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Lauren Klein Mrs. Imani Stephen ENG 1101 23 October 2012 The Importance of Grades in | Codecanyon School Alfie Kohn explains in his . article, From Degrading to Analysis Of Financial Statements., De-grading, that traditional letter/number grades are a waste of time. Information At Purdue! Kohn believes teachers wrongly relish the Analysis Statements. moments they get to assign a student a grade. His opinion of the best teacher is the one that despises the grade book and wonders about the thought of giving grades at all. Alfie Kohn provides many reasons supporting his beliefs.
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School rules Some of the best years of your life are spent in school . No matter how old you . are, or what grade you are in, you are entitled to the rights listed in the first amendment. This applies to students, in or out of school . The question is are schools taking advantage of your rights? In the 1st Amendment, it says that you have the freedom of speech, religion, and press. Schools say that they make these rules to protect the student body and keep them under control, but. Academic dress , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 770 Words | 3 Pages. * We should follow the rules so that we can maintain peace and organization within our society, economy, and even our country. Without . rules no one would be able to Statements., work together. * Two different kinds of Letter | Ledger people can be heard to utter that question, Why have rules ? One of Analysis them does not believe in rules ; the other believes in rules and adds a few more words to the question, Why have rules , if you are not going to enforce them? I would like to Technology At Purdue, examine both sides of this argument.
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It doesn't take a lot of research to tell us that discipline in school is different today than it was in the 1950s. But it does take some . investigation to find out why. Various studies have shown that students who act up in Technology school express a variety of reasons for doing so: * Some think that teachers don't care about them. * Others don't want to be in school at all. * They don't consider goal setting and success in Of Financial school important anymore. * Students are unaware that their adolescent. College , Education , Grammar school 1059 Words | 4 Pages. ?A citizen is a member of Wordpress Pro Event | Codecanyon a community, state, or nation.
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Was Hitler a Weak Dictator? Essay Sample. The Third Reich, for Hitler, was supposed to have lasted 1000 years minimum, but it only lasted 12 years and four months. Many historians blame this on Of Financial an individual that’s Hitler himself. The argument is based on Hitler being actually a weak dictator that wasn’t able to unite Germany as a new Fuhrer should had, also he didn’t create the basis of In Resume Template » Resume Pdf Template a strong empire but hurried everything up putting on risk everything he had accomplished. As Germany 1918 to 1945 states ‘The inconsistency and contradiction in Of Financial Statements. Nazi Government arose entirely from the Fuhrer’s weaknesses’. When Hitler establishes his control over Germany in How To Write Essay 1933, his power was by no means absolute as Stephen Lee states. For example he never had emergency powers from Of Financial Hindenburg’s, this still gave the Weimar Republic a chance to control him.
However, Hitler used the Weimar State’s own political element, democracy, to destroy it. He strengthened the influence of the NSDPA to later put as many seats in the Reichstag as possible, he controlled meetings of other parties, and passed several laws (he had vast majority in the parliament) to grant him absolute powers over Germany. Nazi Germany definitely didn’t have a head that controlled, ordered and imposed every action to be taken in the German territorylike Italy or Russia had. As an article published by Information the University of Wales states, ‘it was a chaotic collection of Analysis Of Financial individuals and organizations, all of Technology which competed for power and influence’. Analysis Statements.! The final idea here is Sample, that power was too spread all over different jurisdictions, and Hitler had delegated so many jobs to be done that sometimes different groups found them doing the same job. This created difficulties like opposition in the party itself and struggle for influence. A case of this is the roles that the Statements., SS and the Ministry of Propaganda played during Nazi Germany.
In one side the ministry of Propaganda intended to show how well the Nazi regime was working and the benefits of it, on Calendar By Dpereyra the other the SS continued torturing and kidnapping people to spread fear among population. Both organizations couldn’t work together like this as none of them achieved the goals they were intended to. Many organizations came back from the Analysis Statements., past Weimar Republic like the businesses or the army, and new organizations were being created that 1) were replacing them, 2) were a threat to Level - Varilex their interests and 3) some of these opposed to Hitler’s mandates. Statements.! Also struggle among these started and the objective was to achieve Hitler’s good will in order for them to survive. The case of the army putting pressure on Hitler in order to make him turn against » Resume Pdf Template, his SA members was a clear case of this. Analysis Of Financial Statements.! In some way the army controlled Hitler, they may had offered him revolution towards his regime if he didn’t do so and as well Hitler needed a strong and Wordpress Pro Event By Dpereyra | Codecanyon loyal army by is side. Hitler had created several police forces that had major power and Of Financial influence in Germany, these were the Entry Level, SS, the Gestapo (secret police) and the SD. All these were in charge of looking for groups of revolutionaries, to eliminate opposition and to spy Nazi regime’s politicians. However after The Waffen SS, these police forces’ influences expanded to a major extend. They were given influence over the army and Analysis Of Financial Statements. concentration camps; also the SS was given substantial economic and political resources which aided them in their activities.
It’s clear that their influence was to 10+ Temporary be taken into Of Financial Statements., account. Technology! Leaders like Goering and Of Financial Statements. Bormann stood aside of this groups and opposed entirely to their role and expanding influence. Another great dictator that lasted for many years over the control of Soviet Russia was Stalin. He is considered by historians as a very strong dictator, and in some ways almost a brutal one. First of all the Information At Purdue, way Stalin controlled organizations such as the army or propaganda organization was extreme. Any charge that gave an Of Financial individual too much power was eliminated, and the ones that played important roles in the different powers of the Guardianship, state were accused of treason, judged for false charges, and even murdered in order to Analysis Statements. get rid of any possible threat to the regime. Hitler, on the other hand, trusted very much his organizations and its leaders were indeed loyal to him. Except by A Thesis Essay 1933 when he was consolidating power, his actions against leaders of organizations weren’t brutal as Stalin’s purges. ‘Leading Nazi officials were not just puppets of Hitler but exercised real power and were able to influence developments.’ Hitler really trusted his commanders, and politicians as he actually gave them the power to control Germany, Hitler wasn’t the head of everything like Stalin or Mussolini were. The major case here was the Of Financial, assassination of Trotsky, leader of the Red Army, by Fill Soviet intelligence, Stalin didn’t trust no one but himself and Trotsky was gaining too much power. Hitler was a contrast, he gave his Luftwaffe leader Goering full control over Statements. this organism of the Certified Experienced Sample, army until the end of WWII.
The article of the University of Wales sees a very important point of Hitler and Stalin as individuals. They state that Stalin worked much more than Hitler, as Hitler enjoyed his position as leader by taken cruises or waking up late in the morning, he even could cancel meetings. This could be viewed as a live trauma as Stalin’s origins were more of a higher-middle class, compared to Hitler’s which were poor and much suffered. Finally these leads us to state that compared to another great dictator Hitler was indeed weak. The argument of the chaotic organization of the state is very difficult to Statements. analyze as there are factors that play against and in favor of Hitler, depending on Write A Thesis the angle we see it. For example, no one could afford imposing his wills over Hitler’s– Strong Dictator, however in order to Of Financial pass their laws and Wordpress Pro Event Calendar ideas they needed to please Hitler, most of the time these laws needed to Analysis be 100% respectful of the Nazi ideology – weak dictatorship that imposes Nazi ideology or the indivual interests over How To A Thesis the State’s interests.
The idea here is that there’s actually no way that Hitler wouldn’t have had any influence in German politics, to Of Financial do so would be nonsense. It’s factual, however, to state that his power was limited by Level It Resume - Varilex some means like his lack of control over entities he created, as well the problem of intelligence police having sometimes more influence than him it’s a constant to argue that his power was very limited. We can’t argue against the fact that Hitler actually got rid of any element in his way that affected his policies or power. He decided himself, maybe by some pressure coming from the army, to Of Financial Statements. kill Roehm and to Information At Purdue finally eliminate de SA. Also he used the Of Financial Statements., law to his favor in order to impose false charges over some military leaders, like Bloomberg and Fritsch; these were standing against his foreign policy and Pro Event Calendar | Codecanyon were charged of immorality. Soviet Historians have a common view about Nazi Germany: ‘Germany, like all other history was a story of class struggle’.
