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octal 8 my homework My (never complete. ) Tube Tester Collection. (Last updated: 05-Okt-2017 9:43 ) We have done so much, for so long, with so little, we are now qualified to do anything with nothing. Before you read the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, rest. When you are here, you probably are interested in tube testers in some kind of a way.
Same as me! I remember I threw away a shoe box full of used ECC81, many Mullard and Philips, using a defective tester (in 1988) and they tested all in the ? range. Sales Template – 8+ Free Word, Pdf! I didn't have much knowledge about tube testers. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! I thought an old tube tester is like an old multi meter. Not very accurate, but when it works it is probably ok. Later I learned the old tester was indicating too low value for all tubes, and perhaps these tubes were all fine. More later, I learned that almost any old tube tester has a large potential for indicating complete nonsense results. Agreement Template! It is amazing how completely wrong they can read.
You may not notice, and use it 20 years like that, and feel great about it. That is because you have no reference. A voltmeter you can plug into :: Classic :: Vintage Oldsmobile, the mains, or test a battery with it, and you know if it is good. With a tube tester what will you do? You stick unknown tubes in it, and when some are good, and some are bad, it gives satisfaction. Sorry for some of the critical writing here, when it comes to buying tube tester on Ebay. Also for me, there is sometimes no alternative for having to buy there. So I prefer to write about things as they are, and in some cases it is beneficial for all of us, to have good understanding of the (real) habits at Ebay.
My opinion is, Ebay is the most unreliable buying place to Certificate Pdf | Salary buy a tube tester. This page has grown much larger as expected. Please note this: This website is a commercial one, meaning I live from it. I understand you probably have many questions, since you are reading this text for some reason. Still I need to :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile take care of orders first, so I can not answer emails asking for free technical support. Certificate Letter Salary! Not so much because most people don't want to pay for information, I understand that. It is just I don't HAVE the time to take care of this for Car Art you. So for any questions about a broken tester you bought on Ebay, or somewhere else, just post it on Roads Recovery, the Jacmusic tube tester forum.
When I have time, I may even answer it myself perhaps, and like that the information doesn't get lost and :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage, is helpful to all of us. For questions of how to repair a broken tube tester, we advise to use the Tube Testers Forum. After registration first write a normal topic, because only like this we can see you not a spammer. 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template! After this, you are released for free posting. On these pages that follow now, you can read about typical strength and weakness of some tube testers. In case you decide to calibrate your tube tester, that is usually the ONLY GOOD thing to do. Car Art :: Vintage 1955! Feel free to Plan. Template – 8+ Free Pdf ask some advise about it, but please be a gentleman, only ask things you need to know prior to buying the calibration tubes, if you have the intention indeed to buy those. And if you really do, you can just as well ask afterwards. So we try to do it in that order ;)
Why to use a vintage tube tester? The answer is :: Classic Ads :: 1955 simple. Survey. New Customer Survey New Customer! They offer functions new made digital testers do not have. Digital testers suggesting precision. However that is Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile very probably not the case, and 7+ Rental Agreement, not what you need anyway.
What is :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile more important is this: Is the tube still good, and how long will it still last? Modern testers like the AT1000 give no clear answer to that. The tester itself is Survey. Survey Testing a source of unreliability. So fine, you know the plate current is for Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: instance 80%, it says. But 80% of what? Wel. 80% of Agile Design 100% of :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile course.
But was that the question you had? Will you reject this tube, because 80% is Operations-Manual_template not 100%? You and the digital tube tester make a bad team, if neither of you don't know when a tube is bad or not, and this is often the situation. Put the same tube on a Funke W19, and it says. 20mA.
Good starts at 12mA. Look! Now that is clear. :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Put the same tube on a Hickok and it will come very far into Operations-Manual_template, green. Wow. and you were so disappointed about 80% of 100% as the AT1000 told you. Plan59 :: Classic 1955! Such experiences I made many. Or even the (not so) famous AT1000 will say the tube is at 100%, so you are happy. You put in an amplifier and after 10 hours the Sample Free Word, Pdf, speakers say: CRAX%%$.
Well, you better should have passed it through the Car Art :: Vintage, Hickok or AVO leakage test, that would have spotted that leaky electrode. Sample Sales Sales Plan Template – 8+! Or, you dig up some radio tubes from the 1940's and the new made tester -OF COURSE- doesn't have the sockets for it. Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile! Or the settings are missing, which you can -OF COURSE- make yourself, but is that what you wanted? I say no! So all in the end, you must see of a vintage tester as a concentrated amount of experience and usefulnes, made by those old tube guys, and 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, you're buying this experience and comfort along with the old tester. Sorry for Car Art Ads :: 1955 saying this, but the Sample Sales Sales Template – 8+ Free Word, Pdf, lack of experience you get presented with the AT1000 is painful. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! So if Hickok found out exactly this or that setting to reject a 6SN7, you can never replace that by a plate current measurement, not even giving a clear indications if the tube is 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template ok or not.
I have learned to trust a test result from a vintage tester which is a good condition, more than anything else. I have a fully restored Hickok 750. When this tester says: Bad tube, well than that's what it is. At the moment I see many people returning to those good old analog tube testers, and I can understand it. Another compare is :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile with the Reference Letters - Better, uTrace curve tracer. Same situation here. In contrary to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 the AT1000, the uTrace software is constructed with a lot of pride, and Agile Design, so are the results. However, also here, you have to judge for Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile yourself if you like the Customer New Customer New Customer, results or not. The question is, are you really capable of that. I see very often users begin to do funny things, and make mistakes without knowing. Meaning: Replace tubes that are still useful, or define self made very important requirements which are not realistic, and wrong for that reason.
It stays the way it is: There is no replacement for a really fine, vintage tube tester. So I prefer to test a tube with a professional tester, from the period when these tubes were in Plan59 Car Art 1955 daily use. These were made just to say how good the tubes still are, and for me that is often the main question. If the tube is still fine by Plan. Sales Plan Word,, such a tube tester, then transconductance etc suits normal applications. For very old tubes like the 45, or old rectifiers, I prefer an old (but good) tester like for instance the Plan59 :: Classic Oldsmobile, Hickok I-177. Agile Design! It gives me both Gm, and Quality. Whereas the later model TV7, gives only Quality. Very high gain tubes like ECC83 should not be tested on an I-177. Though official settings were created later, the Plan59 Car Art 1955, input signal to this tube is Roads too high. Such high gain tubes didn't exist at the I-177 was designed.
Or, the AVO Mk1. Mk4 are nor suited for tubes with very low plate impedance like the 6080, says the AVO valve manual. So you should not test tubes on a tester, it was not intended for, though it is not impossible. 1) Perhaps this is the best place to advertise our calibration tube set. TUBE TESTER CALIBRATION TUBES. Order Nr: 624-014-55. What you receive:: Guide to tube tester repair and calibration. Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! 45 pages in color.
Binder like a small book, with many hints, color pictures and tips about tube tester calibration. This is New Customer Survey Delta New Customer not available anywhere in the internet. We see someone selling a similar item on Ebay, on DVD for a crazy prices. This material is partially copied from our website. You get it for Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile free with the calibration tubes. Also for sale as a book only. Test Tube1: RCA USA NOS 6L6 Steel can. Original Red box Test Tube2: Russian NOS 6SN7, Original box, or white box Test Tube3: Russian NOS 6SL7, Original box, or white box Test Tube4: Russian SQ NOS 6L6 with 10% heater voltage tolerance, Original blue box.
Leakage test tool. Instructions how to use it, is in the manual Tube curves, color printed, to check your tester at any point you like Quick overview of all test data of those tubes on a plastified card. Customer Survey. New Customer Delta Testing New Customer! Free email support about how to Ads :: 1955 use those tubes. When it is finished, later, we add a free DVD, with all tube tester manuals, as we have on file now (not available yet) 6SL7, 6SN7 and 6L6 RCA are tested on a range of perfect tube testers, and Roads, documented results. 6L6 Russian is complimentary, this tube is to replicate the 6L6 RCA. (Instructions included). So the Russian 6L6 has no test data with it, and the RCA 6L6 is fully tested on all testers. Guide to Plan59 :: Vintage 1955 tube tester repair and calibration. 45 Pages color printed, in binder.
The use of calibration tubes. You can say at every AC Tester, you simply need such a tube for Slip calibration. There is no other way as to take a known tube, and :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955, set the tester's reading for that value. Even so, from Agile Design, Hickok you could even buy them, but that is long ago. Even so if you would find one of those on a flee market, it is not sure if has it's value after 50 years. At Hickok they used the RCA Steel tube 6L6 for this . At AVO they recommend smaller tubes, such as ECC82 or 6SN7. :: Vintage 1955! Also for any DC tester they are a safe ways to verify the Operations-Manual_template, tester with a range of tubes, and check at several operating points. Also important it to check the Plan59 Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, leakage function of your tube tester, you need the leakage test tool. First the tester must be able to detect leakage in a reliable and 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, predictable way. Then, if this function is verified, it also proves the deck with the sockets is not leaky, since any problem here would false any test result. Where are you now?
Most tube collectors have a tube tester, that was not serviced for Plan59 Car Art 50 years. Those testers that have serviceable parts inside, are likely to be off calibration in a terrible way, it shouldn't come as a surprise. If the tester was stored in a basement or a garage for Template Words the last 30 years, the components usually suffer from this very much. Capacitors have gone leaky and Plan59, carbon resistors have internal cracks, and higher resistance resulting from this. This condition is Letters - Better Roads where most tube tester are in, specially the Ebay ones. However most things inside the tester can be repaired professionally as long as the basic material is Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: good. With this I mean the meter, the transformer, and wiring. 7+ Rental Format | Survey Words! With an unknown condition tester comes first VERIFICATION, which means you check a tubes with known values, and the tester should reproduce this within it's specified tolerance.
Then, normally you find larger deviation than that, and you can do a calibration attempt. This means you calibrate the Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, tester with a known tube. Customer New Customer Survey Delta Testing New Customer! After this, some other types of known tubes should also indicate correctly, which is not necessarily the case. If you calibrate the tester for Plan59 :: Vintage a 6L6, next you need to try if it works well with a know 6SN7, and then 6922. So this is what the calibration tubes are for. Suppose you find out then, your tester has some deviation even after calibration, you can still decide if you want to keep it, or repair it. The the tube calibration set we sell, has following contents:
A supreme quality METAL CAN 6L6, NOS RCA . It was exactly this type of tube, that was for 7+ Rental Agreement | Survey Template Words sale by Hickok, long ago. This tube you should use only short, to Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile prevent burn in, and so it will hold it's correct data always. This tube is measured under exact specifications, on four different tube testers, all values you get printed on paper. The average is calculated, and printed on the tube. This is the reference tube of the calibration set.
A supreme Quality Russian 6L6, of a type made for instruments. (Page1- Page2). From this tube, you make a replica of your reference tube. New Customer Delta Testing New Customer! It is explained in the calibration manual how to do this. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955! This tube you can use for as long as you want, and simply re-calibrate it yourself from time to time, using the RCA METAL CAN reference tube. Then put the RCA tube to rest again. A Russian 6SN7 also intended for instruments A USA 6922 with military specification. The 6SN7 and 6922 are double triodes, so we have a total of five tube systems that are exactly measured, on four different tube testers, in different ways. 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template! The tube testers used for this are the best we have, and some are described below here in the restoration reports. The results we measure, must repeat on any good tube tester of the same kind. For instance if the :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, 6L6 you get, has a transconductance of 5700 on a Hickok, then your Hickok must indicate just this.
Deviation max 5%. Also in the case your tester reads 5400 only Reference - Better Recovery you know now, it tends to indicate lower than normal, and Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads ::, you can work around nicely with that. A simulator for various kind of leakage belongs to this tube set. New Customer Survey! This is has known resistors inside. Your tube tester must identify this correctly as leaky or shorted tubes. The values are chosen such that the neon lamp of your tester will shown three conditions: just on, just off and burn very bright.
You have to check for all three conditions. (more information about Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, this product here) Remember heater to cathode leakage is the #1 cause of tube hum for tubes that test good for the rest of it. So you sure want the tester to be reliable on this point. Individual tube curves of the Steel can RCA 6L6, the 6SN7 and t he 6922. So you can check your tester at any operating point you like, any tube you need, and from the curves even derive the transconductance at a random operating point by Agile Design, this formula: Gm= (Ua1-Ua2) / (Ia2-Ia1) Quick overview of Car Art all test data of those tubes, on a plastified card. A 17 page handbook with a description and some hints how to use the materials, and data sheets etc. This allows you to check the tube tester at any random operating point you choose.
Customer feedback from Sweden, for the calibrated tube set (Dec 2009): Now i could verify with the 6P3C (6L6) and Agile Design, the value was : Ia 75 and S 5.7 I got Ia 74 and S 5.8 That's AMAZING. Also checked the Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, Anode voltage by A1 and Sales Word,, ground when testing the 6922, i try to put in on 90V and on my RMS multi meter it was 89,7. So I'm very satisfied. THX to i i sold my AVO mk4 for the L3-3. I will always THANK u for that. Mine was calibrated in Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile Ukraine, and i tried so hard to get instruction but i give up due to language circumstances. * * Scroll down to read about tube testers! * * 2) FOR SALE ITEMS. TUBE TESTERS FOR SALE. I am selling off some testers from my collection to free some space. Once these are gone, I will have not others for sale.
Please do not email that you have seen one cheaper somewhere on Ebay, then you must buy that one. For sale here are not the cheapest testers, but very good testers with all repairs and adjustments done. Actually with Ebay prices going crazy, without logical reason, it can also be that you have to pay more at Ebay for a tester sold as is Roads Recovery as for a good one here. On Ebay, with tuber testers relation between price and quality is random. Price is determined by the highest bidder getting into this I must have it irrational mode, and by :: Classic 1955, the optical appearance.
Not by the electrical condition of the Plan. Template Free Pdf, tester. :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! For instance I have been looking over 12 years to buy a SOFIA. On the Sales Sales Plan Template Word, Pdf, other hand I see useless tube checkers sell for Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile 300 Euro, which is 250 Euro too much. (like this one here) This meter is ideal for calibrating tube testers, when you need a precise indication of MEAN Value for voltage or current, and it has to Letter Salary Slip be tested with an analog meter giving load to the circuit. Many digital meters are RMS or mean value is Plan59 Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile simulated electrically.
Wheras needle meters just produce the real mean value naturally. So you can often not use a digital meter for 96 Bdc calibration of old equipment. This meter is in 100% good condition, all ranges are in within specs. The inside meter is a jewel! This is a 50uA Taut band meter. So the type that has no friction and can hardly damage from overload.
Such multi meters with taut band are NOT MADE ANY MORE, people don't even know what it is. A tout band panel meter is :: Classic Car Art more precise than a diamond bearing meter, and it has no friction. So for precise scale reading a tout band is the finest panel meter possible. Survey. New Customer Testing! So yes, build the BEST multi meter requires a tout band. Even the loose panel meter when good, is worth minimum 50 Euro. Radio amateurs use such restore SWR meters. I have calibrated the Plan59 :: Vintage Ads ::, internal meter for Agile Design exactly 50uA, and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads ::, it came out perfect.
The good thing is, this multi meter has a direct mode. When you set it to 50uA, there is only the panel meter itself connected to the outside world. 8+ Salary Letter Salary! So when you serialize it in :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile the 50uA position with a 30uA AVO panel meter, you know exactly what you are doing. Also it can be used to do the mains voltage calibration, grid voltage adjustment of AVO, and some other measurement that require an analog multi meter with exact mean value indication. Specially with the funny current wave shape of tube testers, you should better not use a digital meter for that. The battery is a strange type, but when you take a apart a 3V Photo battery, two batteries of the right dimensions come out. I have done so, and you get two new, long life batteries with it. Survey. Testing! Not pictured, but also added is a metal case.
The case is from another meter, but it fits exactly, and is very nice condition too. The manufacturer is MTM Mellenbach Germany, they still exist. Specifications in German are on the back. You can also test high voltage capacitors with it, using the 220 Volts mains as a voltage source.That is why you have four connectors at :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile the top. Survey New Customer! It works, I tested it, but I recommend not to play with this. When you make a mistake.. it's the mains voltage, I think you should not use this for testing of capacitors directly. But, I did so, and it works even very nice. Price is 100 Euro without VAT tax for export, and 119 Euro with 19% VAT tax (19 Euro) included.
Moreover, this is simply a wonderful and Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile, nice tester on your bench, for Agile Design daily work. Very hard to find in such nice condition, inside all things are fine. Bakelite case is like new. I will be selling off more items before I retire. This is Plan59 :: Vintage just one of Sample Plan. Plan Template Pdf them. 3) How to test tubes, on various testers. Who didn't read this before on Ebay: These tubes all test GOOD on my TC1 Tester. Wonderful, that makes them more expensive. Right?
Well, it's better than nothing, but that's about it. Because, what I personally would like to know for HiFi, is this: What lifetime is left in the tube? How close are they to Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile the original factory data? What about good Vacuum, good isolation? Keep apart the categories of the tubes to test. Operations-Manual_template! These are: Rectifiers. :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile! These are generally hard to test, at Sales Sales Template – 8+ Pdf any tester which will not put the tube under FULL load. There is no replacement for FULL LOAD, no exceptions, forget the patented trick circuits. So full load is for instance 250mA for Plan59 :: Vintage Oldsmobile a 5U4G tube.
It has to give this DC output current without loosing too much voltage, nothing more and nothing less. Small signal tubes. Pdf | Salary Slip! Here the question is: Is the bias current correct? Only then it will bias correct in the amplifier, and only then it can give the right amplification at little distortion. :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Another way is to Letter Salary Slip test the transconductance, which is a pretty safe way to say something about the use condition. There is :: Classic Car Art Ads :: one dangerous assumption, that is this: The tube was biasing good when new, and transconductance was good when new. So now when you test the tube, and transconductance is Reference Letters Roads good, THEN bias is assumed to :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 be good also. Agile Design! (this is an assumption only, and Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, will not be true in all cases).
So a 100% reliable test gives bias current at standard test conditions, and transconductance at those conditions. Note, many tube testers use home brew test conditions, like Hickok. This is Letters Recovery works in most case, but is not ideal. Power signal Pentodes. They must be able to draw full plate current, and otherwise can not supply full output power. So you have to TEST those AT full plate current, and nothing else.
Set the plate 100V above the grid, so you test them quite independent of the plate voltage drop which you get. Power signal Triodes. These are the hardest to test. They have very low impedance, which conflicts with the impedance of the tester. Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! Hickok recognizes this by leaving out the 300B from most roll charts. Ok, this is honest. The problem comes, when you want to know the quality of a used tube. 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template! There was never a general method published for this by any tube manufacturer. This was always left up to manufacturers of tube testers. So. it means: Many tube testers, many methods.
4) Digital Testers. I own a few digital testers myself, and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile, it is a category for themself. Certificate Letter Pdf | Salary! You need to make the Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955, right considerations, before decide for or against Sample Plan. Plan a digital tester. Let me list up some of the :: Classic :: Vintage Oldsmobile, advantages and disadvantages here. 1) The so called inter-electrode isolation testing, needs many switches inside, and not just any switch, but preferably a ceramic switch, as found inside the Sample Plan. Template – 8+ Pdf, Russian L3-3. With digital testers, this is always a weakness.
Either the many hand operated switches are simple left out, or if done with relays, there are simply not enough of those inside. Actually I know of Car Art 1955 no digital tester that can do inter electrode testing between all pins of any tube. Some can do cathode to heater leakage, and 8+ Salary Certificate Slip, that's it. Measuring grid current in uA, some can do, but measuring grid leakage in Mega Ohms relative to all other pins, that is missing with all digital testers. The beautiful way this is done with the AVO Testers, differentiating even between hot an cold condition is an example of Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: mature product design. Agile Design! Alone the analog circuit that is Plan59 Ads :: behind this would be extremely hard to reproduce digital, as it works with a high AC Voltage + very high resistor in series. This is is the Customer Survey. New Customer Delta Testing New Customer, ultimate way that can even detect corona leakage. Note, the inter-electrode isolation testing gets more important for the future. We will be dealing more often with older historical tubes. I mean each decade, the average age of those will be 10 years more, and Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, time will make isolation less good. Also, we will be dealing more with new made tubes.
The error rate with inter-electrode failures, is 8+ Salary Certificate Letter Slip much higher as with historical tubes. Chinese tubes have a bad reputation for :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile this. Letters - Better Roads! Inter-electrode resistance is very high in Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 general, but many failures. So when you test 100 Chinese KT88, you have a pretty good change to find a few bad ones. These probably work in Survey Delta an amplifier, but they do have some tolerance errors.
Whereas with Russian tubes the error rate is Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile lower, but generally the leakage by itself is Certificate Slip higher, and :: Vintage Oldsmobile, the trend for newer production is Agile Design not good. :: Vintage 1955! So either way, this function gets more important. With the Agile Design, AVO testers, due to the highly intelligent test circuit, even electron emission of the heater itself without plate voltage can be measured this way. Though this is not described in Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile the AVO manual as a measurement, it is said at 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template least at which settings this is indicated. Real specialists will study this option, and learn to estimate it. It is an illusion to find this ever in a digital tester. 2) Tube sockets. Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::! Have a look at the test deck of a AVO Mk1/ Mk2.
4, and you have a feeling of what possible sockets one may need. The test book of AVO is filled with hundreds of pages test settings in 96 Bdc small printing. The value of this database is enormously. The database of the digital Amplitrex AT1000 would compare to just 6 pages of the AVO manual (and it has hundreds.). And even that limited database fills the Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, internal digital memory until it becomes too full. Besides it has no full possibility to Sample Sales Plan. Sales Template – 8+ Pdf connect to any tube pin. So even though the tester has an octal socket, it can not test all of the tubes. Not so with AVO or Funke. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile! Just take any tube -whatever- and you have the socket, you can connect it any way you need, and you have the settings in the book.
This uncompromisingly completeness is an Reference Letters Roads illusion with new made testers, as far as I write this text today. 3) Overload / Shorts protection. Lets say it like this: You give ma a digital tester, and I will destroy it for you in two minutes by wrong settings, or using shorted tubes. Ads ::! With a good analog tester that becomes a lot harder to do, but of Reference Roads course it is possible as well. 4) Hardware and Software aging. A particular digital tester is always nice for Ads :: 1955 the moment, but sooner as you expect, the technology gets old, and repairs may become nasty or impossible.
I am pretty sure, you can still buy the semiconductors inside, when we talk about transistors or most ICs. But the first version single chip microprocessors of the AT1000 is Sales Sales Free Pdf already obsolete. So you better not to get a problem with that part. If the tester needs installation of a program, on your PC, Microsoft always tries to make your old software obsolete. So you buy now a digital tester, and :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, the,maker says it will install under all versions of 7+ Rental Template Windows? How can they guarantee the future Windows versions will install the software? Reality is, in 10 years you can only :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile run it on antique Windows computer, because Windows25 or whatever the version 10 years later, will refuse older programs to install. We have that now with the Sofia digital tester, which hardware and software COULD run under Windows, but just Microsoft does not allow this option. This can not be said often enough. Older versions of the AT1000, have an RS232 port only, and an obsolete microprocessor inside.
Do not think any RS232 Card will install on any PC. Letters - Better! It doesn't. RS232 is old and there is Plan59 Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile little support. The RS232 port trouble I had with Windows 7, was a first taste of the future issues. Note, the AT1000 software is written in virtual basic, which is always some version, and I can assure you, the version is as old as can be. So if some day, the Microsoft Gods decide you need version xy to be allowed to install it on Windows 25, the game could be over for Certificate Letter your AT1000. Since I have seen this happening so far always, and with everything, for me this is something that is going to happen. The strongest weapon of course is Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile good software support.
Well, for that you can read that part of my experience here. 5) Voltage, Current. 7+ Rental Agreement! Make sure, the digital tester can do the same as a good analog tester. Can it heat 20Volt tubes? Can it do -150V on the grid? Can it supply 500V plate? How about the screen? Can it do 250mA plate current? Can it heat power tubes with 50 Watt?
Can it measure 0.5uA leakage? Can it measure 10 Mega Ohms leakage resistance (Are you sure??). Is the leakage tested under high voltage? In both directions, as will naturally occur when you test with AC? Can it test any heavy rectifier under real load conditions? Can it also test the 1mA rectifier of your radio detector circuit? Can it test Voltage regulator tubes? Can it pentodes triode-connected? Can it test the oscillator-mixer tube of your radio? Can it test magic eyes? I hope I forgot nothing here.
WIth a very good analog tester, the answer is yes to all of those questions. 6) Good-bad indication. So far I see all digital testers with this shortcoming, they do not tell you when a tube is bad. That is because the Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage, writers of the software, either do not know how to test for that, or do not have the time and resources to test thousands of known to be good and know to be bad tubes. You do get a precise number of transconductance. Then you say, fine, but is the tube good or bad? You still don't know. 96 Bdc! This is :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile where the good old Funke W19 is my top favorite, but sure also the Hickoks. Compared to Sample Sales Plan. Sales – 8+ Free the Hickok however the Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, Funke W19 uses FULL plate dissipation, which gives me a better feeling. So all digital testers seem to be missing this #1 feature of a tube tester. They do not tell you if the 7+ Rental Agreement | Survey, tube is good or bad.
7) Precision . Of course digital testers are the Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile, winner here. Keep in mind though want is Customer Testing a need and what is a want. So you want 0.5% precision, but do you need it? You can only answer that for yourself. For me, what I often need are all other points above, and precision is only needed relative. So if you need to match a pair, it doesn't matter much if that is done on a +15% accuracy tester. As long as you read the needle well, the matching of one tube to the other is still 1% or so. Conclusion : The good old analog testers have a good justification to excists still today. Plan59 Oldsmobile! Of course digital testes are something very nice.
Compare of digital testers. Here are some ways to test a tube. 1) Plug in a brand new tube in your amplifier, and Certificate Pdf | Slip, see if the function improves. This result can't be denied! This method was used by many service technicians! The tube manufacturers had special cases for that for service man, with a collection of new tubes, one of each.
If you have no other way, take this way! It is a very good one. 2) Measuring DC plate current is a good thing because it is realistic, and it's hard for the tube. This is no job for a low cost, or also not for Car Art a patented tester. There is Agile Design nothing to Car Art :: Vintage 1955 patent on a normal, straight forward DC parametric tester, and this is the ONLY 100% safe way for power tubes.
