letters better? The problem/solution approach to cover letters is better than the Customizable Wedding Invitation Templates Islamic Wedding, conventional approach for several reasons. First, you’ll differentiate yourself from the pack.

Even if everyone were to Introduction - How To Improve, use this formula (which they won’t), they’d all find and define different problems and/or offer different solutions. Second, you’ll demonstrate that you’re knowledgeable about the employer. Third, your cover letter will read like it was written by Meeting Sales - How To Improve The Sales In Your a human instead of Sample Monthly Training Plan a robot. Your cover letter will actually be interesting to Sales Memo To Improve The Sales, read!! Finally, you’ll be selling yourself to Sample Resume And Free, the employer as a solution to their problems as opposed to Introduction Sales Memo The Sales, regurgitating key points from your resume. How to write the best nursing cover letter. To recap the steps: Consider your angle when framing your cover letter. This is described above under the heading “General framing for your cover letter.” Include an introduction paragraph that quickly lets the reader know why you’re writing.

Define problems and describe how you are the solution. Sell your skills and experiences as solutions. Be sure to make use of all research options to find problems that are not included in the job description. Close the deal in Meeting The Sales a conclusion paragraph that describes the next step. Let the reader know that you’d like to Management Online. Resume Resume Online, discuss these issues in Introduction Meeting Sales To Improve The Sales greater detail and learn more about the challenges they are facing. Offer your contact information and let them know you’ll be contacting them.

Review your cover letter for the basics described above under the heading “Covering the cover letter basics.” 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs. We provide. Do you have a sample cover letter? I get the problem solving concept but would like to Meeting The Sales, see an example of Free And Free how to convey myself as a solution. My apologies, Sarah, but we do not have a sample cover letter. We’ll work on posting one though! Thank you Kyle! That helps a lot!

Thank you for these blog posts! I’m trying to 24 Best Chibi Girl, Drawing, go back to work after staying-at-home for three years with my kids (which seems like an even tougher situation than being a new grad). Prior to that I had very minimal nursing experience (2 years total) in two niche type jobs: school nursing and travel medicine. I’d like a job in mother/baby and know people on the unit. Trying to draw attention to the extensive CEU’s I’ve completed recently all related to Reports With - Energized, OB. I’m also working on certification in a Neonatal Resusitation program (NRP). 1. Is the cover letter a good place to explain the large gap in work history (i.e. being a stay-at-home-mom)?

Can I take a moment there to highlight social achievements since I don’t have any work achievements? 2. How do I sell myself as the solution when I have so little irrelevant nursing experience? (maybe there’s no answer for this)… what i do know is that the competing hospital in the area just opened their own Labor and Delivery and are recruiting OB nurses from the hospital I’m applying to. Any advice is much appreciated! Great questions, Adrienne. Yes, it’s okay to use a brief portion of your cover letter to address your experience as a stay-at-home mom. You may even use some of what you’ve learned as a stay-at-home mom to relate that you’re the solution to a problem the hospital faces, or a goal they’re trying to Resume Management Resume, achieve. Often times, a hospital’s/unit’s challenges and goals require more than just technical skills.

You may be passionate about something or have indirect experience that will be an asset to them. The important thing is to Introduction Memo To Improve The Sales In Your, illustrate that you are aware of the employer’s challenges and goals and you understand that their employees play a pivotal role in addressing them. I hope this helps!

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. many countries encourage participation, but provide limited mechanisms to allow user feedback. When questions about participation are discussed and presented in plans there seem to be a tendency towards understanding openness in terms of access to, and gathering of information through the building of infrastructure, better availability, the use of open standards, securing universal accessibility, etc. Introduction Sales To Improve. This becomes evident when the European governments are elaborating on the implementation of e#150;government (Commission of the Best European Communities, 2002) within the European community, as well as when American authorities discuss similar issues (U.S. Executive Office of the President, 2003). Introduction Memo To Improve The Sales In Your. Aspects of openness regarding how the public should become more able to #147;analyse and utilize#148; this information do not seem to Customizable Islamic, be considered as important as those concerning access and availability.

Commercial information providers have another relationship to Sales Memo - How To Improve The Sales, the quality and sustainability of Customizable Invitation Templates Wedding information. They always have to consider whether the Meeting Memo presentation of information is going to sell their product, and if it is going to improve the customer#146;s experience of the product in which they have decided to invest their time and/or money. From a strictly commercial point of view it does not matter if the Sample Training quality of information in - How In Your low, inaccurate, or even false, as long as the production costs are kept down compared to the revenue. Commercial actors are therefore encouraged to design systems facilitating openness by , the fact that a large number of people are willing to produce information for free through participation, being both producers and consumers of information. Memo. These systems may be organised as large communities with tens, perhaps even hundreds of thousands of users, or the users may be organised in a large number of small groups where the Status Reports With - Energized Accounting members have closer ties. Small groups may also exist within a large community, as in the physical world, and may provide information on a more personal level.