In the case of politics it wouldn’t be class anymore, but organization or groups. However there’s a good argument extracted from The University of Wales article that states that Hitler himself created this struggle in Analysis order to make organization in Fill In Resume Template » Resume Pdf Template Template charge of different sectors realize they needed to be strong to Analysis Of Financial Statements. stand alive. Also he didn’t involve in running Nazi Germany, so people wouldn’t blame him for errors or wrong policies, they would turn instead to Certified Nursing Assistant Experienced Sample the organizations. This argument is totally valid, but this also shows that Hitler was weak as a dictator. Statements.! He wasn’t able to 10+ Temporary Letter | Ledger impose his power on Statements. organizations and neither on How To Write A Thesis population. His lack of 1) support and 2) order to build a structured nation, absolutely made him stay away from Of Financial Statements. problems. Karl Bracher, in the German Dictatorship (1978), describes us what he thinks was the idea of Hitler of “imposing his power”.
He did not do it with power pressure, or using fear; rather he used a ‘deliberate ploy’, a ‘divide and rule’ plan in which he created several institutions to do the same task and left them to fight among themselves leaving him the final responsibility of deciding which one to accept. This way he always assured the final decision to himself. Hitler also achieved to expand his influence by setting up regional governments called Reich Governors. These had full control over designated areas and executed Hitler’s orders. This was a major achievement as the Kaiser didn’t achieve to expand his influence on regional areas, there’s evidence that shows that actually some people from the agricultural sector didn’t even know who or how they were being governed. Although thbis expanded his influence giving him the chance to In Resume Template » Resume Pdf Template | Resume Template have more control over Germany, also it took away in some way part of his powers because these Reich Governors were given too much power and self action rights that sometimes Hitler’s authority wasn’t noticed and Analysis Of Financial some others regional governments argued among themselves for interests that affected ones, and benefited others. It’s impossible to deny that there was opposition to Hitler’s regime in How To Essay Germany.
These groups were the Analysis Of Financial Statements., traces of parties that were competing with the Nazis during the Weimar Republic times, groups like the communists, democrats and Entry It Resume - Varilex even some right wing parties weren’t pleased by the way Germany was being ruled. Hitler’s success as a dictator was to never let them regroup as a big massive opposing structure. We used the “justice” system to his own benefit in order to capture and send leaders of these groups to jail, he used the Gestapo and the SS to induce fear over Analysis Of Financial Statements. any sort of opposition found. Actions like getting rid of the SA or Jews being sent to concentration camps showed the population that no opposition towards his government would be accepted and that a strong fist was ruling Germany, and Guardianship this was Hitler. He did not only use fear to eliminate opposition, he also used politics and intelligence systems to trace, eliminate and hide any evidence of opposition found. For example he eradicated unions in Factories replacing them with Nazi groups, that by the way had no real power. This way he vanished the influence of socialists on the industrial area of Germany imposing his power and Analysis Statements. using any means possible to remove any sort of opposition. The Stephen Lee’s “European Dictatorships” gives a whole part of the opposition chapter to the Church. This shows how great as an opposing force towards Hitler they were. The Christian and Protestant churches were the major churches in Germany.
Hitler saw their ideology as contradictive with the Nazi one. So he used several tactics in order to eliminate them. The first one was the formation of a ReichKirche (The Reich Church), this united the ideologies of both the Nazi party and the churches’ ones. However, this wasn’t widely accepted by the German population and neither by the Church authorities. There was also an Entry Level attempt to Statements. fuse Catholicism with Nazism, that really didn’t bring much result. What was actually a success for Letter | Ledger the Nazis was the self dissolved Centre Party, this excluded the church from any sort of political activity. Hitler’s intentions towards the Churches pointed that he intended to a major extend to ban them, and leave Nazism as a major ideology. Some of his most important members were completely anti-religious and Analysis even attempted to In Resume » Resume Pdf Template the beliefs of both Protestants and Analysis Catholics. However, there was no report stating that this was bound to Pro Event happen, or that the number of laity was reduced, in fact it rose during war time.
So Hitler achieved to control political influence of the Church, but never reached the Analysis Of Financial Statements., point were Nazism was stronger than religious beliefs, not even his role as dictator allowed him to do so. Finally, the opposition was never the reason why Hitler was removed from his place as leader of Germany, his failures during war time, partly his wrong foreign policy and, as usually happens to every dictatorship, the In Resume | Resume, militaries condemned him. The relations with the army were a key point to Analysis Of Financial his success on establishing a strong dictatorship. The army was pleased indeed by | Ledger Paper the militarist policies he intended to Analysis Of Financial establish before being elected as prime chancellor, and as well by the economic support the government gave to the army during his dictatorship. The army, was the only strong group that could ruin Hitler’s attempts to consolidate his power. So he tried to please them as far as possible, showing this way that he needed the army, to be leader of Certified Sample Germany. Analysis Of Financial! This was by 1934. In July 1934 Hitler along with the army obliterated the whole structure and leaders in Technology At Purdue of what historian Lee calls ‘their own criminals’, the SA, this was called The Night of the Long Knives The army wasn’t pleased by the acts of the SA and saw them as a possible threat to their interests, and Hitler hated the image that the SA gave. This was the first actions he took to establish good relations with the army. Analysis! But, also he created the SS that infiltrated every organism in Germany, including the army.
However, he never used the power of the Gestapo, or he couldn’t so so, in order to infiltrate the army. This was strange as the Gestapo was given so much power over Germany that any plan against Hitler’s regime was automatically stopped. Hitler finally had control over the army, and started Nazifying it. He changed generals and every single leader of the army for Nazi ones. Information Technology At Purdue! By 1938 he announced ‘From henceforth, I exercise the Statements., immediate command over the whole armed forces’. Now he had full authority over the army and managed to Nursing Assistant Experienced Resume Sample Sample control military strategy as well as Germany’s foreign policy. Lee states that the mistake of the army, as well as right wing politicians was that they disliked the Weimar Republic that much, that they were prepared to go along with the Nazis in confidence that they would control Hitler. In fact the Weimar Republic thought so too. Marxist Historians state that ‘Hitler was first and foremost a creation of the big capitalists and Statements. a servant of their interests’ This has very strong arguments such as Industrialists were given full free market, they improved to a major extend compared to post-Hitler periods and the fact that Britain and France didn’t stop Hitler when he was conquering territories because some of Technology At Purdue their industries were in Germany as cause of the inversion made by industrialists during the Weimar Republic period.
For this reason, compared to the Soviet Union, industry in Analysis Of Financial Nazi Germany was given an autonomy to set up their own policies and production. Industry was necessary for Hitler in order to prepare himself for the bounced to start war, and he needed a fast and accurate solution to the crisis that industry was in. He found that good relations with the industrialists and pleasing them to some extend as they wanted, in exchange of Pro Event By Dpereyra | Codecanyon heavy industrial corporations and Analysis major production fro the state. For him this was the Certified Assistant Resume Sample Cna, best way to speed up production. The article of The University of Analysis Statements. Wales states that Hitler didn’t commit the » Resume | Resume, same error as the Kaiser Wilhelm did.
He never ever pushed his population so hard that they could actually start to have reasons for revolts, strikes and revolution. This was a major fear as a massive strike would stop temporarily the production of weapons and heavy armament for war. If we compare this to Stalin we can find that Hitler in this sense was very weak, Stalin pushed his working force as far as he could and left them no way to Analysis make revolts nor strikes because he used force (violence) to stop them. To Hitler’s favor, he indeed made workers work more. Hours of work a day were increased up to 40% and hours of work in a week reached to the best of cases to In Resume | Resume 49 hours. However these were rewarded very well by giving them vacations, the right to go on cruises and even activities programmed only for them. Stalin on the other hand treated his workers ruthlessly and thought them were actually a disposable force that could be easily replaced. Finally both systems worked perfect in respect to rearmament and getting ready for Statements. war, but Hitler neglecting to force German population to produce even more by means of How To A Thesis Essay terror or imposing his power made him end in economic crisis in the late 1930’s as a result of his rearmament policy. Social policies like the one that women were only meant for ‘Children, Church and Kitchen’ weren’t good for the boom Hitler wanted for his industry. Statements.! Before Nazi period women were 30% of the worker force of Germany, they were prohibited of In Resume » Resume | Resume working or engaging in professional activities.
This was made by Hitler in order to “reduce” in some way unemployment in Germany and to increase German population in order to have more recruits for the army. Women played a substantial role in production like Stalin showed by using them in labor and training them as doctors, nurses and even teachers. Hitler noticed this very late during the Analysis Statements., war and made women work again making them form again the 33% of How To A Thesis Essay German working force. The application of policies like this one was disastrous on boosting the industrial production, however Nazi ideology was indeed before everything else. Also hatred towards Jews eliminated a major working force in Germany. Jews were 1) Numerous and 2)Well trained. Hitler’s mistake was to make them work in small projects like road building or bridge construction. Rather he could have used this group as a very numerous industrial working force that, according to Analysis Of Financial Statements. Nazism, didn’t receive benefits nor does pay making the In Resume Template Pdf Template Template, state have a controlled and cheap labor. Hitler gave big support to small and medium industries.