So once the tester has patents in it . I get this no no feeling. For instance the ECC801S / 6201 is supposed to give 10mA at 250Volt plate, and the specific grid voltages for this tube. It is good when not higher than 14mA and not lower than 7mA. That's from the original Telefunken Data sheet (can be found at the tech-corner of this web site). The end-of-life is Pdf | Slip below 6mA, or when the original value it had when it was new, has lost 40%.
Now that is :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile a very clear specification :) So of course THIS is Reference Letters - Better Roads what you like to verify, and Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, the very moment the tester has a patent, it means it is NOT testing this way. I know if no testers that are an exceptions to this. Sample Plan. Sales Plan Free Word,! So, also not AVO because they are patented too. The patent means they measure in clever way, and that is just not the normal way. The GE Data sheet of the KT66 simply says below what current the tube is bad.
Unfortunately these are the Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, good exceptions, and most tube manufacturers avoided that question like monkey plague. When measuring real DC plate current, you need very precise and heavy electronics, these tube testers are expensive, and Reference Letters - Better Roads Recovery, may need calibration or periodically verification of the tester. In the instruments world the definition about calibration and verification is a reversed one. Please take good note of this. It means when specified NOTHING, the instruments needs yearly calibration. If it says it needs a calibration every five years, then this counts instead. So no information = Yearly calibration. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::! This the way the world of instruments is defined. New Customer Testing! So if your tube tester is from 1965, nothing is Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile written about Reference Letters Roads, calibration in the manual, and it was never checked ever since, FORGET the results.
It missed the calibration every year ever since 1966. Verification is a process which must be specifically ALLOWED by the instruction manual. So when not mentioned, it is no good way to test this tester. Verification means you compare the result to a know tube, and :: Classic, when ok, the tester is ok. 7+ Rental Words! VERY FEW tube testers are so good they can be checked that way. For instance Funke W19 can be checked that way. When is Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: a tube good or bad? Generally it can be said a tube is bad when the original plate current is below 70% of the initial value for European tubes, and below 60% for 96 Bdc USA tubes. So this is not 60% from the Data sheet 100% value, but 60% from the initial value.
The initial value may have been lower than the 100% value or higher. Hard to say what the :: Classic Ads :: 1955, initial value was after many years. Agile Design! The best is always to mark it on the tube. Otherwise you have a dirty method here. To give an example: a tube has for :: Classic :: Vintage instance a 100% Value of 100mA, by the Data sheet Suppose the initial value of YOUR tube was 70mA, when it was new. A European tube may drop down to 70% of that, so 49mA and is still good. But. suppose the initial value was 140mA, then 70% of that is Letters Roads 98mA. Below that the tube is worn out!
So you see how important the initial value is. Always mark it on a new tube when you know the value. Has the initial value got lost, you have to guess it. So quality tubes have the initial value written on Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, the box. 3) Measuring Transconductance is good, because you can construct good tube testers, with little electronics, and get useful results from that. These often need no or little calibration, or just verification. Reference Letters! So verification requires a calibrated tube, or another tester of the same kind to compare the results. Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile! However. Testers that measure transconductance with little electronics are not never accurate with ALL tubes, and that's per definition. So the Agile Design, Hickoks are typically calibrated with a 6L6, and you can fully trust the readings with any kind of Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: similar tube, like KT66 or KT88. However they are not capable of testing tubes like 2A3 or 300B under real life conditions.
These re 5000 micromho tubes, but on the Hickoks they give only 3000 micromho. If they do on a Hickok, they're fine. In real life such tubes are bad. So you see my problem I have with any patented tester whatsoever. What is 7+ Rental Agreement | Survey Template not so good, with Transconductance only Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955 testers, is the unknown DC conditions for the tube under test.
I have many Hickoks, and I find that a bad tube on by those testers is definitely bad. These tester makes no mistakes with that. But how it came to that conclusion is unknown. If you do not want to know why a tube is bad, but you are only interested if it needs a replacement, a Hickok is THE tester. The ideal way to Letters - Better measure transconductance is with an AC (audio) Test signal, and Car Art :: Vintage, adjustable DC and Certificate Letter, original Data sheet settings to :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 go with it. Operations-Manual_template! Very very few testers work like this. Almost every tester has i it's own way to avoid this. :: Classic :: Vintage 1955! Reason is, as said before, expensive electronics. Some very good testers however, are the higher class Hickok testers.
These perform a real transconductance measurement, with a (known) Grid bias voltage, put a known AC signal on Certificate Pdf | Salary Slip, the grid, and from that measure the real AC plate current. Do keep in mind ALL Hickoks work with AC wave shapes, that represent equivalent DC voltages, and :: Classic Oldsmobile, this limits the precision, no matter what you try or do. Operations-Manual_template! A better method for this, is not using the mains voltage a signal, but a higher frequency from an oscillator. Why is that? You may say you can also measure transconductance at Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile 50 or 60Hz also? The answer is: No you can not measure that precisely at the mains frequency. Reason is, if the tube is humming (so it has a defect) the hum signal will be a part of the plate signal. So such the Agreement Format Words, tube will read better than it is.
The Russian L3-3 uses a 1400 Hz sine wave at the input of the Plan59 Ads :: 1955, tube, and a 1400 Hz selective Voltmeter. This is in fact a very band pass filter. So any signal coming from the mains, also harmonics of that, will be rejected. Also distortion and Certificate Pdf | Salary Slip, white noise of the tube is Plan59 Car Art not added to the result, since only 1400 Hz is Sample Sales Sales Plan – 8+ Free Pdf measured, within a few Hz only. The second harmonics is 2800 Hz, and filtered out. This method is the one and only true measurement of transconductance. I found almost no tester that can accurately measure the transconductance of larger directly heated power tubes like 2A3 or 300B. The testers I have, so far the only one that produces an EXACT and fully correct reading is the Russian L3-3. All other analog testers produce values that are quite imprecise. Also the great and highly valued AVO Mk4 doesn't come near.
Wisely they left out the 300B of the AVO manual. Plan59 :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile! Also most Hickok roll chart avoid mentioning the 300B. I found out the reason for Sample Sales Plan. Sales Plan Template – 8+ Free Word, that, is the too low plate resistance of :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile those tubes. Agile Design! There is a hint about Plan59 :: Vintage, that in the AVO manual, but this hint is written in Survey Delta New Customer such a way that you will not understand the real meaning of Ads :: it. What they mean at AVO is: Forget the Customer New Customer Survey, results for all tubes with low Rp. The Hickoks also can't measure such tubes accurately if you ask me. Those Hickok testers that can't do it, also don't have the 300B in the manual. If you do test it, by simply put it in 2A3 and set the Plan59 :: Vintage Ads ::, filament to Operations-Manual_template 5V, you get wrong results. So it will read 3000 micro mho for a tube that has 5500.
Also for Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile your 2A3. But. who knows the 7+ Rental Format | Survey Template Words, real Gm of a 2A3 before testing it . So nobody finds out, and nobody will complain. The digital tube testers AT1000 ( we have three) is good, but the L3-3 is better. Just not as convenient, and the AT1000 software is a bit crude. The Sofia software is extremely delicate, like you can point with the mouse at Car Art :: Vintage any position of the a curve, and you get the three main parameters in Operations-Manual_template one window, for that particular point. (G,.
Rp and gain). Well for me, the L3-3 beats any tube tester I have worked with. 4) Load Testers. With this test, any tube is connected as a diode, and Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile, it is tested how much current the diode can make flow through a load resistor. Sample Sales Plan – 8+ Word, Pdf! These testers can be build almost without electronics at all. So in Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile a minimum version, inside you'll see only wires, one resistor and a transformer. They're cheap to make and easy to Letter Slip use. With nothing inside, nothing can get defective. Most radio and Plan59, TV repair men had them. Survey. Delta Testing New Customer! These can find a bad tube quickly, but say nothing about expected lifetime.
So it told you what tube to Plan59 Ads :: replace to get your TV working. 7+ Rental Format | Survey Template! These do pick out bad tubes. So if that's all you want to know, this kind of tester what you need. :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Actually some of those CAN be really good, but these are very very few only, and most of them are toys only. Specially the often seen Lafayette, and clones called like TC-02 etc, let pass bad tubes too easy. Click here to read about the accuracy of a Funke W19 tube tester. SHORT OVERVIEW OF TUBE TESTER FEATURES IN EXEL FORMAT: - CLICK HERE. “The point in question now is whether the emission or transconductance test is the best.
This is determined in part by Format Template Words, the circuit in which the tube is to be used, in Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile case of an | Survey RF or IF amplifier tubes, the stage gain is proportional to the transconductance; this the Gm test is the most important. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955! In case if an output or power rectifier tube, it must be capable of supplying large amounts of current; here the Agreement Format, emission test is the most important” From: Fine Points of Tube Testing. by William F. Burke, Consulting Editor, which appeared in the 1958 Test Equipment Manual. 6) About Tester accuracy and errors. There four ways to deal with errors 1 ) Prevent errors, by thinking ahead.
2) Learn from other peoples errors. 3) Learn from you own errors. 4) Not learn from errors, regardless who makes them. Warning : A tube tester is an instrument, but many cheap stuff was sold as instruments, to users that never found out about it. So in a way everybody was happy.
On Ebay I see people outbid each other for :: Classic Ads :: testers with new appearance, sometimes NOS and in their original box. Prices of Letter Salary 300 Euro I see are becoming normal. This is so amazing, because such testers only tell you if a tube is Plan59 :: Vintage 1955 broken or not. This is funny : When somebody offers such a tester as you see here on the left, all the seller needs to do, is picture it with a shiny new EL34 Telefunken, the needle nicely in the green, and everybody thinks: Wow! That is what I need! Only they forget there is no use in the reading, or even the reading wrong. So a good tube can come out bad, or vice versa.
But. suppose you have a broken tube in your amplifier. Hey, it means your amplifier doesn't work. That should be clear. Do you need a tube tester to understand what tube is the problem? Well ok, then this is the tester you need. If you want to use this tester to Sales Plan Template – 8+ Word, separate the good tubes from the less good ones, forget about that. A good tube comes somewhere in the green. :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! Just somewhere. And no, such testers do not give a relation between the reading and the tube quality.
No matter how much you hope for that. Certificate Letter Salary! There is Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile almost nothing inside, three resistors and a miniature transformer. You see, real tube testers just don't work that way. Also if some people are outbidding each other on Ebay, that doesn't mean the highest bidder is the 7+ Rental, smartest. Only seller is smart :) Value: 150 Euro, because always some fool buys them on Ebay for 300 Euro.
Value for your private museum: 25 Euro. Here is a link the page about tube tester accuracy. You should also try the link there to MIT professor Lewis's youtube video about Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile, accuracy of measurements. Part of his lectures were even broadcast on Recovery, TV. This young man is :: Classic Car Art Professor Dr. Barkhausen.
He introduced in 1918 a way to put the tube parameters into Reference Letters - Better Roads, a convenient formula similar to ohm's law. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage! Originally this behavior of Sales Template – 8+ Word, tubes was discovered in 1914 by :: Vintage, a man named van der Bijl, who worked for Western Electric. Letter! Not knowing tubes would revolution the Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage, world, they did not follow up on it. S = Transconductance (G) Ri = Plate impedance. 7) Meter Protection. Actually I didn't have a good place for this item, so I have put it here. There is great misunderstanding about panel meter protection. I guess because we all think this is so easy to Agile Design do. I mean just two diodes, and a capacitor, and you're done. But. are you really?
I have seen so many wrecked up meters from Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, overload, somehow the protection is 7+ Rental | Survey Template not working well. We have to :: Classic Ads :: 1955 see there are some kinds overload. The first is too much steady current. Plan Free! This is specified by the panel meter company, and it's usually a factor 10 or so. The other is Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile how much mechanical energy can the poor coil can absorb when the needle it is hammered violently in the corner. That is probably also a factor 20 or so, but there is no specification for that anywhere, but this is the damaging factor most of the time. The damage can be a bended needle and coil deformation. A bended needle is a problem for Agile Design multi scale meters, as you can not zero this away for both scales. :: Classic Car Art! So when it is at zero for Letters - Better Roads the outside scale, the meter is not at zero for the inside scale. The larger Hickoks have five or more scales, and :: Classic :: Vintage, the AVO's have two. 8+ Salary Slip! Another problem with a bended needle, is the balancing weights of the needle are now at the wrong position.
That is a big problem when the meter is Plan59 Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile not horizontal, and can causes an errors of 10% at some positions of the scale. The damage is 96 Bdc also deformation of the coil, when the needles hat hit the corner violently. This deformation can be seen easily when you remove the :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, coil, and in a lucky case it can be corrected. If not, you end up with meter unlinearity. So how to protect the coil.
In the AVO-8 multi meter I saw a system with a mechanical sensor, sensing the needle comes out of it's range, and via a pre-loaded spring and a clever mechanism, it switches a contact that interrupts the meter coil. So you have to press reset again, also you pre-load the Plan. Plan Template Word, Pdf, spring by this. Though very many AVO-8 have a deformed coil, that system seems to Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile have it limitations too, but probably also saves many of the meters. Another method is a capacitor over the meter. This works quite good, but the meter gets slow from it, and you loose a typical advantage of course an Letter Salary analog meter has. So add just a small cap is a good idea. By itself not a problem, when the meter has little friction. If it does have friction, the capacitor makes the meter reaches it's final position not always very good. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::! The last millimeter it needs to move, it gets sort of stuck in the friction, wheras without capacitor that doesn't seem to Reference - Better Roads Recovery happen so quickly. So a capacitor is a good thing to Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile protect a good quality meter.
Now, I see most of the Sample Plan. Template – 8+ Word,, time electrolytic capacitors, but these tend to develop a very high series resistance. This is not from drying up, as the sulphuric acid inside attracts water anyway. The failure cause is, the 100milivolt over Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile the meter coil is not enough to maintain the capacitor's formatting, and they just end up with leakage, and too high internal resistance at the same time. Some Hickoks I have seen with a foil capacitor over the meter, and that's a lot better. In case you want to use a foil cap, they could be something like 5. 10uF and today their size is really reasonable. If you do not want to change the vintage look of the 8+ Salary Salary Slip, inside electronics, a nice solution is also a so called Hermetic Sealed Wet Tantalum Capacitor. These are hardly made any more today, but any used or NOS is fine.
These are electrolytic caps that last for ever, and do not get leaky or high impedance from storage. (The green picture here, are such caps) Use of protection diodes. Plan59 :: Classic Ads ::! Of course you want low forward voltage diodes, and you probably think Germanium diodes are superior. Well most of the time they are not. Reason is, Germanium diodes have one very curious property that silicon doesn't have. 7+ Rental | Survey Template Words! Germanium diodes have no forward voltage at which they begin to operate. If you put a Silicon diode on a curve tracer, it begins to :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 conduct somewhere around 0.6 Volts, we all know that. Below that, let's say at 300mV, the Sample Plan. Template Free Pdf, diode is just not there. Oldsmobile! It is Recovery a capacitor, and Plan59 :: Vintage, that's all. Customer Survey. Survey Delta Testing! The Germanium diode however stays a diode below 300mV, and below 100mV, or 1mV or not matter how low you go.
Always the Germanium diode is better in forward direction as in reverse direction. It's a pretty bad diode at 1mV, so with lots of series resistance, but. it's still there. This is why a crystal receiver can rectify signals of just a few mV. Not with high effiency, but it can. You can never do that with a silicon diode. However at voltages that would damage a panel meter, silicon can also be used. Suppose you want to protect a panel meter of 50uA and 4K resistance, which are normal values for such a meter. That would be 200mV full scale. So a Silicon diode will protect it with a factor 3, so anything above 150uA (=600mV) ) will go into the diodes. At normal use, so 50uA, that will be only 200mV and the Silicon diode will not respond to that whatsoever.
Whereas a Germanium diode will respond to 200mV with some current. (Both forward, and reverse current). Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! Also a Germanium diode will respond to 100mV and to Agreement Format | Survey 10mV. This is the reason, you see silicon diodes protecting very sensitive meters, and Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, not Germanium. Now, why do they use power diodes for that, like these really big 4 Amps diodes in Letters Roads AVO tube testers, or like the 1N5401 in the Unigor multi meters. Why not these little tiny ones like 1N4148, that are made for low current?
Well. suppose you connect one 1N4148 to a voltage of 600mV and Plan59 :: Classic Oldsmobile, it pulls 1mA. Just suppose. What happens if you put 10 in parallel? They will draw 10mA. Plan. Plan Template Word, Pdf! And 1000 in parallel will draw 1Ampere from 600mV. Now larger size diodes are nothing but a larger chip.
So a 4 Amps diode pulls significantly more current from 600mV as a 1N4148. So for circuit protection, the larger the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, diode, the better it responds to Letter Pdf | Salary Slip low voltage. So a capacitor and a pair of anti parallel Silicon Power diodes is the best protection network for very sensitive meters. 8) Buying advice. Have you already been cheated with a tube tester on Ebay? Welcome to the club! Ebay is not a good place to Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile buy a tube tester. New Customer Survey Delta New Customer! When prices are rocketing, there is too much interest to Plan59 Ads :: buy whatever is for sale. - Better! In this market, nobody will sell a good working, reliable tube tester of the kind everybody needs.
He would keep it, just because he needs it, they are hard to find, and prices go up anyway. That is Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile why they are so hard to find in good condition. What is for sales is the whole category of testers that are of little practical use, or seem impossible to calibrate, or have repairs coming up, have fungus inside, or other reasons, to dump them on Ebay. So d on't believe you're going to be the lucky guy, paying only a low price for a fine tester. Also don't think worst case you get one that you will able to Letters Recovery fix with a multi meter and some basic knowledge. People buy them, try them out, find the problem, and the problem is always very difficult. I have lost of negative experience on Ebay. You will hardly ever find a tester that you can repair elegantly. I thought so myself too, but that was a long time ago. Typical problems are always hard.
Like partially shorted transformers, bad panel meters, none repairable switches for Funke and :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, Neuberger. All kind of Agile Design things that were impossible fix by the previous owner makes the :: Classic 1955, thing land on 96 Bdc, Ebay. The seller always tries to appear the untechnical Mr. nice guy, so he wants to put you in Plan59 Oldsmobile the lucky position. Then when you find out he sold you a piece of junk , he is Operations-Manual_template has all excuses already prepared. The Ebay text was formulated with great care, and in Car Art :: Vintage 1955 the you end up as the unlucky guy.
Reality is often, the seller has been trying like mad to get it fixed, and gave up on it. Gave it to technical friends who damaged it further, and whatever they did, it was not a repair. Operations-Manual_template! With the crazy prices on Ebay, he just sells it, and :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, buys another one for the same money. WIth a few tries he can be lucky. So he can't go wrong.
And nooo. I am not paranoia. I talk about my experience here. You have to read those Ebay adds with a sharp eye for detail. Agile Design! Just look at the above picture. What animals do you see there? A cat and Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile, a mouse? No sir. 7+ Rental Template! It's a cat and Ads :: 1955, a hamster. Here are the observations I made: SO WHERE DO I GET MY TUBE TESTERS FROM?
I get them from Agreement Format, people I know, and for the rest of it, I am not buying from strangers unless cheap. When buying on Ebay, I only take sellers with 100% positive, and I make the proposal I can try it out, and when the thing is not as described, I can send it back. When the usual story comes about we sell it as is, then be prepared for technical issues. So just walk away, or pay 50% only. What would you say when you get offered a 12 years old car, from somebodies uncle, who just died, the car is probably good of course.
The nephew had no option to test it, it was just rusting in Plan59 1955 Oldsmobile the garage. And no, you can not see the Recovery, car first, and not drive it first. You get pictures only, no guarantee, no return, and payment in advance. Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! This alarm bell, you should have with a tube tester also. Some very popular vintage testers. 9) Tube testers collection. Having the AMPLITREX AT1000 is having the best we can get, and technologic advantage is what makes our company attractive for 96 Bdc customers.
So we always use best instruments we can buy. :: Classic Car Art Ads ::! If not, we 100% restore an old one. (see Restoration report about Funke W19 we use, and two Kali br L3-3 under tube testers) : This testers is, right as I say, the Recovery, best we can buy, though I think it is not a very good tester by Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955, itself. It is a reasonable product, and it does what more or less what I want now, after I have learned to work around it's many issues and compromises. It can not beat my 1995 Sofia tester. RISKS . As far as I recall, the Amplitrex 1000 has been introduced in Agile Design 2004.
I waited a while buying it, just to make sure I didn't buy early versions of it. Though buying the later versions, I found several issues myself. VALUE . The item is expensive, and to have it keep the value, the Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955, manufacturer should produce software updates on a regular base. My disappointment here is very large. It has several issues, that would be easy to fix in 7+ Rental Agreement Template software, but I can't do this myself of course. :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! I am very unhappy about this. So the value likely will go down in the future, as compatibility issues may arise with higher windows versions. The tester is Sales Sales – 8+ WINDOWS ONLY, and you don't have the code, and you don't know what this is doing.
So if the Microsoft Gods -say in the year 2020 will decide, you need this or that upgraded software version with Windows11, and you don't have it, you can't install the :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, program on a new PC. This is a very serious risk, and it is just this what happened with the digital SOFIA tester from the 1990's. This is in sharp contrast with some of the very good vintage testers which are more like an investment, than something you need to Agreement Format | Survey Words write off some day in the future. So keep this in mind extremely well. Paying 2500 Euro for Car Art Ads :: a mint quality AVO Mk4, means you probably can get that back 20 years later. The same amount invested in an AT1000, you need to write that off one day. SOCKETS. I can not say I didn't know, so this is not a complaint, but the tester has not enough sockets. I have a small collection of adapter sockets made myself. It uses three times an Octal base, just because there are not enough relays inside to work with one socket only. The tester WILL NOT switch the heater wires, so the heater is soldered at the socket at a fixed position.
For any tube with the heaters at another position, you need to make adapters. So I had to Agile Design make an adapter to test the 5Z3 rectifier, which is nothing but an 5U4G with a UX4 base. However the Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, UX4 base of the tester is 8+ Salary Certificate soldered to the DC supply, whereas the :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, rectifier circuit of this tester is AC heated. So there you go again, ANOTHER socket adapter I had to build. Amazing but true. Operations-Manual_template! I have found a software way to test 4 pin rectifiers on the UX4 base of the tester, so now I don't need that stupid adapter any more.
Please understand I will not hand this out. I think it's the manufacturer's work to provide this to you. I realize they may not know how to do this, but really this is :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 their responsibility to provide solutions, not mine. First impression . I unpacked the unit, plugged in the mains cable and switched it on. Then what happened, is what we all secretly hope with every piece of new equipment. I needed no manual and I could understand it by doing. I switched on the Amplitrex, and the large display lights up and comes up with a digital roll chart. Well, we have seen that before as paper version. So I scroll it down to Sample Sales Plan. Plan Word, 6SN7, because I had one on my desk. I selected it, and the tester said: put the tube in Socket E, and press Enter.
I did so, and the automatic test began before I knew it. Oldsmobile! I realized I should have read the handbook, but nothing went wrong, and after some information passed by on the display, the tester stopped with a list of digital test results. So plate current, Transconductance, leakage, everything. I was so surprised having this result out of the box. Unbelievable! I took out the tube and compared the result with one of 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template my L3-3 that are reference testers. All readings are identical. :))
Materials. The feeling of the tester is much better than it looks on the picture. The case is very good quality and the deck plate is :: Classic Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile thick and heavy material, and Agile Design, the (few) sockets are good quality. When I see how some of the Hickoks look after so called experts have worked with them, this very rugged case for the Amplitrex is a very good idea! Tube sockets. It must be said, the 9pin socket is a too tight and it damaged tube pins of some expensive ECC88. So you plug in a tube a NOS tube a few times, and Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, the pins look used already. For the rest, tube sockets are fine, and even the (dangerous) metal rivets of the Chinese UX4 sockets have been carefully insulated.
Good job. There are not so many different tube sockets in the tester's deck, but fair enough, I knew that before buying. Noise. 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template! Sorry, the cooler fan is definitely too loud. WARNING. The Grid voltage is measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to the grid, and it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to do). So when the tester draws a -1Volt line for a 300B, it is in reality the -3,5 Volt line.
Same error is made with the :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, normal Tube Test page it produces. Format | Survey Template Words! With tubes of high grid voltage this is no problem, but for Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: tubes with low grid voltage this is a serious problem, since it may have the tubes look bad while in fact they are excellent. For instance RE134 has 4Volts filament, and it's a high gain tube. 8+ Salary Certificate Letter Pdf |! So 2 Volts error on the grid, turns a good tube into a bad one. Calibration: They do have calibration points inside, but there are several ways to check the Car Art :: Vintage, voltages from the outside, so you can regularly verify that.
Also since we use three amplitrex we can compare one with the Sample Sales Plan Template Word,, other. Mind you, the grid voltage has an internal series resistor inside, so you can only verify the :: Classic Car Art, grid voltage with a tube volt meter, or any other very high impedance electronic meter. Or, tap it from the inside, before the series resistor. Conclusion for Stand alone mode: When you are not so technical, and just need some quick good/bad results, the stand alone mode is what you need, and don't even think about computer control. However this tester does not tell you when a tube is good or bad. This can be real problem for non-experts, and you MAY want to prefer a good old Hickok with a red-green scale.
So with a Hickok the red-green scale is really reliable, I can tell you so. The Amplitrex says something about Emission in Agreement Format Words percent, and Gm in :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile percent, however it is not testing Emission at all, but plate current and just calls that emission. Which is a mistake in the software. Agile Design! Furthermore 20% below average Gm is Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile not so bad as long as the tube heats up fast, and plate current is strong. Vice versa for low plate current. It is no problem when Gm is above average and heat up is fast. Some factory-new tubes can be that way. With some understanding of 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template tubes, the stand alone mode is a very good one. Automatic leakage test and grid current tests are reliable, and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile, switch off the tester in case you're trying to test a tube that is a problem perhaps for the tester itself.
In the end you have similar results as with the Operations-Manual_template, L3-3, but without all the buttons and knobs and cards and knowledge you need for the L3-3. Here is the advantage of the Amplitrex. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile! It fills a huge gap on the tube tester market. Conclusion for Customer Survey New Customer Computer control mode: This is actually why I bought it. However this function is more difficult to Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile use, and not very self explaining. A problem for non-USA users is, that you MUST set your PC to Sample Plan Template – 8+ USA Region, or the software will make errors and/or crash. So used a dedicated PC for this and set it to USA Region. It is difficult to use database programs like Open Office (or worse: Excel), since problems arise where comma's and are used in Europe, where the USA uses semicolons and vice versa.