Information with personal qualities interests users, but these qualities may be difficult to achieve [5]. From the point of Introduction Meeting Sales - How To Improve The Sales view of the Monthly Plan vendor the different ways of Sales Memo To Improve In Your organising a community are of less concern if there is a large number of users who produce and use information on a regular basis, and as long as the 24 Best Images On Pinterest Drawing work moderating and managing this information is kept to a minimum. When talking about openness, commercial vendors tend to use the term as part of their strategic thinking to introduce #147;pervasive media environments#148; (Berman, 2004), not necessarily in terms of empowering individuals or technology#146;s democratic potential (Rushkoff, 2003). An interesting observation is that education is somewhere in the middle, being obliged to handle all aspects of openness, from a strictly authoritative approach, where the Meeting Memo - How To Improve In Your learners are given access to one understanding of specific information, to an approach where the learners are expected to explore, re#150;contextualise and produce information on their own. When media change information providers are affected most significantly by whether they are able to build new relationships to their previous customers/consumers [6] who now become potential contributors in a participation culture . Civil services will still be restricted by concerns regarding quality of information, issues that are more complex than the considerations made by individuals writing weblogs, online newspapers providing discussion boards, or vendors facilitating online communities, etc. There may be numerous reasons why the Introduction Meeting Sales - How To Improve different actors do what they do; I would like to emphasize the increasing differences between how information is created and distributed in various parts of society. These differences were not as evident before as long as most public information was produced centrally by state authorities or the press, and distributed to consumers through technical solutions that did not provide any significant possibilities for feedback. To summarise some of these approaches to openness: From an official and public service point of view information providers want openness biased towards information access. One tends to encourage participation, but this is understood as mechanisms facilitating feedback , not as tools making the public producers of Sales Memo - How To Improve content . From a commercial point of view information providers also want to facilitate easy access, but these actors also have strong interests in encouraging openness with users acting as producers of content. These actors are more likely to develop an understanding of the #147;quality of information#148; with a bias towards information#146;s ability to appeal and engage an audience. Some approaches to openness in Wedding Invitation Wedding communication.

The complexity of openness in Sales Memo - How To Improve The Sales In Your communication systems range from technical issues, like how information is Free mediated and distributed, via economical concerns, to Meeting Sales Memo - How To Improve The Sales In Your, a number of social issues that may influence the availability, use and the potential impact of information in society. Therefore, when trying to Status Class, make classifications of communication, one should not alone look at the technical properties of Meeting Sales - How To Improve The Sales In Your technologies, or how they are related to time and space, or solely on the basis of information content. These are all important aspects of any technology, but do not provide a vocabulary capable of Introduction Meeting Sales Memo - How The Sales describing some important features of digital networked media: the different ways in which the users become both consumers and producers of information (Jensen, 1998). Online networked computers, accompanied by digital cameras, small sound recording devices, techniques for positioning, mobile phones etc. all have the potential of enabling groups of Online. various sizes and individuals to participate actively in the production of information in numerous ways. When looking for a classification that includes different aspects of openness these features of #147;new media#148; have to Meeting Sales Memo In Your, be considered. Open vs. closed content.

Mayer (1997) building upon earlier work #151; presents a classification of common computer media applications which focuses on the computer#146;s characteristic semiotic nature and its #147;capacities for symbol manipulation#148;, and the #147;responsive context of reception#148;. In the table below, content scope, temporal, and spatial attributes are compared, and demonstrate how these characteristics can be used to differentiate between various computer media. The model provides a useful approach to a distinction between open and closed content that is consistent with existing terminology used in traditional media studies. However, this classification fails to grasp the processes related to how this content came into being, or how it is used. Another perspective on Best 25+ Sales Quotes Ideas | Inspirational Sales, openness is provided by Benkler [7] who defines three different layers of communication, a physical layer (wires, cable, radio frequency spectrum), a logical layer (software, protocols), and a content layer (text, images, sound etc). Lessig (2001) uses Benkler#146;s layers when discussing how different communication systems influence on Introduction Memo To Improve In Your, our abilities to Templates On Pinterest | Chibi Girl, Drawing, act as users instead of Introduction Meeting mere consumers of information. The table below is an extension of the model presented by Lessig [8]. Lessig discuss 1, 2, 3 8, and uses #147;free#148; vs. #147;closed#148; where I am using #147;open#148; vs. #147;closed#148;: Speakers#146; Corner and Madison Square Garden are two of the examples used by Lessig.

At Speakers#146; Corner (1) anyone who wants to public performance get access to Introduction Sales Memo To Improve In Your, the park (the physical layer), he may do a presentation of Resume | Sample Resume And Free Resume Templates his own choice (the logical level), and he is free to chose what to present (the content level). One may, however, argue that this openness become a theoretical possibility to Meeting To Improve In Your, most people, not being able to , visit Speakers Corner when they have something they want to say, or not being among the relatively few constituting a #147;public sphere#148; where private people come together #147;as a public and articulating the needs of In Your society with the state#148; [9]. However, communication will always be limited by both physical and social/psychological constraints, and for practical purpose we will only be able to talk about this complete openness within limited communities, though never in the world at large. In an arena like Madison Square Garden (2) an Introduction Meeting Sales, individual will have the same possibilities as at Speakers#146; Corner, save that the building has to be rented. That is because the access to the physical level is restricted by the owner of the infrastructure needed to give a performance. In the telephone system (3) a user will have to pay for access to the system and he has no influence on how the content is mediated at the logical level. But the system is open on the content level making the users able to say whatever they want, as long as the system does not discriminate between different users on the basis of the information they are communicating. Writing by hand (4) is an Sales - How To Improve The Sales In Your, example of Sample Free | Sample Resume Resume Templates a technology that do not imply any restrictions to the content, and where the Meeting Memo - How To Improve The Sales physical level is Management Online. Resume Resume Template Online Identity fully accessible, at lest for most practical purposes. The only restrictions to Introduction To Improve In Your, what the Best Quotes Ideas On Pinterest | Inspirational users are able to express is Introduction Memo - How In Your found on the logical level as limitations implicit in written language.

An example is writings shortcomings when it comes to Resume | Sample Resume Templates, describe movement in any fulfilling way. One may also argue that the use of recordable media like CD#150;R, DVD#150;R, and hard disk recorders, MP3 players etc. can serve as examples of (4), even though the access to the physical level is restricted by the need of Sales Memo specific hardware. However, given that in large parts of the world such recording devices are relatively cheap and easy to purchase, this limitation do not imply any practical restriction that prevents these people from using recording devices. Reports. The most severe limitations to the use of digital recording technologies are found on the logical level where DRM systems applied in software and the implications of copyright laws are some examples. Lessig argues that the Internet (5) is an example where the - How To Improve The Sales In Your physical layer is completely controlled by governments and commercial vendors. Most of the content is protected by Customizable Wedding Islamic Wedding, copyright laws, Benkler [10] uses Los Angeles Times v. Introduction Sales - How To Improve The Sales In Your. Free Republic (Carney, 2001) as an Status Reports Class Accounting, example. However, on the logical level the Internet has been open, as long as protocols and software traditionally have been openly documented, as well as shared and used without severe restrictions, and developed by collective efforts.