So he promoted the introduction of policies that could actually promote farmers and industries like stores. These policies like the article published by the University of Wales states ‘Economic modernization in Of Financial Statements. general, and preparing for war in particular, necessitated the Wordpress Calendar By Dpereyra | Codecanyon, economic mobilization of women and the concentration of industry and agriculture’ The policies he was promoting didn’t make no sense at all as to win a war no small artisans are needed, but big factories are used. However, by Statements. the end of the 10+ Temporary Guardianship, 1930’s Germany was in a crisis because of the wrong rearmament policies used, and industries owed by big industrialists became simple ‘functional elites’ whose power was subordinated to Hitler’s authority. Finallt Hitler achieved control over industries and concentrated on Analysis Of Financial Statements. massive production rather than on small industries. This time the idea of Marxist historians arguing that Hitler was indeed an Information Technology At Purdue instrument of capitalists is in fact refuted. Indeed Hitler achieved major response and support from working classes that were pleased by the way they were being treated. This allowed him to achieve the rearmament of Germany that was his major goal. Stalin didn’t do it better, he just made it different. However Hitler showed his weakness on Analysis Statements. not making his people pay for the war effort as Stalin did. This shows a major weakness in his way of ruling the nation. Hitler focused most of his policies to his foreign policy.
Historians state as an anecdote that he didn’t go to meetings if he didn’t want to, however when it referred to foreign affairs he always did. The economic policy, as well as his policy of 10+ Temporary Guardianship rearmament went straight to achieving the Analysis Of Financial Statements., conquest of more “Lebensraum”. He indeed tried to create a major army in order to Certified Nursing Assistant Sample conquer territories and expand the Analysis Of Financial, German empire. At Purdue! By doing so he would finally eradicate the Treaty of Analysis Statements. Versailles influence on Germany. Historians argue among themselves that the foreign policy used by 10+ Temporary | Ledger Hitler was simply a repetition of the Kaiser’s. There was no change in the direction in German foreign policy and Analysis Statements. the result of WWII shows that it was as inefficient as by the end of Fill Template » Resume | Resume WWI.
However some others see Hitler’s foreign policy as a complete change, first of all there was the factor of an Of Financial Statements. ideology uniting Germany and this ideology incites the expansion of German territory. Secondly as Hitler stated, the past foreign policies only 10+ Temporary Letter | Ledger, protected German interests and Of Financial secured boundaries, his foreign policy had the intention of expanding Germany and giving its people an assured and secured Lebensraum to live in. Hitler showed much courage when he made several moves against the Treaty of Versailles, even tough he had not a so strong army by the early 1930’s. 10+ Temporary Guardianship Letter! He used effectively diplomacy, and the continuous impossibility of big powers to stop him. Even policies like Appeasement were used in order to avoid a possible war because of the actions of a dictator. For example one of Germany’s enemies was Soviet Russia, not only as a nation that could be a threat to them but also racial and historically. Analysis! Hitler’s first moves were to change foreign view of Information Technology his foreign policy by signing peace treaties with Russia like the Nazi-Soviet Pact. Analysis Of Financial Statements.! This in some way created a smokescreen to western powers. Also he perfectly managed to stay away from Level It Resume - Varilex any single compromise with the League of Statements. Nations and avoided the Entry Level, signing of any more treaties that later would stop him or difficult him the task of expanding Germany.
However there’s another point of view on how Hitler treated his foreign policy. Statements.! Historians like A.J.P Taylor argue that Hitler didn’t go to one direction, but adapted himself to situations. He states ‘Hitler was gambling on some twist of fortune which would present him with success in foreign affairs, just as a miracle had made him chancellor in Fill In Resume » Resume Pdf Template | Resume 1933’. In some way he actually was doing so, he risked too much with his foreign policy, he still didn’t have a so strong army and the risk of having a war by Analysis Of Financial Statements. middle 1930’s would be devastating. When he made the Anschluss with Austria in Level 1938 thw whole world expected foreign intervention to start a war in Of Financial Statements. that moment, it didn’t happen and Hitler continued this tactic until Poland, when war was declared by the British. To sum up, Nazi foreign policy can be argued to It Resume have been a success to a major extend as Hitler achieved to put in practice without any obstacle, no matter his methods he had the courage to Of Financial Statements. stand in front of the world powers and put his foreign policy to practice.
I agree completely with Alan Bullock that states in “Hitler: A Study in Tyranny” that such a program would be due to, ‘Hitler had only one program, power without limit, and Pro Event Calendar | Codecanyon the rest was window dressing’. As a final conclusion, the question of Was Hitler a weak dictator is too vague? We need a comparison with another dictator like Mussolini or Stalin in order to say if it was actually strong or not. However, as stated through the whole argument presented Hitler did things differently to other dictators, had a different view of Analysis Of Financial how to Information Technology At Purdue rule Germany, how to Of Financial expand it and how to establish a dictatorship. This makes analyzing his methods and Wordpress Calendar By Dpereyra | Codecanyon ranking them with how successful he was the Of Financial, only way to find a final answer to the question. We can say that Hitler had a dictatorship based on an ideology. He made the 10+ Temporary For Travel, people work for Analysis Of Financial Statements. the Fuhrer and for the success of Nazi Germany as a new empire, this was a major achievement made by him. Entry - Varilex! He didn’t need to impose his power 100% by the use of Statements. force, rather he only needed to establish an ideology based nation. However, this also lead to disorganization and chaos among the political sphere of Germany, leaders confronting each other in order to please the How To Write, Fuhrer, organizations with the same jurisdiction, etc. In this respect Hitler couldn’t achieve what dictators like Stalin or Mussolini did, a country with one only and supreme leader.
Nazi Germany wasn’t a complete dictatorship if compared to others. What we aren’t able to deny is that where Germany was going was clearly devised by Hitler, and that the final authority in Nazi Germany was him. He didn’t have a strong dictatorship compared to Stalin of Mussolini, but a different one that was quite strong and Of Financial achieved his main objectives. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Was Hitler a Weak Dictator? essay editing for only $13.9 per Wordpress Calendar By Dpereyra, page.
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essay horror genre THE UNSEEN THROUGH MUSIC IN THE HORROR GENRE. “Terror is the Analysis, objective in a horror film, and Assistant Experienced, music has a powerful ability to communicate it”, THE CONCEPT AND TECHNIQUES USED IN THE SCORE FOR THE CELL. COMPARISON WITH TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES. used by other composers to convey unseen implications in the horror genre.
HARMONY AND ORCHESTRATION. THE SCORE FOR THE CELL – Shore and Singh. THE CELL – Brief synopsis. FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSIC SCORE. What and Analysis Of Financial Statements., when does the Write A Thesis Essay, audience need to know. the information supplied by the music? ANALYSIS OF A REPRESENTATIVE SCORED SCENE IN THE CELL. This paper analyses the use of music, in the horror/fantasy genre, as a tool to evoke persons (human or supernatural), feelings, consequences, states (e.g. incantation) and other phenomena, when these are not present on screen or need reiteration by the score. On this subject I will mainly focus on the putative success of unfamiliar musical language - for which purpose the concept behind the Of Financial Statements., score for the film “The Cell” will be compared with traditional techniques. The potential of Howard’s Shore music language in The Cell to imply characters, emotions or places and elicit certain reactions from the Guardianship Paper, audience relies largely on Analysis Of Financial Statements., effectively mimicking (ideally in Letter For Travel, an innovative manner) the way other composers before him successful achieved this goal – either in film or other art forms, such as radio, theatre, opera and ballet.
3.1. THE CONCEPT AND TECHNIQUES USED IN THE SCORE FOR THE CELL. The score for Analysis, The Cell is not a typical or traditional one. 10+ Temporary Guardianship Letter For Travel? There are no themes, and Of Financial, although we can recognise the repetition of short motifs throughout the film, it relies mostly on Nursing Assistant Experienced Sample Cna, explorations of tone colour, melody and Analysis Of Financial Statements., rhythm to enhance the emotional content of the story. But perhaps the most unusual aspect of this score lies in the use of a non-Western technique of writing coupled with a peculiar collection of performers. Write A Thesis? For this film, Howard Shore gathered an ensemble of musicians from the North of Africa called The Master Musicians Of Jajouka to play alongside the London Philharmonic Orchestra . Regarding the score’s notation, Howard Shore used a kind of Polish Avant-garde notation with some nuances introduced by himself. Analysis Of Financial? It is Certified Assistant Experienced Sample Sample Cna not organized in terms of staves and bars, as most Western music, but in cells or slightly vague time-related instructions. Analysis Of Financial? It relies largely on spontaneity and quasi-improvisation from the » Resume Pdf Template, performers. (see fig 01) The recording session also featured a rather unusual blend of world instruments (other than the ones brought by the Jajouka). All of which helped in concocting this exotic soundscape.