If you ignore this, you mess up the tube data tables, and Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, the software will stall, or produce weird mistakes while drawing tube curves. So to prevent this, I use now a dedicated PC, which I set to USA region. We have now two AT1000 in use, here at Jacmusic. One we have in the Emission Labs factory, and a fourth is in New Customer New Customer use at our USA tubes dealer. FINAL CONCLUSION: Let me say it like this, when I received my Amplitrex, I decided to order two more. Plan59 Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile! I think that tells it all. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the grid voltage error (See above text). This item was brought up to Amplitrex, and really a software repair should be a piece of cake. I heard from Operations-Manual_template, another user, there i s only a patch with the data tables, which is not regarded a decent software repair my myself. It is :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile regarded such by Amplitrex, so we have another opinion about Agile Design, this.
Even though this partial solutions excists, I was never informed about Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Oldsmobile, it by Amplitrex in the form of an update, or user's letter. Sorry, but It can not have a high rating because of the many software issues. Letter Salary Slip! Check this page for RoeTest which is similar like the AMPLITREX, but it has five stars. :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! . Prices seen 2016: Dirty, unknown function: 170 Euro. AVO VALVE TESTER . Sales Template – 8+ Pdf! Erroneously referred to as Mk1.
Also by myself, I am correcting this where I see it. So this is not a Mk1! Old, but fully up to date - Can still test EVERY tube, when the socket is added. I have an Avo Valve Tester, which the previous owner built into a beautiful custom made nice metal case, with a drawer in it. He made really a nice product from it. I saw it on a ham market, and I thought at first, what AVO is that?? Then I realized what this man did, and I assumed he would only make that effort if the tester works good. Well I made no mistake:) It's the Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, star in my collection. The Avo Valve Tester has some resemblance with the Mk1. 4, but there are many differences.
You can not set the Survey. Survey Testing New Customer, grid voltage, and doesn't have an inter electrode shorts test. It does have a cathode to heater leakage test though, directly in Mega ohms. (Great feature, all AVOs have. Also you don't need to set the grid voltage. So you're done pretty fast with a measurement, and the measurement is accurate. So it can only measure transconductance, and that is done the Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, same way as with Mk1. 4. The tester works so amazingly simple and good. The meter is very pleasant and it reads precise from this large scale of course.
The graphics is hand made, with a black ink pen, on a drawing board. Sample Sales Sales Template Word, Pdf! I can remember the days myself how this was done, simply on Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, a drawing table. The way to operate it is Sample Sales Plan. Sales Template very easy. Just set the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile, mA/V knob to the value 10 and the scale is from 0. 10mA/V. Or set it to 1 and it's 1mA/V. As simple as that. There is one single setting for 100mA/V. So that's a direct Gm measurement.
Before you press measure Gm, you need to set the Agile Design, needle to zero, same as with all AVOs. Or, you can measure quality of the tube by setting the Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, scale to the value from the valve manual, and Format | Survey Template, then the red-green scale is to Car Art Ads :: 1955 be used. Agile Design! Also the same as with MK1. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! Mk4, CT160. Inside is almost no electronics, and Agreement Format | Survey Template Words, since no calibration is needed, not much can be off value. I tested a 6SN7 that I know has exactly 2.7mA/V at 250V / -8V. The Avo Valve Tester reproduces this value accurately. I want to investigate it better, to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 see how they get this precise results from 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, just two transformers and Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955, some resistors. It is the mother of all other AVO's.
If you are buying a tube tester, this is one of the few that you can buy with little risk, when it is in Sample Template Free Pdf nice condition. Though you have to realize many things can be broken with such old testers. So ask some reasonable questions about if it works good. The older ones have no sockets for 7 pin miniature and noval tubes, but these can be added if not done already. There are some blind plates in there. Or remove a useless socket, and mount it in there.
The AVO Valve manual has settings for many modern tubes indeed, like 12AX7 etc. Ads ::! That's what we call good software updates! Unlike the modern Amplitrex, they update nothing. So you are actually quite up to date with this (1935 or so!) AVO tester. Since the Format Words, AVO VALVE TESTER is very old, you need to get one with very nice optical condition. Otherwise changes are too high you buy one that is detoriated. I would say you can recondition a detoriated tester too, but price difference for a dirty one or clean one is Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 small. 7+ Rental Agreement Format | Survey Words! So you are far better of with 50 Euro additional for Car Art Oldsmobile a clean one, and leave the dirty ones for the gold diggers. The extra 50 Euro is well invested.
Here is a nice picture, comparing the accuracy of the 7+ Rental Format Template, Amplitrex AT1000 digital tester, with the Mk1. :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! I get exactly the same reading. The camera was a bit on an angle, but when reading the meter from above it reads 11mA/V. Fully identical with the Sales Plan. Sales Free Word,, Amplitrex. Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955! Well how about that, with a 60 years old tester. This tester was restored with great care, the owner made a lovely wood + metal case for it, with a drawer. Reference Letters - Better Recovery! So he put the two in one case. I think he wouldn't have done so if t he tester was not 100% ok.
Well it is indeed. In a few words: A fully underestimated tester, secret tip. Sometimes I see people pay 200 Euro for some silly TC-2 useless tester. I don't understand it at :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage all. Then you better pay this price for a Mk1! FOUR STARS **** VERSIONS.
From the AVO Mk1/ Mk2, there is more than one version, these differ electrically quite a lot. Operations-Manual_template! Unfortunately there is very little official documentation around in Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 the internet. The only Operations-Manual_template complete manual I have seen, is around ever since, and was copied by Mauritron UK. You will see it with or without editing from :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, others, which includes additional information from the Customer Survey. Survey Delta New Customer, military EMER document and other very useful information. About this Mauritrion document: It has a picture in front of the version with book compartment. There is an overview page, saying the schematic is on page 27, and at the end there is some schematic added indeed. However there no proof this belongs to this manual itself, as there is no page 27 printed on Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, the schematic. Operations-Manual_template! What makes me wonder also, the schematic has only Car Art Ads :: two mains transformers, which I expect to be an earlier version. However the tester pictured in that manual (see below here) is the one with book compartment and Customer Survey Testing, four handles instead of only two.
So to my logic this is a later version, which a contradiction. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads ::! I think we have no good way at the moment to sort all of this out. Reference Letters Roads! On the other hand, new information can pop up, when testers are around with original manuals with it. I had that once with a Mk4, and I published the schematic of Car Art Oldsmobile it, which version was unknown until then in the internet. So you see, this can happen easily. I have had versions on the bench here, with two and four mains transformers. In the internet people describe their three transformer version, but I have not seen good evidence pictures of those. Do not confuse the Cut Out relay on the schematic with a transformer. What seems a transformer is nothing but a relay with two current inputs. (So a normal relay is operated at a specified voltage, whatever current it draws).
The cut out relay is very large, and if you don't know what it is, you will think it is Sales Sales Plan Template Word, Pdf a small transformer. So people may be confused and write about a three transformer Mk1/ Mk2 tester, but it's just two transformers. I don't know, but I would like to :: Classic see better pictures of that. I will try to categorize the versions here somewhat. CALL for information . Please let me know when you have documented facts of any kind. Version with two Transformers. I think it is a Mk1. Calibration Panel is on the RIGHT side, when seen from the Behind. Version with four Transformers.
I think it is a Mk1/ Mk2. Calibration Panel is on - Better Recovery, the LEFT side, when seen from the BEHIND. When I have to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile guess, I would say the four transformer version is the later version. It sounds kind of unlogical they started off with a four transformer version, and then later found a good way to remove two transformers. This one I know only from pictures. It is a version with the book underneath, and Letter Pdf | Salary, with the Car Art :: Vintage, metal handles, and with holders in the lid for cables. These seem to me some little step into the direction of the Mk3 design.
My personal expectation is, this is Reference - Better Roads a later version, Note the nasty metal cable which attaches the book. Car Art :: Vintage! I am sure most users have cut this off, and when not it rampaged the book of course. Note, the original AVO Text underneath calls it a Mk2. Ebay prices seen: 2006: Good condition: 800€ The Mk1/ Mk2 is an amazing tester, and I like it very much. New Customer Survey New Customer! It is Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: more down to earth than Mk3 and Agile Design, Mk4, easier to Car Art use and offers the Letters Roads Recovery, same functionality. With Mk3 and specially Mk4, they tried at AVO to give those testers an Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage artificial appearance of precision instruments which they are definitely not.
So don't get blinded by the high resolution Gm dial wheels of the Sales Sales Template – 8+ Free Pdf, Mk4, that it is only marketing crap. Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile! In real life, Mk1. 4 have all the Agreement Format | Survey Template Words, same precision for Gm. This is pretty easy to understand, because all they do, is add 1 Volt to :: Classic Car Art 1955 the grid signal, and read the mA change from Reference Letters - Better Recovery, that with the SAME meter scale. So precision is by definition the same. A similar situation arises with the grid voltage setting. What is the use of a 20:1 gear wheel on the grid voltage with the Mk4, and dividing the Ads :: 1955, grid range into 9 ranges with a switch, allowing you to set the grid voltage with 0.01% precision, but then in the end having to 7+ Rental Agreement Format | Survey Template read the mA resulting from this on a non-mirror scale, where the range from 20. 30mA is divided in steps of 2mA.
So you have to estimate yourself the difference between 27 and 28mA, which is 4% reading error. Mk3 is something in between, as the Ads ::, dial wheels have no gear on them. Operations-Manual_template! So again, Mk4 fools you t with it's 0.01% precision grid setting, when in the end you get the Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile, mA result on a 4% error scale mounted inside a 2% error panel meter, which is 7+ Rental Agreement Format fitted into a 15% error tester, testing small tubes with 8% too high heater voltage. Yet in real life, they are all very good testers. So Mk1/ Mk2 doesn't have that gimmick with the so called precision grid voltage, and it's why I say it is Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage more down to Reference Letters Recovery earth. Precision doesn't suffer from that, as the :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile, weak part is the 7+ Rental | Survey, panel meter, and the fact that it is a patent tester, which is can not be fully accurate by definition. Still they work just very good, and this is Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile so for all three of them: Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3 and Sales Plan. Sales Template Free Word,, Mk4. Also let me bring up that Mk1/ Mk2 works less complicated and Plan59 Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile, that means less things get defective. Also Mk1/ Mk2 still had the user calibration potmeter for the transconductance test, wheras with Mk4 that is a mechanical factory calibration, which is often messed up by some stupid owners before you. This can not happen to you with a Mk1/ Mk2.
Given, Mk1/ Mk2 for Customer New Customer Testing New Customer the rest of it has all the features of Mk3 and Mk4, this tester is to my opinion the best value for the money, on the whole market of vintage tube testers. Mk1/ Mk2 is a combination of technologies. A great part is taken from the Mk1, and some other features are taken from the Taylor and other existing testers on the market. The excellent tube socket connections dial wheel is one of :: Classic 1955 those features of the Mk1, and the possibility to measure anode current is taken from the Taylor, but also Neuberger RPG237 from 1938 already used this method. And no, Neuberger did not use the patented formula like AVO. And yes, in the Neuberger RPG237 it works just as nice. Yet, in Sample Sales Plan. Sales Word, Pdf Mk1/ Mk2, for :: Classic :: Vintage Oldsmobile the first time, all of these features were elegantly combined in one tube tester, which could test every parameter, every leakage condition, every short condition, give a tube lifetime indication under full load, for Reference - Better all tubes, all sockets, it worked on Plan59 :: Vintage 1955, all mains voltages, and even the latest tube data books Version 22, was completely upgraded for Mk1/ Mk2 as well. What else do you want? I think there is nothing missing. Mk1/ Mk2 is expanded with several possibilities, which the AVO Valve tester does not have. These are mainly: Shorts test, Anode DC current, and test at Customer New Customer Testing any Grid voltage you like.
Furthermore, the Plan59 1955 Oldsmobile, maximum anode and Agreement, screen voltage was raised to 400V with the Mk1/ Mk2. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! (The AVO VALVE TESTER had maximum 250V). To increase precision, the Mk1/ Mk2 was given a separate heater transformer. So any heater current draw will not make the anode voltage drop. Roads Recovery! Mk1/ Mk2 was the real quantum leap, whereas Mk3 has higher precision, but on the cost of less comfortable use. Car Art :: Vintage! Like Mk3 has one fine and one coarse pot meter for the backing off, and Reference Letters - Better, Mk1/ Mk2 has only back off pot meter. Yet backing off with Mk3 / Mk4 is often difficult and overly sensitive when they get older, and this is :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: often hard to fix. 8+ Salary Letter Pdf | Salary! Even so it turns into a quality item for Mk3 or Mk4, so you want to know always: is the backing off still good? Wheras Mk1/ Mk2 with only one potmeter can be backed off good enough, and for sure a lot faster as with Mk3/ Mk4.
Also, testing of Gm and :: Classic Car Art Ads ::, Gas, with the Reference Letters - Better Roads Recovery, push buttons of the Mk1/ Mk2 seems more logical to me. Mk1/ Mk2 has a beautifully back lighted panel meter. So not just with a side lamp, but nicely with two radio scale lamps from behind, through the meter scale, which is opaque. Actually already Mk3 is Ads :: 1955 missing the backlighting feature, and - Better Roads, I can tell you this is Car Art :: Vintage 1955 really better with the Mk1/ Mk2. In case of a fault, with Mk1/ Mk2 the white backlighting goes off. Operations-Manual_template! With Mk3 there is no white backlighting, but in case of a fault a red backlighting turns on. I prefer the Mk1/ Mk2 method.
Owners of Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Mk3 and Mk4 will know, with two pot meters, you sometimes forget to set one back to normal, and that will bang the panel meter in the corner violently. Agile Design! You can do this wrong with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but with only one pot meter, risk is probably lower. Common features of Mk1/ Mk2 with Mk3/ Mk4 are: Separate heater transformer and plate voltage transformer. :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955! The leakage test switch (they should have patented it), which shows you with one quick move exactly what electrodes have leakage or shorts against what other electrodes. A short is zero ohms, and Operations-Manual_template, leakage is represented directly in Mega Ohms, while tested with high voltage AC, yet limited in Plan59 Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile the uA range. While tube testing, you can directly see the Plate current in mA. Salary Slip! Mk1/ Mk2 has an anode links for an external multi meter behind the side panel, whereas Mk3/ Mk4 has two links directly on the deck. That is sometimes very nice to use. Anode and Screen voltage up to 400 Volt. Plate current up to 100mA.
So yes we talk about 40 Watts here. It can do any heater voltage, and any mains voltage. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile! It features a protective relay with a hold function, and it has sockets for a remarkable large variation of tubes. We still talk about things that Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3, Mk4 have in common. Inside electronics are not fragile. Resistors and switches are good quality.
No strange components, that you don't know what it's for. No bad resistors. Agile Design! There are almost no capacitors inside, and the wiring is still very good after all those years. No signs of Car Art cracks or anything. What is different compared to Mk3 and Mk4.
What I like about the 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, Mk1/ Mk2, it has one tube inside which only function is to Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 be a reference tube. Certificate Letter Salary! So the reference tube and the tube under test go into a wheatstone bridge, where non-linearity of the tube-under-test is compensated with the non linearity of the reference tube inside. This method with the reference tube is very well done. It has it's own supply transformer, and the whole unit with the :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile, reference tube is mounted on a separate chassis with some Mk1/ Mk2, but I have seen also versions where there is no sub chassis. The sub chassis when present, has only four wires.
Two are connected to the mains, and the other two are the connections at which a reference diode is presented to the wheatstone bridge. 7+ Rental Format | Survey! A master piece of design, and the Mk3 looks a bit empty from the inside when I compare it with this beautiful wheatstone bridge of the Mk1/ Mk2. All in all, Mk1/ Mk2 sure is not the old tester it may look from the outside. I really can recommend it. . The grid voltage is set with a pot meter, and it has only two ranges: 1. 10V, and 10. 100V in :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: steps of 1V. Mk3 has steps of 20 Volt, but. the first range is 96 Bdc 0. 20V. So for low grid voltage, Mk1/ Mk2 may seem better. Though with Mk3 this is compensated with a larger diameter dial wheel, and Plan59 Car Art Oldsmobile, it comes down to the same. 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template! Yet setting for instance 1.2 Volts as you need of :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile a 12AX7, works better with the Mk1/ Mk2 as with the Mk3. Also different with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you have a calibration pot meter for transconductance. Whereas Mk3 an Mk4 don't have that.
I really have to Reference Letters - Better Recovery say this here, that calibration of Gm with Mk3/ Mk4 is Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: very difficult to do, as this is a factory calibration, no technician job for somebody later. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2, there is just a simple and normal Gm calibration potmeter inside, and no factory calibration. Format | Survey! So the previous owner can not mess up the factory calibration of the Mk1/ Mk2 because it simply doesn't have any. So you see. don't underestimate the Mk1/ Mk2! This is really a good product. Also nicer with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you can directly read the Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, Gm of the tubes on the panel meter, wheras with Mk3/ Mk4 you need to set the meter to Reference - Better Recovery a mark for this, and then read the Gm value from the dial wheel. Here comes a little bit hot air with so called precision of Mk3/ Mk4 because you begin with setting Mk3/ Mk4 to the 1 mark t on the scale, which you can not do more precise as the direct reading with the Mk1/ Mk2 anyway.
The Mk1/ Mk2 metering is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile done different. With Mk3/ Mk4 you have a series resistor of Operations-Manual_template 199 Ohms in Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile the test circuit, and Agile Design, a very sensitive, high impedance panel meter is Car Art Ads :: across this. Sample Sales Plan. Sales Plan – 8+! Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2 rather the panel meter itself is low impedance. I think both systems have their own advantage. The specifications of the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is found officially nowhere. I have a military document, saying it is Plan59 :: Classic 1955 100 ohms 440uA meter, and this seems so indeed. Only I can not promise that is so with all Mk1/ Mk2. You would expect some advantage of the Mk3/ Mk4 when doing very sensitive tests, but I didn't notice any difference actually in using them.
The advantage though, the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is much more rugged by itself. This advantage is very important. us. Reference - Better Recovery! With DC current being 15x higher (!) so 440uA vs 30uA, the meter hair springs will have higher force, and :: Classic :: Vintage Oldsmobile, there will be less meter problems with friction and/or dust particles in the meter . Yet, damaging a Mk1/ Mk2 meter is sure possible as I can tell, because I repaired some. 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template! Though many are still good. People do not realize, but with Mk3/ Mk4, probability on getting one with meter problems, are very high.
What is MUCH better with the Mk1/ Mk2 to my opinion is the simple press button for the Gm test. So when you made some kind of mistake, you let go the button, and you are back to Plate Current mode again. Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile! With Mk3, Mk4, you need to rotate the test knob, back to plate current again, and Agile Design, that is :: Vintage Ads :: just not as fast. The maintenance when you buy one: The Mk1/ Mk2 is a much old tester, so they all need some work before you have them back into fine condition again. A nice Mk1/ Mk2 when it was stored good, can be your friend for Agreement | Survey Template the next 25 years. The rectifiers are Selenium type. I took them out and tested them, and they all worked fine after all those years. There are some Selenium rectifier specialists in the internet, and they warn for poisonous gasses when these get bad, and all kind of trouble. So I was expecting they needed to be replaced, but the old ones tested really perfect. :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile! No leakage at all, and very well defined on voltage of Agile Design appr 40V.
I have a Tektronix curve tracer for that, but you are advised to test them best way you can. Plan59 Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile! Perhaps they can simply be replaced by silicon, but you need to Agile Design check what that does to the voltages, and Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile, distortion of the wave shape. So you change something and Reference Letters - Better Recovery, you don't always know what is the total effect. As my Selenium diodes were still good anyway, I decided to put them back in, and have no surprises. Mk1/ Mk2 is Plan59 Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile very easy serviceable, because you can take off the whole cap with just four screws. So you can access it from all sides. Sample Sales Sales – 8+ Pdf! Believe me, when you compare doing repairs on a Mk3, or Mk4, and compare this with Mk1/ Mk2, you will know what I talk about.
Mk3 and Mk4 are not very convenient to work on, we have to say it. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955! Though accessibility of components in Mk3 is the hardest. 8+ Salary Letter Pdf | Salary Slip! The Mk1/ Mk2 case is from one piece of :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile aluminum, it is like a jacket that slips over the whole tester itself. This aluminum is often bumped somewhat, but that is very easy to repair with a wooden hammer, when you take the outside chassis off. It may sound crude, but if you do, the Agile Design, case appears like new again, you can easily remove all dings that way. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads ::! The inside chassis is as strong as a tank, with nice metal bars, and really pleasant to work on. What to use it for. If you plan to do a scientific study about radio tubes, there are probably better instruments for such conditions, but for testing tubes, this is a great machine. Defective Meter.
It happens with Mk1/ Mk2 also, but not very often. Also this Mk1/ Mk2 meter is not extremely delicate. So in Agile Design case of Plan59 :: Classic Oldsmobile a meter problem, you can send it in for repair, and changes it can be fixed are high. I n a few words: For me Mk1/ Mk2 is a great tester! FOUR STARS **** What I do have to say: Mk1/ Mk2 has a tendency to indicate a little too low DC current for the very large tubes, like 2A3 or 300B. 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template! This issue is partially but not completely solved with the Mk3 and Mk4. Use a Protection network in your Mk1/ Mk2! Low impedance solid state diodes, as well as low leakage electrolytic capacitors just didn't excists when the AVO Mk1/ Mk2 was constructed. In the Mk4 you already find those to protect the meter. Look at the Mk4, they protect a 30uA meter with a 10uF cap + two diodes.
I found 22. 27uF is a maximum limit. :: Vintage Ads ::! Above, the meter begins to interact with the Operations-Manual_template, diodes + capacitor combination. The Mk1/ Mk2 has a 460 or 440uA uA meter. (exact value unknown) So that needs 100uF or so to protect it. Such capacitors were impossible in Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile 1950 without leakage or other problems. Sales Plan. Sales Plan Template Word, Pdf! Today it's also hard, but you can use a wet tantalum. These are not made any more, but still available as Russian NOS. These don't get bad from storage, last for Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage ever, and they are half the size of normal electrolytics. So that's the choice.
As a protection diode, let me clear a misconception here. People use small diodes, to protect the Agile Design, meter. Like 1N4148 or glass schottky Diodes. Ads ::! But why they do this? Small diodes are nothing but a smaller piece of the wafer. Small size means low capacitance, and they are faster. So small signal are low capacitance, and 7+ Rental Words, high impedance because of the smaller chip. Simply less conductive material. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! So take a 6 Ampere diode, and at the SAME current (for instance 300uA with the Roads, MK4) they will have lower voltage, and that's just what we take them for.
Look in the Mk4. What do you see there? Heavy metal 6 Ampere silicon diodes, to protect a 30uA meter. That was not a mistake! Already by then, Germanium diodes existed. But no, at AVO they choose big, gold plated, 6 Ampere Silicon diodes. Now you know why. I would say for the more rugged Mk1/ Mk2 meter, a 1N4004 diode is fine, provided you parallel a Tantalum capacitor of 20. 100uF.
Another very good reason to protect your Mk1/ Mk2 meter, is the glue which attaches the pivot needles to the coil, gets brittle after so many years, and the meter gets more fragile over time. Any beginning damage with that would first be seen as the :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, zeroing of the meter needs to be done every time over and over again. Agile Design! If such a meter gets actually defect it begins to stick badly. As long as it works, I might be able to repair it for you, re-glue the coil. The Mk1/ Mk2 is already a beautiful tester, doing all things you want. Mk3 only :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile LOOKS much different, but similarities with Mk1/ Mk2 are many.
A major face lift is the case itself, nicer arrangement of the knobs, and nicer looking knobs with plastic dial wheels for the grid voltage and transconductance. Survey. Survey! Also the case is now idiot proof, which appeared to be a great advantage for the average user. It has the more sensitive 30uA meter, which is a advantage and a disadvantage. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::! These meters as a standard problem with Mk3 and Survey. New Customer Delta Testing New Customer, Mk4 are always damaged, and this damage you can not see from the outside, or derive from :: Vintage, it's function easily. They work, but they are either unlinear due to overload, or magnetism is down to 90%.
Even worse, the bad meter problem is usually ignored, or calibrated away (which is not possible. ), or solved by crude changes to components inside, or change the positions of the dial wheels, which is a factory calibration, for which there is no manual or description. Agile Design! Such meter problems do exist with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but not so much, and it is rather a Mk3 and Mk4 problem, because the Mk3 and Mk4 panel meters are so sensitive, almost nobody can service or replace them. The panel metering system. This is a big change with the Mk1/ Mk2. I think I know why they did it, because Mk3 indicates DC current of low impedance power tubes better. Plan59 :: Vintage! This is really the change M3 offers. The meter of the 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, Mk1/ Mk2, is a very low impedance meter, and Anode current flows for a great part through the metering system itself. :: Classic Car Art 1955! Wheras with Mk3 there was used a copper wire wound current sense resistor of Certificate Letter Pdf | Salary Slip 199 ohms, and the voltage across this resistance is measured to determine the plate current. As you can see, voltage across 199 ohms is :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile very low at 1mA only. Agile Design! So the panel meter of Mk3 needs to have very high sensitivity. The panel meter is :: Classic 1955 30uA full scale.
Which at those days was a masterpiece of meter design, and today it still is, as analog panel meter factories have disappeared. Survey. Survey Delta New Customer! One way to increase sensitivity, is to make the circular hair springs very low force. However this makes the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, meter problematic with respect to things like dirt particles, friction and Format | Survey Template Words, electrostatic loading of the needle and glass. Moreover, the very fragile moving coil is easily damaged by wrong operation. The meter has always been the most difficult part of the Mk3, and it is amazing how self understanding it is, that all amateurs open this meter in order to Plan59 :: Vintage 1955 repair it. Temperature compensation: The current sense resistor of 199 ohms is copper wound in order to have no temperature effects, as copper has a very high temperature coefficient.
This sound like a contradiction, but it is nor. Because also the wire of the meter coil, and the calibration resistor inside the Letters, panel meter, is Car Art copper wound. So with these elements being all three of copper, the total temperature effect is Agile Design low. The current sense resistor may burn out sometimes, when people put 250mA rectifiers under permanent test. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage! Then after half an hour or so, the isolation burns, and Slip, some windings may short. A repair is Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile only possible with normal copper wire. Customer Survey.! So do not replace this strange resistor with a nice ceramic precision resistor, because you need the temperature effect of copper wire here. Buying advise: The dial wheels should not be badly repaired. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955! Though the center of 96 Bdc those wheels may have hair cracks today, this does not seem to harm them. In case you do need to replace one of those wheels, you can make one yourself from a knob of any other AVO Product. Sometimes you see those on Ebay for 30 Euro only, and you can take off one of the knobs.
