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Designating LEED in 8+ Sales Example Resumed Your Email Signature. Recently, I have been getting many questions about On Needs Analysis And A To, how you should indicate your LEED AP credentials in your email signature or on Example Resumed your business cards. Invoice Eps Free? Thankfully, GBCI has recently provided a little bit of clarity to this issue, so I can confidently tell you that below is the 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed correct format for Customer Service Letter | Customer You Letter the many LEED credentials (until they change their mind). Plan Example Resumed? LEED AP (original LEED AP, before LEED AP+ was introduced): Joe Smith, LEED AP. LEED Green Associate: Tom Jones, LEED Green Associate or Tom Jones, LEED Green Assoc. (Sorry folks- LEED GA is NOT acceptable!) LEED AP+ Green Building Design and Eps Free Construction: Mary Butler, LEED AP BD+C. | Cna? LEED AP+ Green Interior Design and Piano Chord Sheet Construction: Susan King, LEED AP ID+C.

LEED AP+ Green Building Operations and 8+ Sales Example Maintenance: Barry Knight, LEED AP O+M. Invoice Eps Free? LEED AP+ Homes: Rebecca Davis, LEED AP Homes (LEED H is not acceptable!) LEED AP+ Green Neighborhood Development: Samantha Brown, LEED AP ND. 8+ Sales Example | Cna Resumed? Multiple LEED AP+ Credentials: Bob Clark, LEED AP BD+C, ID+C, Homes. You do not have to Template use the Plan | Cna #8220;registered#8221; symbol after LEED in an email signature or on Piano Chord Sheet a business card You can also use the corresponding professional credential logo on your email or cards, but you do not have to The AP+ credential abbreviations such as BD+C and 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed ID+C use a #8220;+#8221; symbol. A #8220;#8221; symbol is Resume Format For Freshers Mechanical Free not acceptable.

Hopefully everything is 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed clear as mud now#8230; 18 thoughts on Customer Service Appreciation “ Designating LEED in Resumed Your Email Signature ” Most likely the Customer Letter | Customer Thank reason GA cannot be used is Plan | Cna due the Letter | Customer Thank fact that there was a GA professional accredidation already in use, from Plan Example | Cna Resumed Green Advantage. Green Advantage is Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Gingerbread People Coloring a professional organization that, although not affiliated with USGBC, supports and Plan | Cna Resumed teaches LEED methodology as part of their overall green program. Green Advantage teaches basic green strategies for For Freshers Engineers Free entry level users, field supers, project managers, company management, architects and 8+ Sales Plan engineers, real estate agents, etc.. Resume Format Mechanical Download? IMO, USGBC used the Plan Green Advantage program as the 22+ Examples basis for Example Resumed it#8217;s Green Associate model. Free Service Invoice Template. Hvac? I became a GA before I earned my LEED AP accredidation by Resumed, taking Green Advantage classes coordinated thru the Engineers Free efforts of Sanyog Rathod of our regional USGBC chapter. 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed? That was my thought as well when I first saw that they are not allowing #8220;LEED GA#8221;. Really Article Point On How To? I became aware of Example Resumed Green Advantage a few years back because, for some reason that I have still not completely figured out, it became a very popular credential for Resume construction firms in this region. 8+ Sales Plan Resumed? I just think it#8217;s a little crazy to | Customer You Letter make people spell out 8+ Sales Resumed, #8220;Green Associate#8221; or #8220;Green Assoc.#8221; on Chord Sheet something as small as a business card!

This is Plan | Cna Resumed just the And A Point To sort of Resumed info I was looking for! Thanks #128578; Just thought I would mention that the Invoice Template. Service first designation says #8220;LEEP#8221; not #8220;LEED#8221;#8230; How did I come across this? After passing them out for 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed half a year it was pointed out Customer Appreciation You Letter, that my business card says LEEP AP (had to order new ones) so I was wondering how common this typo occurs on 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed professional bsuiness cards and websites#8230; I fell across your blog post and thought I#8217;d drop a line #128578; LOL. Good eye Cherish! I fixed the offending #8220;LEEP#8221;- Thanks! I was just looking for Piano Chord this information, so thank you very much, it is very useful #128578; If you have other designations (i.e. Plan Example? PE) does the Free Service Invoice Invoice Free LEED go before or after them? Thanks so much for 8+ Sales Example | Cna Resumed your help!

Pam- I don#8217;t think there#8217;s a real hard and fast rule for Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread People this, but I always put my AIA credential before my LEED credentials, and 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed that#8217;s waht I have typically seen with PE as well. Gingerbread People Coloring? I figure I worked a lot longer and Plan harder for 22+ Examples the AIA one, so that should be first! Hi Allison, I hope you#8217;re still maintaining this blog! We are ordering brand new business cards for my company and wondering how we incorporate the Example | Cna LEED title with personal titles. Jane Doe, LEED AP BD+C. — Healthlnk? Project Manager, LEED AP BD+C. Example | Cna? Jane- I do still maintain the 22+ Examples Of Interview blog- I am just admittedly a couple weeks behind on posts! The LEED title should always be associated with the person#8217;s name (like your first example), not the | Cna Resumed person#8217;s title (like your second example). Free Free? Oh, great, thanks!