At Air Studios in London, Howard Shore gathered a 90-piece orchestra, a very large percussion section (12 performers) and some unusual instruments like the sarangi – a sort of Statements. Indian violin - and the monochord – a single stringed instrument from the days of Pythagoras. 3.2. COMPARISON WITH TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES used by other composers to Certified Nursing Resume Sample, convey unseen implications in Analysis Of Financial, the horror genre. LULLABY-LIKE MELODES – ex: betrayal of audience’s emotions, using hypocrisy as contrapunct, . RELIGIOUS MUSIC – ex: Gregorian chant, by proxy (ex: instrumentation and/or harmony), . TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE DEVICES – ex: tremolandi, trill, sul ponticello, harmonics, . XXTH CENTURY / AVANT-GARDE TECHNIQUES - ex: playing between bridge and Template Pdf Template | Resume Template, tailpiece, snap pizzicato, etc… I.a) LULLABY-LIKE MELODES. Sometimes irony can achieve the best results. Of Financial Statements.? So, it is not unusual to find a sweet melody or a lullaby in many horror film scores, such as Poltergeist (Jerry Goldsmith), Devil’s Advocate (James Newton Howard) or Rosemary’s Baby (Kristopher Komeda) -track 01 . Very likely because they can provide such a huge emotional contrast. They seem to leave us off-guard and yield a false sense of innocence and security, thus making shocking and gory images achieve an even greater impact. Christopher Young, one of the most prolific horror film composers today, has used sweet childlike voices to great effect in several horror films such as Urban Legend.
Extract from film score “Rosemary’s Baby” by Kristopher Komeda. Composer Charles Bernstein reiterates this suggestion when commenting on 10+ Temporary Guardianship Letter, one of the horror films he scored: “Nightmare On Elm Street has become a kind of a cult classic. And yet, I’d have to say that there is a lightness to it” This lightness can sometimes be an invaluable counterpoint to Statements., the characters or situations on screen – the visuals are supplemented with another layer of information. Fill Template Pdf Template | Resume? The score can provide many nuances that probably can’t be portrayed with the visuals alone. Horror comedies like Scream (Wes Craven) have parodied some of these implications. This is only possible because strong cultural conventions intensely shape the Statements., way we read a movie. In Scream, for example, the dichotomy between good and evil is 10+ Temporary Guardianship Letter For Travel | Ledger Paper shared by visuals and score. Acting and music represent the two sides of certain schizophrenic characters. I.b) RELIGIOUS MUSIC. Soundtracks for horror films or neighbouring genres, such as supernatural or fantasy, have many times preyed on Analysis, religious music to achieve certain results. Or for subtler composers, on associations – usually through instrumentation - with what the West can usually perceive as religious music (a pipe organ, a choir, a set of tubular bells, Gregorian chant and so on).
Sixth Sense, by James Newton Howard (track 02 ) , and Information At Purdue, The Omen by Jerry Goldsmith (track 03 ) are great examples of such choices. When Latin text and Of Financial Statements., a tad of Entry It Resume - Varilex dissonance is added to the mix, as with the choir in The Omen, the result is Statements. even more spectacular. Extract from Write A Thesis, film score “The Sixth Sense” by James Newton Howard. Extract from film score “The Omen” by Jerry Goldsmith. Some composers, like Simon Boswell, believe that the reason for this association may lie, to Of Financial Statements., some extent, in the fact that many times the villains in these narratives are a sort of distorted mirror image of extremely devout people. On another level, when the story involves characters like Satan, it’s hard to Level It Resume - Varilex, avoid all the associations or parodies that convention and Analysis Statements., culture delivers to film composers on a plate. These unseen implications can range from the very obvious to a more sophisticated comment, which will only resonate with a small percentage of the audience. (see 4.2.1.) In order to be able to suggest or imply anything or anyone when they are not present on » Resume Pdf Template | Resume, screen, a musical device must first be able to elicit a response from the audience. Statements.? This is Guardianship For Travel Paper why tried-and-tested strategies are still the Analysis, weapon of choice for most film composers. Entry? Despite the Of Financial Statements., fact that the simple gesture of Level It Resume starting a music cue can imply so much already, traditional orchestral techniques and Avant-garde innovative devices have been absolute salvation to composers scoring horror films. I will briefly describe a few examples of the most widely used devices, as a starting point to discuss their contrast with Howard Shore’s choices for The Cell.
II.a) TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE DEVICES. Tremolando – This is a technique where the string player performs short quick up and Analysis Of Financial Statements., down bow strokes. Other families of instruments (such as woodwinds or brass) can also execute this technique, although obviously in a different manner. Tremolando has been extensively used to instil unease and foreboding in the audience since the days of Mahler – at the very least. To the present day, a simple sustained note played tremolandi, still has the power to Wordpress Pro Event By Dpereyra, dramatically alter the way we read what is happening on the screen. We have been so conditioned that it immediately resonates imminent danger with most audiences. Interesting fact that a very nervous (scared?) player attempting to Of Financial, play a flat sustained note or phrase on Resume, a bowed string instrument would end up making them sound tremolando. Glissando – This technique is Statements. practically exclusive to non-fretted string instruments, trombones and the human voice. It is accomplished, in string instruments, by sliding the finger on a string from | Codecanyon, one pitch to another producing a continuous sound. When the speed of the Analysis Statements., glissando is different amongst the performers in the ensemble - particularly with a choir - it creates an astonishing effect. This last nuance is more commonly found in Information, Avant-garde compositions though (György Ligeti is particularly fond of it).
Other common strategies involve the use of trills, harmonics (particularly in strings), col legno, pianosubitos (sforzando with pianosubito is particularly efficient) and so on. Analysis Of Financial? Some of these techniques have sprung from a ground where they have already given enough proof of Wordpress | Codecanyon their potential - the concert stage. Operas, ballets and concertos abound with such devices. And in many cases concert hall composers have used them for the exact same purpose as they now are summoned. Little wonder then, that great masters like Stravinsky, particularly in works like Firebird or Rite of Spring, have always been extensively copied by film composers. Analysis Of Financial? Jerry Goldsmith’s score for Information Technology, Poltergeist alone contains a few good “homages” to Firebird.
II.b) XXTH CENTURY / AVANT-GARDE TECHNIQUES. Twentieth century movements such as Impressionism, with Claude Debussy or Maurice Ravel, or Avant-garde with composers like Edgard Varese and Analysis Of Financial, Kzystof Penderecky have been a very resourceful inspiration for 10+ Temporary For Travel | Ledger Paper, many film composers. Some of the Analysis, innovative textures and sounds that these composers feature in their works can be heard in many traditional film scores. How To? Practically all of the Hollywood composers I have mentioned in Analysis, this paper have emulated, at some stage of Certified Nursing Sample their working lives, the Of Financial, great XXth century masters. Concert hall composers such as Kzystof Penderecky, Bartok or Ligeti - particularly after films like The Shining and The Exorcist – have had an enormous influence in most composers scoring horror films today. The Shinning, by Stanley Kubrick, makes use for its soundtrack of Letter | Ledger concert pieces alongside a commissioned score to composer Wendy Carlos. Tone colour and Of Financial Statements., bold refreshing harmony were probably the In Resume » Resume Pdf Template | Resume Template, two dominant contributions they brought to the music palette of Analysis contemporary film composers – not very dissimilar to what Shore has achieved (in a very humble way) in The Cell. The works used in this film, such as “De Natura Sonoris” by Penderecky – which has a similar score notation to The Cell - are so rich and esoteric, that they seem to suggest or imply something throughout the Wordpress Pro Event Calendar | Codecanyon, whole length of the piece. When cleverly used – as they were in Analysis Statements., The Shining – it is easily perceivable how much they have helped the director in adding extra layers of meaning and achieving results beyond what cinematography, mise-en-scene, editing and sound could do. 3.2.1.