Then, on that knob, you can mount a circular plastic disc, which you can make yourself from an old CD box, and it will look almost the same. Beware for Car Art :: Vintage a defective meter. Customer New Customer Survey Delta Testing! I can't repeat this often enough. Car Art 1955! If the meter was not damaged by bad repair, chances I can repair it are reasonable. If not, a replacement meter is available, but expensive. I have to buy r the movements on special order, construct a new scale for Letters Roads them, and change the impedance and full scale sensitivity to the AVO specifications. Yet, one ready to use meter is usually on stock. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955! Mind you, the Certificate Salary, replacement meter has not the red fault backlighting of the Mk3. As this is a plain 220V light bulb only, you can find a solution for this, with an additional panel lamp. Or, we can add backlighting inside the replacement meter itself.
The electrical connections for this is simply in series with the light bulb of the Mk3. CONCLUSION: FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen: 2012-Dec 5607 US$ (Auction Nr 370706510866) 2012-July 4458 Euro. (Auction Nr 140803614222) 2010 EUR 3.662 Euro. (Auction Nr 370415230702)
This is the most wanted tester. Mk4 has some small advantages over the Mk3, like more precise reading of the scales. Plan59 :: Vintage! The Mk4 is the 96 Bdc, fourth generation testers of this kind. Very mature, as a result of many years of development, and all errors of the earlier models were solved. Mk4 is all solid state, though I have to say I have had Mk4 here with damages diodes, but the tube diodes and Selenium diodes of Mk1/ Mk2 and :: Vintage Ads ::, Mk3 also hardly ever are bad. What is 7+ Rental | Survey Template Words nice about the Mk4 is, you can do almost anything with it, almost any tube. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! The extremely sensitive isolation test is seen only with the Mk3, CT160, and VCM163, and for the rest with no other tube tester. The shorts rotation knob is a method worth an extra patent. (see Mk1/ Mk2) The Funke's do the same, but the Funke switch is sensitive to wear out. The Neuberger also do the same, but with a far too complex switch, and specially the older models all suffer from material detoriating. The case of the Mk4 is dairy piece of industrial design work. You must imagine the thing 50 years ago, it must have been kind of fancy to Agile Design have one.
Even it is today. Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::! It is not as easy to service as the Roads, Mk1/ Mk2, but you can work on it reasonably well still. They do need a bit of service, all of them now. The back off pot meters can be dirty, or have faulty spots. :: Classic Ads ::! Some defective resistors inside can have resulted from some operator errors, and can be tricky to find. Like you can burn a grid resistor, and then the - Better Recovery, whole grid voltage ladder is out of calibration. The big carbon resistors are off value often but these were used for uncritical functions. All other resistors are precision types, like 2%. Sometimes a diode can get broken, but that is easy to find. It must be said, when a MK4 is well restored, it will last a lot longer again and the quality of all parts inside is still good today. Please read the buying advise.
It sounds unlogical, but my experience is, the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile, Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 have the lowest problem rate. As a matter of Agile Design routine, defective but working Mk4 is always sold on Ebay, and buyers find out much later the tester is not as nice as they hoped. Is a Mk4 better than a Mk3? No, I don't think so. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955! Mk4 doesn't have the red backlighting function of the panel meter any more. This is nice of the Mk3, but a bit scary too when you make a mistake and Certificate, the tester begins to buzz loud, and the meter suddenly lights up very bright red. For the rest, differences are small. The calibration of Mk4 is easier, as they mounted things a bit more logical inside. :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile! For the rest, Mk4 and Mk3 do not differ very much. Some advice for Agreement Template buyers: Unlike most testers, electronics inside somehow logical.
Though not self explaining, and though you do need a lot of experience. :: Classic Oldsmobile! Also it is very full and compact inside, and you can not conveniently open it up. I am trying to tell you here, you better pay more for a GUARANTEED GOOD one, than pay less for the usual ones with the Reference Letters - Better Roads, vague promises only. Damaged or sticky meter. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955! Check the meter, by performing a leakage test with the tester.
Use a potentiometer that you connect to two pins of a tube socket. It can be any two pins, like use the big holes of the UX4 socket, and you can put banana plugs in there. You must be able to measure exactly the pot meter values with the AVO. If this reproduces, that means a lot for New Customer Delta New Customer a good panel meter, and for the rest of the tester also. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile! If not, you have a problem with the panel meter. Linearity can be terrible, and the panel meter inside damaged by short circuited tubes or somebody forgets to the back off switch back to normal. They're very sensitive meters, not made any more and CT160's are often slaughtered to get the meter out for repairing an AVO Mk4. Then the bad Mk4 meter gets put into the CT160. All thumb wheels must run smooth, and printing on Sample Plan. Sales, the wheels must be clear. A non-smooth thumb wheel is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile very difficult to get it ok again. Some oil helps not much, and resolves the lettering paint.
Voltages: Take a multi meter and check each and every voltage. Values are not what it says on the switches, so in-line with the other voltages is all you need. Only for the heater, the voltage must be as on the switches. Set the mains test mark, and Letters - Better Roads, then you need exactly 6.3V with a 6L6 INSERTED. Precision of the Plan59 Car Art 1955, plate current test should be better than 10%, to justify maximum prices. You need a calibration tube of 8+ Salary Certificate Pdf | type 6L6 for this, with tube curves, to verify the tester at various points . Generally be careful not to buy one with hidden defects, of the kind the seller knows damn well, and you find out later, after you get experienced with it. Precision of 20% I would say it is normal. :: Classic Ads ::! Below 30% don't buy it.
A very used case, doesn't mean anything at all. The case is aluminum, easy to repair when it was bumped, and easy to take off. So what should impress you is PRECISION. Not shiny paint. Sample Plan. Sales – 8+ Free Pdf! OPEN IT UP before buying. Just four screws. Now check very very carefully for traces of repair. If so, that means somebody tried to fix a problem, because maintenance is not needed So you have to hope he found the problem, and fixed it professionally.
Beware for a defective meter. A replacement meter is available, but this is expensive hand work to Car Art Oldsmobile make them. CONCLUSION: The BEST of all AVOs. FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen:
2007: Very good one. 7+ Rental Agreement | Survey Template! 1675$ 2007: Probably good. 600€ 2006: Meter missing 200€ This is the most unusual, and one of the finest testers I know.
This tester works by a Wheatstone bridge principle. When you ever worked with a bridge, you may have noticed two things: 1) it works not a easy as a multi meter. 2) They are awfully precise. The reason for :: Classic Ads :: the precision is, the panel instrument is only needed to 8+ Salary Pdf | Salary zero the bridge, and Plan59 :: Classic 1955, the actual precision and linearity of the panel meter becomes irrelevant. 96 Bdc! Precision results only from the precision of the resistor banks inside. These resistors, when good quality, will not age and :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, will not need calibration.
Same with this AVO CT160. You have to Letters - Better Roads zero the meter by using the set knobs, and once that is done, you can read the plate current from the set knobs. This results in a plate current of two digits, and an estimated third digit. :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! So you can read for Sales Plan. Sales – 8+ instance 97.2mA plate current. The interesting part is, the third digit (here the .2mA) occupies a length of 1cm on Plan59 Car Art 1955, the analog knob. Agile Design! So you can very easily estimate the Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, difference between 97.2 and Sales Plan Template – 8+ Free, 97.4mA. On a normal 100mA panel meter you will never be able to do so, as the 1955 Oldsmobile, difference between 97 and 98mA is one stripe of Agile Design 0.7mm wide. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile! (vs 10mm with the CT160). Even so, the 8+ Salary Letter Slip, panel meter has 1.5 % error, whereas any error of the :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, CT160 panel meter is Roads Recovery irrelevant.
Once you get used to the bridge, you will do a measurement quicker as with the Mk4, as the nasty backing off is not needed. You measure Gm and :: Classic :: Vintage Oldsmobile, tube quality quickly with the thumb wheel, and that's it. So the CT160 works faster, and is more precise. It's just not main stream and it will never be. Advantages : Lower weight, higher precision and lower cost as Mk4. Less parts, so less can get broken. All critical parts put together on the side board. Just test them on 8+ Salary, this board one by one, and :: Classic Car Art, likely the tester is ok then.
When you close the lid, the tester is Reference - Better Roads Recovery closed dust proof, by a rubber seal, so the :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, whole tester is usually well preserved. Disadvantages : Unusual operation. Grid voltage limited at -40V. (Though you can add -40. Agile Design! -80V option yourself easily). It has no shorts test. Typical defects when you buy a CT160 on Ebay: Grid pot wire interrupted. This is a very special pot, replacements are absolutely unavailable. I may be able to repair the pot for you. Better not try it yourself. Meter sticky, or needle damaged by Car Art :: Vintage 1955, shorted tubes, or foolish operation. When the meter is Sales Sales Free Pdf still moving I can usually repair it.
Replacement meters can be ordered via our company. . For a detailed test report, click here. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. A replacement meter is available, but this is Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: expensive. CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. FIVE STARS ***** limited nr of Agile Design sockets. This tester is a strange one. There are a few differences with the Mk4, and not everything is an improvement. The transconductance is not done via the backing off circuit as with MK4, which is an improvement.
This was solved with Germanium transistor electronic circuits, which however can be nasty problem source for spontaneous leakage after several decades. :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile! I prefer the passive back up circuit, this is by default a calibration too before you begin. It is known that transconductance testing by oscillator and band filter can suffer from stability problems. But fair enough, with VCM163 this works faster, so that is an advantage, but I do not think it gives more precision. Heater voltage is selected with a three digit number.
Whereas with MK4, you have a classical rotary switch Many of the Certificate Pdf | Slip, vintage sockets are missing, in an attempt to Ads :: Oldsmobile be modern. Good thing in 1975, but today I prefer having the Letters Recovery, amazingly complete socket collection of the Mk4. The grid voltage setting of the Mk4 is more precise and far superior. This starts to Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 play an Free Pdf important role with low grid voltage, high gain tubes. For instance 12AX7. First Mk4 is divided in more ranges, and second the very beautiful gear system of the Mk4 is :: Classic Car Art missing. In fact, the not so preferred, cheaper system of the Mk3 was used for the VCM163. Very strange design decision. Perhaps looking for ease of use but it was on the cost of precision. Mk4 has anode links, and 2.5 mm plugs in the deck, for all tube electrodes. VCM163 has only the anode links.
Last but not least, the unique ultra sensitive leakage test of the Mk4 is missing here as well, and the lower sensitivity of the Agreement Format | Survey Words, Mk3 is used here. That is a pity, when you know that leakage problems are detected by a few millimeters of the needle movement. The panel meter of the VCM 163 is a lower cost type than the Mk4 or CT160 meter. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile! The right meter of the VCM 163 replaces the Survey. Testing New Customer, gear-dial wheel of the MK4. CONCLUSION: Less ideal and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile, less perfect as many think, but still a perfect tester. FIVE STARS **** This is a nice little tool, being able to measure the Operations-Manual_template, plate current of a tube inside the amplifier.
For practical reasons, actually not the plate current is Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: measured, but the cathode current. So this means all grid current(s) are added to the reading.This is Customer New Customer Survey Testing New Customer of course mainly the screen grid current, but that can be several mA. For this reason, and :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, also because the cathode current is all you get, it is not so much a tube tester, but rather a bias tester. So the bias current is what you get. The best is, to write down the initial values on a sticker on the tube base, so you can compare with that later. Some small loss of plate current during tube life is normal, and with the Bias King you can watch this process, and see if the tubes are still in Customer Survey Testing balance. Manual here.
CONCLUSION: Better as you expect! Disadvantage though, it can only Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: run on AC heated amplifiers, be very careful with this. The bitmatic is very unknown, but let's try to change this here :) When you are thinking of buying an Amplitrex AT1000, and willing to Customer New Customer spend this much money, consider also the Car Art, Bitmatic. Though of 96 Bdc course the Bitmatic is Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile something completely different. This tester is based on the Hickok cardmatic, which a fully programmable tester, but it is Letters Roads Recovery programmed with cards. The cards operate relays, really setting the whole tester, including voltages leakage, shorts, and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage, whatever.
The Cardmatic is a perfect hardware, extremely mature, no design errors, and very high quality parts are inside. The idea was here to operate it via PC, and not with punch cards. As the punch cards originally operate relays, all you need to do is control the relays, and there you go. Letter Pdf | Salary! The cardmatic by Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, itself can really do extremely detailed, versatile, and complicated testing. It's regulated power supplies are all tube based. Disadvantage: the Sample Sales Plan. Sales Plan Template Word, Pdf, tubes. Advantage: the tubes! So you will be able to service and repair it after 30 years just normally. Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! I doubt that about the Amplitrex. I am not trying to sell the bitmatic here, but it's a great machine.
The cardmatic is - Better Roads completely refurbished, apart from the Relays What I see as a small disadvantage is the software is under DOS. Though well written DOS is fine to work with and very fast on a modern PC with a DOS emulator. Plan59 Oldsmobile! You do need to understand how to install the DOSBOX emulator. Well or you can run a real DOS PC, but that is Agile Design not recommended, as you have 10x better options with DOSBOX. Such as quit DOSBOX, and print the files under windows. Plan59 :: Classic 1955! I have never tested the Bitmatic, but my impression is very good. It seems to be able to test a lot more than the AT1000, and the heater is AC, which is more logical for testing Directly heated tubes. Besides the Bitmatic does a shorts test, which is the Format Template, typical problem with most digital testers. As this costs many relays. So what you get here is :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 a piece of good old tube hardware, refurbished by the seller. New made digital controllers (seem pretty rugged PCB's. no SMD Stuff) and DOS software.
So DOS you need to like, and be able to Certificate Pdf | Salary set up the Emulator, but then DOS software by itself seems better made than the Amplitrex if you ask me. You do need to know the limits (maximum voltage and current) are lower than the AT1000 probably. For that, you can extract more data and Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage, more curves from the tubes. The bitmatic is also a heavy piece wheras AT1000 is light weighted and compact. Sales Sales Plan – 8+ Free Word, Pdf! So none is better than the Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, other. Salary! I would say AT1000 is better for Ebay sellers, or when you need several (we use three) but Bitmatic is better when you want to study in detail your own tubes, and when you have time, and want to know all details.
People praise the software updates of the Bitmatic, which is a good sign. My recommendation is, only buy it with schematics, so you can service it still after 10 or 15 years, and definitely the selling price WITH schematics will be another when you would sell it. This seems a fabulous product, probably not too many were made, and will be made. The Alladdin Mk1/ Mk2 is a new made digital Tester from Slowakia. More information will follow. I will describe it later. This tester looks a bit like a Taylor 45C. It has one defective selector switch that us easy to repair. just to have time. So I can not select any tube, but almost any.
This little pearl is Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile based on the circuitry of the 45C, but it has more and better options, also it had the selectors for any random tube, same as the AVO's have. All together this is a mix of AVO Mk1, Taylor 45C, and the designer saved absolutely not on nice options. Agile Design! It has for instance the Plan59 Oldsmobile, professional leakage test method, same as the AVO's have. This means a real ohms measurement, but with a high voltage as bias. Thus the designers were aware, sometimes the 7+ Rental Format, one, sometimes the other method is better.
Heater voltage very interestingly done, with a coarse and a fine adjustment. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile! Well, I have not really looked at it in detail. Some incandescent lamps are used as a fuse, same as Hickok does.Fact is, the tester works, and is precise. It can do many of the European B4B5 socket tubes like PX4, PX 25, etc. Easy to handle and a nice design. It is Customer New Customer Survey Delta larger as it looks on the picture, and :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, quite heavy. Manual_French . Agile Design! Manual_Dutch . Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955! Meter_picture . Large_Picture_of_Tester. Ebay prices seen: Almost unknown brand tube checker.
These use all tubes as a rectifier, and load that rectifier circuit with a variable resistor. It's the D knob here. Work at too low voltage, and do more things wrong as well. Agile Design! The good function of a tube tester is not proven be testing NOS tubes and get a nice green. The question is, if a particular ? tube comes out :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, just that way. For instance the Japanese TC-02 (Very often sold on Letter Salary Slip, Ebay) gives a green to almost any tube, good or bad. The TC-02 is a piece of Plan59 Car Art Oldsmobile junk so to say. However I had two TV10 from Superior instruments, looking the 7+ Rental Agreement Format Words, same way and these picked out the bad ones quite good. So yes, such a tester can work, but only if you have proof. I would say it is worth 50$ for the fun of owning it, but you can not test tubes with it in a reliable way. No stop!
It's worth a lot more, because you can sell in on Ebay nicely. Yes, that's what you should do with it. DIY Tube tester (1) Many DIY testers exist, and it is interesting to see sometimes 50 years old versions of those. Some are really nice done, and some not so nice. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Today, often the testers are made as digital products, and you can see the Sample Plan. – 8+ Word,, maker getting deeply into software issues, and the hardware getting larger as intended. For that reason, a nice way is use digital panel meters, and for the rest set up the tester in the good old analog way.
From my own experience I can say, use only industrial meters for this. The Chinese Ebay meters have unlinearity problems. Plan59 :: Vintage 1955! Suppose you calibrate it for 1000V full scale , and 7+ Rental Format, measure 99V. :: Classic! So you switch to the 100V range to get more accuracy, but you measure suddenly 98V. (Mmmm ?!) The reason is panel meter internal unlinearity. You can't calibrate that away.
The expensive meters don't have this problem. Since the tester is an instrument, you need to make the Letter Pdf | Salary Slip, full concept before you start, keep the wiring simple, yet prevent to forget functions that you have to Car Art :: Vintage add later. So the Reference - Better, thing gets serviceable later. With the concept being final from the beginning, you can make a nice front plate, use nice knobs, and :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, paint it professional. Agile Design! Here is one of those products, which I think is extremely well done. It was made by a private person. He is 78 years old, (while I write this in 2011). He admires tubes for the industrial design art in them. So this is somebody with time and experience, and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile, the right heart beat to build something ultimate.
The result is the most beautiful analog tester I ever saw. Read more about it. Ebay prices seen: 2007: Good one 680€ 2007: Defective 313€ Bought it on Ebay, and got cheated with it. According to the German seller it was very accurate, but it produced complete nonsense when I tried it. I decided to Pdf | Salary keep it, and repair it later. Well this tester is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile a strange one. It seems to me like an AVO Mark 5. The principle is completely the same as the later AVO's have, only compared to the ELPO 508, the AVO's are almost primitive construction.
CONCLUSION: This is a MOST interesting tester, consider it a modern, much improved version of AVO Mk4. EICO 666 tube tester / Connected to digital Curve Tracer. The Eico 666 is a very nice tester. It's not one of those diode testers. So the ones that test all tubes as diodes. Though it looks like one, it's not!. The inside is exceptionally nice made, and components inside are high precision. This is an instrument! Beware you buy a factory wired version, and not a kit version. Kits can look terrible inside, and 96 Bdc, may have wiring errors. The test circuit of the 666 is very good and mature.
It works a bit like the AVO Mk4 actually, but the EICO shows only some number for plate current, and the good/bad is derived from that. (so no transconductance measurement). Sure not as versatile as the Mk4, but some of the working principles are the same. Also the :: Vintage 1955, leakage test is done the same. 8+ Salary Certificate Slip! I bought this tester for a special project. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! More about it here. W19-S Emission Tester. W16 Emission Tester. The famous Blue Book. FUNKE. Agreement Format Template! (Max Funke) Electron test equipment factory. These testers were made by a German Engineer, Max Funke, who spend his entire life building tube testers. After the war he found his company located in the Russian occupied zone, East Germany, and his property was stolen by Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile, the government.
He organized a dramatic escape to 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template West Germany, dismantling his whole factory, and load it all in a train. The cargo was supposed to go the West, with false papers, and Max and his family would escape to the West via another way. The thing with the Plan59 :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, train was betrayed, and the goods permanently stolen by the Russians. However the 8+ Salary Certificate Pdf |, Funke family could escape in 1952, and he founded the :: Classic :: Vintage, company Max Funke KG together with a partner who financed him. As he had all plans in 8+ Salary Certificate Pdf | his head, he was able to ramp up production in West Germany in only 6 months.
In 1964 he went into pension, and the company closed all activities in 1976. After this time comes a very curious period, that know very little about. The complete and original factory was preserved for 30 years, until in Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile 2006 the Agile Design, owner of the building died. Plan59 Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! What I know I was only told. The children, who inherited the Operations-Manual_template, building where not interested, and only wanted to sell the building. The sales of the building + what was inside, was done by a broker, from whom the contents on Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, the shelves was uninteresting, as he gets his percentage of the building sales. However some insiders had keys to the building, knowing damn well what was stored in there. Agile Design! It was the :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, complete inventory of a 45 years old company. I was send pictures of this, by someone who was in good and honest contact with the Funke family, and he was so upset by what happened.
Though in the end the inheritants decided there was little they could do against it. Agile Design! Inside was a massive amount of half finished materials, incl 50 (!) new testers originally boxed, new replacement pins in sealed plastic bags, the pin boards, knobs, meters - anything. A complete wall with shelves, and a pile of :: Classic Ads :: Oldsmobile each PAGE of the blue book. I saw pictures of that shelve wall myself. - Better Recovery! Imagine how many blue books that gives, because the book's clip covers were there too. Full boxes of Plan59 Oldsmobile resistors, sockets, TONS of Sample Sales Plan. Sales Plan Template – 8+ Free Pdf new test cards, and may many other things. Plan59 :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile! Like Ali Baba's treasury cave. 7+ Rental! All of it laying nicely sorted on shelves. Plan59 Oldsmobile! It happened around 2006.
At a HAM market I saw people with remarkable amounts of FUNKE replacement parts. There is a movie on youtube about the Customer Testing, old factory, but I can tell you this was after a great lot of Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 stuff, was already removed from the building. In the years after 2006, we saw all those NOS W19 testers in Ebay, even some in original shipment cartons. What shall I say. Even today while I write this in 2015, people are selling dozens of complete NOS sets of test cards, blue books, and knobs and meters and Sample Sales Plan Template – 8+ Pdf, whatever small parts in lots. Plan59 :: Classic 1955! You can just see there is Agile Design a source somewhere. In 2009 the factory building was in Plan59 Ads :: 1955 use for an alternative energy project, firing wood to generate electricity. The factory documentation as it was found, is now stored in Sales Sales Plan Template Free the archives of the German Museum in München. In the :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, internet I found some documentation on a Funke Oscilloscope, and also some grounding test equipment he build, as well as TV picture tube testers.
A miniature capacitor tester, a battery tester, etc. It seems Max was a genius, but it seems also he was not focusing on what he could do best. Customer Survey. Survey Testing! The later tube testers had cards for transistors too, but things went too fast for him, as he became older, and there was nobody to follow him up. Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! His work with tube testes ended with two top models, the W19S and W20. Though he had a new parametric tester preparation, model W23, but this one never made it into production, since the end of the Sample Sales Sales Plan Free, tubes production was near. The W19 (S) is the largest and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, final model which is completely programmed via the Reference Letters - Better Recovery, punch cards. The W19S version is preferred over the W19 , since it has more sockets, a more rugged case. Though W19 looks nicer, and is lighter weight. :: Vintage Ads ::! A total of 5000pcs W19 were made, and I think most of them still exist because it's an after war model. They made two kind of 96 Bdc tube testers, each having it's specific advantages, justifying it's own existence.
These are. 1) Parametric tube testers, like W20. 2) Emission testers, like W16, W18, W19. 1) Parametric Testers. For all of us there is this must have or want to have question when we define our needs for technical equipment.
With parametric testers it becomes quite remarkable, people say they need, but it is more they only want it for no logic reason. They feel simply attracted by the many knobs and meters of a parametric tester, but they do not realize, these knobs and buttons and meters, they ALL have to operated when you test a tube. :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::! Then, when you do not fully understand what you are doing, you may damage the tubes under test, or even the 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, tester. This is really difficult to hammer into peoples mind, but it is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile just for this reason, Emission testers were made. And no, Emission Testers are not primitive at all, I mean not when you have one from 7+ Rental Words, Funke. Plan59 Oldsmobile! (more about this later. 8+ Salary Certificate Salary Slip! ) So having a parametric tester, means it becomes a lot more time consuming to test tubes, because you have to tune all those settings while the tube is warming up. So when you change the plate current (by yourself, or just because the Plan59 1955 Oldsmobile, tube is warming up) you need to Sample – 8+ Free Word, re-adjust the :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile, plate voltage, as it tends to Agile Design drop.
Then after you are done, you get presented all those parameters, and you need to give interpretation to that. :: Classic :: Vintage 1955! Hopefully you know how this is done. If not, you may end up requiring +/-10% deviation for Format Template parameters without knowing why you made up that number 10%. And no, datasheets don't help out with that. Then, as a little bonus, the FUNKE Parametric testers give you a good/bad indication for the tube, which is really NO MORE THAN THAT. This is very important to :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile understand. The parametric testers give you what you want: The Parameters, so you, the expert, can now judge for yourself in detail. To put it in simple words: A parametric tester will give you the Certificate Pdf |, tube PARAMETERS, and not the TUBE CONDITION. An Emission Tester will give you the tube condition, and not the parameters. Though tube condition can be derived from the parameters in an imprecise way, and at least the Funke Parametric testers will do this for you, but you must regard this result an indication only.
If a FUNKE parametric testes tells you a tube is Plan59 1955 Oldsmobile just ok it may as well be just not ok, or vice versa. So, if the Customer Survey. Delta Testing, holy grail question is how much lifetime is left inside, then you what you need is a Funke Emission Tester, which is specially made for Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile this purpose only. 2) Funke Emission testers. Make good note, the Funke Emission testers have nothing, really nothing to do with all those cheap, crappy little testers that you can buy on Ebay for prices from - Better, 100..300 Euro. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile! Such are worth almost nothing, and they are only useful for what they were intended for, and that is Template Word, Pdf find the broken tubes in a malfunctioning radio. A really high quality emission tester, is something else.
This tests the Car Art :: Vintage, tube's Emission under hardest possible conditions. So really when an tube should be capable of 40mA at 180V, then it will try to check this, even when normal use condition is only 20mA at 250V. So as you can see from the Letters - Better Recovery, example, the tube is even thermally overloaded at 40mA /180V, so the handbook for such an Tester will say not to test the tube longer than 30 seconds. This is a real emission tester. Again, not to ne confused with the Junk on Ebay. :: Classic! An Emission tester is testing all amplifier tubes (. hold your breath. ) like a diode. I also wondered myself what the idea behind this is. At first I thought that was a cheap way to test tubes. How much I was mistaken by that!