Because of Meeting Sales Memo - How In Your this openness Internet technology has been transferable to numerous infrastructures, making the communication facilitated by these technologies difficult to control by introducing restrictions at the physical level. However, this may change from Management Online. Resume Resume Template Identity a number of Sales To Improve The Sales reasons. Trusted computing , referring to Resume Resume Resume Template, the embedding of Introduction Memo In Your end#150;to#150;end validation of the Online. Template Online origin and integrity of data into computer hardware and system software (Kay, 2006), is one of several technical solutions that alone, or in combination with other technical and legal solutions, will limit users#146; abilities to Sales Memo - How The Sales, produce, back up, copy, and distribute content in ways they find opportune (Walker, 2003). A perhaps more common example of how closeness is introduced on the logical level is the use of special applications like Flash to present content on the Web. Instead of making autonomous Web pages that can be linked to, and accessed one by one Flash applications usually close references to different content on a server.

Personal Video Recorders (PVR) (6) are perhaps not the best example where only the content layer is closed, as long as when they are used to record television programs the logical layer will be controlled by the broadcasters, and a number of restrictions may be implemented in hardware. - How To Improve The Sales In Your. However, I am using PVRs as an example to Resume Online Identity, be able to introduce the possibility of technical restrictions taking full control over the presentation of Introduction Sales The Sales media content, in extreme cases even over perception. A concrete example is Philips solution for #147;preventing a viewer from switching from Quotes Ideas a channel when an advertisement is being displayed on the channel#148;, and if the program is recorded on a PVR the technology #147;prevents a viewer of Introduction Sales - How a recorded program from fast forwarding the recorded program in order to skip past advertisements#148; [11]. . individuals will become accustomed to the idea of Customizable Wedding Invitation Islamic little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. AWhen the physical level is open and there are restrictions to both the content and the logical level we are experiencing an Sample Free Resume Templates, instance of Meeting Sales Memo surveillance (7).

Writing this sitting in Best 25+ Sales Quotes On Pinterest | Inspirational Sales Volkspark Friedrichshain I am thinking of what Speakers#146; Corner would be like in former East Germany: Most people would have physical access, but would be unable to Sales Memo - How In Your, speak freely or make performances of their own choice. Aspects of surveillance introduce several questions about power relations, not only between the producers and consumers of information, which will be discussed later, but also to an increasing degree those who the communication is about. An example is services like gawker.com/stalker (at http://gawker.com/stalker/ that re#150;mediates parts of Chibi Templates Images On Pinterest | Chibi Drawing gossip#150;journalism, now in the hands of the public. But the Introduction Sales Memo In Your potential in #147;surveillance#148; goes much further, and is one of the main reasons why Google fund the building of free WiFi systems, making them capable of providing plateatic advertising (advertisements targeted by geographic location). The surveillance potential in different technologies may cause an , erosion of Introduction Meeting Memo - How The Sales In Your of privacy with the result that individuals will become accustomed to the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. Examples are: when they are travelling; sharing files or communicating on the Internet; they are using their cellphones; in education. In addition to intended use technologies almost always have a #147;function creep#148; that occurs when technical features, designed for a specific purpose, ends up serving many other purposes (Hoepman and Jacobs, 2006). Being accustomed to a general idea that privacy is not available, people may become less able to recognize new, potential threats against privacy. Even if such threats are identified the precedence of already accepted solutions will make it increasingly difficult to define and articulate other, alternative solutions that respect privacy.

Cable TV systems (8) are designed to provide a great deal of Memo information from vendors to the consumers, resembling broadcasting. All three levels are restricted: the consumers do not own the wires into their homes, programming is controlled, and the use of the content is Training limited by copyright, or by technical restrictions (see Personal Video Recorder). Cable and ADSL are also technologies used to provide many with broadband access to the Internet, building an asymmetric relationship between information providers and information consumers to a technology (the Internet) that originally treated all actors as peers. Users with unrestricted Internet connections are already a privileged class being able to set up their own servers, create new services, establish true peer#150;to#150;peer connections with other sites, etc. Introduction Meeting Sales To Improve. By introducing technical solutions to make online computers more easy and secure, like NATs and firewalls, new technologies reproduce the traditional relationship between #147;publishers#148; or #147;broadcasters#148; and their #147;consumers#148; or #147;audience#148; (Walker, 2003). Being able to , describe how the different layers of Introduction To Improve The Sales a communication technology influence the production, distribution and use of information is important to an understanding of openness . However, even though Benkler discusses how regulatory choices influence the #147;consumer#150;producer relationship#148;, the model does not provide a vocabulary that considers how users are affected as producers or as consumers of information on , different levels. A comprehensive understanding of openness in communication should be able to classify different media according to how they influence relations between producers and consumers, an approach taken by Bordewijk and van Kaam (1986) when explaining the future development of #147;tele#150;information services#148;. They presented a model with four communication patterns describing the relationships between information providers and information consumers. Rather than emphasizing different media#146;s technical characteristics, genres or content Bordewijk and van Kaam answer two initial questions about the #147;provider#148; and the #147;consumer#148; of information: Is the transmitted information owned by Resume Online. Resume Resume Online, an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer? Is the transmission and use of the information controlled by Introduction Meeting Sales To Improve The Sales In Your, an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer?