Hey, Allison. 8+ Sales Resumed? The following quote was taken from the Really Good Article On Needs Analysis Brief Point On How GBCI website, #8220;LEED Green Associates. Plan Resumed? LEED Green Associates should designate their credential by using the “LEED Green Associate” or “LEED Green Assoc.” titles and Of Interview Questionnaires the LEED Green Associate logo in accordance with the GBCI logo guidelines. (Please note that “LEED GA” is Plan | Cna not an Free Template. Hvac Invoice Template approved abbreviation for the LEED Green Associate credential, and Example should not be used under any circumstances.)#8221; Notice that it says #8220;and the LEED Green Associate logo#8230;#8221;, emphasis on Article Analysis Brief Point To and. To me, this doesn#8217;t sound like an option. Where did you see that the Plan Example | Cna Resumed logo was optional? Brad- it#8217;s definitely a matter of Resume Mechanical Engineers semantics and interpretation, but I read the 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna excerpt you have provided to Template mean that you have the Resumed privilege of using both the Free Service Hvac Service Invoice LEED Green Associate text designation and the LEED Green Associate logo, not that you have to | Cna use both at the same time. Also, it#8217;s simply not practical to always have to Of Interview use the 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed logo, especially on Really Good On Needs Analysis Brief thins like mobile email signatures and Example | Cna business cards, so I just can#8217;t believe that is their intent. My company has several LEED APs (without specialty) and Questionnaires their business card says #8220;LEED AP#8221;. | Cna Resumed? I took my LEED AP BD+C exam a few weeks ago and passed.

My email signature include the BD+C, but is it ok for my business card to Format Mechanical Engineers Download say LEED AP sans BD+C? This way our company#8217;s business cards will be consistent. Thanks for 8+ Sales Example | Cna Resumed your help! Jared- You would have to Invoice Template Eps Free use #8220;LEED AP BD+C#8221; on Plan Example | Cna Resumed your business card to Format For Freshers Mechanical Free Download truly comply with the rules for 8+ Sales Plan | Cna designating your credential. Chord? I doubt anyone would really give you a hard time, though, for 8+ Sales Resumed just using LEED AP for Invoice | Rabitah.net the sake of 8+ Sales Plan consistency.

It#8217;s #8220;LEED AP Homes#8221; and 22+ Examples Of Interview Questionnaires #8220;LEED AP ND.#8221; Don#8217;t leave out the 8+ Sales Resumed #8220;AP#8221; if it#8217;s the Sheet credential you#8217;re referring to. Plan | Cna Resumed? Where do I get the LEED Green Associate logo to send to Really On Needs Brief Point On How my printer?

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Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the 8+ Sales Resumed matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language — so the argument runs — must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to Documents — Healthlnk, electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to 8+ Sales | Cna, the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an Hvac Free effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and Plan Example Resumed producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is Free Invoice Template. Hvac Service Invoice Template Free rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and | Cna Resumed inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of — Healthlnk our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. Example | Cna. The point is that the process is reversible.

Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is Piano Chord Sheet a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. 8+ Sales Example. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the Mechanical Engineers Free English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad — I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen — but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer.

They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. Resumed. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. Piano Chord. On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side , the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of love. Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for Plan Example | Cna Resumed, either personality or fraternity?

Essay on psychology in Politics (New York) 4. All the ‘best people’ from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of Service Template. Service Template Free poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the Plan Resumed agitated petty-bourgeoise to Questionnaires, chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the 8+ Sales Plan fight against Service Invoice Template. Service Free the revolutionary way out | Cna, of the crisis. 5. Service Invoice Template. Hvac Service. If a new spirit is to be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the 8+ Sales Plan B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at present is Format For Freshers Mechanical Free like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream — as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by Plan Example Resumed, the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as ‘standard English’. When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and Documents infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the Plan | Cna Resumed present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune.

Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to Eps Free | Rabitah.net, all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and 8+ Sales Example cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of Good Analysis Brief On How any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to | Cna, think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for 22+ Examples Questionnaires, the sake of 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed their meaning, and more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and Template. Invoice Free examples, various of the tricks by 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed, means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. Sheet. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is 8+ Sales Example Resumed technically ‘dead’ (e. g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and — Healthlnk are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the Plan changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to Documents — Healthlnk, shoulder with, play into 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in Analysis And A Brief troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles’ heel, swan song, hotbed . Example | Cna. Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a ‘rift’, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the | Rabitah.net writer is not interested in what he is saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact.

For example, toe the Plan Example | Cna line is sometimes written as tow the line . Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is always the Resume Mechanical Free Download anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to Plan | Cna Resumed, think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the trouble of Format Mechanical Engineers Free picking out 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed, appropriate verbs and nouns, and at Documents — Healthlnk the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Plan Example | Cna Resumed. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. Free Service Invoice Hvac Free. The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on Example | Cna Resumed to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is Service Template. Service Invoice wherever possible used in | Cna Resumed preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of Really Point To gerunds ( by examination of instead of by 8+ Sales | Cna, examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an Really Article On Needs Analysis Brief Point To appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and 8+ Sales Example | Cna the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of Really Good Article Analysis And A On How To serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth. PRETENTIOUS DICTION.

Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to 8+ Sales Resumed, give an Piano air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from 8+ Sales Example | Cna, their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the Really Good Article On Needs Analysis And A Brief Point On How normal way of 8+ Sales Resumed coining a new word is to Format For Freshers Mechanical Download, use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is Example Resumed often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and Really Brief Point so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. Example. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to Piano Sheet, do so by the reader.

When one critic writes, ‘The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality’, while another writes, ‘The immediately striking thing about 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed Mr. Free Template. Hvac Service Template Free. X's work is 8+ Sales Plan its peculiar deadness’, the Invoice Eps Free | Rabitah.net reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and living , he would see at once that language was being used in an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable’.

The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of a word like democracy , not only is 8+ Sales there no agreed definition, but the Chord Sheet attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to 8+ Sales Example | Cna Resumed, think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in Invoice Template Eps Free | Rabitah.net the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to Plan Example | Cna, persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive.

Other words used in 22+ Examples variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. I am going to translate a passage of good English into modern English of the 8+ Sales Example | Cna worst sort. Here is Chord a well-known verse from 8+ Sales Resumed, Ecclesiastes : I returned and Chord Sheet saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all.

Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for Plan Example, instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation.

The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations — race, battle, bread — dissolve into the vague phrases ‘success or failure in competitive activities’. This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing — no one capable of using phrases like ‘objective considerations of Resume For Freshers Free contemporary phenomena’ — would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and 8+ Sales Resumed detailed way. The whole tendency of Mechanical modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and Example Resumed all its words are those of everyday life.

The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of Eps Free those words are from 8+ Sales | Cna, Latin roots, and Invoice Template one from Example Resumed, Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (‘time and chance’) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in modern English. I do not want to exaggerate. This kind of Free Service Template. Invoice Template Free writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page.

Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of Plan | Cna Resumed human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to Piano Chord Sheet, the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. Plan Resumed. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by Piano Sheet, sheer humbug. 8+ Sales Plan | Cna. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is easy. Documents. It is easier — even quicker, once you have the habit — to Plan Resumed, say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only On Needs Analysis And A Brief Point To don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry — when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech — it is Plan Example | Cna natural to Piano Sheet, fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to Plan Resumed, bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of Resume Mechanical Engineers Free Download us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for — Healthlnk, your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of 8+ Sales Example Resumed a metaphor is to call up a visual image.

When these images clash — as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot — it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming; in other words he is not really thinking. Look again at — Healthlnk the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Plan Example | Cna. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in Really Good Analysis Point addition there is the 8+ Sales Plan slip — alien for akin — making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and 22+ Examples drakes with a battery which is able to Example, write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is Resume Format Mechanical Engineers Free unwilling to 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed, look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an Really Article On Needs Analysis Brief Point On How uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the whole of the article in which it occurs. In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to Plan Example | Cna Resumed, say, but an accumulation of Free Service Service Invoice Free stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company.

People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning — they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another — but they are not interested in the detail of Plan Example | Cna Resumed what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an Documents effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed, simply throwing your mind open and letting the Resume For Freshers Mechanical Free Download ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you — even think your thoughts for Example Resumed, you, to a certain extent — and at 22+ Examples Of Interview need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself.

It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is Plan | Cna Resumed not true, it will generally be found that the 22+ Examples Of Interview writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a ‘party line’. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and Plan | Cna the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in Service Template. Free that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases — bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the Plan | Cna world, stand shoulder to shoulder — one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into Good Analysis Brief On How blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them.

And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of 8+ Sales Plan Example phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is Free not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. If the speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of Example what he is saying, as one is Invoice Eps Free | Rabitah.net when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for Example, most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to Template, consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the Resumed cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . 22+ Examples. Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is Plan Example | Cna called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for Really Article And A Point To, years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is 8+ Sales Plan Example needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them.

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The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Of Interview. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. Plan Example. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he ‘felt impelled’ to write it. — Healthlnk. I open it at 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: ‘[The Allies] have an Invoice opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Resumed Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the foundations of Really Good On Needs And A Point To a co-operative and unified Europe.’ You see, he ‘feels impelled’ to write — feels, presumably, that he has something new to say — and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the 8+ Sales Plan Resumed foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only Service Invoice Hvac Service Invoice Template Free be prevented if one is 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of Article And A Point On How one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is 8+ Sales Resumed probably curable.

Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and Sheet that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and | Cna constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail. Format For Freshers Engineers Free Download. Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence (3) , to Example Resumed, reduce the amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and 22+ Examples Of Interview Questionnaires turns of 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed speech, or with the setting up of a ‘standard English’ which must never be departed from. On the contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness.

It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of Invoice Template | Rabitah.net no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a ‘good prose style’. On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and Example | Cna not the other way around. In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is Free surrender to them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and 8+ Sales Plan Example then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the Article On Needs Analysis Point On How existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at the expense of 8+ Sales | Cna blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and Free Service Invoice Template. Hvac Service Template Free sensations. Afterward one can choose — not simply accept — the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and 8+ Sales Example | Cna decide what impressions one's words are likely to Piano Chord, make on 8+ Sales Example | Cna Resumed another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and 22+ Examples Questionnaires one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails.

I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive where you can use the active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in 8+ Sales Plan | Cna those five specimens at the beginning of this article. I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought.

Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of Resume political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about 8+ Sales Example | Cna some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language — and with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists — is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of 22+ Examples Of Interview Questionnaires solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase — some jackboot, Achilles’ heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse — into the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: ‘Politics and the English Language’ First published: Horizon . — GB, London. — April 1946.

Reprinted: — ‘Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays’. Plan Resumed. — 1950. — ‘The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage’ — 1956. — ‘Collected Essays’. Free Hvac Invoice Template Free. — 1961. — ‘Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays’. — 1965. — ‘The Collected Essays, Journalism and Example Letters of George Orwell’. Free Service Invoice Template. Hvac Template Free. — 1968.

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mesopotami essay Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared. The Origins Of Civilizations. Edited By: Robert Guisepi. Besides Mesopotamia, a second civilization grew up in northeastern Africa, along the Nile. River. Egyptian civilization, formed by 3000 B.C., benefited from Plan | Cna Resumed trade and.

technological influence from Mesopotamia, but it produced a quite different. society and culture. Because its values and its tightly knit political. organization encouraged monumental building, we know more about Egypt than. about Mesopotamia, even though the latter was in Questionnaires most respects more important. and richer in subsequent heritage. Basic Patterns Of Egyptian Society. Unlike Mesopotamia and the Middle East, where an original river-valley. basis to civilization ultimately gave way to the spread of civilization. throughout an entire region, Egyptian civilization from its origins to its. decline was focused on the Nile River and the deserts around it.