Later, I found the answer in the blue book by Max Funke. Customer New Customer Survey Testing! The idea is indeed having no interest in :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Grid voltage settings of the tube. The method Max Funke uses, is Reference Letters - Better Roads very wise. He says, let's assume the tube manufacturer did a good job, when the tube was tested before leaving the factory. This means, the transconductance was above minimum and below maximum. Even when such limits were never published, they sure existed in a production environment. Same for the plate impedance, and the tube gain.
This was all within their own (un)published limits. Also the plate current at specified conditions was correct. Then the tube was found to be good. It was sold, and used in some equipment. Later, a technician will have this tube on the bench and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, wants to know if it is still good.
During the Sample Plan. Sales – 8+ Free Word,, use period, emission slowly reduces, which again causes all tube parameters to get less good. Now, Max Funke says, all we need, is Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile a fully reliable way to find out if the emission is Agile Design still good, and if so, all other parameters must be good also. Of course this assumption can only be true, if the tube has no leakage or vacuum loss, and Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, if basic functioning is Template still given. Here is the proof: If you have some worn out tube, that you intended to throw away, you can re test it at 50% higher heater voltage, which boosts up emission to Plan59 :: Vintage 1955 like new for a short time, and you will see the worn out tube tests like new this way. Or, vice versa take a new tube, and reduce the heater voltage by 50%, and you will see all dynamic parameters, and plate current are the same as with an Agile Design end-of-life tube. So indeed, when you can say emission at normal heater voltage is strong, there is not other conclusion the tube must be fine. Let me repeat the assumption, the tube was fully tested by the manufacturer, and the tube passes now a leakage and Plan59 Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, gas test with good result, and basic function is given.
So the Funke emission testers works like this: A) Test the heater. Plan. Sales – 8+ Free! B) Test all electrodes for leakage, one by one. C) Test emission. D) Test for Basic function. E) Test for gas.Note, you can and you should only :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile test for B) after the tube passed A), and the same with all other steps. Plan. Sales Plan Template Word, Pdf! If it fails at one step, you need to stop and reject the tube. So when you are arrive at E) and the tube was showing enough Emission at C), only then the Plan59 Oldsmobile, tube is fine. All of this is done with just one knob, and 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, takes less than a minute. Personally, I believe there is no better method.
The question is only: How to test emission? For this, the Hickok company tests the tubes at Car Art :: Vintage 1955 reduced heater voltage, and as all Hickok do: at much reduced dissipation. Which is a work around, not having to 7+ Rental Agreement Format | Survey Template generate high power with an expensive circuit. The Funke company goes the ultimate way. They test the Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955, tubes at the normal heater voltage, at maximum dissipation, and then tests if the tube can do more than normal plate current. The test result is crystal clear. A tube must read as a minimum in the ? range. This means such tube will work in most applications, but it's uncertain for how long. So they say, when you pull such a tube from working equipment, you may consider to put it back in.
That is what the ? mark is for. 8+ Salary Certificate Pdf | Salary Slip! The next is where good begins. At the beginning of good the tube is guaranteed to work in all applications for a reasonable time. To work very long, it needs to be somewhere above. As a rule of thumb, a NOS tube reads 30% higher as where good begins. It is as easy as that. This is for amplifier tubes.
Rectifier tubes are put in a real tube rectifier circuit, and pulling the maximum current for that tube. Then, the output current is quantified on Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955, a scale in the same way. So ? and good begins at. Make note, all Funke Emission testers, even the Letters Recovery, tine ones, can test at max 500V AC and Plan59 :: Vintage, max 250VDC, and so at at max 250mA. Even so, high power amplifier tubes can be tester at 500VAC and 250mA. Letters - Better Roads! So 125 Watt dissipation. That is really remarkable. To prove this, I designed a 300B and 300B-XLS test card myself, testing these tube at quite high dissipation.
Why testing like this works so fast? Well heater test and leakage test take only a fraction of Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile a second. You can rotate the Agreement Format Template, main knob quite fast to Emission Testing. Then you will see the emission come up, and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage, the moment you see it is enough above minimum you are done. Of course you can wait until it stabilizes somewhere, but you don't have to. Already at minimum, a tube is Agile Design fine, and needs not to be replaced. :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! So you can right after do basic function test this means some change of Letters Recovery plate current must be visible when you enter this position. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile! Next is gas test, and change should be possibly low, same as with all other tube testers. 8+ Salary Certificate Letter Pdf | Salary Slip! Already you are done. :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! For the specialists, you can go back now to Emission Testing, and let the tube get really hot.
Then, when hot, rotate back step by 7+ Rental Agreement Format | Survey Words, step through all the :: Classic Ads :: Oldsmobile, leakage tests (quickly) and Customer Survey. Survey Delta Testing New Customer, you are now performing leakage tests on a hot tube. Test settings of the Emission Tester are not secret, they are printed on every card. So, 50 years of Car Art :: Vintage 1955 knowledge and experience are put into these test settings. That is kind of hard to replace. Knowing this, look at such silly emission testers like TC2, and what stupid circuits is inside, and you really wonder why people pay 300 Euro for such a thing on Ebay. Ebay Au ct.
Nr 180693063337. Funke Einheitstester (W16 variation Model) The is the first model of the one-knob testers which works without internal battery, and the negative grid voltage was made by the power supply itself. 8+ Salary Letter Pdf | Salary! After this was made the W16, W18 and W19 which basically work the same, only have more sockets. This tester has received the name Einheitstester in English standard tester because it had only the European Standard sockets. Click this link for a restoration project with this tester, schematics, and details about it's function. Read more. CONCLUSION: This is the Plan59 :: Vintage Oldsmobile, first really good one-knob Funke tester, with all the nice features. Funke W19 . Factory price in 1968: 425 Euro.
20 years manufactured, from 1952. 1972. This Funke W19 made in 1968 , I bought on Ebay in said to be working condition, but that was just about it, for the rest it was a mess. At least the basic material was very good. The man paid me back some of the money, and for me it was ok then. I love good instruments, and I spend over Reference Letters - Better Roads one week restoring and calibrating it, including the meter linearity. Now it is :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: like new again. The best about the W19 is, is has no settings.
So you plug in the pins on the test card, and you can read if the tube is good or not. Agile Design! It works with electronic stabilized voltages, and needs no calibration or service. When the :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, control lamp burns, it means the internal electronics is working. They thought of the user's comfort. Survey. Survey Delta Testing! I would say it's THE tester amongst professional tube dealers.
It gives very reliable results. When buying a Funke W19 tested tube, I know what I get, and besides I can even verify it now. It can measure almost any tube, USA and Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, American, and can be operated without having to think a lot, and the reading is Reference - Better stabile very quickly. So you don't need to heat up the :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, tubes very long. Agile Design! (Though you do need to :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile heat up the tester for 10 minutes, so the internal voltage stabilizer reaches it's accurate voltage). It is ideal for Customer Survey. Testing having to test 100's of Plan59 Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile tubes. Customer New Customer Survey Delta! When I verified the results, bad tubes, were really bad, and ? tubes are indeed just like that, and new tubes from Electro Harmonics, Sovtek, etc., are always indicated at or above 100% Here is how the W19 works, it is Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile as simple as efficient and reliable. The W19 works with test cards, and Survey Delta New Customer, you can make no mistake with those.
We all know this strange feeling when plugging in a 500€ tube in Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile a tester. You check all settings 5 times, and New Customer Delta Testing New Customer, still are afraid for your expensive tube to blow up. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage! When testing an Agile Design ECC803S with any other tester than the W19, first I plug in a cheap JJ tube. However when testing an expensive NOS RE134, I have no cheap JJ tube to try it first. Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Here is where the W19S comes in, it's a good feeling you can do really nothing wrong. All voltages are set by the card. The internal voltages are taken from Letters Roads Recovery, a ladder network.
So the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955, plate voltage is stabilized, but also other stabilized voltages derived from this. Now what is nice, you rotate the only button it has, all though the positions 1. 13. In position 0 the whole tester is off. Customer New Customer! From 1. 10 it performs all the leakage and Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: Oldsmobile, short circuit tests, and each test is Template Words passed when the meter stays on Plan59 :: Classic Ads ::, the zero position. Suppose it fails one test, the Agile Design, meter goes to the left, into a small white zone first, which is acceptable, and :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage, if it goes further a red zone begins, which is 8+ Salary Certificate Letter Salary where leakage starts. On the big knob are symbols like grid-to-plate etc, so you can see what test it was. That is all there is to say about how it works.
I tested it with a KT88 and an external 400k resistor from grid to filament, and :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, it indicates the middle of the red scale. Agile Design! Perfect! Position 11 is the actual test, and the results is Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile pre-printed on Customer Testing, the test card. Position 12 gives the Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile, transconductance by changing the grid voltage from 0V to -2V. So you need to calculate the New Customer, micromhos (=mA/V). Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads ::! The transconductance test is invalid with tubes that cut off at -2V, but also here the cut-off should take place, so at least that you know, and the tube is probably good. With other tubes you can calculate the transconductance like this. Position 13 gives the vacuum condition, and Letter Pdf | Salary, you're done. The cards are the Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, software, the Agile Design, W19 the hardware. What is nice about the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, cards, they have the tube main data printed on 7+ Rental | Survey Template, them, including connections, and standard settings. Also many replacement types.
Then it gives the actually test settings in the W19, the plate current, and most important, it tells you what is bad, ? and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, good. These cards are really accurate. That's why I like the 96 Bdc, W19 so much. Prices: I collect some from Ebay, prices are rising quickly. Despite that the original Funke factory was cleared somewhere around 2005. From that closure a lot of material came on Ebay, specially stacks of NOS test cards, several blue books, switches and meters. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! Even new cases have popped up on Pdf |, Ebay. Still prices go up and up. I bought mine for Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile a few hundred Euro.
You can only dream of that now. There is the W19S and W19. Customer New Customer Testing! The S is the military one, and looks less nice, but it has more sockets and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, a higher rated transformer. It can do filament current up to 4 Amps and plate dissipation up to 50Watt, but also can delicately and precisely measure battery tubes at less than a mA. It can test bigger tubes also with an 7+ Rental Template Words AC plate voltage, which makes it possible to test any tube up to 250mA. The reading is in equivalent DC milliamps, which seems to represent real DC measurements nicely. I tried that out. Rectifiers can be tested used up to 250mA. Making tests cards is a piece of cake, because when you remove the card, you have all the settings nicely printed underneath. So you can select the plate voltages AC or DC by plug in Ads :: the correspondent pin. When the test does what you want, you can make your own card quickly from a sheet of Agile Design paper, and stick the Plan59, test pins through the paper.
Picture from the patent. A very Good idea: Replace the stabilizer by a NOS tube. CONCLUSION: Top Model, no compromise tester. Ideal for for who want to get a very quick and reliable result, which is totally respected by everyone. I have one seen a W19 on Ebay, which was a very late model, and it had a semiconductor rectifier inside, and Agile Design, a ceramic multi-deck switch instead of the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, older type rotational switch. The newer switch is electrically seems an improvement, but the operation of the new switch will not as comfortable as the old type. New Customer Testing! The old switch is fine too, but it definitely wears out quickly. The semiconductor rectifier is nice, but offers no protection in case of a short circuit. This table is how I think it is, but actually very little can be found about this tester. Interesting tester.
Made right after WW2, under the company name RVF (Radio-Vertrieb Fürth). Tubatest can be found at low cost still, and it works nice. Car Art Ads ::! The Tubatest 2 that I have, is a nice piece of hardware, in a strong and nice case, and you can work on Reference - Better Roads, it easily. The switches are nice made and high quality. The way the operate is logical and :: Classic Oldsmobile, well thought of. I think it is worth a few hundred Euro, but when you are lucky you can buy a Tubatest 2 below 100 Euro on Ebay, because prices mostly are oriented to the (pretty useless) Tubatest L3, which has only the historical type European sockets. So, Tubatest 2 is my secret tip, or otherwise Tubatest (1) when you can get it together with the | Survey Words, rare adapter kit . So, most information and price orientation in Car Art Ads :: 1955 the internet is for the pretty useless Tubatest L3, but this had no adapter kit build in, and no connector for it either! Link to Agile Design Grundig official nostalgia page. :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile! The company still exists. On the left side of this linked page, you can click their products, and you can see they made beautiful industry designs. Around the Reference Recovery, mid 90's, they changed to making products with futuristic looks, of the :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, kind that Chinese designers make today.
So you see they were way ahead of their time. HELIOWATT, Berlin Germany. Technically very beautiful. Seems like a small Neuberger RPG 370. I hope to restore it, and indeed use it to test pre-war radio tubes like RE134 and RENS types.
Read more about it here. Hickok Tester, how to choose the right model. 1. Models before the Sales Plan. Sales Template – 8+, Hickok patent. Very old testers, not practical today. 2. Technician models, Large case.
Gives a quick result, easy to operate. Ads :: 1955! Has some special features like life-time test. Medium precision. Salary! Large case, with lots of space inside to add extra sockets, or 115V to 230V transformer. 3. Technician models, Small case. Simplified versions of the large case testers. Low precision, small size, low weight. 4. Laboratory models. Require more settings, but can also do more.
Have higher generic precision, due to :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 less compromises with the circuitry. Some have even a separate filament transformer. Hickok testers, General features. Micromho (=ma/V) readings, by Letters - Better Recovery, means of Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile a patented Hickok two-tube circuit which you will find in all testers with some variations. New Customer Delta New Customer! Some of the later solid state testers had the same circuit. Because of this standard circuit, each tester is a good one.
Future Tube life indication. The English reading with most of the Car Art :: Vintage, testers. Agile Design! Some Laboratory models have additional tests. Case is rugged and large, leaving us today plenty of room for upgrades Wooden case is extremely rugged. Deck plate is nicely engraved and solid. Gas Test . This is done with a standard test circuit, by putting a very high series resistor in the grid. :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! The idea is, that tube gas gives grid current, and this will generate a small voltage over this resistor. The small voltage will add to the DC bias voltage, and change the bias of the tube. This change has always it's limits no matter what causes it. So regardless if it is gas if leakage, we always call it gas when you have a Hickok. Noise test.
This seem a nice method, though I must admit never tried it. You have to connect am AM radio receiver antenna to the noise test output, and if there is any noise, this will give loud crack sounds on the radio. Not a feature of all Hickok testers: Electrical safety. The deck plate is Survey. Survey Delta New Customer not grounded. This has advantages and disadvantages. Better would be if it was not made of metal.
Show plate current. Plan59 :: Classic Ads ::! Test at standard conditions for a specific tube Test dual tubes with just the flip of one switch. Let me tell you what that is. Somebody invented the unit Mho as a reverse value of Ohm. That by itself makes me feel funny about Customer Survey New Customer, it. In Europe they didn't want the word Mho, so called it Siemens.
The ridiculous thing is now that we can call a resistor of 10 Ohms also 0.1Mho or 0.1 Siemens. The idea was to describe the conductivity (conductivity is the opposite of resistance) But actually all passive components have only resistance in my healthy opinion. Now tubes are active components. Car Art :: Vintage 1955! The output current is regulated by the input voltage. So these try to Operations-Manual_template conduct. Their behavior is best written down as milliampere per :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile, Volt. Survey. New Customer Survey New Customer! So you change the grid voltage 1Volt, and the output current changes 5mA, and :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955, we say the tube has 5mA per Volt. (5 mA/V).
Here we go. Reference Roads Recovery! that equals 5000 micromho. Because Ohm is Volt / Ampere, and Mho = 1/ Ohm. Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! What a useless mess! Anyway this can not be changed any more, same as some countries will use miles and gallons, no matter how unlogical it. You must see the use of micromho in that light. Anyway, this explains why USA testers have micromho on it, and many USA data sheets too, whereas European testers always use mA/V. To make it a bit more confusing, generally but not always, the micromhos are called transconductance and abbreviated as Gm and the mA/V are called S for Siemens. This is 96 Bdc another of those things. English test is used by the Hickok testers, and Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, it is a not so good way trying to 7+ Rental Agreement | Survey Template say you are testing the tube under (an unspecified) load condition.
The AVO company in the UK probably made the best recognized series of testers, that tested the tube under load, however they specify exactly what load, and you could read that on the meter, and make all settings yourself.. So you could compare that with tube curves and data sheets. Apart from that, they invented this red-green scale, where the good/bad result is derived from the transconductance (data sheet !) values. So very clever, and very straight forward. In the USA that was called English testing.
This AVO method was patented, which was a major strike. So Hickok had to patent something else. They patented the English test method, which is the 1955 Oldsmobile, RED-GREEN scale you see on most of Letters their testers. I investigated the test results of :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: know to Reference Recovery be good and know to be bad tubes, and my conclusion is, it just derives a good/bad value from the already know Gm value. Same principle as AVO, but they (have to) do it in another way, in a very strange way, and in Oldsmobile the end the RESULT is the same as with AVO. Test results: With a socket adapter, I just measured the plate current of the Operations-Manual_template, tube, while turning the ENGLISH dial, and guess what. Nothing changes! Only the Car Art 1955, needle moves when you turn the English dial. So I can only Pdf | conclude, this changes the sensitivity of the red-green meter, and nothing else. Still the :: Classic Car Art Ads ::, English test is the most used, since it tells you good or bad, and the setting of the Roads, English pot meter from the roll chart, is the knowledge of the old tube exerts, put into the tester.
Admitted is, the results are very reliable, that's why I keep my Hickoks, no matter what. Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile! Some testers like TV7 have only the English test. Will upload pictures later. This is an 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template older kind of tester, probably already having the Hickok patent inside. For Calibration, multi meter. This beautiful old multi meter is worth mentioning here. Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! For calibrating a tube tester, you need to measure a voltage or current with some non-sinus wave shape, using an averaging type of meter.
Actually this is so for all Moving Coil meters, and Recovery, not so for some other type meters. Next, you need a 20.000 Ohms per Volt meter, as that was kind of normal in those days, and Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, the voltages measured take into account the load of the Format | Survey Template, multi meter So with a digital meter, you make some errors. This meter is no load to the circuit, and also it may measure RMS instead of Average Value of a non-sinusoidal wave shape. Actually you can still buy new analog multi meters today of 20k ohms per Plan59 1955 Oldsmobile, Volt, there is some Retro thinking with many people, just trust a good old analog meter, that has no empty battery when you want to use it, since is has no battery. The high reputation company Metrix, just introduced the MX-1, new made good old analog 20k/Ohms multi meter. This meter I found for 7 Euro, and it is 8+ Salary Certificate Pdf | Slip great. It is by the East German (DDR) company EAW. This is a tout band meter, meaning it has zero friction, and it has better linearity than a diamond bearing meter.
A tout band meter is very exclusive for Plan59 Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile a multi meter. It has the required 20k Ohms per Volt, that we need. Agile Design! Also nice, it works up to 3000. 8000 Hz depending on the range. This gives even a precise reading of Plan59 Car Art a 100Hz half wave rectified signal, since all higher harmonics products get measured as well. So you feel perhaps you now, this meter is 96 Bdc going to do what you want, if measuring a strange wave shape, such as in the Hickoks or AVO. Even more, when you take it apart, as I did, you can drill holes in the deck for the calibration potentiometers. (Finally an analog multi meter I can calibrate, I never saw that before) It already has those potmeters inside, one for a AC and one for Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage DC. This is really a goody.
Then, It is class 1.5% on DC and AC! I checked it vs. a precision meter, and it has the 1.5% indeed. After calibration is Sample Plan. Sales Plan Pdf it so amazingly precise, and definitely something I can calibrate a tube tester with. Search German EBAY (ebay.de) for: Bakelite multi meter or DDR multi meter you always find a few. People don't know what this is, and think it is old junk. Are looking for a top class TOUT BAND multi meter., for 10 Euro you feel like Alice in Wonderland. Add the calibration holes in the deck, as I did, and you can calibrate it both for AC and DC. I think you have a hard time finding something better. Besides in can test both voltage and current at Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile the same time. Very nice. Well I hope this doesn't make the Testing, prices rise, but there are many of these around, don't over bid!
Sometimes there are five per day at Ebay.de, sometimes none. Hickok 531 (technician model, large case) This is the same as the Plan59 Ads :: 1955, I-177, only the 531 is the civil model. It doesn't have the potted transformer, and Survey., anti fungus treating of the I-177. It is a very old one, so before you buy it make sure it's not rusty inside. It is a nice tester though when you have a good one, though the general rule applies here, if the case looks rotten, the inside is also. Plan59! The mains voltage meter you see with this one, is retro fitted. The standard way to adjust the mains is Reference Letters via the main meter.
CONCLUSION: Better buy am I-177 TWO STARS ***** 2007: Very good one. 200$ 2007: Seems ok. 150$ This was my first tube tester. I have two of those. I bought the first one in Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile 1988 for 45 guilders (20 Euro) in the same old electronics shop, where I bought my stuff when I was a kid.
He had them piled up. (Radio Kwakkelstein in Vlaardingen). Many years later, tube hysteria took off, but he a single one left, that was broken and he still wanted 45 Euro for it. I took it for spare parts, but never needed any. The thing was made to last for ever, and work without maintenance in the humid and warm countries where the US army was saving the world from communism. So even if you find a stinky old one, it might be good still. It tests all tubes from Agreement Format | Survey Template, before the Noval tubes. :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile! For later tubes there is an adapter kit, which by itself is a valuable item, since it is a universal socket adapter for any tube tester, not just I-177 and Operations-Manual_template, not just Hickok. The I-177 is a really fantastic tester, because it gives remarkably reliable results on Ads ::, the good/bad scale. What is also great, it has only two knobs to choose tubes. Instead of nine (!) with the later models. They all need a calibration badly, if never done before.
If this tester says the tube is Letter Pdf | just ok you can bet it that is just what it is. Most of all you get used to the reading when you test the :: Vintage Ads ::, same kind of tubes, and if you see a tube which is into as good as the other, you better throw that tube away. ( or sell it on Ebay (ahem. Reference Recovery! ) Basically this is THE Hickok tester for :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage the pre-noval tubes. The later model was the TV7 , which could do also test Noval tubes. The I-177 has an interesting way it operates, and Sample Sales Plan. Sales – 8+ Free Word,, this is worth a few lines here. They use their famous patented Hickok circuit, but in the I-177 they added a potentiometer which does noting else then change the meter sensitivity. The signal going to :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 the meter has to Reference Letters Roads pass an attenuator potentiometer. This is the L potentiometer. The result of that is, you can test any tube at all, and Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads ::, have a correct reading on the good/bad scale when you know the setting of that attenuator potentiometer. (Of course they knew that at Survey. New Customer Survey Delta Testing New Customer Hickok, and this is the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage, L value in the handbook). Since the good/bad readings are done by measuring true, dynamic Gm, there is also this particular position of that potentiometer where the Gm (micro mho) scale is valid.
This position is marked with gm on the L Pot scale. So the good/bad reading and micro mho reading is 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template done with the same circuit. Their patented Gm measuring circuit is the best of it's kind as far as I know. Due to this patent all other manufacturers had to work without it. It tests all known rectifiers. Also the big triodes like 300B can be tested, and as we know there are not many tube testers that can handle this tube. Not even all later model Hickoks can do a 300B. By experimenting with the settings I can now measure many unlisted tubes with it, like C3g and EM34.
It's really a very nice tester, very much recommended. The circuit diagram is inside the tester on a plastic plate. Plan59 :: Classic! (Fungus proof. Sales Plan. Plan – 8+ Word,! ), and an Excel list with all test data I found in the internet. These will all work in 100 years from now. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage! They used to be cheap, and regardless useless. Some start to understand how good they are, and prices of those went up a lot over 7+ Rental Agreement the last years. The bargain days are over, a good tube tester is expensive no matter what. Ads :: Oldsmobile! I think these are still a good buy for the money. Here is Sample Sales Template – 8+ Word, how to find out settings for an large size tube, like KT88 or so. Find a tube with similar pin out. (that always exists) Set the L pot to the middle position and Gm Sensitivity to 15.000 Set the Bias (R) pot for highest reading.
Now rotate R clockwise, until you read 90% of :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 maximum, and this is the bias setting. May be take a little less when the fuse lamps indicates a lot of current, and you think this is too much. The calibration comes in the next step. Find the right Gm Sensitivity knob setting, so that the meter is nicely in the green. (somewhere) Adjust the L pot until the tube is in the position of the Letter Pdf | Slip, good / bad scale where it belongs. So that is just in the green for a fairly used, just ok tube. Now L + R + Sensitivity is a set of 1955 information that you must use in Agile Design that combination. This is a relatively high bias, which is hardest for the tube. I verified some Hickok settings, this is how they seem to :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 do it.
And that's it. Here is the KT88 setting I found that way. A=8 B=5 Fil=6.3 L=70 R=42, Socket E, Gm switch at 6000. I have not yet tried this for small tubes, like ECC83, but there was no need also. The manual was complete so far.
CONCLUSION: The best of this tester is the good/bad test. It discovers any potentially weak tube. Good buy when you use pre-war tubes. It can give the real Gm value of the Agile Design, tubes, and good/bad indication. It has no sockets for modern tubes. Use the MX949 adapter kit, and you can test any modern tube also. Make sure when you buy the adapter kit, you have the extended manual with it, otherwise you only :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 have the adapter kit, but not the settings for it. They are all extremely out of calibration, so that needs to be done for 100% sure, unless the Certificate Letter Salary Slip, seller did it already for you. Car Art 1955! (I am sorry, we do not offer calibration service). 96 Bdc! THREE STARS *****
Hickok 533A, 533B (technician model, large case) The A-Version uses only Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile a 2.5V test signal, which is too high for small signal tubes, and some of those can not be tested accurately or not tested at all. The B-Version deals with this problem, and has adjustable test signals starting with 0,25V. Tubes that need lower input signal, are tested with lower signal. Letters - Better Roads Recovery! The ranges are switched automatically when you change through the Gm scales. So 533B is much preferred over 533A, if you also want to test the :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, later kind of tubes. Hickok 534A, 534B (technician model, large case) The 534 is a 533 with a build-in multi meter.
For all other information, refer to the 533, also for the issue with the Sample Sales Plan – 8+ Word, Pdf, test signal voltage. (So 534B is much preferred over 543A ) Hickok TV7 (technician model, small case) This one came after the I-177, reminds me a bit of the 600. It has very few sockets. No direct reading of Plan59 Car Art Oldsmobile Gm in micromho. Reference Letters Roads! It has very straight forward way of Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 operating it. What is nice, is the Sales Plan. Sales Plan – 8+ Word,, test switch and the short-circuit switch are combined, so you go automatically through the :: Classic :: Vintage Ads ::, short test, before doing functional testing. Very popular tester.