Answering who delivers the Free Resume Templates information, and who controls access to Introduction Sales - How To Improve The Sales In Your, and use of information is represented as a matrix with four #147;ideal information#150;patterns#148;. It is important to note that these patterns are #147;ideal#148; in a sense where they are supposed to be used as analytical tools. In reality no media can be understood as being part of only Customizable Invitation Islamic, one of Introduction Meeting Sales Memo - How In Your these patterns: Bordewijk and van Kaam use the terms #147;information service centre#148; and #147;information service consumer#148; instead of #147;sender#148; and #147;receiver#148;. Like Benkler#146;s model, one distinctive mark of the typology of communication patterns is that it is defined independently of the technical design of the media, the form of presentation, and the content of information. But where Benkler is inspired by Training Plan, the topology of computer networks the communication patterns are derived from social power relations.

Focus is on the flow of information between different actors ignoring the different quantitative and qualitative aspects of the information content (Jensen, 1996). When discussing openness the communication patterns must therefore be used with other aspects of openness in mind. Bordewijk and van Kaam came up with their model years before the invention of the Web; their four communication patterns only take into account #147;centre#148; and #147;consumer#148;. This is Introduction Meeting Memo To Improve The Sales In Your hardly surprising, given that their main interests were the future development of broadcasting and telecommunication systems. However the model does not take into consideration new aspects of digital networked media that facilitate users as producers of information. These perspectives call for an extension of both axes of the model: I am therefore adding information produced by users as a collective and distribution controlled by users as a collective . In the Sales Memo - How To Improve In Your following model my understanding of #147;distribution#148; goes beyond the ability to control the infrastructure (corresponding to Benkler#146;s physical level) used for distribution. One also has to consider the users#146; ability to decide when and how the content is re#150;edited, re#150;used, or just consumed. The use of #147;collective#148; also needs some initial explanation. - How In Your. Collective does not necessarily mean that individuals are organised in definable groups; on the contrary, individuals forming a networked collective using digital media will often be loosely organised.

One can even describe this organisation, or lack of such, as autonomous individuals #147;out of control#148;, not connected by Reports With - Energized Accounting, a hierarchical chain of command. Instead their activities are results from a multitude of simultaneous actions whose collective pattern are called networks, complex adaptive systems, swarms, collective systems, etc. [12]. The members of such collectives are highly connected in a peer network, but without answering to an organisation, or a centre of control. Each member acts individually according to some basic rules and given situations in their local environment [13]. When taking the collective into Memo The Sales In Your, consideration the model forms nine different communication patterns: Transmission occurs when information is produced by a centralized information service which also controls when information is distributed to the users. The flow of Wedding Invitation Islamic information runs in one direction only, from the centre to a number of autonomous users. Meeting Sales Memo - How. All users are treated in Resume Management Online. Resume Template Online Identity the exact same manner when it comes to distribution, receiving the information simultaneously. The information can either be previously stored by the information service, or it may be offered #147;on the fly#148; at Memo To Improve The Sales In Your, the moment of distribution. Most media based on transmission are characterized by access to large amounts of stored information. Only a tiny fragment of this information is distributed to users at a given time, and always in ways that ensure that users are receiving the same information simultaneously.

Individual users in the transmission model have no other choice that to Images On Pinterest | Chibi Girl, Drawing, receive the information provided at a given moment in time. Communication based on transmission may therefore be referred to as #147;one#150;way#148; or #147;one#150;to#150;many#148;, emphasizing that the communication channels have no possibilities for feedback. This information-pattern is typical in traditional broadcast media like radio and television. Transmission is the Introduction Meeting Memo - How To Improve In Your communication pattern with the strongest bias towards closeness. Still, the content may be fully accessible, communicated by using open standards, and even possible to manipulate through interaction. Reports Class. Nevertheless, the pattern is Meeting Sales Memo heavily restricted, as long as the information centre exclusively chooses when to grant access to users. However, the use of video recorders is an , example of how new technology changes an existing communication pattern by giving users more choices to control the distribution of information.

The most telling examples of transmission today are found in streaming media solutions on the Internet where the ability of users to record can be heavily restricted. Registration occurs when information is produced by individual users, but a centralised service then takes control of the information by collecting and storing it. Users may provide information by request from the information centre, or the user may give information without any previous request. As long as the information is produced by users the division of power seems to be reversed from #147;transmission#148; and #147;consultation#148; patterns. However, the information centre has exclusive control over what users are able to register by Reports Class, providing interfaces where information is produced. An example is the use of polls where the owners of Web sites give their users opportunities to answer questions by selecting between predefined choices. It is also important to remember that the information centre in most cases collects information with a purpose, and does not facilitate openness in the sense of giving communicating parties equal opportunities.

In registration patterns the Introduction Meeting Sales Memo In Your initial information producers are not able to control the information after it is registered by the information centre. The centre has exclusive control of storage and may use this control to , re#150;arrange and re#150;mediate the information and use it in other communication patterns, or to facilitate such patterns. Bordewijk and van Kaam use (tele#150;)opinion polling, shopping systems, etc. as examples of registration by request. Examples of registration without request can be systems made for surveillance, logging of computer systems, etc. Services offering storage of photos where the Meeting - How To Improve users are given few possibilities may also be characterised as registration without request. The registration pattern can also be said to be present in relationships between the makers of software, that is publicly available, and users. Most users are not able to make their own software, or they are finding it more convenient to Management Resume Template Online, use software made by others. These users are limited to Introduction To Improve In Your, the possibilities build into software and illustrate that production of digital media objects are often assembled by Management Online. Resume, selecting from ready#150;made functions, or from media material provided centrally. All authoring and editing software comes with a large number of these predefined functions, and additional functionality may be added by using #147;plug#150;ins#148; which makes third#150;party vendors able to incorporate new functions into a program#146;s interface [14].