HARMONY AND ORCHESTRATION. Harmony – the 10+ Temporary Letter For Travel | Ledger, use and study of pitch simultaneity an chords in Analysis, music – can be actual or implied. At Purdue? Composers can explore the use of actual harmony to create an immediate effect on Analysis Of Financial Statements., the listener. A Thesis? For example, by having a dissonant chord playing over Of Financial, a scene. Composers often play with dissonance and clusters (a chord where notes are separated from each other in very small intervals) to Wordpress By Dpereyra | Codecanyon, express a sense of uneasiness and foreboding. Nature seems to have a simple explanation for this. A study in December’s 2002 edition of Science magazine (Science 13 December 2002) reported that “the abstract knowledge about the harmonic relationships in music inscribes itself on the human cortex, guiding expectations of how musical notes should relate to one another as they are played”. Of Financial? “By four months of age, babies already prefer the more musical intervals of major and minor thirds to the more dissonant sounds of minor seconds”. This early age discrimination may be eventually reversed in some of us who end up preferring dissonance. But for most people it will remain like this throughout their lives.
I believe CD sales figures are a substantial proof of this assumption. Harmony does not necessarily need two or more notes sounding simultaneously. It can also be implied with only a strong melodic line. This has also been explored in the horror genre by composers. In Resume Pdf Template Template? A pandiatonic (not belonging to a single scale) melody can easily imprint a sense of discomfort as opposed to Of Financial Statements., a diatonic (belonging to a single scale) one. The violin melody over piano chords that we hear in Bartok’s Music for strings percussion and celesta that Kubrick used in In Resume » Resume Pdf Template | Resume, The Shining features such an example. Shore’s score for The Cell also has many examples of dissonance and non-diatonic melody lines. The melodies played by the lira (cane flute) are not even pandiatonic, as the instrument’s tuning is Analysis not tempered.
Orchestration also plays an important role in communicating the Fill Template Pdf Template | Resume, composer-director’s intentions. As such, there are certain highly cherished instruments amongst horror film composers - with harpsichord being a long time favourite of this genre. Sadly it has become a bit of a cliché and it has been execrated for Of Financial, the past two decades. Although great film composers, such as Elliot Goldenthal, can still prove that it should remain on Write Essay, the menu – as it can be witnessed in Neil Jordan’s film Interview With The Vampire. The bottom end of low-pitched instruments can also be quite menacing and disturbing. Of Financial? Many times, composers (like Danny Elfman in Sleepy Hollow) have gone great lengths to track down performers who play rare instruments that go far beyond the Guardianship For Travel Paper, lower limit of their symphony orchestra counterpart - such as the contrabass clarinet (fig. 02) – in order to achieve fresh and disconcerting atmospheres. For a very similar reason Contrabassoons and Bass trombones usually have a reserved seat at the score’s recording sessions. Figure 2 - Contrabass clarinet.
Not surprisingly, the very top end of the Analysis Of Financial Statements., high-pitched instruments has also been used – particularly in clusters - with impressive effect. The harmonics I referred to in the Entry Level - Varilex, paragraph above are a good example. Another is the use of the very top notes on a piano. Of Financial Statements.? For the film The Shinning Stanley Kubrick used a section from Bartok’s Music for strings, percussion and celesta that features piano staccato chords played near the top range of the instrument. For Ridley Scott’s film Hannibal, Hans Zimmer tried to illustrate a shade of Dr. Lecter’s personality beyond what the visuals were showing. In an interview for the film’s DVD release, he admitted that by having Doublebasses and Nursing Assistant Experienced Resume Sample Sample, Celli play at the extremes of their ranges he was trying to Analysis Of Financial Statements., portray him as someone on the extreme range of what can be humanely conceivable. The extremes of How To Essay a musical instrument’s range are so invaluable that Avant-garde composers have even created a notation symbol for it. A black triangle pointing upwards on the stave means play the highest note you can (and the opposite Analysis if it’s pointing downwards).
On a quasi-paradoxical note I want to Pro Event | Codecanyon, add that Instruments that are not widely known, can sometimes also be used to this end. Maybe because they can aurally tease listeners with an unfamiliar timbre - thus instilling a subtle sense of restlessness in Analysis, the audience. Pro Event By Dpereyra | Codecanyon? Great composers like Bernard Herrmann - who used the innovative sound of electric violins back in 1951 - or Miklos Roza with a spooky theremin in Of Financial Statements., Spellbound in 1945, have brought as often as possible to their scores such rare gems. The duduk – a sort of Pro Event Calendar Armenian clarinet – is one of the recent additions, which now risks being featured to exhaustion. Of Financial? Although Klaus Badelt and Entry, Brian Tyler have put it to Analysis Of Financial Statements., good use in horror flick Constantine – a film that Tarsem Singh was initially appointed to direct. Another case in point is the Entry Level, Ghaita – which features extensively in Analysis Of Financial, The Cell – and was used by Christopher Young in Bless The Child (in the same year The Cell was released), alongside extended male and female choir with a bone chilling effect. Any of the instruments or ensembles mentioned above - when properly used - can, and has been till the Information At Purdue, present day, yield a sense of uneasiness or foreboding to Of Financial, a character, a place or an object. In a broader sense, they are capable of Pro Event Calendar By Dpereyra hinting and suggesting what is not yet present on screen. 3.4.
THE SCORE FOR THE CELL – Shore and Singh. The resulting music score in most films is a combination of, at least, the joint efforts of Analysis Of Financial composer and director. In the case of The Cell, we witnessed a very experienced composer at work with a first time feature film director. Someone with a solid knowledge of music and the role of music in film reshaping the work of an artist with a strong sense of imagery and overall content. 3.4.1. Howard Shore. Howard Shore has composed the scores to more than 60 films.
His outstanding film work includes cult classics like: The Silence Of The Lambs and Philadelphia, directed by Jonathan Demme; Ed Wood, directed by Tim Burton; Seven and The Game, directed by David Fincher and After Hours, directed by Martin Scorsese. Shore's long standing collaboration with David Cronenberg has produced the scores to Certified Sample Cna, The Brood (1979), Scanners (1980), Videodrome (1983), The Fly (1986), Dead Ringers (1988), Naked Lunch (1990), M. Butterfly (1993), Crash (1996) eXistenZ (1999) and A History Of Violence (2006). Howard Shore was formally educated at the Berklee School of Music in Boston. Statements.? He recorded with the group Lighthouse from 1969 to 1972, and as one of the original creators of Entry Saturday Night Live, he served as Musical Director from 1975 to1980. In addition to his film score work, Shore's chamber music has been featured on Arabesque Record's Reel Life - The Private Music of Film Composers Vol. 1. By 2000, when he scored The Cell, he was no stranger to Analysis Of Financial, the horror genre as well. Information Technology? Already under his belt were cult classics such as Scanners, The Fly, Dead Ringers and Silence Of The Lambs.
His influences are highly eclectic, ranging from experimental to classical music and Analysis Statements., rock to jazz. He became interested in all kinds of music and in the manipulation of sounds at an early age.” I grew up in the fifties, and it was a period of In Resume Template Pdf Template | Resume Template Hi-Fidelity and stereo. Tape recorders were accessible to almost everybody, as they didn’t cost much.” He recalls. “I had a library near me that had a wonderful collection of classical and popular music […] I started pulling records of Takemitsu and Analysis, Cage, and » Resume, David Tudor and Stockhausen and I would tape them”. Of Financial? “I would make my own edited versions of Fill In Resume Template Pdf Template Template their stuff”. “ […] And then I started to try to Analysis Statements., emulate them. When I was 12 or 13 I was using a razor blade and a quarter inch tape. So I’d actually built up a real early catalogue of samples and recordings”. When he scored Naked Lunch in 1990, one of these recordings he did back in1963 ended up in the film. “[…] in movies like The Cell, I’d take a piece of | Codecanyon music (as I did for Naked Lunch) and it’s basically an electronic technique – I’d overdub something else onto it”.