Switches inside are ceramic. Very good service documentation exists still today, and it has nicely arranged calibration settings inside. So if you only want to Salary Slip do a good/bad test without knowing what or why, this is your tester. CONCLUSION: Disadvantage: High market price, low functionality. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Advantage: Compact reliable, easy to access internal circuit . I regard it a serious shortcoming, it gives no tube parameter of any kind. Operations-Manual_template! Just percent. Hickok 600 (technician model, small case) This is Plan59 Oldsmobile a simplified version of the Plan. Plan – 8+ Free Pdf, 5xx series.
They left away some test options like lifetime test. It has lower precision than the Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, larger laboratory testers, and there is no way to calibrate it more precise than what it was made for. Agile Design! Reason is, the Gm reading is done with a particular setting of the English scale. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955! For instance for the 3000mmho scale, you must set the English pot to the red dot 3000. Then read on the 3000mmho scale. Customer Survey. Delta Testing! So this saves the range switch, the 5xx series has. The 600 has a red dot painted on the English scale for each range. However, the 3000 dot is Ads :: almost at the beginning of the Customer New Customer, scale, may be only 10. 15 wire windings away from it.
When you try to set it precise, you will notice each winding of the :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, wire wound the Reference Letters, pot meter will give a change of the meter indication. So no matter how small the Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, dot is, at the beginning or at the end of the dot, you have two different readings. Agile Design! Needless to say, the position of that dot is hypercritical. It means you depend on Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, the original factory precision, and you have no practical way to make the 8+ Salary Letter Pdf | Salary, tester any better than that. However the :: Classic :: Vintage 1955, small size and simply way to operate it, made it very popular. Slip! It sort if did what the not-so-critical technician needed, and frankly speaking it still does so today. Hickok 600A (technician model, small case) I do not know what the extra feature of the 600A is compared to Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: the 600. The tester you see here, is my own but I sold it in 2011. New Customer Delta Testing! The advantage of these smaller ones is their weight and size. The only practical disadvantage I see, is some smaller accuracy, but you have to know for Plan59 Oldsmobile yourself what accuracy is a must and what is a want.
Given the Agile Design, age and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, condition, a good 600A can measure within 10. 15% which is more than you need for practical use. How to use it, with pictures. This is from my own 600A: 3) Read tube test result. Here for 12AT7 EHX new tube. Reference - Better Roads Recovery! This is a strong one. Hickok 605A (technician model, small case)
This is the same as the 600, only the 605A has a multi meter inside. Hickok 539A, 539B, 539C (laboratory model) The largest laboratory testers. For me, these all have one BIG disadvantage: the English scale is missing. So the tester doesn't tell you if the tube is good or bad. You're supposed to be able to tell this yourself. The so called advantage of the bias setting with it's own voltmeter is only a marketing gimmick, because the scale is too tiny, and :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, unprecise.The the 539 series are easier to calibrate than the 750 series, but a well calibrated 750 is also something very nice.
Just purchased it from Mr. 8+ Salary Letter Pdf |! E. Dekker from Belgium . Will be described in detail later. This is how he offered it on Ebay: This tube tester is Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile fully operational, all controls and roll chart work smoothly. Customer New Customer Survey Delta! The outside black Tolex covering does have nicks and tears but this can easily be recovered. All three meters are fully functional with smooth movement Actually this is the kind of description I can only advise you to look for. No uncles, no friends who tested it.
The seller was the user himself, and Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, he even pictured his tubes tested with this one. New Customer Testing! So I thought I was safe. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage! Then when I received it I could not believe my eyes . The Tolex was fully torn away by some form of idiot. Here is what I received. Pic1 - Pic2 - Pic3. Next thing: This tube tester is fully operational Mr. E. Dekker from Belgium writes. Well, the Gm value reads twice the vale as it should be. 7+ Rental Agreement Words! So it is useless.
He tells me this must have happened in the mail. Interestingly, he points out Plan59 :: Classic Ads ::, already in the auction text to accept no loss of accuracy that happens in the mail . Now look at that. Reference Letters - Better Roads! So he already expected the tester to damage in the mail. (You see what I mean?). Now look at the Ebay picture. This tells it all, but I must admit I didn't notice while bidding.
Here you see a tube tested, and Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, the meter is all in the right corner. I didn't suspect anything yet, because with a very good tube, it can be like that. Customer Survey. Testing! Only the problem is, it does so with ANY tube I try, even a broken one. Press the :: Classic Ads :: Oldsmobile, test button and the meter gives a minimum of 100% reading or more, no matter what tube, even without a tube. Mind you this is sold by a person from Belgium, with over 900 positive feedbacks, and no negative. Well, this tester was broken as can be. I offered to give it back, and he writes: No discussion possible. Don't understand me wrong, this is Sample Plan. Sales Template – 8+ Pdf no way to complain about a bad deal here in EBAY.
I put this here on the web site so you can all see what appears to be normal at the moment. Please learn from this, even people with all positive feedback do this. So this is going to Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: Oldsmobile be my next restoration project. Then I will show here in detail if there were any other hidden defects in this tester, and Sales Sales Word,, what I had to do to repair it. For the readers of this web page, this was my learning experience, and it happened to me, though I really tried to prevent it. Conclusion: This tester gives completely useless readings, the case was wrecked up by Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, a monkey, and the main meter sticks. Both 750 I bought, had good basic substance as I got it. 7+ Rental! No serious damage, and Plan59 Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, only worked by good technicians. Well almost. One had a sticky roll chart, which must have driven the owner crazy, ending up using a big screw driver, violently pushing the wheel, until it all broke down.
But that was all of the mistreatment it got, and I could fix that at almost no cost. I had an NOS roll chart, and digged up a new thumb wheel. Reference Recovery! It seems to Plan59 1955 me, the later roll charts are simply too big, and these roll not smooth for that reason. For making it an accurate tool for daily use, there was a lot to do still. The other 750 I have appears virtually unused, but that doesn't keep the electronics from Survey. New Customer Testing New Customer, aging. The 750 is a refurbished 532, and Hickok tried to replace the Plan59 :: Vintage Ads ::, 539C by it.
My opinion is, the 750 is 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template one of the best Hickoks there is, and more useful than the over hyped 539C. More about this later. What is Ads :: Oldsmobile really nice with the 750, is has additional to the classical two tube Gm test, an adjustable DC voltage of 200V, 100mA. I found both my 750's can not supply full current and full voltage simultaneously, so that must be how they are. When exchanging the 83 rectifier for an 83V, maximum currents exceeds even 100mA, while the micromho readings don't get affected. Perhaps I will change this later, but I think this is going to take some exchange of other components too. At least I need to check this better, and for the moment I will leave it as is. The voltage option lets you test stabilizer tubes, but you can do also other things with it, as you like. If you don't know how to do that, it's better only to test things as indicated on the roll chart.
Later on, I will show you how to 7+ Rental Format | Survey Template Words repeat Funke W19 tests with it. The 750 differs from the :: Vintage Ads ::, smaller testes like 533 and 96 Bdc, 534 because it works with different AC test signals, instead of a fixed signal. It has this in common with the Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955, 539C. This allows testing of tubes with very high gain, so no overdrive will occur. Certificate Letter Pdf | Slip! This makes a 30.000 micromho scale possible. They put back in the load test in the 750, which the 539C is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: missing. I think it was a mistake, to remove that with the 539C. The latter can only measure transconductance, no load test is done. 96 Bdc! Also you can't compare the transconductance you measure with the 539C with your tube book, because the Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, plate voltage of the 539C is too low, and simply wrong for most tubes. Next is, the roll chart data of the 539C is lower than for a new tube. Sample Sales – 8+ Free Word,! That was done to Car Art give you a way to pick out the Sales Plan. Sales, bad tubes, because in Plan59 Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile the end that's what people want.
So Hickok put a non-standard roll chart in the 539C, with lower values than normal. So they printed the reject value on the 539C roll chart, not the new tube value. (of course you 539C users, you all know that. he he). This makes I don't like the 539 so much. To to stop the confusion, Hickok put back in Agile Design the load test in Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile the 750, and 8+ Salary Pdf | Slip, also give standard tube data on :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile, the 750 roll chart, same as with older (normal) testers. That was a good decision. I never found any documentation about how this load (English) test is really done. The word English suggest the AVO method, like in the Mk1/ Mk2. 4, and CT160. I will check that later, with an oscilloscope.
The oldest tester I have, using the AVO so called patented method, is. Agile Design! a German military tester that I estimate from 1938. For the moment let's trust Hickoks experience, giving us the correct English dial setting for each tube. Somebody in Cleveland Ohio (where this tester was made..) must have had a huge cabinet full of good and bad tubes, and just tried out the right settings. The roll chart is the software of the tester, so to say. ( I know it was done like this from the book of Harvey Gizmo Rosenberg, who described the work of Julius Futterman. Before the war, Julius used to work for a company building tube testers, and tube manufacturers would send him all kind of Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 tubes, to update the roll charts) Now go to the restoration page of this tester. There were many things to do.
Please note the repairs are for both my 750's. So you may notice small differences in the pictures. WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE 750 AND WHAT IS NOT IN THE MANUAL: 1) FUNKE W19 simulation. Here is something really new.
With the 750 it is possible to do the Funke W19 tests with your Hickok 750. All you need is the famous Funke Blue book, which costs you about 30..50 Euro, and a copy of the card set which is on Ebay for 15 Euro. The Funke W19 is extremely popular in Europe, a top model, but it is completely ignored in the English speaking territories, except Asia who love the W19 also. Now don't ask me why that is, but this is where we are. The W19 is mainly an Emission tester, and the best and (only) one that deserves the name. Test results are undisputable.
This tester proves what a good Emission Tester can look like. It is at the level of the 7+ Rental Agreement | Survey Template Words, better Hickoks, in terms or reliability, accuracy and correct test results. So if you have a Hickok 750 (or 539), read here is how to do Funke W19 tests on Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, it! 2) Forward voltage of Agile Design rectifier tubes. This is of particular use in the laboratory If you don't know much about Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955, tubes, and only want a quick result, you should use the classical test a by the roll chart. Example: The 80 rectifier to my experience should have a forward voltage of 25..40 Volts at 60mA to be good. 96 Bdc! Where 25V rarely happens, and above 45 the Car Art :: Vintage 1955, bad range begins. Also note what it does at lower filament voltage. A good rectifier does not significantly change it's forward voltage if you do so.
On the Free, other hand, if the forward voltage is Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile higher than normal, and you set the filament voltage one click higher, and the tube significantly improves by Reference Letters Roads, this, the tube is worn out. You can try to ge those results in-line with the classical test as on the roll chart. To do this test, just set up the tube from the roll chart first. Then set the Adjustable Voltage to zero, and the test know to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile position H for high. Flip the Vr-Mils switch to mils, and slowly increase the voltage until you see the milliamps go up.
Check the forward voltage, this is - Better Roads when Vf begins. Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Then go on until you have 60mA and read the Vf now. Then do the 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, other plate (switch setting is at the roll chart). You will see this is very easy to do, and you learn a lot about the tubes. 3) Forward voltage of Power Zener diodes. Same procedure as with tubes.
Only you have to prepare an :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile adapter this. Remove the base from an old octal tube, and Pdf |, connect two wires to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 plate and Customer Survey. New Customer Delta, cathode. Take the connections for the VR105 tube. Make sure you don't reverse the Zener, and don't boost 100mA into a short circuited Zener, that is probably not so good for the tester. You will be surprised how bad solid state zeners actually are, they have high temperature drift, and bad load regulation compared to Plan59 :: Classic tubes like VR150 or VR105. 4) Continuity tester. This one is from the manual actually, but it's nice one. You can use the 750 as a continuity tester, when you set the Plan Free, shorts switch for position 4. Then put two probes in the grid and plate connections. Because the tester has an isolated chassis, this is of no danger.
Then the neon lamp will burn, below 200K resistance. Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! Nice for checking switches, connectors, etc. Hickok . TV2. Military (laboratory model) It can test all tubes under real conditions. It comes in the same category as German Neuberger RPG375 tester, though the last is card tester, not switch operated. TV2 is unpopular though, but I never had one here, so I can not say what is the reason.
What is unattractive (for me) about a TV2 is following: It is a tube analyzer, not a tube tester. Now when you have an analyzer, you often want to connect a multi meter to it somewhere, like measure the filament current with a digital meter, or one of the voltages. It often comes down to that when I use the 96 Bdc, RPG375. So a voltage test point AND a removable current bridge on all tube connections. :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! Particularly THIS is why I use an analyzer like U61B or RPG375. Next thing is, you can set the plate voltage and Delta New Customer, grid voltage nicely by the data book, and then get a test result called Percent Quality.
Whatever that is supposed to be, that is not what to know. When I must set exactly plate voltage, and grid voltage, I am sorry, but then I want to :: Classic Ads :: 1955 see the plate voltage and Gm as a result, and additional some Quality indication in percent. Survey Delta Testing! Still for that I rather have the red-green scale if the :: Classic 1955, 750A or 600A. Then I know what I have. So personally, I think this is Survey. Survey what makes TV2 a strange thing. It seems to me people don't know what it's worth, I have seen them go on :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, Ebay in nice condition for 200$. Also see people ask 1800$ for Agile Design it, which is definitely not what they are worth. When you are prepared to that much, you better buy a guaranteed to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 be mint condition Neuberger RPG375 or Metrix U61B, and enjoy that tester for the rest of Pdf | Salary your life.
Working on Hickoks means they are easy to :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 access inside, but the wire spaghetti makes you very tired. Actual failures are small, but hard to find. While working on a Neuberger RPG375 is 96 Bdc a pleasure. Ads :: 1955! All inside parts are nicely arranged in Reference - Better Roads a row, on metal sub chassis, with clear cabling. Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! It makes you realize what a top class product can be like if the makers just want it. You can repair a Neuberger RPG375 with an uncalibrated multi meter, and basic electronics knowledge. You can't say that from a Hickok. (However this does not apply for 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template the older Neubergers, these are very hard to service as well.
However the Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955, compare here is between the TV2 and the RPG375. Hickok . Format! MX-1258/U Tube Socket Adapter. This Adapter Kit was manufactured for the Navy Department-Bureau of Ships by the Vector Electronic Co. of Los Angeles, California. It consists of Plan59 :: Vintage nine types of adapters, mounted within an aluminum transit case approximately 6 x 9 x 2 1/2 complete with handle. The adapters are secured within the case by means of mounting clips.
An addition clip for securing the Survey. New Customer Survey New Customer, instruction book is provided in the case lid. Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile! Pin straighteners for the 7 and Sample Template – 8+ Free Word,, 9 pin miniature bases are permanently mounted in the center of the transit case. The tube socket adapter kit is intended for use in general electronics testing on equipment employing electron tubes. The nine adapters contained in the kit provide the facility for Plan59 Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile testing circuit conditions with practically all of the commonly used electron tubes. Functions in English (click picture) KALIBR. Model L3-3 from 1986. The L3-3 is the latest model, with silicon diodes, but all electronics is Agreement Template Words with tubes. Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile! The L3-2 is similar, but has still tube rectifiers inside. Certificate Pdf | Salary Slip! The L3-3 is is one of the most amazing testers I know.
When I bought mine in 2004, the Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, tube tester market was not so over Agile Design hyped as it is now, and this tester was regarded unknown Russian stuff of little interest. Right now, things have changed. Understanding of this product has improved at least 15% over the last 15 years. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile! (Yes, this means what you think it means:) Who used old instruments, containing power electronics, will all know they need a repair sometimes. Something breaks here, something gets s defective there, and it just belongs to daily use of an old instruments. One L3-3 I have is NOS, means it was never used before. That is not always an advantage for old equipment, because often that means, electrolytic capacitors are bad. The other one was used very often, and it was officially calibrated every year until 1999, which was the last calibration sticker on | Survey Template Words, it. The NOS one stabilized perfectly after 100 hours, and the used one worked perfect right out of the shipment box. All I had with mine, was a minor problem with a plastic cover from the inside detoriating.
That I can replace easily by Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955, a wooden cover. My L3 never needed never any repairs at all. Only service, like a defective control lamp. All parts are still original, even the tubes. Agile Design! In the Plan59 Ads :: 1955, beginning I was a bit worried about the tubes, but these are good, and Survey. New Customer Survey Delta, they stay good.
These are tubes that are just in there, and I never think about :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile, them. The rotation switch for the leakage current has ceramic decks, and are all shiny like new. EBAY BUYING ADVISE: Unfortunately the Sales Plan Template – 8+ Pdf, supply of new, NOS, perfect quality, L3-3 is low now, which attracts fraudulent sellers at Ebay. The problem is with Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Slovenian, etc sellers. The problem is, people like to go by the good looks, but an L3-3 ALWAYS looks good, also defective ones look good. Plan59 Car Art 1955! They sell simply those defective testers, with some emergency repairs, a questionable panel meter, damaged transformers or a cable burn inside.
You are the looser when they ship you this, since you have problems with huge shipment cost, when you want to send it back. This is not nice to say, but from these people, it is not really recommended to buy. So you are generally better of, buying the 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, tester from Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage, near-by. Also, it is much recommended to request a known tube, pictured in the test mode, so you can see the Survey. Survey New Customer, thing works. When they already write on :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, Ebay not to be responsible for Customer Survey. New Customer Survey Delta Testing New Customer shipment problems, this can be a trap, to send you a damaged tester. Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! I feel sorry to say this, because there are sure many honest sellers too.
However specially since you may not find a hidden defect so quickly, and since back shipment is very expensive, make sure you buy a perfect tester, and also clarify the details for back shipment cost, id needed. 96 Bdc! It's just not fun getting send a broken tester, and having to pay back shipment cost. Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile! It's very much advised to buy this from a 100% positive feedback seller only. 7+ Rental Template! Forget 99%. Myself, always when something strange happens it was with those 99% sellers. :: Classic :: Vintage Ads ::! After all there are enough offered on Ebay. Just wait until a100% positive seller offers one. Such a person has a reputation to loose, so you are much safer. Read here also. Not recommended sellers: Be careful with a buyer from Budapest with tons of Customer New Customer Survey New Customer other equipment, he opens new accounts frequently on Ebay. Names seen before: hickoks, sunnygirl505.
CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. Best buy ever for the money. It gets a well-deserved: KALIBR. Chinese Version. These pictures were send to me by email, the sender says this tester is often used in China. I have never seen this version. If you look carefully, you can see on :: Classic :: Vintage 1955, the test card is a meter print, same as with the Certificate Salary Slip, Funke. It has two mains transformers. From the different hardware and different switches on the deck, this seems a special model. but it can be easily recognized the factory is the same. It might have been a good idea to add this scale to :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile the L3-3 cards.
Ebay prices seen: 2006: Defective: 350€ Company website they seem to Operations-Manual_template be hiding it. If somebody can find it, let me know, so I can link it here. METRIX-U61B / or U61 B. Somehow, this one does the same as the RPG375, but is deals with the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, negative points the RPG375 has. The Metrix U61B has no cards but many switches. So it is more universal, and Letters Recovery, I find it quicker to use. Also the :: Classic :: Vintage Ads ::, internal voltages are electronically stabilized, so no readjusting of plate voltage when a tube draws more current.
Also it has connections at Agile Design the front plate for digital instruments. Vacuum quality can be measured with tube testers like this very good. For better measurements, this beautiful instrument has a special connection to measure grid current directly, by connecting a nano-ampere meter to the tester. Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955! A great feature is the 96 Bdc, tube protector circuit. :: Classic 1955! When the 96 Bdc, plate current meter is more than 25% above the maximum of the meter, the plate current will shut down, and you need to reset it. This is done with a very special, programmable current sensitive relay. So at each meter setting, it has another sensitivity. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile! Another protection is when a tube has a short circuit, this will disconnect the whole tester from the Customer Survey., mains, and a red indicator pin comes out of the Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile, front panel, that you need to press back in, to switch on the tester again. This is a master piece. I use it for the very expensive and delicate tubes, like ECC803S etc., because of the plate current protection circuit. Also well suited for Reference Recovery testing large numbers of tubes, Because of the protection circuits.
So with this tester you can let a tube run warm and go away, and do something else meanwhile. When the tube starts to draw too much current, while you don't see it, the Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage, tester will shut down with a loud clack. It happens often with KT88. Agreement Format | Survey Template! So you'll hear that and can check it. In a few words: Top class tester, when you are not too lazy to repair sometimes something. I had a few small repairs with mine, just some small capacitors were bad. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Very convenient, and very versatile to use. New Customer! Switch numbering is according to the data sheets, and even unknown tubes you can do i if you know the tester better. 2005: untested 35€ (mine!) Neuberger RPG237 from 1938. Lovely build tester, with high quality switches and precise meters.
The Neuberger RPG 237 was a standard for it's time. It is an AC Tester, sweeping a tube through the :: Classic, WHOLE RANGE tube curves while testing it. So getting 20mA as test result, means it sweeped the tube through the complete set of tube curves, at different plate voltages and different grid voltages, and Customer Survey. Survey Testing, it produced 20mA as an Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 average value. Suppose you measure a tube that must give 20mA at normal settings. The RPG237 then gives a very good impression of the lifetime left in the tube, because if the tube can do the 20mA, but can NOT do the peak current any more, you will get a lower reading than 20mA, which is right! This instrument is Reference a genius. Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Plate voltage, screen grid and control grid can be separately set. With the differential of Operations-Manual_template two measurements this allows to determine transconductance (mA/V), gain and Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, Rp. With dual tubes you can get the result of each tube, just by the flip of switch, also for rectifiers.
It can test for: vacuum leakage, short circuits at all electrodes, measure resistors and capacitors. Apart from tubes, it has some multi meter functions, also for testing capacitors. I tried a few Mundorf precision capacitors, and all I can say, it indicated the values exactly as printed on the capacitors. Wow! It's not in the manual, but since it can measure e capacitance, I guess it should be able to measure grid capacitance as well. Just a matter of 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template connecting everything the right way. What I do have to :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile say here, this measurement method is generally inaccurate. Even the Customer Survey. New Customer Survey Delta Testing, so called top class AVO's give nothing but a rough estimation. :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile! However. not with this tester!
Interesting is that although there is little electronics inside, it produces accurate results with tubes like ECC81 or similar. I had to connect those externally, because it has no sockets for those. When comparing the Agile Design, results on the L3-3, I can say this RPG237 still works fine. So for instance when a tube has a true and correct 10mA on the L3-3, this old and unrestored RPG237 gave also that value within 15%. Yes, really amazing!
Also ECC83 it measures nice, which is a very difficult tube because of high Rp. I need to look deeper in the concept of this tester, and understand why it works so reliable after almost 70(!) years unserviced condition. In a few words: Still perfect fine after 70 years. Ads :: Oldsmobile! AMAZING. It gives correct and reliable results, also to modern and difficult tubes like E88CC. The disadvantage it has no modern sockets, but you can solve that easily by connecting a Hickok adapter kit MX949 to it, and you're done. Testing 211 tube.
Ebay prices seen: 2005: Very good one: 850€ 2007 Very good one: 1120€ 2008. Very good one 1509€ (link) 2011. Very good one 2500€ (link)
Their final model, and Sample Template – 8+ Word, Pdf, largest tube tester they ever made. The Neuberger company still exists. This is a parametric tester. Can measure vacuum, and show all parameters at the same time. Dynamic tests are made as difference of :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 two measurements. I have this Neuberger 375 from the widow of the first owner, and it was said he never used it. Certificate Letter Salary! The tester appeared fully unused indeed.
The meters are very good. They have strong damping, and not electrostatic like found with some Hickoks. All voltages + currents can be measured at Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile the same time. Some meters have more functions. Connections are on the front for external instruments, but the build-in instruments appear to be incredible precise, so you don't need any external instruments.
This is no quick tester for radio shops or TV Repair men. This is a full featured laboratory instrument. Letters Roads Recovery! It is card-based, but no need for using cards. When you want you can do all settings by :: Vintage 1955, hand, and 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, there are standard banana connectors to all tube pins, and also current links to Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile each tube pin. So you want to test for instance the leakage current with your digital meter? No problem, take out the Sales Plan – 8+ Free Word, Pdf, link, and put the Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, meter in. If you know how to Plan. Plan Template Pdf do it, you can also tap the Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, plate voltages and 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, other voltages, use it as a multiple power supply for lab experiments, with all voltages and Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, currents adjustable, and with meters. So you have a 500V 100mA power supply too, and connections are simply on Customer Survey. New Customer Delta New Customer, the main plug-in board, top left. (see the picture I used). The plate voltage is tube rectified with Telefunken tubes.
These give natural protection against short circuit. So a short circuit will not blow the fuse or the tube under test, but uses the rectifier tubes as the current limiter. I would say, with this tester you can test almost any tube. I have tested the 211 with it, which is :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile a high voltage tube, but the tube curves do go down to 500V, and at those points I tested some new 211, and the data from the curves reproduces very nice at this tester. Reference Letters - Better! (See pictures here) Also the 6C33 can be tested when you use an extra socket, same method as with the 211 tube. So you just pick the tube connections from the main panel with normal banana plugs. So there is a (banana plug) connector for plate, two for :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 filament etc etc. As far as I know, there is Reference - Better Roads no other tube tester that can supply the filament current for the 6C33. It features the very nice Neuberger Rotational switch, before you test a tube, you can do leakage or shorts.
This switch works the same as the Funke W19 or W20. Inside you find top class instruments, finest resistors and electronics, extremely well made, beautiful switches and controls. It is the absolute winner in terms of perfect construction, no other product comes near. Note the deck has no German on English words, only symbols. So any country, you can use it. In a few words: A top laboratory product, when you have the Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, muscles to carry it. Disadvantage is the unstabilized voltages, and older type sockets are not available on this tester. However it is one of the few (or only?) vintage testers that can do adjustable 500V @ 100mA. It can test all tubes from tiny fragile to big and heavy.
The card system makes it fully universal, and SAFE. So you when have a test card, you can not do much wrong. If you want to test a 50Watt tube at 50 Watt, this is your tester. Besides it is Agreement Format | Survey a perfect work bench adjustable power supply, with convenient banana sockets for all voltages, and each with it's own meter. Just make the right card for this yourself!
Prices seen of 1500€ are fully justified, I expect more price raises for this mega piece of hardware. Above pictures show some versions. As you can see the case is always individually made. ROETEST KIT BY HELMUT WAIGEL, GERMANY. Originally listed as a DIY Product, I have removed it from this category, and put in under professional products, right here. This a KIT version. What is provided by :: Classic Car Art 1955, the maker, is all hard to Agile Design get hardware, such as the mains transformer, pre-programmed microchip, the front plate, empty printed circuit boards, etc. All the rest, like normal capacitors, resistors, switches etc you buy yourself where you like. RoeTest is German for tube-test.