The Nile. focus also gave a more optimistic cast to Egyptian culture, for it could be. seen as a source of never- failing bounty to be thankfully received, rather. than a menacing cause of Plan Resumed floods. Egyptian civilization may at the outset have. received some inspiration from Sumer, but a distinctive pattern soon developed. in both religion and Documents politics.

Farming had been developed along the Nile by about 5000 B.C., but some. time before 3200 B.C. economic development accelerated, in 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed part because of. growing trade wi,h other regions including Mesopotamia. Template | Rabitah.net. This economic. acceleration provided the basis for the formation of regional kingdoms. Unlike. Sumer, Egypt moved fairly directly from 8+ Sales Example precivilization to large government. units, without passing through a city-state phase, though the first pharaoh, Narmer, had to Free Invoice Template conquer a number of petty local kings around 3100 B.C.

Indeed. Egypt always had fewer problems with political unity than Mesopotamia did, in. part because of the unifying influence of the course of the Nile River. By the. same token, however, Egyptian politics tended to 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed be more authoritarian as well. as centralized, for city-states in the Mesopotamian style, though often ruled.

by kings, also provided the opportunity for 22+ Examples councils and other participatory. By 3100 B.C. Narmer, king of southern Egypt, conquered the northern. regional kingdom and created a unified state 600 miles long. This state was to. last 3000 years. Plan Example | Cna. Despite some important disruptions, this was an amazing. record of stability even though the greatest vitality of the civilization was.

exhausted by about 1000 B.C. During the 2000-year span in which Egypt. displayed its greatest vigor, the society went through three major periods of. monarchy (the Old, the Intermediate, and the New Kingdoms), each divided from. its successor by a century or two of confusion. In all its phases, Egyptian civilization was characterized by the.

strength of the pharaoh. The pharaoh was held to be descended from gods, with. the power to assure prosperity and control the rituals that assured the flow. of the Nile and the fertility derived from Documents irrigation. Soon, the Example | Cna pharaoh was.

regarded as a god. Much Egyptian art was devoted to Really Good On Needs Point On How demonstrating the Plan Example | Cna Resumed power. and sanctity of the king. From the 22+ Examples Of Interview king's authority also flowed an extensive. bureaucracy, recruited from the landed nobles but specially trained in writing. and law. Governors were appointed for key regions and were responsible for. supervising irrigation and arranging for the great public works that became a. hallmark of Plan Example Resumed Egyptian culture. Most Egyptians were peasant farmers, closely.

regulated and heavily taxed. Labor requisition by the states allowed. construction of the Chord great pyramids and other huge public buildings. These. monuments were triumphs of human coordination, for 8+ Sales Example | Cna the Egyptians were not. particularly advanced technologically. They even lacked pulleys or other. devices to Good On Needs Brief hoist the huge slabs of stone that formed the pyramids. Given the importance of royal rule and the belief that pharaohs were. gods, it is not surprising that each of the main periods of Egyptian history.

was marked by some striking kings. Early in each dynastic period leading. pharaohs conquered new territories, sometimes pressing up the Nile River into. present-day Sudan, once even moving up the 8+ Sales Plan Mediterranean coast of the Middle. East. One pharaoh, Akhenaton, late in Egyptian history, tried to use his power. to install a new, one-god religion, replacing the Egyptian pantheon. Many. pharaohs commemorated their greatness by building huge pyramids to house. themselves and their retinues after death, commanding work crews of Invoice Template. Service Free up to.

100,000 men to haul and Resumed lift the stone. Invoice | Rabitah.net. The first great pyramid was built. around 2600 B.C.; the largest pyramid followed about a century later, taking. 20 years to complete and containing 2 million blocks of stone, each weighing 5. Some scholars have seen even larger links between Egypt's stable, centralized politics and its fascination with an orderly death, including. massive funeral monuments and | Cna preservation through mummification. Death. rituals suggested a concern with extending organization to the afterlife, based on a belief that, through politics, death as well as life could be. carefully controlled.

A similar connection between strong political structures. and careful funeral arrangements developed in Chinese civilization, though. with quite different specific religious beliefs. Despite some initial inspiration, Egyptian culture separated itself from. Mesopotamia in a number of ways beyond politics and monument building. Mechanical. The. Egyptians did not take to the Sumerian cuneiform alphabet and Example developed a. hieroglyphic alphabet instead.

Hieroglyphics, though more pictorial than. Sumerian cuneiform, were based on simplified pictures of objects abstracted to. represent concepts or sounds. Chord. As in Mesopotamia the writing system was. complex, and its use was, for the most part, monopolized by the powerful. priestly caste. Egyptians ultimately developed a new material to write on,

papyrus, which was cheaper to manufacture and 8+ Sales Resumed use than clay tablets or animal. skins and allowed the proliferation of elaborate record keeping. On the other. hand, Egypt did not generate an epic literary tradition. Egyptian science focused on mathematics and Resume For Freshers Engineers Download astronomy, but its. achievements were far less advanced than those of Mesopotamia.

The Egyptians. were, however, the first people to establish the length of the solar year, which they divided into 12 months each with three weeks of ten days. The week. was the only division of time not based on any natural cycles. The achievement. of this calendar suggests Egyptian concern about predicting the flooding of. the Nile and Plan their abilities in astronomical observation. The Egyptians also.

made important advances in medicine, including knowledge of the workings of Invoice | Rabitah.net a. variety of medicinal drugs and some contraceptive devices. Elements of. Egyptian medical knowledge were gained by the Greeks, and so passed into later. Middle Eastern and Plan Resumed European civilizations. The pillar of — Healthlnk Egyptian culture was not science, however, but religion, which was firmly established as the 8+ Sales Plan Resumed basis of a whole world view. The religion. promoted the worship of many gods. Really Good Article Analysis. It mixed magical ceremonies and beliefs. with worship, in Plan | Cna Resumed a fashion common to early religions almost everywhere.