Howard Shore’s previous scores have always dwelled around familiar language. No doubt we have heard him take very interesting choices, in Statements., such scores as Seven or Crash – with its six electric guitars – but, safe for Naked Lunch, it hasn’t strayed too much from classical grounds. Naked Lunch and, to some extent, his early age experimentation with dubbing seem to Technology At Purdue, have prepared Shore to tackle The Cell in such a creative way. The decision to use Jazz on Naked Lunch seems to have been a conscious one by Shore and David Cronenberg. “In this score we decided to use Jazz because it just seemed part of the Of Financial, book. It was part of Information Technology At Purdue Burrough’s world, and part of the 1950’s world of Analysis Bebop” Howard Shore recalls. Guardianship Letter | Ledger Paper? “So I was looping the Of Financial Statements., [Charlie] Parker tracks, and writing against them, […] and Wordpress Calendar, then I remembered a recording that Ornette [Coleman] did in Analysis Of Financial, the early 1970s with the Master musicians of Jajouka in the mountains outside of Tangiers, […] I played it for Cronenberg and he thought that was the Fill In Resume Pdf Template | Resume Template, Interzone national anthem!” 3.4.2. Tarsem Singh. The much younger director of The Cell, is a graduate from the Art Centre College of Design in Pasadena, Los Angeles. Without much experience in features – this was his first – Tarsem had nonetheless already an impressive credits list as director. He is renowned for his excellent work is Music videos, such as REM’s Loosing My Religion, and award winning TV commercials like Nike’s Good vs Evil.
He has directed an impressive stream of TV commercials for top companies such as Levi’s, Pepsi, all major car manufacturers, all major mobile phone providers, and so on. (clip on CD) Nike commercial directed by Of Financial Tarsem Singh. Figure 3 - Still from The Cell. It is likely that the way music serves and interacts with the visuals in The Cell was shaped by Tarsem’s extensive background directing TV commercials. As we can see from this Nike advert his productions are very stylish, loaded with bold imagery, strong colours and a tad of Level It Resume histrionics. We can also foretell that he has a good pulse for music as a complement to Analysis Statements., the visuals. Child psychotherapist Catharine Deane, played by Jennifer Lopez, is part of Write A Thesis a revolutionary new treatment which allows her mind to literally enter the mind of her patients. Her experience in Of Financial, this method takes an unexpected turn when FBI agent Peter Novak (Vince Vaughn) comes to ask for a desperate favour.
The FBI has tracked down and captured a notorious serial killer, Carl Stargher (Vincent D’Onofrio), whose modus operandi involves abducting women and then keeping them in a tank he built in a remote location for about 40 hours until they slowly drown. Unfortunately, the killer has fallen into an irreversible coma, which means he cannot confess where he has taken his latest victim who is still alive. Catherine Deane must race against Information At Purdue time exploring the twisted mind of the killer to get the information she needs. But Stargher's damaged personality poses dangers that threaten to overwhelm her. 4.1.1. Artistic Influences. As expected from a director accustomed to convey a message in a short span of time – a TV commercial - his style for The Cell is highly visual.
Very strong and Analysis Statements., stylised imagery, quite often based on the works of By Dpereyra other 20th century artists. For example, the scene in which a horse is split into sections seems to have been inspired by Analysis Of Financial Statements. the works of 10+ Temporary Letter British artist Damien Hirst. An artist for whom Death is a central theme in his creations, and is best known for his Natural History series, in Statements., which dead animals (such as a shark, a sheep or a cow) are preserved, sometimes cut-up, in formaldehyde. The film includes scenes inspired on Nursing Assistant Experienced Resume Sample Cna, the work of other late 20th century artists, such as Odd Nerdrum. In particular, the Analysis Of Financial Statements., scene where Vince Vaughn starts his maiden voyage into the subcounscious of the serial killer shows a strong influence by Nerdrum's painting Dawn. Figure 4 -Odd Nerdrum's Dawn The Cell reveals an influence from the work of other filmmakers as well - like the Information, Brothers Quay, who have given us fantastic films such as Street Of Crocodiles and also directed music videos. I believe we can also see some aesthetic similarities in between Kubrick’s The Shining and what Tarsem created for The Cell. Particularly the strong colours and the nature of the graphic image, the impressive landscapes, the tempo oif the Analysis, visuals and the presence of Nursing Assistant Experienced Resume Sample Sample Cna emptiness on Analysis Of Financial, screen.
Tarsem Singh included a nod towards a cult classic animation with vague similarities to The Cell’s story. Wordpress Pro Event Calendar By Dpereyra? The animated sequence that Catherine watches on television, near the beginning of the film, is from La Planete Sauvage - a French animated feature from 1973 chiefly noted for Analysis Of Financial, its surreal imagery, which tells the story of humans enslaved as pets by giant blue-skinned aliens. 4.2. FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSIC SCORE. 4.2.1.
What and Information At Purdue, when does the audience need to know the information supplied by the music? The director and the composer need to be extremely careful when deciding the amount of information that the music score will feed to Statements., the audience. As they both know the outcome of the film and have seen it many times, they can easily lose the fine balance necessary to make the Calendar By Dpereyra, plot interesting, (by hinting or suggesting something but never giving away what you should only find out later). Suggesting what is Statements. not present on screen has traditionally been linked with certain musical devices. Write A Thesis Essay? One of them, probably the oldest one, is the Analysis Of Financial Statements., Leitmotif. History has it that it was Richard Wagner who brought it to daylight in his operas.
Although Carl Maria Von Weber was probably the first composer to make extensive use of leitmotifs, back in early 1800s. It consists of a recurring musical theme – which can be a melody, a harmonic progression or a rhythm – associated with someone, an object, an idea or a place. If this motif is played enough times, the audience may respond to it being played - in a sort of Pro Event By Dpereyra | Codecanyon Pavlovian reflex - even when its counterpart is not on screen. We can easily deduct then that Leitmotifs are composer’s best friends when it comes to suggesting what we can not see. The Cell’s score contains a few musical motifs that serve as aural guideposts throughout the Analysis Of Financial, film but nothing so precise. Composers can hint at a certain psychological trait of a character with a musical reference that presumably will have a strong emotional baggage for most people. A music box lullaby (assuming it is not playing over the image of a baby), for example, will lead audiences in How To, search of a meaning – most probably an immature adult (as Gabriel Yared did in The Talented Mr Ripley for Matt Damon’s character) In a more sophisticated way some directors like Scorcese in Raging Bull or Kubrick in 2001 have implied connotations far beyond the action on the screen with pieces of music they chose to underscore certain sequences – respectively Mascagni’s Cavaleria Rusticanna and Analysis Of Financial, Strauss’s Also Spracht Zaratrustra.
The story of How To Mascagni’s opera, for example, mirrors that of our protagonist, Jake La Motta, being steeped in passion, betrayal and retribution. And Strauss’s symphonic poem (inspired by Nietzsche’s book with the Of Financial, same name) about the fictitious travels and pedagogy of prophet Zarathustra (or Zoroaster) adds a complementary layer of meaning to the sequence with one of the most famous cuts in the history of film. The use of pre-recorded music tracks – particularly when they are well known to Level It Resume, the public – can be quite controversial as well. This is another aspect of the Analysis Of Financial, power music has to convey emotions beyond the story it is playing against. In the film Chocolat (2000), composer Rachel Portman rebelled against the director Lasse Hallstrom’s decision to use a piece from French composer Eric Satie. She argued that that piece had such a strong emotional baggage that it would lead some audiences away from the film’s emotional pulse. It would get too distracting and not beneficial to the enjoyment of the film. 4.3. AUDIENCE EXPECTATIONS. Charles Bernstein, when talking about his work on Nightmare On Elm Street, described how he sometimes had to lead the audience into thinking they were watching a dream or make them think they were watching reality. For him, the Entry, key decision is taken during the spotting session.
He says: “If you bring the music at Analysis Of Financial Statements., the beginning of Wordpress Calendar a scene, you are letting the audience know that there is something about that scene that is Statements. different from the one that preceded it”. Assistant Experienced Resume Cna? He goes on to suggest that if you hold off and wait for another moment further on, you’ll have greater control over their emotional response. The boundary between dream and Analysis Of Financial Statements., reality is Entry Level It Resume - Varilex a fine line in only two scenes in The Cell. In these instances we are not immediately aware that we are watching a dream sequence. Analysis Statements.? Howard Shore has nevertheless scored them throughout.
So our epiphany comes from At Purdue, obvious visual cues (in the first scene) or from a line of Of Financial dialogue (when the procedure goes wrong) and How To Write A Thesis Essay, not from the score. On the Analysis Of Financial, other journeys into the mind, the visuals leave absolutely no doubt that the reality frontier has been crossed, so there is no need for the music to reiterate this. 4.4. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE. Several researchers have proposed models specific to Calendar By Dpereyra, the perception and cognition of music within the cinematic context. Based upon Analysis Of Financial subject responses, the Fill Pdf Template | Resume Template, researchers Marshall and Cohen (1988) determined that music directly effects subject ratings on the: potency (strong-weak) and activity (active-passive) dimensions. While the evaluative dimension (good-bad) relies mostly on the degree of correspondence between the audio and the visual components on all three dimensions. These researchers also acknowledge the important role played by temporal characteristics of the sound and Analysis Of Financial Statements., image, stating that:” the assignment of accent to events will affect retention , processing and In Resume » Resume Pdf Template | Resume Template, interpretation ” 4.5.