This very nice product, is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile privately made by Helmut Weigl in Agile Design Germany. This is digital tube tester, the most interesting one I know. This is a kit, so you have to build it all by yourself. What you see here, is a possible way it can look, as made by the DIY builders. So the :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile, housing is your own project. What you can buy is a CD with the circuits, the description, the software, plots of the printed circuit boards, a drawing of the front plate + company address who makes the Customer Survey Delta, front plate for Plan59 Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile you (or design your own). Reference Roads! Printed circuit boards can also be provided to Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile you, as well as some of the hard-to-get hardware parts such as the transformer. Format | Survey Words! This list ends with the on-board software that you get burned into :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, a micro processor which is 8+ Salary Certificate Salary Slip part of the ROETEST DIY project. All of that for a price that I think is extremely reasonable. The pleasant thing is, this tester is kind of non-compromise. It is based on Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile, a motherboard, and then simply one board for each function.
So you have a grid voltage board, a plate voltage board. etc. Any problem with a board is automatically reduced to 96 Bdc that one board only. Kind of easy to repair and easy to service. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955! Not fo forget a FULL switchable relay matrix board. There is a software database which is updated via Helmuth, helped by 7+ Rental Words, a growing community of users. :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile! That database alone is Sample Sales Plan fabulous. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! This product is Certificate Letter Salary Slip really it when you are a DIY. Brief specifications: Anode max, 606V 250mA. Heater 0. 127V.
Until 12,75V 5A. Until 127V 500mA. Test resolution 12Bit. SOFIA TUBE TESTER BY AUDIOMATICA, ITALY. This was the :: Classic, first commercially available computer tube tester, and it was and still is Customer Survey. Survey Testing New Customer a very good machine. Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile! The advantage lies in it's very high working voltages and currents, combined with 16 bit resolution. There is no other tester that can do 700V at 250mA not even old analog tester, I do not know of one. The disadvantage is, there is no support of Agreement Format | Survey any kind. Only thing is, you can send it in for :: Vintage 1955 repair, and they can try to Format Template fix it as long as they have parts for :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 it.
You need to run it under DOS, and the schematics they do not give to product owners. Sample Sales Plan. Plan Template Word, Pdf! This is accepted for Ads :: 1955 running production, but for Recovery a discontinued product, I miss the point of this. In fact not supporting old customers with this, personally this generates very negative feelings with me. Of course this is Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955 only my personal view. Certificate Letter Pdf | Salary! So before I buy a new product from Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, this company, I think also of the Format | Survey Template Words, day where it will be discontinued, and I get stuck without schematics. This tester was made for DOS only. Plan59 :: Classic Oldsmobile! It will not work good under windows, since it needs real time access to Agile Design the RS232 and LPT1 port, and Plan59, not the manipulated ports as in Windows versions. A DOS emulator solution exist, but it works not fully reliable.
What is it worth? Hard to Agile Design say. Defective ones have been spotted, and the D/A and A/D converters don't get any better if they age. So the one you buy many be fine, or just as well not. Take care before you buy one. Repairing a Sofia will be not easy. What is good and bad about it: +++ Top class software. Curves are professional looking. Not those Microsoft curves of the Amplitrex. ++ Excellent tube curves by default. Also real pentode curves, Ultra Linear curves with programmable feedback percentage.
So called specialists that design tube testers, should open their eyes, and look out in :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile the world, what things already excists. Sorry for saying this, but it has to 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template be said. + Curves and all tube data in Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 one test, High digital resolution, wide range. + Perfect graphics. It is amazing what DOS can do. Sales Template Free Word,! To me it looks and works the same as windows. + Speed!
It is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 amazingly faster than the Amplitrex. It seems to use a second microprocessor for the A/D conversion. + Genius matching software. Made by intelligent people, who did their homework. + On-screen monitor for tube burn in. + It can simply do more things than the Amplitrex. - They are off calibration after a long time, but error is minimal.
- Tube connections must be done with plugs. - Possibly defective after short circuit. - Factory support is Agile Design strange. - Grid voltage is measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to the grid, and it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile do)
Conclusion: Sofia is Agile Design a laboratory instrument for experienced engineers only. :: Classic Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! You need to install it under DOS, but this gets rewarded by Customer Survey. Survey Testing New Customer, superior speed, and beautiful software functionality. It is not very well short circuit protected, and Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Oldsmobile, idiot operation protection fails completely. Operations-Manual_template! Hardware issues I have seen almost none, only insufficient cooling of the fly back diode in Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile the heater power supply regulator, and unprofessional mounting of the Operations-Manual_template, AC to :: Vintage Oldsmobile DC rectifier (the one that feeds the whole tester). This short list ends already ends all problems I know about Template – 8+ Pdf, ever since 1995. :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile! So, a totally perfect result. The tester damages easily by mistakes.
Consider, if the Agile Design, the tester is damaged, chances on repair are good. I can try for you. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile! Extremely negative is for Survey Delta Testing me the issue with the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art, grid voltage error. It can not have five stars because of this. Same reason applies for Plan. Sales Plan Template Free Pdf the Amplitrex too. A silly mistake. Plan59 Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! Well it happens. Tektronics 576 Curve Tracer System. The 570 was the first curve tracer by Tektronix, followed by the later 576. Though the 576 is not really made to Reference Letters Roads Recovery test tubes, you test tubes with it, when you build a test fixture for it, and you need an external power supply for the heater. There is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile MX949 Unit, originally build as accessory for the Hickok I-177 tube tester.
You can re-build this unit conveniently as a test fixture for Agile Design the Tektronics 576. Alternatively you can use most other old tube testers, even use the roll chart of it, most of the wiring, and the heater transformer. u-Trace, computer controlled. This amazing little tester offers real value for Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile the money. Sales Plan – 8+ Word,! It is Car Art Ads :: 1955 sold as a kit, including almost all electronic parts, the PCB and Agile Design, the software. While I write this, the seller offers this for Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955 220 Euro, which is very attractive. The u-trace does a complete, normal test on the tube. So no tricks with AC signal of whatever. All voltages are stabilized. Agile Design! Testing is in :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile pulse mode, so each test point it touched only short. Like this, the Reference Recovery, power supply uses little RMS power, the Plan59 Ads ::, device stays small, and Agile Design, the power transistors develop little heat.
This is really a good idea, and a nice concept. After the curves are made, from the curves the tube parameters can be determined. Well, as seen before in the SOFIA, so what was good there, is good here also. I like this tester. The disadvantage may be the kit version of course, and no housing. So a lot of works comes your way, but fair enough it's very low cost, and a great result, to my opinion better as the expensive AT1000. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955! The Dutch engineer sure knows his job! The whole PCB runs off a single DC voltage, for Sales Plan. Sales Template – 8+ Word, which you should buy an old notebook power supply on Ebay.
There is no better and cheaper way to Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile get the DC power you need. Operations-Manual_template! What you need to organize yourself, is the tube sockets, or perhaps you want it switches to connect the sockets. Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! You can also connect the Roads Recovery, tube with banana plugs, same as the Sofia tester is doing. (This is not a bad way, as you can easily measure voltage and current that way with additional meters). I want to write more about it, when time allows, and :: Classic Car Art Ads ::, also compare it with some other digital testers I know. Here is the schematic of the TV11.
Superior Instruments TV10. This is a nice Emission Tester. It looks like an antique piece, but it is better than may other later types. Tube testes of this kind have some advantages and some disadvantages. Many Emission Testers were made and are still around. When you buy one of those, you can have one which is nice and pleasant to use, or have one that is Survey. Delta inconvenient, and only so so with the results you get from it. The advantage is Plan59 :: Classic 1955 easy of operation, low cost, a great many were made, and not much can be broken inside. When buying an emission tester, and you want one that is useful, pay attention to this: You need a mains adapter knob, so you can calibrate it for the right mains voltage before making a measurement. You will see that with an emission tester, already smallest changes on the mains voltage give a big reading difference. Take a Variac and try it!
So if this knob is missing, you have a tester that the makers did not care so much about Agile Design, precision. Make sure the Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile, switch panel in the middle has the easy flip switches as with this one. The ones with the miniature slide switches like the Lafayette and newer Eico are a pain to use. You have to set the switches before each measurement, and for the leakage and shorts test you need to test each tube pin one by one, by sliding up and down each miniature switch, which is Agile Design really nasty to do. So if you can quickly flip them as with this one here, it's what you need. A tester with a build in roll chart is better than one with a manual.
A smooth roll chart, you give a throw and it rolls along a few turns by itself. They fool you on Ebay with that. When you need to push the roll chart, and it moves only Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage one inch at a time. beware it is a very long roll of Format | Survey Template paper! This is hard to fix, and in the end the paper will tear and break. You may need a new NOS paper roll, and :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955, that's really hard to 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template get. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile! The leakage test must correctly indicate leakage with the Agile Design, intensity of the Car Art, lamp. That is done by Reference Letters Roads Recovery, defining a certain leakage where the lams begins to Plan59 burn. So the beginning of the glow (faint light) must be at 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template 300.
400k Ohms leakage, nothing else. When the lamp only indicates shorts, that's useless. Old tubes have no shorts, but they do have leakage. To test that, just stick in a 400k resistor at two random pins, and then try to find that leakage. The transformer must not be underrated. If the tester you want to buy is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 very tiny and thin, the transformer is probably underrated. Why does matter?
It means you can not continuously test the tubes, and such a tester will have a test button. This TV10 has no such Test button. It has a test switch. So the TV10 can test a tube continuously, and heat it up while doing so, for instance for 8+ Salary Letter Pdf | Salary 10 minutes if you want it. Many Emission Testers give totally unreliable results, let bad tubes pass, and do not indicate leakage properly. Verify that with tubes that you know to have some specific defects. Make sure it has enough old type sockets. TV10 has the same schematic, only TV11 has a solid state diode and :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile, an output for Customer Survey. New Customer noise tests. The later TV11 works the same, but it has solid state rectifiers for the mains calibration, whereas TV10 has a tube inside for that.
Some later TV10 have Selenium cells build into the meter, making it a pre-version of the TV11. It is recommended to check all resistors, and replace them with new ones when deviation is more than 5%. Conclusion: A very good products, this tester will do all of the above. I was amazed to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage see it gives CORRECT readings for a good 300B and known to be weak 300B. Honestly. Format Words! very few testers can do that, no matter how expensive. Most Hickoks don't even have 300B on the roll chart, because they can't test them. FOUR STARS ***** Precise Tube tester, Model 111.
Why pay 70$ for an EICO KIT when you can have this better one for 69,95$ completely build. Here you can see what a brand name is worth. Mullard Tube tester, Card Matic. Wow! You made it up to here.
You must be a serious tube aficionado.
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Dec 06, 2017 Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile,
Advice on Starting A Coffee Business. Plan59 :: Vintage Oldsmobile. One of the main reasons for starting a business is to make money. Agile Design. If you want to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile make some real money with the coffee retail business, you must follow steps that will lead to Letters Roads that goal. Wake Up and Smell the :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile Profit: 52 Guaranteed Ways to Make More Money in Your Coffee Business by John Richardson (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) This will be the most important factor in your success or lack of Agreement Format | Survey Template Words, it. You may have the best coffee in the world, but if the prospective customers can#8217;t see you, or your access is not convenient, your chances of success will be greatly reduced. Some espresso bars gross $2000-$3000 a day, 70% of this revenue coming from espresso based drinks, and the owners of these establishments put in their pocket (or purse) about $25,000 a month in profits! If you have an excellent location, and assuming that you do everything right, you can expect to gross anywhere from $20,000-$30,000 in Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Oldsmobile, your second month of operation and 7+ Rental Agreement Template end up the :: Vintage first full year with over $500,000 and 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template reach over one million on your third year. Assuming that your rent is $3000-$8000 per Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile, month, this should leave you with 30%-40% of your sales after the break-even point. Therefore, if your rent is $3000 and you gross $20,000 your break-even point will be approximately $12,000 and your earnings about $3000-4000 from the $20,000.
You can figure how much you will make from $500,000 a year or more. Undertown Coffee Port Townsend, WA. The locations with the best probability of success are, in order: Next to colleges and Operations-Manual_template universities, on a commercial walking street Downtown business district, in a large office building Neighborhood commercial walking streets Heavy foot traffic tourist areas, with great visibility Airports and Plan59 Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile large medical facilities (for carts and kiosks) Strip Malls Inside shopping malls. Don#8217;t forget to check with zoning and Restaurant Health Inspection Departments and make sure that they will allow you to open and Agile Design operate such a concept on that location. Plan59 :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile. This is especially important for the drive-thru locations. Besides an attractive visual design, your espresso station must be also designed for speed and efficiency of service so your customers don#8217;t have a long wait. There have been times when I had to wait ten minutes to get served my latte, with only a few people ahead of me. Slow, sloppy service like that may reduce the number of drinks that you sell in 8+ Salary Salary, a given time period, reflecting directly on :: Classic Car Art 1955, your revenues. It will also upset your customers, which will also affect your revenues.
The Successful Coffee House: 22-Day Action Plan to Create a Relevant and Profitable Business by David J. Reference - Better Roads Recovery. Morris (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) If your menu is meaningless and Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile confusing to Agreement Format | Survey Words a new customer, the Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile customer will end up asking for the most familiar item, #8220;house coffee#8221;, and you won#8217;t be able to develop an espresso drink customer base. Think about the price difference between a cup of house coffee and a latte! That difference is almost pure profit. I believe that one of the best ways to build your coffee business is by developing an effective, customer friendly espresso drink based marketing program. By achieving that you will make more money for yourself and Reference Roads be in a stronger position against your competition. After twenty-seven years in this business, I have come to the conclusion that the single most important factor-besides the location- for the success of an espresso operation is whether the :: Classic :: Vintage owner, the CEO or the person responsible for the overall project is an espresso based drink consumer himself or herself, and Sample Sales Sales Template – 8+ Free Word, Pdf understands what a properly prepared drink should taste like.
Unfortunately, properly prepared espresso drinks are hard to find in Ads :: 1955, most parts of this country. So when a prospective CEO or a future franchise owner of a bagel shop, for 8+ Salary Certificate Letter Pdf | Slip, instance, has his or her first #8220;espresso experience#8221; at a place that has no clue, and that first sip proves to be unpleasant or indifferent, these CEO#8217;s never develop a taste for espresso and are probably wondering what all that excitement is all about. With such a mind set, espresso based drinks won#8217;t be on Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, the priority list of 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template, many owners and espresso drinks will represent only a minor part of Plan59 1955 Oldsmobile, their revenues. Most of the coffee sold will be of the Reference - Better Roads Recovery #8220;regular#8221; type. This will result in Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, lower revenues, lower customer satisfaction and Survey Testing the failure of providing the customer with a compelling reason to return on a daily basis. How to Open a Financially Successful Coffee, Espresso Tea Shop by Elizabeth Godsmark (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) If your customers do not like the taste of your espresso based drinks because of Car Art Oldsmobile, faulty preparation techniques, they either won#8217;t order it again or won#8217;t come back. Unfortunately, most of the espresso served in this country has no relation to the real thing, and the only way it can be consumed is by Operations-Manual_template, drowning its thin, overheated, bitter, flavorless, overpriced taste in some fancy flavored syrup. Car Art 1955. By the way, the taste of an espresso based drink has more to 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template do with the way it is prepared, than with the coffee or equipment being used. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::. I had some tasteless cappuccinos prepared with $11.00 a pound coffee with a $10,000 machine, and some excellent ones made from $5.00 a pound and a $3000 machine. You may be surprised to know that most of the espresso operations in 96 Bdc, this country do not understand how to properly prepare espresso based drinks.
By #8220;properly#8221;, I mean good tasting drinks made fast. Though taste is subjective, most of the Plan59 Car Art customers, when tasting the same coffee, prepared with the same machine, but one cup made #8220;right#8221;, and the other made following the training guidelines of the operation, will taste the 7+ Rental Agreement Template Words difference and prefer the #8220;right#8221; cup 95% of the time. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads ::. What is the use of 7+ Rental Format | Survey Template, blending and roasting the best coffee in Plan59 :: Vintage Oldsmobile, the world if it becomes unpalatable during the Agile Design preparation stage at the retail level, and the only way it can be consumed is by drowning its bad taste with flowered syrups? To be really successful in the coffee bar business you must make coffee drinks your main product, and from these, espresso based drinks should account for at least 50% of your total sales. In many of the most profitable and successful coffee bars, espresso based drinks account for over 65% of their total gross sales. You can brew around 50 cups of regular coffee from the same pound, and sell it at $1.00 a cup. That is around $45.00 gross profit!
Add the cost of a paper cup, lid, sugar, cream, and Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955 that brings the cost to around 25 cents per Agile Design, cup. You make 75 cents a cup. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: 1955. Now, let#8217;s go a step further: suppose that most of the coffees sold are espresso based drinks, you would still pay from $5.50-$7.00 a pound for the beans and produce, on the average, around 60 shots from a pound at a cost of around 12 cents for a single shot. Add for the cup, milk, etc., and that would bring the Format | Survey Template Words cost of a cappuccino or latte to around 35 cents. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile. But your sale price per cup, on the average, would be around $2.00.
You make $1.65 a cup! That would make an enormous positive impact on your bottom line! Here are actual statements (rounded) from two of my past stores: Sat Sun doing one third of normal sales. As you can see, 85% of Sales Plan Template – 8+ Free Word,, my gross sales was from espresso based drinks. Summer business one-third to Plan59 :: Classic half of Agreement, normal. Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage 1955. Here are some rough estimates of how much capital you will need to open your business. Fully Equipped Cart or Inside Kiosk: $10,000-$30,000 Fully Equipped Drive-Thru: $25,000-$120,000 Coffee House/ Bar: $50,000 and Reference - Better Roads Recovery up. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile. Let me be more specific about coffee houses: all the equipment (espresso machine, grinders, refrigerators, ice machine, sinks, etc.) that you will need to - Better operate a coffee/bar house will be approximately $18,000, the rest will be used for remodeling costs, furnishings, signs etc. I opened stores from $17,000 to $120,000 for myself, and from $63,000 to $187,000 for my clients. I served as a consultant to clients that opened coffee bars/houses ranging in total initial investment from $50,000 187,000.
Considering that Starbucks invests around $325,000 to open a store, my clients did OK! Your start-up investment to open a coffee bar may vary greatly with the chosen location. Though the cost of the equipment will remain the same, around $18,000, the remodeling costs may go from :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955, $30,000 to $250,000 or more, depending on the quality of the location and the surrounding stores. Obviously, if you are opening in 8+ Salary Certificate Pdf | Salary, a prestige location the landlord will demand a sizable investment to make the store look good, comparable to the adjacent stores. They won#8217;t even talk to you unless you can show them that you have enough capital to develop such a project. Wake Up and Smell the Profit: 52 Guaranteed Ways to Make More Money in Car Art :: Vintage, Your Coffee Business by John Richardson (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) How to Open a Financially Successful Coffee, Espresso Tea Shop by Elizabeth Godsmark (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) The Successful Coffee House: 22-Day Action Plan to Create a Relevant and Profitable Business by David J. Morris (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) Latest posts by Alex Fisenko (see all) Start your next Amazon purchase here. It helps INeedCoffee and costs you nothing extra.
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Dec 06, 2017 Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile,
“How do Locard’s Theory and Individualisation demonstrate that a suspect was present at a crime scene during the commission of an offence?” “Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever he leaves, even unconsciously, will serve as a silent witness against 1955 Oldsmobile him. Not only his fingerprints or his footprints, but his hair, the fibers from his clothes, the glass he breaks, the tool mark he leaves, the paint he scratches, the blood or semen he deposits or collects. 7+ Rental Format Template. All of Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile these and more, bear mute witness against him. This is evidence that does not forget. It is not confused by the excitement of the moment.
It is not absent because human witnesses are. It is factual evidence. Physical evidence cannot be wrong, it cannot perjure itself, it cannot be wholly absent. Only human failure to find it, study and understand it, can diminish its value.” [#1] According to the popular idiom referring to Dr. Sample – 8+ Word, Pdf. Edmond Locard’s theory of exchange “every contact leaves a trace” . Locard’s publications make no mention of an :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile “exchange principle,” although he did make the observation “Il est impossible au malfaiteur d’agir avec l’intensite que suppose l’action criminelle sans laisser des traces de son passage.” (It is impossible for a criminal to act, especially considering the - Better intensity of Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile a crime, without leaving traces of this presence.). The term “principle of exchange” first appears in Sample Sales Plan – 8+, Police and Crime-Detection Today in 1940, and was adapted from Locard’s observations. [#2] That evolved in what we know today as Locard’s theory and found its place in a field of Car Art :: Vintage modern forensic science.
When a crime is committed, police officers and investigators are often left with only small fragments of evidence which are just a part of the bigger image. Certificate Letter. According to Locard by coming into contact with objects at the crime scene, a criminal also takes part of that scene with him. That means there is always some evidence left, even if investigators fail to spot them, that doesn’t mean evidence do not exist. Materials found at the crime scene must link the scene of the murder with the suspect or his personal environment. It is very important to gather the evidence avoiding cross contamination as in court, prosecution’s case against the accused may be based exclusively and essentially on the evidence of the trace materials. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955. [#3] Well acquired and preserved exhibits can be crucial in conviction of a suspect. In Edward Charles Splatt’s case in the final conclusion jury stated that the “the number (of trace materials) was too great to be attributed to 96 Bdc coincidence or accident” and that “the accused must have been so closely in contact with the deceased that he must have been her attacker and indeed her slayer.” [#4] In given scenario we assume that fingerprints and the suspect’s blood are found on :: Classic Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile, a murder weapon at the scene but the suspect denies ever entering the Customer New Customer Survey Testing New Customer premises. We can use given evidence to connect the :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 suspect with the crime scene and Letters - Better try to prove that he was present at the scene during the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile commission of the offence [Fig1]. To achieve that we need at Roads, least three different members of the scientific personnel.
Crime Scene Investigators (CSIs), also known as Scenes of Crime Officers (SOCOs). Their tasks are to attend crime scenes and to protect them to avoid evidence being disturbed. Plan59 :: Classic. Also to record and examine exhibits. The evidence they discover is then used to investigate crimes. Reference Letters Roads Recovery. [#5] During the crime scene examination SOCO’s as much as they cannot forget about retrieving even the smallest piece of evidence they must also keep an eye on the whole context of the situation. While seeking of all of the individual elements or trace materials it is Plan59 :: Classic Oldsmobile important that the Crime Scene Examiner has a holistic approach to the examined case. According to Robertson and Roux (2009) it is almost impossible to identify, test and revise relevant hypotheses otherwise. It is essential to take this under the consideration right at the beginning of the investigation, as later, individual analysts will have to Agile Design conduct their examination of individual materials with what was selected by the crime scene ‘sorter’ and without the benefit of a broader context. At the investigative stage trace evidence may be critical in identifying relevant hypotheses and providing investigative leads. [#6]
Now, let’s assume that during the search of the crime scene a weapon with fingerprints and blood on it was discovered. To find blood, SOCO, which was attending the crime scene mentioned above in text, could choose the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Kastle-Meyer test that uses the substance called phenolphthalein, which is normally colourless, but turns pink in the presence of blood. Another test for blood is luminal, which is sprayed over a room to detect even the tiniest droplets of blood. While recovering fingerprints from 8+ Salary Salary Slip a crime scene, CSI attending should typically use fingerprint powder and a brush. The composition of the powder depends on the manufacturer and type of Plan59 Oldsmobile powder. Agile Design. Some may contain finely ground graphite while others contain finely ground volcanic rock. They also come in a variety of colours, including fluorescent, to increase contrast with the background. In any case, the most important thing is Plan59 :: Vintage that the powder is finely ground and stays very dry. Customer Delta. [#7] Visible prints are made on a card, or on a type of surface that creates an impression, such as blood or dirt. Latent prints are made when sweat, oil and other substances on the skin reproduce the fingerprints on a glass, murder weapon or any other surface the perpetrator has touched. [#8]
During any investigation, Crime Scene Coordinator is responsible for setting the chain of command. Car Art 1955. It helps with providing objective, unbiased, factual and scientific evidence. 8+ Salary Pdf | Salary Slip. Now the fingerprints and Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile the blood sample should be sent for further laboratory investigation. Since the discovery that every person’s fingerprints are unique and after the famous Scheffer’s case from Survey. Testing 1902 (the first case where the Plan59 1955 Oldsmobile identification, arrest and conviction of a murderer was based upon fingerprint evidence) fingerprint analysis became an integral part of the law enforcement process. [#9] A fingerprint expert is the one who has adequate training, scientific knowledge and understanding, as well as structured practice and experience in ridge comparison and identification, allowing him or her to give professional opinion in relation to Reference - Better Recovery fingerprints, palm prints and foot prints [Fig.2] in court. [#10] Lab personnel can check the Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile recovered fingerprints using IDENT1 which is the Certificate United Kingdom’s central national database for holding, searching and comparing biometric information on those who come in contact with the police as detainees being arrested. Information held includes fingerprints, palm prints and Plan59 Car Art Ads :: scene of crime marks. Sales Template Pdf. [#11]
Fingerprint test can establish the suspect’s identity and in conclusion help the police to locate the offender. Also it gives the prove that the murder weapon was held by the same person. The blood sample found at our crime scene was send to the laboratory. Forensic Scientists provide impartial scientific evidence for use in courts of law in order to support the prosecution or defence in Plan59 :: Classic :: Vintage Oldsmobile, criminal and civil investigations. Forensic scientists are primarily concerned with examining contact trace material associated with crimes. This follows the principle that ‘every contact leaves a trace’ which can offer potential evidence to link the Customer Survey. New Customer Testing suspect with the scene of the crime, the victim or the weapon. Using scientific equipment, forensic scientists identify the Plan59 components of the samples and match them up. When analysing the blood found at the scene of a crime, the first thing that has to be determined is whether the stain is actually blood or some other bodily fluid. This is 96 Bdc done using a simple test involving a solution that changes colour when it comes into contact with haemoglobins or peroxidase in Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, the blood.
Another type of test commonly used involves luminal spray, which makes any residue containing blood to glow in the dark as well as picking up on Agile Design, traces of blood that may have been scrubbed away. The next step is confirming whether the bloodstain belongs to a human. Determining to which person the :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile bloodstain belongs involves an Sample Sales Word, Pdf investigation of blood types. The human blood contains over 100 different antigens. Serologists use a number of different blood testing techniques, but by :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile, far the most common and effective technique is the ABO system. For finer results yet, the blood groups can be assigned either a + or a – figure after it [Fig.3]. [#12] After all the evidence were found at the crime scene, sent to the laboratory and examined; the 7+ Rental Agreement Format results can be used to try to prove that the :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: suspect was at the crime scene while committing the offence. We can base our reasoning on Locard’s exchange theory and back it up with inductive logic. When having true premises we can assume that a conclusion must also be true. 1. Evidence was found at the crime scene. 2. Evidence is connected to the suspect.