A more. distinctive focus involved the Good Analysis And A Brief Point concern with death and preparation for life in. another world, where in 8+ Sales Example Resumed contrast to the Mesopotamians the Egyptians held that. a happy, changeless well-being could be achieved. The care shown in preparing. tombs and mummifying bodies, along with elaborate funeral rituals particularly. for the rulers and bureaucrats, was designed to Documents assure a satisfactory. afterlife, though Egyptians also believed that favorable judgment by a key.

god, Osiris, was essential as well. Other Egyptian deities included a creation. goddess, similar to other Middle Eastern religious figures later adapted into. Christian worship of the Virgin Mary; and a host of gods represented by. partial animal figures. Egyptian art focused heavily on the gods, though. earthly, human scenes were portrayed as well in a characteristic, stylized. form that lasted without great change for many centuries. Stability was a hallmark of Egyptian culture.

Given the duration of. Egyptian civilization, there were surprisingly few basic changes in styles and. beliefs. 8+ Sales Plan Example. Egyptian emphasis on stability was reflected in their view of Piano a. changeless afterlife, suggesting a conscious attempt to argue that persistence. was a virtue. Change did, however, occur in Example | Cna some key areas. Egypt was long. fairly isolated, which helped preserve continuity.

The invasions of Egypt by. Palestine toward the end of the Old Kingdom period (about 2200 B.C.) were. distinct exceptions to Egypt's usual self-containment. They were followed by. attacks from the Middle East by tribes of Asian origin, which brought a period. of division and chaos, including rival royal dynasties. But the unified. monarchy was reestablished during the Middle Kingdom period, during which. Egyptian settlements spread southward into what is Really Article And A Point now the 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Sudan, setting. origins for the later African kingdom of — Healthlnk Kush.

Then followed another period of social unrest and invasion, ending in the. final great kingdom period, the New Kingdom, around 1570 B.C. 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna. During this. period trade and other contacts with the Middle East and the eastern. Mediterranean, including the Really Good Point To island of 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Crete, gained ground. These contacts.

spread certain Egyptian influences, notably in monumental architecture, to. other areas. It was during the New Kingdom that Egyptians first installed. formal slavery, subjecting people such as the Jews. Eps Free | Rabitah.net. It was also in this period.

that the pharaoh Akhenaton tried to impose a new monotheistic religion, reflecting some foreign influence, but his effort was renounced by his. successor Tutankhamen, who restored the 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed old capital city and built a lavish. tomb to celebrate the return to the traditional gods. Invoice | Rabitah.net. After about 8+ Sales Example | Cna, 1150 B.C., new waves of 22+ Examples Of Interview invasion and internal conspiracies and Example disorganization, including. strikes and social protest, brought fairly steady decline.

It was around this. period that one people, the Service Template. Hvac Service Template Free Hebrews, followed their leader Moses out of Egypt. and into the deserts of Palestine. Egypt And Mesopotamia Compared. The development of Plan Example | Cna two great early civilizations in Good Article On Needs And A Brief Point On How the Middle East and. North Africa encourages a first effort at comparative analysis. Because of. different geography, different degrees of exposure to outside invasion and. influence, and different prior beliefs, Egypt and Mesopotamia were in contrast.

to one another in many ways. Egypt emphasized strong central authority, while. Mesopotamian politics shifted more frequently over a substructure of regional. city-states. Mesopotamian art focused on less monumental structures, while. embracing a pronounced literary element that Egyptian art lacked. These cultural differences can be explained partly by Plan Example | Cna geography: Mesopotamians lacked access to Documents the great stones that Egyptians could import. for their monuments. The differences also owed something to different.

politics, for Egyptian ability to organize masses of laborers followed from. its centralized government structures and strong bureaucracy. The differences. owed something, finally, to different beliefs, for Plan the Mesopotamians lacked. the Egyptian concern for preparations for the afterlife, which so motivated. the great tombs and Chord pyramids that have made Egypt and some of the pharaohs. live on in human memory.

Both societies traded extensively, but there was a difference in economic. tone. Mesopotamia was more productive of Plan | Cna technological improvements, because. their environment was more difficult to manage than the Nile valley. Template. Trade. contacts were more extensive, and the Mesopotamians gave attention to a. merchant class and | Cna commercial law. Social differences were less obvious because it is difficult to obtain. information on daily life for early civilizations. It is Template Eps Free probable, though, that the status of 8+ Sales | Cna women was greater in Egypt than in Mesopotamia (where.

women's position seems to have deteriorated after Sumer). Egyptians paid great. respect to women at Invoice least in the upper classes, in part because marriage. alliances were vital to the preservation and 8+ Sales Plan Resumed stability of the monarchy. Also, Egyptian religion included more pronounced deference to goddesses as sources. Comparisons in Sheet politics, culture, economics, and society suggest. civilizations that varied substantially because of largely separate origins. and environments. | Cna Resumed. The distinction in overall tone was striking, with Egypt.

being more stable and cheerful than Mesopotamia not only in beliefs about gods. and the Piano Chord afterlife but in the colorful and lively pictures the Egyptians. emphasized in their decorative art. 8+ Sales Example. Also striking was the distinction in. internal history, with Egyptian civilization far less marked by disruption. than its Mesopotamian counterpart.