THEORETICAL EVIDENCE. There are basically two models related to Analysis Statements., the role and function of film music. Technology At Purdue? According to Gorbman (1987), who wrote one of the models, music provides referential and narrative cues. It provides rhythmical and Analysis Of Financial, formal continuity, and aids in the construction of formal and narrative unity. Nicholas Cook (1998), who wrote the other, explains that: “words and pictures deal primarily with the specific, with the objective. While music deals primarily with responses – that is, with values, emotions and attitudes […] the connotative qualities of the music complement the denotative qualities of the words and the pictures”. In other words it is these associated qualities that come in so handy when the unseen needs to be conveyed. According to Roy Prendergast, one of the Resume Sample Cna, most effective ways in which a musical score can augment the Analysis Statements., narrative is to express the unspoken thoughts and unseen implications that underlie the drama.
Music can convey character. Entry - Varilex? So, rather than just associating a character with a particular musical theme, a composer may choose to define a character by sound – musical or non-musical. Analysis Of Financial? And the most consistently used technique to communicate musically through association is undoubtedly the leitmotif . Richard Wagner once said:” Music speaks out the Wordpress Pro Event Calendar | Codecanyon, very thing which word speech in itself can not speak out… that which, looked at from the standpoint of Of Financial our human intellect, is the unspeakable ” Music can also convey messages about Nursing Experienced Resume Sample Cna where in the frame the audience should focus attention. A research by Of Financial Statements. M. Boltz in 2001 has shown that music that is assigned a “negative” or ”positive” connotation “significantly biased viewer’s interpretation and Certified Experienced Resume, subsequent remembering of a film in Analysis, a mood-congruent fashion. Particularly when music with an assigned connotation was combined with an Certified Assistant Resume Sample Sample, ambiguous scene, memory of Analysis Statements. objects in the visual scene is 10+ Temporary Guardianship For Travel | Ledger influenced significantly by Analysis Of Financial the music”. In addition to mood-congruent relations between audio and visual components, salient moments in the music draw attention to concurrent prominent events in the visual image. This has been rather well explored by composers, and has its maximum expression in a technique traditionally known as Mickeymousing and the now unfashionable Stings or Stingers . The same C. Guardianship? Gorbman (1987) mentioned above also believes that “within a cinematic context, the Analysis Of Financial, presence of film music serves to lower the audience’s threshold of belief”. The fact that nondiegetic music is In Resume » Resume | Resume heard in places where we wouldn’t expect diegetic music, allows the audience to more readily become lost in the drama. 4.6.
ANALYSIS OF A REPRESENTATIVE SCORED SCENE IN THE CELL. For practical reasons, I have divided the Of Financial Statements., scenes from Letter, The Cell into two categories: Conventional drama and Journeys into the mind. Conventional drama involves scenes that take place in Statements., the real world. Sequences such as the one when Barry comes in the control room to announce that the little boy’s parents have arrived – about 6 minutes and 20 seconds into the film. Here, a sombre musical gesture with a string section makes us aware that this is not good news. This sort of language is familiar territory to Entry Level, most audiences, as it simply mimics what dozens of composers have done before. Some of the score for the scenes in this category (particularly the fast paced ones) is reminiscent of the Analysis, composer’s own work in For Travel | Ledger Paper, Seven (1995) - A film that dealt with the Analysis Of Financial, story of yet another serial killer- but noting worth mentioning in the context of this paper. How To Write A Thesis Essay? Dark atmospheric orchestration and equal temperament are two characteristics that set this category apart from the next. Journeys into the mind however allowed Shore a generous opportunity to venture into a more exotic territory. Here we hear a clear departure from traditional scoring methods, exploring microtonality and exotic instrumentation. The film opens with a shot of a desert landscape, which we will later learn belongs in a little boy’s dream.
The music that underscores this first hypnotic sequence has a distinctive ethnic flavour. Of Financial? Its general mood is calm and sweet as we hear a cane flute in the foreground. How To? More instruments join in and the scene gathers momentum when we see a beautiful woman riding a horse. Of Financial Statements.? A certain chaotic sizzling seeps in and menacing horns can be heard along side intense drumming. Information? This sort of emotional turmoil is traditionally achieved in other films with fast figures – usually ostinatos (motif or phrase repeated continuously at the same pitch) – or fugue-like constructions (as can be heard in Analysis, the extracts from film scores from “The Matrix” (fast) and “Close Encounters” (slow).(tracks 4 and In Resume | Resume Template, 5 on the CD) Extract from film score “The Omen” by Jerry Goldsmith. Extract from film score “Close Encounters Of The Third Kind” by John Williams.
These devices are a good illustration of what I referred to previously. They abound in classical music and Analysis Of Financial Statements., are continually used in It Resume, film scores. A good example can be found in Bartok’s Concerto For Orchestra. (tracks 6) Extract from Bartok’s Concerto For Orchestra. The scene maintains momentum thanks to the fast phrasing of Analysis Of Financial flute and ghaita above a layer of obsessive drumming. The line between reality and dream is immediately crossed when we see the woman’s stallion become a cardboard cut-out of a stylised horse. Unfortunately this is Level It Resume - Varilex accentuated by a rather tacky sound effect. By this time a definite feel of excitement has been brought to the sequence through the score.
If watched without sound, the stillness of the shots conveys a remarkable sense of Analysis Statements. tranquillity and calm. The deliberate choice of this agitated piece of music, instantly and very likely subliminally, sparks a search for 10+ Temporary | Ledger, a meaning by most audiences. Analysis? The unseen urgency imposed by Fill In Resume Template | Resume the score sets up a weighty contrast with the tranquil visuals - In this film not everything is what it appears to be. From a distance, she spots a little boy with a mirror (which she has given him to use as a signal, should he want to Of Financial, get in Wordpress Calendar, touch with her). It seems that this link between the two characters has eased off the tension as the music quickly returns to the serenity of the flute heard previously. Such contrast between anxiety and Analysis Of Financial Statements., tranquillity could have been attempted in another way, perhaps through the editing, but I doubt that it would have been as successful as this. Its daring use of ghaita, drums and Entry Level It Resume - Varilex, chaotic figures during emotionally intense scenes has been influential to other composers as well.
For example, Brian Tyler and Klaus Badelt used similar soundscapes in their score for the film Constantine. Although these days we must always consider that their choice might have been slightly hampered by the putative use of The Cell’s score in the temp. For as much as Howard Shore hates intellectualising about his scores, he has admitted in an interview for website Soundtrack.net that once a certain link has been pointed out to him (as director David Cronenberg did during the recording sessions for his film Crash) the composer acknowledges that subconsciously he might have taken certain decisions for a reason. Even when he refers to this as gut instin ct, decisions such as the one that led him to Of Financial Statements., use the Jajouka ensemble for Experienced Resume Sample Sample Cna, the dream sequences and Statements., a traditional orchestra in the reality scenes can only have been intentional. The amount of extra information that this choice brought to the film ended up being a big serendipitous bonus. Howard Shore has stated that for Guardianship Letter Paper, this score he wanted to write it in a way that Western instruments related to Of Financial, each other in the same way this happens in Level It Resume - Varilex, African, Indian or Chinese music. In his opinion this has brought to the sonic palette a sense of freedom above anything else. Figure 5 - Master Musicians of Jajouka. To this end he managed to enlist the Master Musicians of Analysis Of Financial Statements. Jajouka. The music and secrets of Jajouka have been passed down through generations from 10+ Temporary Guardianship, father to son, by some accounts, for as long as 4000 years. Statements.? The musicians are taught from early childhood a complex music that is unique to Jajouka, until they finally become Malims or Masters.
They possess baraka, or the blessing of Allah, which gives them the power to heal, and the endurance required to play some of the most intense and complex music around. Information Technology? The music of Analysis Jajouka uses a number of traditional instruments, including the ghaita (the Arabic version of the oboe), the lira (a bamboo flute), and the guimbri (a rudimentary three stringed lute), along with double-headed Moroccan drums. Figure 6 – Ghaita. Their music is composed of several fairly simple parts, which are then intricately woven together in a way foreign to most Western ears, so that the Entry Level - Varilex, resolution of individual phrases and Analysis Of Financial, sections can be difficult for outsiders to In Resume Pdf Template Template, discern. The music can be extended indefinitely, and Of Financial Statements., many performances last for days at Nursing Sample Cna, a time, with some musicians taking breaks and others stepping in to take their place.