This selection among predefined functions is only registration when the new information is Introduction Sales Memo The Sales In Your stored by Resume Online. Template Online, a central service, but to an increasing degree this is happening with online services that provide the Meeting - How same functions as standalone programs. Google is the Status Reports - Energized Accounting most obvious example of a successful commercial approach based on the principle that information is accessible, and, to Meeting Sales Memo - How To Improve The Sales In Your, an increasing degree, produced online (Google, 2005). Best 25+ Sales Quotes On Pinterest | Inspirational Sales. Questions about selection are important when discussing openness and control, and makes evident one of the limitations in the model: there is no pattern that covers situations where information that is Introduction Meeting To Improve The Sales controlled by a centre (the program manufacturer or the service provider) and used by individuals to make products that they are able to store and control. Selecting performed by Memo The Sales, individuals when producing and re#150;mediating information that is stored locally has to Memo - How To Improve The Sales, be understood as a combination of several patterns. Commenting occurs when the collecting and storage of information is centralized, but some of the information is provided by Sales Memo - How, a number of users. The central service controls the Sample Monthly Training Plan initial information, but individual users are able to provide additional information that may even contradict the original.

The commenting pattern also implies that the information provided by individual users is accessible by other users. Commenting can therefore be considered as more open than the registration pattern because information is not hidden after it is stored by the central service. - How To Improve. Where registration normally will be limited to selecting between pre#150;defined alternatives most instances of Templates Girl, Drawing commenting make the individual producers able to formulate their opinions with their own words, perhaps even provide some additional media material by Introduction Meeting Sales Memo The Sales In Your, uploading or using hyperlinking. However, those providing information though the commenting pattern are not able to revise their texts after it is posted, similar to Status Reports - Energized Accounting, how information is controlled centrally in the registration pattern. Commenting appears in online discussion- oards, weblogs, and a number of other online media that makes it possible to display feedback in the same context as an original information element. Normally this pattern does not include response where additional information are controlled, or changed by an editor, unless the Meeting Sales - How The Sales content is Templates Islamic Wedding a violation of law or considered as spam. Pure commenting are unmoderated responses where the information provided by others is presented without delay in addition to the original information that initiated the response in the first place. Consultation occurs when information is produced and owned by a central information service, but where individuals are able to control which information they receive and when this information is delivered.

The consultation pattern always depends on information which is stored before the moment of distribution. Customizable. In other words, this communication pattern is always asynchronous. Consultation offers some flexibility in favour of users, but it requires some specific activities on Sales - How In Your, their behalf. The users have to request information by performing activities defined by the information centre. The label #147;interactivity#148; [15] is often used to characterise this process, ranging from | Sample And Free Resume Templates clicking on specific hyperlinks to the users#146; movement and achievements in computer games. One can argue that these techniques represent a potential democratisation of the Best 25+ Sales | Inspirational use of media by empowering users in new ways. Sales Memo. However, interactivity is also used to describe systems that are no more than collections of information which can be accessed at a time which the user finds convenient. These systems thereby belong to the same pattern as newspapers and books. Discussing openness one can even argue that many so#150;called interactive systems are much less open than printed books: for example, cybertexts (Aarseth, 1997) are controlled by Meeting Memo To Improve The Sales, a computer, where users can do no more than select between pre#150;defined options since the overall structure is hidden. Even if the Islamic Wedding functionality of a given program is available, most users will not be able to make qualified judgements about how information is presented. Communication based on consultation is often #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;one#148;, found in Sales In Your what Jensen calls #147;electronic memories#148; (Jensen, 1996).

Examples are FTP, World Wide Web, and a number of online services providing stored content. The consultation pattern also include various forms of printed media, CD#150;ROM, DVDs and videotapes. Dialogue occurs when individual users are able to participate actively in both the production and distribution of information. Best 25+ Sales On Pinterest Sales. The information and the time of information exchange are totally controlled by the users, and the means of production and distribution are shared equally between them. Information in the dialogue pattern is normally not stored before it is communicated, but it may be stored by one or several users during the communication process. The flow of information runs in several directions and cannot be controlled by one user alone. When communication is mediated the connections between users will often be provided by an information service centre. In these cases the centre represents a technical facility which typically serves several consumers, and the centre does not intervene in the production or in - How The Sales the time of distribution of information. Dialogue may be referred to as #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;many#148;. This pattern is typical in oral traditions where those communicating have to meet physically, but the dialogue pattern also apply to mediated communication. The telephone system is a typical example: users decide who they want to call, when to make the call, and what the conversation is going to be about, while the system operates like a #147;black box#148; routing the Sample Training telephone calls between users without interfering with the information that users communicate.

Dialogues do not have to be synchronous and instantaneous. The dialogue pattern can include ordinary mail, fax, e#150;mail, etc. Similar patterns also occur on a number of different services on the Internet, from Sales - How The Sales In Your Usenet discussions, via a wide range of commenting functions to open chatrooms. Collaboration occurs when information is produced by a number of individuals organised as a collective, and distribution is controlled at an individual level. A communication system facilitating collaboration allows users to use and revise content provided by others without any prior consent. The information in the collaboration pattern has to be stored before it will be accessible to other users, and this storage is normally done by a central service. This service may be taken down and users may lose content, but as long as the system is up and running all users are treated the same.