Comparison must also note important similarities, some of them. characteristic of early civilizations. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia emphasized. social stratification, with a noble, landowning class on top and masses of. peasants and slaves at the bottom. A powerful priestly group also figured in. the elite. Resume Format Mechanical Engineers Download. While specific achievements in science differed, there was a common. emphasis on | Cna Resumed astronomy and related mathematics, which produced durable findings.

about units of Resume For Freshers time and measurement. 8+ Sales Plan Resumed. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt changed only. slowly by Free Invoice Hvac Service the standards of Example more modern societies. Details of change have not. been preserved, but it is Invoice Eps Free | Rabitah.net true that having developed successful political and. economic systems there was a strong tendency toward conservation. Change, when. it came, was usually brought by 8+ Sales Plan Resumed outside forces - natural disasters or. invasions. Both civilizations demonstrated extraordinary durability in Good Article On Needs And A the.

basics. Egyptian civilization and a fundamental Mesopotamian culture lasted. far longer than the civilizations that came later, in part because of relative. isolation within each respective region and because of the deliberate effort. to maintain what had been achieved, rather than experiment widely. Both civilizations, finally, left an important heritage in their region.

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essay on semiotics We can define semiology or semiotics as the study of signs. We may not realize it, but in fact semiology can be applied to all sorts of human endeavours, including cinema, theatre, dance, architecture, painting, politics, medicine, history, and religion. That is, we use a variety of gestures (signs) in everyday life to convey messages to people around us, e.g., rubbing our thumb and forefinger together to signify money. We should think of messages (or texts) as systems of Plan Example Resumed signs, e.g., lexical, graphic, and Really On Needs Analysis And A On How so on, which gain their effects via the constant clashes between these systems. For example, the menu we consult in a restaurant has been drawn up with reference to a structure, but this structure can be filled differently, according to Plan time and place, e.g., breakfast or dinner (Barthes, 1964, p. 28). In the Eps Free, notes that follow, I will say a few words about structuralism, an intellectual movement which flourished during the 1950s and the 1960s, and semiology, which has been one of the chief modes of this intellectual movement. The major figures in this movement include Ferdinand de Saussure, Roland Barthes, Roman Jakobson, Claude Levi-Strauss, Thomas Sebeok, Julia Kristeva, and Umberto Eco. For reasons that will become obvious, I will focus on Saussure and Example Resumed Barthes, the pioneers. All believed semiology is the Of Interview, key to unlocking meaning of all things.

the basic elements of structuralism. To begin with, we should think of 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed structuralism as a mode of thought, a way of conceptualizing phenomena. Whereas in the past, determinists like Aristotle saw things in Really Article On Needs And A Brief Point On How To, terms of cause and effect, structuralists look for structures: From the 15th century, the 8+ Sales | Cna, word structure was used as a noun: the process of Service Template. Template building (Williams, 1976). During the 17th century, the term developed in two main directions: towards the product of building, as in a wooden structure, and Plan Resumed towards the manner of construction generally. Modern developments flow from (b). The sense of the latter is: the mutual relation of the constituent parts of a whole which define its nature, as in internal structure. The term entered the vocabulary of biology in the 18th century, as in the structure of the hand. The term entered the vocabulary of language, literature, and philosophy in the 19th century, to convey the idea of internal structure as constitutive, as in matters of building and engineering.

Scholars would talk (1863) about the structural differences that separate man from gorilla say. We need to know this history if we are to understand the development of Invoice | Rabitah.net structural and 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna structuralist thinking in the 20th century, as in Service Invoice Template. Hvac Service Free, linguistics and anthropology. We note that this theoretical construct dominated intellectual life in France, extending into the literary arts, during the period from WW I to WW II. Linguists in North America had to discard the 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed, presuppositions of Indo-European linguistics when they studied the languages of American Indians. They developed procedures for studying language as a whole, i.e., deep internal relations. Thus, we now distinguish function (performance) from structure (organization), as in structuralist linguistics and functional anthropology. According to (orthodox) structuralism, these structures range from kinship to Of Interview Questionnaires myth, not to mention grammar, one permanent constitutive of 8+ Sales Example | Cna Resumed human formations: the — Healthlnk, defining features of human consciousness (and perhaps the human brain), e.g., Id, Ego, Superego, Libido, or Death-Wish in psychology. Of course, the assumption here is that the structuralist is an objective observer, independent of the object of consideration.

In this context, we use words like code (hidden relations) to describe sign-systems (like fashion). We should note that structuralism challenges common sense, which believes that things have one meaning and this meaning is pretty obvious. Common sense tells us that the world is pretty much as we perceive it. In other words, structuralism tells us that meaning is constructed, as a product of shared systems of signification. Semiology: Two Pioneers. Again, semiology can be defined as the study of signs : how they work and how we use them. We note again that almost anything can signify something for someone. Saussure developed the principles of semiology as they applied to language; Barthes extended these ideas to messages (word-and-image relations) of all sorts. 1. Ferdinand de Saussure , 1857-1913. Saussure was born in Geneva, Switzerland, to a family celebrated for its accomplishments in the natural sciences.

Not surprisingly, he discovered linguistic studies early in life. In 1875, he entered the University of Geneva as a student of physics and chemistry, taking course in Greek and Latin grammar as well. This experience convinced him that his career lay in the study of language. In 1876, he entered the University of Leipzig to 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed study Indo-European languages. Here, he published (1878) a monograph on Documents — Healthlnk, the Primitive System of Vowels in Indo-European Languages . He was awarded the Ph.D. for his thesis on the genitive case in Sanskrit.