Howard Shore says that although their music can sound random and disorganised to Western ears it is Analysis Statements. quite the contrary. Calendar | Codecanyon? It is very specific and incredibly detailed. As Robert Bresson cleverly put it once:” the eye solicited alone makes the ear impatient, the ear solicited alone makes the eye impatient. [You should] Use these impatiences”. Statements.? Some directors and film editors know that by subtracting (maybe by having music point in the a different direction) or merely hinting at certain bits of information relevant to the plot, they can engage the audience in a much more powerful way than if everything is laid out plainly in front of them. We enjoy these impatiences. It is particularly in these instances that music – or sound – can be called upon to achieve something beyond mere storytelling. Author and composer Mark Russell (Cold Feet) on a BBC radio 2 interview (2002) talked about the implications that Bernard Herrmann’s score for Psycho brought to the story. Talking about the first twenty minutes of the film where we see Janet Leigh driving through the rain, he recalled what Bernard Herrmann said, “if you watch it with no music, she could just be driving to Wordpress Pro Event By Dpereyra, the supermarket. There is no reason to Analysis Statements., believe that there is Fill In Resume » Resume | Resume Template anything going on”. This is a perfect example of a situation where music adds an entire different dimension to the picture.
It tells you what is Analysis Statements. going on in her head, it tells you that she feels there is a sort of clock ticking away in a haze of guilt and Guardianship Letter | Ledger Paper, obsession. In that same radio show, Hans Zimmer reiterates the importance of a composer when it comes to conjure notions and feelings not present (enough or at Analysis Statements., all) on the screen, when he said: “My real job is to do those bits in Pro Event Calendar By Dpereyra | Codecanyon, a movie they can’t tell with words or images”. This score caught Howard Shore between “eXistenZ”(1999), a film that shared a few similarities – particularly the fine blurry line between dream and reality – and “Lord of the Rings”(2001) – an Of Financial Statements., epic where he reused most of the unusual instruments chosen for Certified Assistant Sample Cna, The Cell (like the monochord and the Ghaita). In this score there is also a thread in the composer’s history that takes us as far back as Naked Lunch. A film score where he also used improvised cells alongside written material. The originality of the material for this score can be questioned by some purists. Particularly as Howard Shore did not write the Jajouka musician’s performances and even the orchestra for good part of the score played notes randomly chosen by each performer (within a boundary established by Shore). Nevertheless I believe it is rather pointless questioning the composer’s merit. Of Financial Statements.? A good percentage of avant-garde music is Write A Thesis Essay conceived and written exactly like this and no one doubts Penderecky or Ligeti’s astonishing talent. The soundtrack can supplement, enhance and expand upon Statements. the meaning of a film’s narrative.
The relationship between the auditory and visual components in Letter | Ledger Paper, cinema is Of Financial Statements. both active and dynamic, affording a multiplicity of multiple relations that can evolve, sometimes dramatically, as the narrative unfolds. The suggestion of the Information, unseen can be used by the filmmaker and composer with two basic intentions: To lead the audiences into Of Financial, a red herring or to make them aware of certain plot details, in order to better enjoy and understand the film. This role of implying the unseen or reinforcing a situation hinted with the visuals, which is Information so often asked from music, is possible mostly because of Analysis Of Financial cultural conventions. Some researches have also demonstrated that we possess an innate tendency to have the way we perceive a film influenced by Entry It Resume - Varilex the simultaneous use of Analysis Statements. music. Filmmakers and composers are aware of a universe of musical gestures that can be incredibly helpful in providing the picture with a layer of extra meaning.
This layer can be: the Psychological make-up of Certified Nursing Experienced Sample Cna a character, a special quality of an object, a memory of someone who is absent, etc… Probably since the dawn of opera, and past a long journey through music in Analysis Statements., theatre plays, music as a background atmosphere for poetry readings, in radio plays, and in visual media (film television, corporate videos and advertising) that audiences have been conditioned, in a Pavlovian manner, to respond and Level - Varilex, feel in a certain way according to the music they hear while engaged with other visual or aural stimuli. Although the score for The Cell features a rather innovative approach and the use of a music language unfamiliar to Analysis, most audiences, I believe it succeeded when it came to establish a link with more familiar Western music language. We are still emotionally influenced by the sweetness of the melody played by the lira and Fill Template » Resume, become excited and restless by the intense turmoil of the Moroccan drums. The tone and texture provided by this score complemented the Of Financial Statements., story in a very successful manner. I trust we can safely conclude that, when properly used, less-known or new forms / genres of How To Write music (i.e. foreign to Western ears) can also be incredibly effective in conveying hidden layers of meaning. Very likely because our brains establish a parallel with our well-known cultural references and to the familiar language a century of cinema has brought us. Obviously, none of this is flawless, and there is always the possibility that a cue will not achieve the desired result, or even throw some viewers in the opposite direction. But again, so can Cinematography, Editing, Sound and almost every other slice of Statements. this holistic cake called film.
In a year that gave birth to some very inventive scores, such as “Requiem For A Dream” by Clint Mansell, “28 Days” by Nursing Assistant Sample John Murphy and Analysis Statements., Tan Dun’s “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon”, “The Cell” was undoubtedly a breath of fresh air above its peers. In chronological order. Rosemary’s Baby, 1968, directed by Roman Polansky, Paramount Pictures. The Omen, 1976, directed by Richard Donner, 20th Century Fox. The Shining, 1980, directed by Stanley Kubrick, Warner Bros. Poltergeist, 1982, directed by Tobe Hooper. MGM. A Nightmare on Elm Street, 1984 directed by Wes Craven, The Elm street venture. The Fly, 1986, directed by David Cronenberg, 20th Century Fox. Naked Lunch, 1991, directed by David Cronenberg, Film Trustees Ltd. The Silence Of The Lambs, 1991, directed by For Travel Paper Jonathan Demme, Orion Pictures Corp.
Interview With The Vampire, 1994, directed by Neil Jordan, Geffen pictures. Seven, 1995, directed by David Fincher, New Line Cinema. Scream, 1996 directed by Analysis Wes Craven, Dimension Films. Devil’s Advocate, 1997, directed by Taylor Hackford, Kopelson Entertainment. Urban Legend, 1998, directed by Jamie Blanks, Original Film. Sleepy Hollow, 1999, directed by Tim Burton, Paramount Pictures. The Cell, 2000, directed by Tarsem Singh, Avery Pix Co. Bless the Child, 2000, directed by A Thesis Essay Chuck Russell, Paramount Pictures. Constantine, 2005, directed by Francis Lawrence, Warner Bros. Nike TV commercial, directed by Tarsem Singh.
Adler, S. (1989) The Study of Orchestration , second edition, W.W. and Norton Company Inc. Boltz, M. (2001), Musical soundtracks as a schematic influence on the cognitive processing of filmed events , Music Perception, 18(4), 427-454. Bordwell, D. and Thompson K. (2004), Film Art – an Analysis Statements., introduction , McGraw-Hill, 7th edition. Cook, N. (1998), Analysing musical multimedia , Oxford University Press, New York. Gorbman, C. Template | Resume? (1987), Unheard melodies: Narrative film music , Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN. Kalinak, K. (1992), Settling the score: music and Statements., the classical Hollywood film , The University of Wisconsin Press. Karlin, F. Wright, R. (2002) On the track: a contemporary guide to film scoring , Routledge New York, 2nd edition, Koppl, R. (2000) Inside The Cell with composer Howard Shore and director Tarsem Singh , Soundtrack vol.
19/No75, Fall 2000 p.24. Marshall, S.K. and Entry Level, Cohen, A.J. (1988) Effects of musical soundtracks on attitudes toward animated geometric figures , Music Perception, 6 (1), 95-112. Prendergast, R.M. (1992), Film music: a neglected art, W.W. Norton and Co, New York. Science 13 December 2002 298: 2167-2170 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1076262. Thomas, T. (1991), Film score: the art craft of movies music , Riverwood press, Burbank,CA. Wagner R. (1964) Orchestra’s power of speech: analogy with gesture , Dutton, New York (Original work [The Artwork of the Future] published in1849) Shore, H. Interview with Howard Shore for website Soundtrack.net. Whitehall, A. Of Financial? The new Grove music dictionary online (ed. L. Macy) Grove’s dictionaries, New York. www.grovemusic.com.
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