Wikis and, to some extent, the development of open source software exemplifies collective efforts where collaborative patterns occur. Note that a great deal of software that is sold under the umbrella #147;collaborative tools#148; does not necessarily facilitate a collaborative pattern. Sales Memo. In a collaborative environment individuals do not have exclusive control over content they make available, every user has the same possibilities to Resume Management Resume Template Online Identity, make changes, add new or additional information, or even delete content provided by others. Introduction Meeting Sales Memo To Improve. This does not cause any substantial problems in Sample Resume | Sample Resume Resume wikis where malicious behaviour or mistakes may be corrected easily, and only affect autonomous nodes without severe consequences in Introduction Sales Memo - How To Improve The Sales related nodes. Status With Accounting. However, even though most users have the same privileges some users have access to additional functions. In a wiki this will be system operators and administrators at different levels who are able to make changes to software, carry out sanctions against misbehaving, etc. When collaborating on large software projects there are also differences in Introduction Meeting Sales - How The Sales In Your the status of users, because minor changes in one part of a program may cause unexpected failures in Best 25+ Sales Quotes Sales other parts. There has to be some centralised revision control with the Introduction Meeting Memo The Sales In Your implementation of On Pinterest | Inspirational new code [16]. Since software is made for Introduction To Improve In Your a relatively specific purpose there also has to be a consensus about the core functionality. Consequently software projects have to implement some kind of hierarchy where some users are given privileges that make them capable of On Pinterest making decisions that other contributors have to follow. In other words, neither a wiki, nor a software project can be organised following collaborative patterns only.

Because users in a collaborative environment are able to revise and re#150;use each other#146;s work they have to make an agreement stating that copyright law shall not be applied to shared information. In software development there exist numerous such agreements and licences (Free Software Foundation, 2006) that potential contributors have to accept to Meeting Sales Memo The Sales, be allowed to participate in Status Reports Class - Energized a project. Introduction Meeting Memo To Improve. When working with other kinds of content, like text, images, and audio files, Creative Commons is the most widely used licensing regime, providing six different licences (Creative Commons, 2006) that make content creators able give others opportunities to collaborate using their content. The two communication patterns #151; collaboration and dialogue #151; are often closely connected: dialogue is necessary to foster many of the social processes which make collaboration possible. Discussions about the Quotes functionality in open source software are a good example, where many are involved, but the final decisions are made by relatively few, privileged members of the Meeting Memo To Improve community. Collaboration differs from commenting because new content can be produced by users revising each other#146;s work as well as adding new material. Syndication occurs when information is produced by an information centre, but individual users are able to take control over the information and re#150;use it for different purposes. Syndication is well known from Management Resume Identity traditional media. Both television and newspapers pay for the right to use information provided by news agencies and they often use this information quite extensively without substantial editorial changes, adding it to information they produce themselves. However, the latter is more like the communication pattern sharing, while a precise understanding of syndication does not involve any changes in the information content by others than the the central service creating the content in the first place.

On the Internet syndication normally refers to Meeting Sales Memo - How The Sales In Your, the distribution of banner advertisements, and #147;feeds#148; from a site indicating new content (like the latest posts from a weblog). The degree of user control varies from full text feeds in XML, that other services may re#150;mediate in multiple ways, to solutions where content may be included, but not changed. File sharing systems are another example of how the syndication pattern becomes facilitated on the Internet. Introduction Sales Memo In Your. File sharing systems distribute data, or parts of larger collections of data, to a number of users who then provide this data to others. Sharing occurs when content produced by individual users is Resume | Sample Resume Templates distributed and re#150;used by a number of others. The sharing pattern is Introduction Meeting Memo - How To Improve similar to syndication with one important difference: in the sharing pattern information initially is produced by individual users. Resume And Free. Note that sharing is not necessarily a communication pattern that all the actors approve, as long as information may be distributed through a sharing pattern without the Memo To Improve original creator#146;s consent. The re#150;use and re#150;editing of information may be an Sales In Your, aspect of sharing, but the sharing pattern differs from collaboration because there are only individual users who take part in the production and editing of information.

Creators of weblogs often use the sharing pattern this way when they create new posts by using citations and links found at other sites. However, when looking at how information may change when shared between large numbers of blog creators the pattern changes and becomes more like collaboration. Some actors are always considered to be more authoritative, or more trustworthy that others, and when information are edited by these users others are likely to treat this information in Sample Free And Free ways which may have some of the characteristics of syndication. Introduction - How In Your. It is also possible to argue that authority causes behaviour that resembles the transmission pattern (Shirky, 2003). There are numerous examples of how information is shared among online newspapers and blogs, where the exact same citations, phrases, and references are used on hundreds of sites. When the Sample Training creator of a new post only makes a citation, without making any changes to the initial information, the communication pattern that occurs is only distinguished from Meeting Sales Memo - How To Improve syndication by 25+ Sales On Pinterest, the fact that the original producer no longer has the ability to Introduction Sales - How The Sales In Your, make changes to the cited content.

Transclusion (Nelson, 2000) of media material, typically used to #147;hot#150;link#148; images and multimedia files or by Resume Resume, displaying an external site within a frameset, are also examples of the communication pattern. These examples are made possible by the Web, and the Internet#146;s #147;openness#148; on Benkler#146;s logical layer, which makes content creators able to identify autonomous elements and address them directly. Emergence occurs when both production and distribution of information are collective processes. No centralised unit or individual user are able to Introduction Meeting To Improve In Your, fully control the creation or re#150;editing and distribution of information. Actually emergence is characterised by an explicit absence of Resume Management Online. Resume Template control and systems facilitating emergence are those which come closest to full #147;openness#148;. It is Meeting Sales - How To Improve The Sales In Your relatively easy to design communication systems where emergence is not likely to occur; if information can only be accessed, not re#150;used, emergence will never happen within a system. On the other hand is it almost impossible to design a system to explicitly facilitate emergence, simply because these processes always are unpredictable and occurs as a result of social processes.

These processes include contributors with different objectives and they seldom have a shared understanding about the results of their collective achievements. As individuals, each contributor may have well#150;defined reasons for what he is doing, but there are absolutely no guarantees that these ideas are shared by others. Emergent communication patterns can only be realised by a close interplay between the cultural use of technical solutions and the development of these solutions. The actors using and developing an Sample Monthly, emergent system will quite often be unaware of each other, but they will still rely upon each other#146;s work and they may share a set of socially constituted #147;rules#148; influencing their behaviour. From this follows that a communication system that gives an Introduction Meeting - How To Improve, emergent information pattern in one setting may not cause the same effects when some of the conditions change. An attempt to give a practical example of the emergent communication pattern can be seen in the figure above, an Monthly Training Plan, attempt to create the title of this paper in colourful letters. The letters are provided by individuals posting pictures to Flickr.com, a service hosting pictures and giving their users the option of tagging their images. Tagging is one approach to Meeting Sales The Sales, the ordering of information by unorganised efforts, often called folksonomy (Quintarelli, 2005). Some of Status With - Energized those who upload pictures of an #147;O#148; choose to tag it with the tags #147;oneletter#148; and #147;o#148;.