3. Therefore the suspect must be connected to Reference Letters - Better Roads Recovery the crime scene. As long as proving the existence of the connection between suspect and the crime scene using the evidence previously analysed in the laboratory is not that hard, we still cannot prove irrefutably that the suspect committed the Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 crime and that he was present at the scene while the Sample Sales Plan. Plan Free Word, crime was committed. Plan59 Car Art Oldsmobile. Even during the crime reconstruction which is “the determination of the actions surrounding the commission of a crime.” [#13] , we cannot prove beyond the reasonable doubt that the suspect linked with the murder weapon actually killed the victim. Locard’s theory can help investigators to consolidate the connection between the scene and the suspect but cannot give the answer if the suspect was actually present while committing the murder. Doing so involves further interrogation of the suspect combined with presenting him previously gathered evidences for the purpose of obtaining the suspect’s statement. According to 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template Douglas (1992) violent crime scenes (e.g. murder) require investigators to be “diagnosticians.” To make sure that the offender will be discovered and prosecuted investigators must take under the consideration that the final result depends on their insight into the dynamics of Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile human behaviour. Considering the evidence found at 7+ Rental, the crime scenes investigators can try to link the suspect with the murder by Plan59 :: Classic Car Art Oldsmobile, working out his modus operandi (M.O.), which is the offender’s actions while committing the crime, and consider victimology (characteristics of the victims) in order to eliminate the connection to Agile Design one offender. [#14] In conclusion using only Locard’s Theory and Individualisation to demonstrate that a suspect was present at Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage, the crime scene during the Agile Design commission of the offence is not enough for certain conviction. It should be used as a main basis during the crime scene investigation but it must be combined with other forensic methods and principles in order to :: Classic Car Art Ads :: produce a fully satisfying and unquestionable results. #1. Kirk, L.P. (1953) Crime investigation: physical evidence and the police laboratory.
New York: Interscience Publishers. #2. Morrish R. (1940) The Police and New Customer Survey New Customer Crime-Detection Today . London: Oxford University Press, p.72. #4. South Australia: Royal Commission (1984) Report Concerning the Conviction of Edward Charles Splatt, Gov. Printer. #6. Robertson, J. and Roux, C. (2010) ‘Trace evidence: Here today, gone tomorrow?’, Science Justice, 50 (1), pp.18-22. #13.
Chisum, J. (1999) ‘An Introduction to Crime Reconstruction’ in Turvey B. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis . London: Academic Press. #14. Douglas, J.E. and Munn C. (1992) Violent Crime Scene Analysis: Modus Operandi, Signature, and Stagin. Plan59 Ads :: Oldsmobile. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. “The Criminal Justice System operates free of prejudice and Survey. Survey Testing discrimination.” In this work I would like to :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 highlight the Sales Plan. Template Free issue of gender differentiation in the modern justice system. Are we all equal in Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, the eyes of the law? Are we judged for our crimes or are we judged according to our gender?
In order to address these questions I have used articles from three different disciplines: law, criminology and forensics. At first it could seem that there is no reason for discussion. In the modern era of female emancipation and human rights there should be no doubt if our justice system still stays prejudice in the area of Reference - Better Recovery gender differences and see us all as equals when we face the law. To my great disappointment data I have got familiar with seems to state otherwise. Is it the fault of the :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile male culture overpowering all the main government bodies and disciplines during all these years of patriarchal control?
Is it that ‘macho’ practice became institutionalised and implemented as a normal acceptable social norm of behaviour? If we consider how our law has historically criminalised aggression – how certain types of anti-social conduct have been targeted, while other have been either formally or practically left unregulated, we can see a distinction according to gender. Does it mean that such law is reflecting only male patterns of behaviour and Operations-Manual_template exclusively accepts only male standards of adequate conduct? Let’s take a closer look. Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice: Edward’s Women on Trial . In Doris Marie Provine (1986) review essay of “Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice: Edward`s Women on :: Classic Car Art, Trial ” she seems to agree with the author’s point of view that the crime itself is prevalently a male activity although it can’t be simplified by Customer Delta Testing New Customer, the opinion that as men are the main group of the offenders therefore crime is a male `activity`. Unequal division of “guilt” can be immediately noticed. Men and women tend to `take the lead` in different categories of law-breaking activities [Fig.1]. As men outnumber women in nearly every type of the offence, women tend to distinct themselves in prostitution, shoplifting and welfare frauds (Provine, 1986, p.571).
Can it be said that we are dealing with strictly divided male and female crime? If so, should the matter of gender be taken under the consideration while standing a trial? The record gathered by Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, Edward’s (1984) points out that men and women charged with similar crimes tend to be judged and sentenced on the same ground suggesting that the offender’s gender has only a small influence on the course of the case, although the history of Customer Survey. New Customer Delta judicial system demonstrates that even a ‘small impact’ can play a huge role in the final verdict of the court. Apparently patterns of chivalry and paternalism can be observed in the male ranks of the police, prosecutors and judges (Provine,1986, p. 571). What is the Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile cause of 7+ Rental Agreement such behaviour towards female criminality? The answer is not clear.
Women’s participation in criminal activity is relatively smaller than their male counterparts. Does it mean that it can be treated as an exception that can be dealt with less strictness? Data shows that women tend to receive more or less severe sanctions in complete reverse to men while being judged for the same kind of Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile offence [Fig.2]. Customer Survey. New Customer. What the research clearly presents are the double standards regarding female sexuality (Provine, 1986, p.578) and failure in applying a `unisex` approach into the justice system. According to Provine (1986, p. 574) standards that define criminal justice are fluid and people involved consult their own experience in order to determinate what is criminal, what is :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile excusable, what kind of Reference Letters - Better punishment is deserved and when behaviour is deemed inexcusable. It must be taken under consideration that lawmakers rely on their own common-sense understanding of normal male/female relations in creating the penal law (Provine, 1986, p.575). It can’t be overlooked that the system we are talking about was and still is dominated by men lacking the :: Classic Ads :: women’s point of view (Provine, 1986, p.575). Survey Testing New Customer. That to be said we can’t really talk about Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile adopting typical male stereotypes and the impact they have on the perception of the crime by the court, as such, are already implicated in Operations-Manual_template, the law itself.
The same law lacking the female approach tends to believe in sexual stereotypes determined mainly for women. What’s interesting, only by fulfilling these stereotypes women can expect the less harsh treatment in the criminal justice system, as being recognised as a ‘female’ in strictly manly oriented code of law, they seem not to pose the same threat as a “normal” male offender. Never the less such approach is Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955 extremely harmful for females. When engaged in violent crimes they will be undoubtedly disadvantaged as they enter what is New Customer Survey typically considered as a ‘male field of crime’. Women will not only be judged for distinguishing themselves from Car Art Ads :: 1955 a “standard” female stereotype but also according to Provine (1986, p. 579) they will be seen as deviant as they can’t be confronted as men. It is highly possible for them to expect more severe sentences than men in the same position. One of the most feminised crimes is prostitution. Customer New Customer Testing New Customer. Provine (1986, p. 577) states that the English law creates clear double standards: females are subject to prosecution for solicitation, but not males, even if they are homosexuals looking for male customers. In the eyes of law men can only be judged for Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, pimping, keeping a brothel or living on prostitutes earnings (please keep in Agile Design, mind that laws have changed since the Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile time of publishing by Provine). What seems to be strange; it hardly ever happens for prostitutes to Survey. New Customer Survey Delta Testing be arrested. Apparently only these women who work on the street actively looking for clients and exposing themselves publicly with their profession can risk arrest.
According to Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: Provine (1986, p.577) police see prostitution as an offence that harms no one. Maybe because the 96 Bdc system dominated by men can understand prostitute’s clients too well? The administration of British laws regarding prostitution is inflexible and can be characterised by Plan59 Car Art Ads ::, unforgiving attitude towards female sexual activity. Agile Design. It can be clearly seen in the legislative history of various sexual offence statutes. The British effort to monitor prostitution began with the 1824 Vagrancy Act and by 1860 Parliament had widen police powers regarding the prostitution. The Contagious Disease Acts of Car Art Ads :: 1955 1864, 1866, and 1869 allowed the police to compel the women they arrested on the grounds of prostitution to a necessary gynaecological examination.
In the 80s that approach became more paternalistic and legislation of that time focused more on child prostitution and violent behaviour by Sample Plan. Sales Template Free Word,, pimps (I think the “newest” legal document related to prostitution is :: Classic Ads :: Sexual Offences Act 2003). The law regarding female sexual activities is made and regulated by men population. In that case, how can we expect equal treatment for both genders when women who are standing trial before judges can be possibly asking for leniency a very own “service user”? Provine’s review is very satisfying and allows the Template Free reader to get a very close insight into Edward’s work. Unfortunately it clearly lacks a constructive criticism. She definitely agrees with the outcomes of Edward’s research sharing her view on modern female criminology and its advantages and flaws. She also points out that the concept of gender is crucial in Edward’s work as it reminds of the fact that it is society which enforces gender differences in a social context. Sadly Provine seems to forget, maybe blinded by Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, the conviction of total dominance of ‘macho’ culture in every aspect of life, that the society is ‘us’ created by both men and Agile Design women, and gives both genders opportunity to shape our public sphere. Also indicating as a flaw in Plan59 Car Art Ads ::, Edward’s work the fact of Agile Design leaving to Plan59 Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile many topic open to Agreement | Survey Template interpretation by her readers is remarkably unfair as a good research should provide the necessary data (which Women on Trial does) and on to of that it has to stay flexible and open for discussion and criticism as that crystalise the final outcome.
Feminist Criminology and Probation Practice: The Implications for Teaching DipSW (The Diploma in Social Work) Probation Courses. According to Dominelli (1993) law is created by ‘white and upper class men’. That’s why in Kemshall’s (1995, p. 79) opinion it is Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile important to implement knowledge of feminist criminology into nowadays teaching curriculum to avoid wider gender inequalities institutionalised both within Probation and the Criminal Justice system. It is extremely important to take a closer look on the Probation Service and its approach towards dealing with the Sales Plan. Sales Template Free Pdf gender issues. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art 1955. It is vital to ask questions and raise doubts about its efficiency in Agile Design, satisfying the norms of a proper probation service towards female offenders.
Kemshall’s (1995, p. 85) points out that for now it is impossible to accurately answer any of these topics as the ‘maleness’ is the norm to which the experiences of :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 women “should” be compared. That practice is deeply rooted therefore following data doesn’t surprise; in all Criminal Justice agencies only 9% of the 454 assistant’s recorders are women and only 4% of the Agile Design High Court Judges or Lord Justices of Appeal have two X chromosomes (Crook, 1993). On that example stratification of the pyramidal structure of Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile Probation can be easily compared (but I would like to point out Customer New Customer Delta Testing New Customer, that ladies are doing great at the ‘organic work’ [Fig.3]). It is necessary to Plan59 Oldsmobile recognise different realities and different points of Reference view to challenge existing power structures. Unfortunately only few areas have developed specialist services for women delivered by women. Plan59 :: Classic 1955 Oldsmobile. As relatively knew it is important for them to demonstrate a long term durability as only then the significant data can be obtained; although according to Sales Sales Plan Template Free Word, Pdf Kemshall (1995, p. 83) the Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile vast majority of mainstream practice remains untouched by the feminist approach and reflects the marginalised nature of service for women (and now dear Reader have a look at the Fig.3 again and analyse the trend after 1995). Kemshall highlights that the only way of changing the Probation Service to be open and Reference - Better Recovery ready for Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile, new challenges connected with female criminology and treating females in probation with appropriate measures is a need of Sample Sales Sales Plan Template – 8+ Pdf complete deconstruction and rebuild of the theoretical base of Probation practice which is essentially masculinist in orientation. That masculine character of disciplinary procedures, censure and social regulation can be observed on every step of Probation Service which obviously leads to discrimination due to Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile the gender. It is not said that this kind of behaviour is intentional but it’s clear that it derive from 96 Bdc a strictly male background of Plan59 Car Art Ads :: practice.
Unfortunately male staff without a proper training will be destined to treat female service users as men or display unnecessary, patronising approach which might be harmful for the final outcome of the service. That’s why the main goal of modern Probation Service should be actively engaging in introducing its students to modern Feminist Criminology theory to provide necessary comparison with its masculinist counterpart (Kemshall, 1995, p. 87). In Kmeshall’s opinion (1995, p. 90) it is a base that would encourage an active celebration of 7+ Rental Agreement Format | Survey Words diversity and validation of the different experiences of Plan59 Ads :: both men and women within Probation Service. The main goal is to make students aware of masculine nature of disciplinary procedures and how these have been reflected in the Probation Service’s response to women offenders. Unfortunately it looks like proposed approach lacks the Reference Letters Roads explanation on how that situation can be changed (there’s a lot of “shoulds” rather than “hows”). That may lead to students trying to “bypass” the 1955 new curriculum and stick to the old ‘macho culture’ in order to make it more adoptable for female offenders (but that kind of thinking doesn’t solve the problem). Students should be taught how to critically engage with the problem instead of ‘tackling’ it and getting the ‘job done’. They should be introduced to the topic but not indoctrinated by it.
It seems like the feminist theory must be compulsory for everyone both men and female. Sample Sales Word,. What if someone disagree with that concept? Will that person feel as rejected as women for simply differing with them? It should be every student’s own free admission as to agree with that theory or not. Ads :: Oldsmobile. It doesn’t mean that by not supporting changes the person will become a bad Probation Worker (change always have in mind difference but not necessary improvement). Maybe it is not the Feminist Criminal theory to be wildly accepted but the fact that men and women are different not due to the types of crimes they commit (which seems to Letters Roads be the Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile main distinction) but their modus operandi and the reasons behind it? Maybe there should be stricter division between Probation Service for women and men instead of trying to unify changes between the genders known for ages? Kemshall (1995, p. 90) states that it is also a difficult time for women staff and women offenders. Why is 96 Bdc that? It seems like with the introduction of feminist theory people started to :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 realise that there is an actual “problem”.
Readers are bombarded with data of Probation Service being unstaffed by female workers and how ‘macho culture’ is dominant (no wonder if there were, proportionally, few female workers at the time of Kemshall’s publishing) but Kemshall’s still fails to Agile Design explain why. Car Art :: Vintage. She concentrates on sketching the harsh environment for Letters Roads, females in :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, the ranks of Probation Service. The question is; are men creating the “wall” between two genders? Or maybe it is women’s inability to Survey. New Customer find themselves in non-female dominated environment [Fig.4]? Female offenders: Assessment of risk in forensic settings. Annette McKeown in :: Vintage 1955, her work (2010) highlights the volume of research exploring the application of violence risk assessments to female offender population. 8+ Salary Letter Pdf |. She is discussing uncertainties regarding the use of these applications on Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955, women. The article mainly concentrates on HCR-20 (Historical Clinical Risk Management-20) and 8+ Salary Letter Salary VRS-2 (Violence Risk Scale second edition) factors but also mentions PCL-R (Psychopaty Checklist – Revised). Plan59. They play the key role in ascertaining suitability for treatment, progress following treatment, and Agile Design informing decision making progression through the criminal justice system (McKeown, 2010, p. 422).
McKeown in her work is questioning the Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955 use of these factors in assessing women. She points out that they were developed by men for men and they might not be applicable towards women or at least not that efficient in all fields which might lead to production of false data which is not only misleading for researchers but mainly for female offenders as being badly diagnosed may lead to further complications in - Better Recovery, processing their convictions in criminal justice system. Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile. Does using existing risk assessments on female offenders might not indeed capture the risk factors of women? That is why a holistic and woman-centred approach in work with female offenders is so recommended (Department of Health, 2002). According to Forouzan Cooke (2005) the construct of psychopathy varies across gender and warrants consideration. To begin with, the examination of Survey. Testing existing knowledge on female pathways into offending behaviour is in need for Car Art Ads :: 1955, closer investigation.
McKeown is Customer New Customer Delta New Customer trying to answer the Car Art Ads :: question if the meaning of gender difference and its criminal background may indicate a need of finding new assessing techniques or only implementing some changes in 8+ Salary Letter Pdf |, the one’s already existing. In her work she critically approaches every technique of assessment risk factors separately concentrating on the research gathered from many different sources which allows the reader to see the wide spectrum of the issue. Unfortunately some data might be questionable in their results as the topic of gender and risk assessment is relatively new and Car Art Ads :: Oldsmobile lacks the proper acknowledgement from the scientists that; gender does makes a difference. Many reports fail to gather the Customer Survey Testing New Customer sufficient number of test samples. For example a recent large scale prospective study of male and female prisoners in Plan59 Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile, England and Wales was undertaken by Coid et al. (2009) which included 1396 male prisoners and Sample Plan. Plan Free Word, only 321 female prisoners. How comparing such different numbers can give a relatively accurate outcome? Besides, if we take under consideration different motives between two genders in committing offences the results can be questionable. Some scientists try to Car Art :: Vintage overcome the problem of having not enough recipients or too big variation in numbers amongst two genders. In Strand and Belfrage (2001) 63 female patients who entered the Swedish forensic facility over 10 years were compared against 85 male patients admitted to Survey. New Customer Testing two Swedish forensic hospitals in 1998. But once again it is rather debatable how can the group of women across the 10 year period be compared to :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: the group of males just from 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template one certain year? All this may cast a shadow of doubt on McKeown’s work.
Obviously it is :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 not easy to gather the necessary materials in such, fairly new, field. Even thought obtaining data cannot always be easy, it is a good step forward in order to highlight that current methods used to source information and choose respondents should be improved and properly adjusted by the understanding of gender differences. The Criminal Justice System is constantly evolving but the 7+ Rental Agreement Format Words process is slow and sometimes it can be barely seen. The use of stereotypes and prejudice towards women are still present in :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, our everyday life, sometimes fairly condemned as the Agile Design remains of the “past” era of gender intolerance while every now and then unfortunately “enriched” by new cliches. Luckily women’s expectations have changed since the rise of :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile feminist movement. Nowadays women are growing more confident of what they want from the Criminal Justice System, the very same system that was always a domain of Sample Sales Plan Pdf men, deaf and blind to women’s rights who are a different gender with peculiar needs to fulfil.
But what can be noticed, after closer examination of the three articles composing this bibliographic synopsis, is that Criminal Justice System is :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile becoming more aware of women’s rights in the areas of law, criminology and forensic science. Women don’t expect the system to magically change all of a sudden. Format Template. They want to play the key role in shaping its future and have an impact on the changes that are yet to come. :: Classic Car Art Ads ::. Who knows maybe we will witness an inner transformation of Criminal Justice System from a ‘macho culture’ into Agreement Format | Survey Words, a ‘femme fatale’ one #128521; 1. Coid, J. et al. :: Classic :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile. (2009) Gender differences in structured risk assessment: comparing the 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template accuracy of five instruments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(2), pp.337-348. 2. Crook, F. (1993) ‘Discrimination and the criminal justice system’ in Senior, P. and Williams, B. (eds.) Values, Gender and Offending.
Pavic Publication. 3. Department of Health (2002) Women’s mental health: Into the mainstream. Strategic development of mental health care for Car Art :: Vintage Ads ::, women. London: Department of Health. 4. Dominelli, L. Agile Design. (1993) ‘Concluding remarks: gender, values and offending: where to next? A comment on Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile, the conference theme’ in Senior, P. and 8+ Salary Certificate Letter Pdf | Williams, B. (eds.) Values, Gender and Offending. Pavic Publication. 5. :: Vintage Ads :: 1955. Edwards, S.M. (1984) Women on Trial: A Study of the Female Suspect, Defendant and Offender in the Criminal Law and Criminal Justice System.
Dover, N.H: Manchester University Press. 6. Forouzan, E., and Cooke, D.J. (2005) Figuring out la femme fatale: Conceptual and assessment issues concerning psychopathy in females. Behavioral Science and the Law, 23, pp.765-778. 7. 7+ Rental Agreement Format | Survey Words. Kemshall, H. (1995) Feminist criminology and probation practice: The implications for teaching DipSW probation courses. Plan59 Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955. Social Work Education, 14(3), pp.79-93.
8. McKeown, A. (2010) Female offenders: Assessment of risk in forensic settings. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15 (2010), pp.422-429. 9. Provine, D.M. (1986) Review: Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice: Edward’s “Women on Trial”. American Bar Foundation Research Journal , 11(3), pp.571-583. “Fight for your rights: Masculinism as a response against inequality.” I chose to Reference Letters Roads Recovery discuss this particular topic as I feel very strongly about the idea of equality and sensible tolerance that should be natural to every single human being. To be honest, for a very long time I haven’t seen a reason to care much about men’s rights.
As a person I was always aware of :: Vintage my statutory Human Rights but never of the particular right’s that only 96 Bdc Operations-Manual_template apply to men as a collective. It can be argued that if I don’t feel a need for or I don’t have to Plan59 :: Classic Ads :: rely on certain laws to 7+ Rental Agreement be able to execute what I think is Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile my legal right anyway, we can simply forget about the Reference Roads subject. So I did, for a while… As a man I sometimes feel like I’m treated worse on behalf of :: Classic :: Vintage Ads :: Oldsmobile women. Simple little things, starting from primary school where my first lesson was that “girls are smarter than boys” [Fig.1] (it was a general consensus between everyone, starting from the members of Agile Design my family, through all the girls and ending on the teachers) and Plan59 :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile the second lesson taught me that “under no circumstances boys can hit girls…not even with a flower”[Fig.2]. It can be already noticed how these two examples place boys in “dumb and violent” category while girls are taught that they are “smart and untouchable”. I wonder why no one ever tells girls not to hit boys, especially when at the end of Agile Design primary school some of them are taller and stronger than many. Of course it’s a common sense not to Plan59 Car Art 1955 Oldsmobile be violent against anyone without a good reason and obviously everyone should know that…right?
If so, why boys are the group that requires an Reference Letters Roads Recovery extra “curriculum” and reminders? There are many other issues involving men in education. I will not write about all of them as A – it is not really my field and B – I treat this note as a loose opening to a greater discussion. Each of us has a different live form one another, sometimes very peculiar. People that potentially will read this might be from Europe, North America, Asia, Australia and so on. I hope that the example involving early stages of education is something that everyone can, more or less, relate to (…or you may have completely different experiences). Quite often when I try to address my issues with unequal treatment of men by women or by any kind of authority/power I’m accused of being trivial. “Dude, get over :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage it”, “Just be a man and Agile Design deal with it” or “Oh, grow a pair”, does it sound familiar? I don’t agree with that kind of thinking. As humans we should strive to change the environment around us in order to make it a sphere where everyone can live and have equal opportunity to flourish.
Women can always rely on feminism; a movement aimed at defending women’s rights (in a big shortcut) and :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage Oldsmobile what about Agile Design us, men? Feminism was born as a result of women feeling oppressed by men and their rejection of patriarchy as a system of unfair male dominance. Car Art 1955. Good for them! If I wish to Agile Design be petty I could frown upon the fact that the Car Art :: Vintage 1955 word feminism is not underlined in red by 7+ Rental | Survey Words, MS Word in contrary to the words maskulinism and masculism. Instead I would like things to change. Imbalance of power in public sphere, that men and women share together on daily basis, can lead to bullying of one side. It’s important to stress out that as much as tolerance and Car Art :: Vintage Ads :: 1955 equality is vital to obtain, than having a “side” (which may not sound very “equlitish” )and being able to relate yourself to a certain group is fundamental in achieving a healthy balance. Agile Design. Women have feminism to always back them up. What do men have? We have each other.
I’m not talking about good old “bros before hoes” which can be easily countered with another interesting saying “sister before mister”. I would like to notice that the women’s movement since 19 th century can proudly present us with three waves of feminism that acknowledge the :: Classic Car Art Ads :: 1955 Oldsmobile need for constant evolution in order to Sample Sales Plan. Sales Word, Pdf stay relevant. Why the 1955 Oldsmobile need for change? Because roles of women in Customer Survey. Delta Testing New Customer, our society continually change. What about men? Do men don’t evolve in relation to society’s expectations towards them? It seems that women have their union and men live in an ideological diaspora. Hopefully now dear reader you are a tad more interested in what masculinism is. Unfortunately quick Google search revealed scarce information. If you go on Wikipedia you’ll notice a big note before the article on masculinism; “This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Plan59 :: Classic Car Art :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.” That doesn’t sound promising. The Oxford English Dictionary recognises a masculinist as “An advocate of the rights or needs of men”, short and to the point, I like that one. Unfortunately Merriam-Webster defines a masculinist as a person who “advocates male superiority or dominance”, a lovely biased definition that sounds like what men used to 96 Bdc think of feminists (just swap “male” for “female”). Luckily I’ve managed to find a very good definition in :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile, “The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy” [Fig.3]. My only | Survey problem with this definition is :: Classic :: Vintage its beginning “From a feminist point of Agile Design view (…)”; maybe it’s about time that definitions regarding male ideology were written from a male point of view? Maybe it’s about :: Classic Ads :: time that men start taking care of their own problems instead of leaving all that, how honourable”, work for our female counterparts? Don’t you feel something is not right when a feminist portal undertake defending (in a way…) men’s rights (from a feminist point of Plan. Sales Plan view) rather than us men? But men don’t need feminists to tell them “I told us so…” or “Come, you can play with us”.
We should strive to be all equal and stand next to feminists as masculinists and demolish this out-dated system (it might sound very pompous but it is necessary). Together we can hold it still while you ladies punch it as hard as possible. If what was already said didn’t make you think about the issue of unequal treatment of men and women I have one more fact taken from “An Analysis of Male Victimization” by Dr Malcolm George as a part of Domestic Violence: Findings from a new British Crime Survey self-completion questionnaire (1991). * 4.2% of Plan59 :: Vintage 1955 Oldsmobile women and 4.2% of men reported physical assault by a current or former partner in the last year. That statistic shows that we (men and women) are both on the same boat. What’s worrying is the Agreement Format Template next set of data [Fig.4] showing that even though assault reporting is increasing (great!) in both men and women, men are still less prone to inform anyone about the attack. In my opinion that trend might be linked to campaigns against domestic violence being mostly addressed to women and not men.
Rather than warning and educating about the consequences of aggression in relationship between two human beings they always exhibit men as main perpetrators [Fig.5].