After completing his thesis, he moved to Paris, where he taught Sanskrit, as well as Old High German. For 10 years, he focused on specific languages--as opposed to general linguistics. In 1891, he returned to Geneva, to teach taught Sanskrit and historical linguistics at 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed the university. Questionnaires! The university provided the catalyst for shaping semiology--he was asked to teach (1906-11) a course of lectures in general linguistics. Resumed! He died in February of Invoice Service Invoice Template Free 1913. His students thought his course so innovative that they assembled their notes and published (1916) a work called Course in General Linguistics . In this work, Saussure focuses on the linguistic sign, making a number of crucial points about the relationship between the signifier (Sr) and the signified (Sd). Below I summarise the key ideas: Language (Saussure, 1916) is a self-contained system, one which is 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna made up of elements which perform a variety of functions, based on the relations the various elements have one with another. 22+ Examples! We can think of syntax and grammar as organizing principles of langauge. We have no trouble recognizing the grammatical sense of the following construction: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously . We can think of language (p. 34) as a system of signs, which we can study synchronically (as a complete system at any given point) or diachronically (in its historical development).

A signifier (Sr), the 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed, sound-image or its graphical equivalent, and its signified (Sd), the concept or the meaning, make up the sign (pp. 36-38). For example, we can say that, to an English speaking person, the three black marks c-a-t serve as the signifier which evokes the cat. The relation between Sr and Sd is arbitrary (pp. Good Article Brief! 37-38). Different languages use different words for the same thing. Plan Example Resumed! No physical connection links a given signifier and a signified. Described in these terms, language is a system of formal relations. Documents! This means that the key to understanding the structure of the Example Resumed, system lies in difference . One sound differs from Documents — Healthlnk, another sound (as p and b ); one word differs from another (as pat and bat ); and one grammatical forms differs from another (as has run from will run ). No linguistic unit (sound or word) has significance in and of itself.

Each unit acquires meaning in conjunction with other units. We can distinguish (p. 29) formal language (Saussure calls it langue ) from the Plan Example Resumed, actual use of language (which he calls parole ). Every expression we use is based on collective behavior or convention. We can say that a sign is motivated when we perceive a connection between Sr and Sd, e.g. in instances of Good Article On Needs Analysis And A Brief On How To onomatopoeia like bow-wow and tick-tock (pp. 39-30). 2. Roland Barthes , 1915-80. This cultural theorist and analyst was born in Cherbourg, a port-city northwest of Paris. His parents were Louis Barthes, a naval officer, and Henriette Binger. His father died in 8+ Sales Example | Cna, 1916, during combat in 22+ Examples Of Interview, the North Sea.

In 1924, Barthes and his mother moved to Paris, where he attended (1924-30) the Lycee Montaigne. Unfortunately, he spent long periods of his youth in sanatoriums, undergoing treatment for TB. When he recovered, he studied (1935-39) French and the classics at the University of Paris. He was exempted from military service during WW II (he was ill with TB during the period 1941-47). Plan Example Resumed! Later, when he wasn't undergoing treatment for TB, he taught at a variety of schools, including the Lycees Voltaire and Carnot. He taught at universities in Rumania (1948-49) and Egypt (1949-50) before he joined (in 1952) the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he devoted his time to sociology and lexicology. Barthes' academic career fell into three phases. During the first phase , he concentrated on demystifying the stereotypes of bourgeois culture (as he put it). Really Article On Needs Point On How To! For example, in Writing degree Zero (1953), Barthes examined the link between writing and biography: he studied the historical conditions of literary language and the difficulty of a modern practice of writing. Committed to Example | Cna language, he argued, the writer is at once caught up in particular discursive orders, the socially instituted forms of writing, a set of signs (a myth) of literature--hence the search for an unmarked language, before the closure of myth, a writing degree zero. During the years 1954-56, Barthes wrote a series of Template Eps Free essays for the magazine called Les Lettres nouvelles , in which he exposed a Mythology of the Month, i.e., he showed how the 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed, denotations in the signs of popular culture betray connotations which are themselves myths generated by Free Service Invoice Hvac Service Template, the larger sign system that makes up society.

The book which contains these studies of everyday signs--appropriately enough, it is entitled Mythologies (1957)--offers his meditations on many topics, such as striptease, the New Citroen, steak and chips, and so on. 8+ Sales Example | Cna! In each essay, he takes a seemingly unnoticed phenomenon from everyday life and deconstructs it, i.e., shows that the obvious connotations which it carries have been carefully constructed. This account of contemporary myth involved Barthes in the development of semiology. During the second phase , the semiotics phase dating from 1956, he took over Saussure's concept of the Article Analysis And A On How, sign, together with the concept of language as a sign system, producing work which can be regarded as an appendix to Mythologies . During this period, Barthes produced such works as Elements of Example | Cna Semiology (1964), and The Fashion System (1967), adapting Saussure's model to the study of cultural phenomena other than language. — Healthlnk! During this period, he became (in 1962) Directeur d'Etudes in 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed, the VIth section of the — Healthlnk, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, where he devoted his time to the sociology of 8+ Sales | Cna signs, symbols, and representations. The third phase began with the publication of Piano Chord S/Z (1970), marking a shift from 8+ Sales Example Resumed, Saussurean semiology to a theory of the text, which he defined as a field of the signifier and of the symbolic. S/Z is Documents a reading of Balzac's novel Sarrasine , plotting the migration of five codes, understood as open groupings of Plan Example | Cna Resumed signifieds and as points of Template crossing with other texts. The distinction between the writable and the readable, between what can be written/rewritten today, i.e., actively produced by Plan | Cna, the reader, and what can no longer be written but only read, i.e., passively consumed, provides a new basis for evaluation. Barthes extends this idea in The Pleasure of the Text (1973) via the body as text and | Rabitah.net language as an object of desire. During this period, he wrote books as fragments, suggesting his retreat from what might be called the discourse of power, as caught in the subject/object relationship and the habits of 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed rhetoric. Service Invoice Template. Hvac Service Invoice Free! He tried to distinguish the Example, ideological from the Documents, aesthetic, between the language of science, which deals with stable meanings and which is Plan Example Resumed identified with the sign, and the language of writing, which aims as displacement, dispersion.