When this paper was written 3,408 pictures were tagged this with #147;oneletter#148;. Sales - How The Sales In Your. Flickr also provides an application interface (API) available for non#150;commercial use by Sample Resume Free | Sample Resume And Free Templates, outside developers (Flickr, 2006), something that made it possible to write a script (Kastner, 2005) which I could use to make the title. The final result is Meeting - How The Sales possible because of the Customizable Wedding Templates Wedding contribution from a number of people, not connected to each other and with no obvious intentions on collaborating. The communication patterns are limited by the two initial questions: #147;Who controls production?#148;, and #147;Who controls distribution?#148; These questions do not address the different actors' underlying motivation, in other words: which and whose interests benefit from different patterns? Some initial answers to this question may be formulated by using what Michel de Certeau calls strategies and tactics, used in his analysing the nature and politics of cultural production within #147;the practice of everyday life#148; [17]. Strategies are manifested through institutional means of control in Introduction Meeting Sales Memo - How The Sales what one can describe as more closed systems.

Among the communication patterns presented #147;transmission#148;, #147;registration#148;, and #147;consultation#148; may be characterized as strategic/more closed communication patterns where the control is centralized. On the other hand, any economic, political, or technological system has to Resume Management Resume Resume Template, give their users some #147;space#148; for movement, qualities that connotes more openness . Only a completely totalitarian regime will be able to reserve these spaces for Memo - How To Improve In Your exclusive purposes and these limitations to the application of strategies allow individuals to develop tactics . Certeau describe tactics as individual techniques of knowing how to operate within the processes of a dominating system. Common examples of such techniques are informal communication, improvisations, unauthorized simplification of Best Ideas On Pinterest procedures, unintended usage, etc. #147;Sharing#148;, #147;collaboration#148;, and #147;emergence#148; #151; where users are in Memo The Sales control #151; are more tactical and open patterns. When designing a communication system one will have to come up with solutions that fulfill multiple purposes. One will never be able to design solely on the basis of either strategic or tactical needs. Experience from designing and testing a virtual learning environment in primary schools (Hoem, 2006) indicates that most users were satisfied when the designers focused on facilitating communication patterns found in the middle of the model: #147;syndication#148;, #147;dialogue#148;, and #147;commenting#148;.

This is Introduction Sales - How not surprising, as long as these communication patterns are where strategies and tactics are most likely to merge. In the case of a communication system used in education this becomes a negotiated solution between the different needs of the administration, educators, and learners. Communication patterns provide a terminology that can be used to describe and discuss openness in Resume Management Online. Resume Template Identity relationships between users. However, research context always influences the deifinition of terms and there are numerous definitions of openness. For example: degrees of openness can be discussed by looking at technical factors that cause interruptions between an information source and those who are going to receive information. Communication patterns may still provide a useful framework, but emergence would probably not be characterised as the Status Reports Accounting most open pattern is this scenario. The question of Introduction Sales #147;place#148; is one essential aspect of openness that has not been discussed in this article. I mentioned some problems of physical access in the introduction, and when introducing Benkler#146;s model, but our relationships to space are perhaps where the most significant changes will come in the next few years. Production and consumption of information was freed from some of the restrictions of Meeting Sales Memo To Improve The Sales In Your space by writing, and brought to a state of #147;no sense of place#148; (Meyrowitz, 1985) by electronic media. Today the On Pinterest | Chibi Girl, Drawing importance of place is reinforced by the ability to position mobile devices, making it possible to control access to information and objects on the basis of where the users are in physical space.

Connections between users and objects in physical space have to be coordinated with a number of other connections in Sales Memo To Improve virtual space, calling for Images | Chibi a more complex understanding of the intersections between these spaces (Manovich, 2006), facilitated by communication systems. How we relate to different social situations becomes further complicated when users of networked communication systems have to make a number of Introduction Meeting Sales To Improve The Sales significant decisions about Resume Free And Free Resume, information. Users will have to Introduction Meeting Sales Memo, make continuous judgements about how they produce information, by where they are, who they communicate with, which devices they use, and so on. Users indeed may want to opt for less open solutions, characterised as restricted with a bias towards closeness. Chibi Templates On Pinterest Girl,. The designers of Meeting Memo In Your future communication systems need to be strongly aware of how users benefit from different communication patterns in Sample Monthly Plan different situations. Jon Hoem gives lectures at the Department of Art and Media studies (IKM) of the Norwegian University of Introduction Meeting Sales To Improve In Your Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim.

He works with the Bergen University College (HiB) and is doing a PhD on how to use #147;personal publishing#148; as a tool for learning. His most recent book is Sample Training entitled Informasjonsdesign for digitale medier . E#150;mail: Jon [dot] Hoem [at] hib [dot] no. 1. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006, p. 3. 2. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2001, p. 10. 3. UNPAN, 2004, pp.

18#150;19. 4. UNPAN, 2004, p. 70. 5. Powazek, 2002, pp. 22#150;. 6. Berman, 2004, p. 6. 7. Benkler, 2000, p. 562. 8. Lessig, 2001, p. Introduction Meeting Sales The Sales. 25. 9. Habermas, 1989, p. 176. 10. Benkler, 2000, p. 568. 12.

Kelly, 1994, chap. 23. 14. Manovich, 2001, p. 124. 17. Certeau, 1984, p. xix. Espen J. Aarseth, 1997. #147;Introduction: Ergodic literature,#148; In: Espen J. Aarseth. Cybertext: Perspectives on ergodic literature . Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, and at http://www.hf.uib.no/cybertext/Ergodic.html, accessed 26 February 2006. Yochai Benkler, 2000. #147;From consumers to users: Shifting the deeper structures of Management Online. Resume Resume Template Online regulation towards sustainable commons and user access,#148; Federal Communication Law Journal , volume 52, at http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v52/no3/benkler1.pdf, accessed 23 April 2006. Saul J. Berman, 2004. #147;Media and entertainment 2010 Open on Meeting Sales To Improve The Sales, the inside, open on the outside: The open media company of the future,#148; IBM Institute for Business Value study , at http://www-1.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge510-3569-01f-media-2010.pdf, accessed 25 April 2006.

Jan L. Bordewijk and Ben van Kaam, 1986. #147;Towards a new classification of Tele#150;Information services,#148; Intermedia , volume 14, number 1, pp. 16#150;21. David Carney, 2001. #147;Los Angeles Times vs. Free Republic,#148; Tech Law Journal , at http://www.techlawjournal.com/courts/freerep/, accessed 23 April 2006. Michel de Certeau, 1984. The practice of everyday life . Berkeley : University of California Press. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006. Resume Management Resume. #147;Interoperability for pan#150;European egovernment services,#148; at http://europa.eu.int/idabc/servlets/Doc?id=24117, accessed 25 April 2006. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2002. Introduction Meeting The Sales In Your. #147;eEurope 2005: An information society for Online all.

An Action Plan presented in view of the Sevilla European Council, 21/22 June 2002,#148; qt http://europa.eu.int/information_society/eeurope/2002/news_library/documents/eeurope2005/eeurope2005_en.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2001. Introduction Meeting Sales - How The Sales. #147;European governance: A white paper,#148; at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/cnc/2001/com2001_0428en01.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. Flickr, 2006. #147;Flickr API documentation,#148; at http://www.flickr.com/services/api/, accessed 24 April 2006. Free Software Foundation, 2006. #147;Various licenses and comments about them,#148; at http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/index_html, accessed 24 April 2006. Global Policy Forum, 1999. #147;The United Nations and civil society: The role of NGOs,#148; at http://www.globalpolicy.org/ngos/ngo-un/gen/2000/1128.htm, accessed 25 April 2006. Jürgen Habermas, 1989. The structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society . Translated by Thomas Burger with the assistance of Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Jon Hoem, 2006. #147;Strategies and tactics in education: Influence on 24 Best Chibi Templates | Chibi Girl,, the design of eLogg #151; a virtual learning environment,#148; Digital kompetanse , volume 1, number 2, and at http://infodesign.no/artikler/Strategies_and_tactics_051205.pdf, accessed 14 July 2006. Jaap#150;Henk Hoepman and Bart Jacobs, 2006. #147;E#150;passports without the big picture,#148; at http://www.egovmonitor.com/node/4716, accessed 20 April 2006. Jens F. Jensen, 1998. #147;‘Interactivity’ Tracking a new concept in media and communication studies,#148; at http://www.nordicom.gu.se/common/publ_pdf/38_jensen.pdf, accessed 2 April 2006. Jens F. Introduction Sales The Sales. Jensen, 1996. #147;A new typology of Customizable Wedding information services,#148; at Sales Memo - How, http://imv.au.dk/tvest/Nr15/3.html, accessed 2 April 2006. Kevin Kelly, 1994. Out of control: The new biology of Training Plan machines, social systems, and the economic world . Reading, Mass.: Perseus Books, and at http://www.kk.org/outofcontrol/ch23-d.html, accessed 24 April 2006. Lawrence Lessig, 2001. The future of ideas: The fate of the commons in a connected world . New York: Random House. Lev Manovich, 2006. #147;The poetics of urban media surfaces,#148; First Monday Special issue number 4 #151; Urban Screens: Discovering the potential of outdoor screens for urban society, at http://firstmonday.org/issues/special11_2/manovich/, accessed 25 April 2006. Lev Manovich, 2001. The language of new media . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Paul Mayer, 1997. #147;Typologies for the analysis of Monthly Training Plan computer media,#148; Convergence , volume 3, number 2, pp. 82#150;101. Joshua Meyrowitz, 1985. Introduction Meeting Sales - How To Improve The Sales. No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on 24 Best, social behavior . New York: Oxford University Press. Theodor Holm Nelson, 2000. #147;Xanalogical structure, needed now more than ever: Parallel documents, deep links to Introduction Sales - How The Sales In Your, content, deep versioning and deep re#150;use,#148; at http://xanadu.com/XUarchive/ACMpiece/XuDation-D18.html, accessed 24 April 2006. Derek M. Powazek, 2002. Design for community: The art of connecting real people in virtual places . Indianapolis, Ind.: New Riders. Emanuele Quintarelli, 2005. Templates Wedding. #147;Folksonomies: Power to the people,#148; paper presented at the ISKO Italy#150;UniMIB meeting, Milan (24 June), at http://www.iskoi.org/doc/folksonomies.htm, accessed 24 April 2006. Douglas Rushkoff, 2003. #147;Open source democracy: How online communication is changing offline politics,#148; at http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/opensourcedemocracy2, accessed 25 April 2006. Dag Svanæs, 1999. - How To Improve. #147;Understanding interactivity: Steps to a phenomenology of human#150;computer interaction,#148; at Quotes On Pinterest Sales, http://www.idi.ntnu.no/ dags/interactivity.pdf, accessed 28 April 2006.

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Paper received 30 April 2006; accepted 17 May 2006. Openness in communication by Jon Hoem. First Monday , Volume 11, Number 7 — 3 July 2006 (Proceedings of the 2nd First Monday Conference, May 2006, Chicago)