He offers a textual reading of himself in Roland Barthes by Roland Barthes (1975). In 1976, he became professor of literary semiology at the College de France. In his last book, Camera Lucinda (1980), he reflects on For Freshers Free Download, the levels of meaning of the photograph. Barthes died on 26 March 1980, having been knocked over by a laundry van (reports suggest that the driver was drunk). In the notes that follow, I summarise the principle he forumlates in Elements of Semiology : the basic elements of semiology. The goal of semiological analysis is to identify the principle at Plan | Cna Resumed work in the message or text, i.e., to determine the rhetoric or the grammar tying together all the elements. — Healthlnk! I gloss the chief terms used by analysts in 8+ Sales Example, the section below, and I provide a short guide to semiological analysis in Service Free, the very last section. 1. axes of language.

We get a sense of how language works as a system (Barthes, 1983, p. 58) if we think of language as a pair of axes or two planes of mental activity, the vertical plane being the selective principle (vocabulary) and the horizontal dimension being the 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed, combinative principle (sentences). For example, we might select items (words) from Eps Free | Rabitah.net, various categories in the vertical (associative) dimension, such as kitten, cat, moggy, tom, puss, mouser; sat, rested, crouched; mat, rug, carpet and so on, and link them in the horizontal (combinative) plane to formulate statements like The cat sat on 8+ Sales | Cna Resumed, the mat . The idea is to think of Resume Format Engineers Free Download language (Saussure, 1916) as a system of signs. Let me say a few words about this important concept. By system we mean an organized whole, involving a number of Plan Resumed parts in some non-random relationship with one another. In other words, a system is a set of entities that interact with one another to form a whole. We speak of mechanical, biological, psychological, or socio-cultural systems. A machine is Good Article On Needs Analysis Point To a system. We think of the brake system in a car. An organism like the body is a system. We think of the nervous system. With regard to social units, we think of the family . The members of the family are the objects of the 8+ Sales Example, system.

Their characteristics as individuals are the attributes; their interaction forms constitute the relationships. A family exists in a social and cultural environment, which affects and is shaped by, the members. The following example will help clarify three related terms: The system of traffic signals performs the function of controlling traffic; the structure of this system is the binary opposition of red and green lights in alternating sequence. To make a long story short, we should think of texts as systems, e.g., lexical, graphic, and 22+ Examples Questionnaires so on, which gain their effects via the constant clashes between these systems. As we have seen, de Saussure--the founder of semiology--was the first to elaborate the tripartite relationship. signifier + signified = sign. According to Saussure, the linguistic sign unites a sound-image and a concept. The relationship between Sr and Plan | Cna Sd is arbitrary. It should be remembered that neither of these entities exist outside the construct we call a sign. We separate these entities for convenience only.

The signifier --which has a physical existence--carries the meaning. This is the sign as we perceive it: the marks on the paper or the sounds in Invoice Invoice Template, the air. The signified is a mental concept that is the meaning. 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed! It is common to | Rabitah.net all members of the same culture who share the same language. The sign is the associative total of the two: we speak of it as a signifying construct. During the 1960s, long hair on a man, especially if it was dirty (the signifier) usually suggested counterculture (the signified), whereas short hair on 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed, a man (the signifier) suggested the Piano, businessman or square (the signifier).

Of course, these meanings vary according to place and time. The terms motivation and constraint describe the extent to 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed which the signified determines the Template. Invoice Template Free, signifier. In other words, the form that a photograph of a car can take is determined by the appearance of the specific car itself. The form of the signifier of Example Resumed a generalized car or a traffic sign is — Healthlnk determined by the convention that is accepted by the users of the code. Motivated signs are iconic signs; they are characterized by a natural relation between signifier and signified. A portrait or a photograph is 8+ Sales Example iconic, in that the signifier represents the appearance of the 22+ Examples Of Interview Questionnaires, signified. The faithfulness or the accuracy of the representation--the degree to which the signified is re-presented in the signifier--is an inverse measure of how conventionalized it is. A realistic portrait (painting) is 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed highly conventionalized: this means that to signify the work relies on our experience of the sort of reality it re-presents. Sheet! A photograph of a street scene communicates easily because of 8+ Sales Example | Cna our familiarity with the reality it re-presents. It is important to recognize that (i) in Documents, signs of high motivation, the signified is the determining influence, and (ii) in signs of low motivation, convention determines the form of the signifier.

In unmotivated signs, the signifieds relate to their signifiers by convention alone, i.e., by an agreement among the users of Plan Example | Cna these signs. Engineers! Thus, convention plays a key role in our understanding of any sign. We need to know how to read a photograph or a sculpture, say. Convention serves as the social dimension of 8+ Sales Example signs. We may not understand the unmotivated verbal sign for car that the French use, but we understand the road signs in France in so far as they are iconic. The arbitrary dimension of the Free Invoice Template. Hvac Service Free, unmotivated sign is often disguised by | Cna, the apparent natural iconic motivation; hence, a man in a detective story showing the inside of his wallet is conventionally a sign of a policeman identifying himself and not a sign of a peddler of pornographic postcards.

4. denotation and connotation. Saussure concentrated on the denotative function of signs; by contrast, Barthes pushed the analysis to another level, the connotative. Simply put, these two terms describe the meanings signs convey. By denotation we mean the Format For Freshers Engineers Free, common sense, obvious meaning of the sign. A photograph of a street scene denotes the street that was photographed. Example Resumed! This is the mechanical reproduction (on film) of the object the camera points at. For example, I can use color film, pick a day of pale sunshine, and use a soft focus lens to Free Service Template Free make the street appear warm and happy, a safe community for children. I can use black and white film, hard focus, and strong contrast, to make the 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed, street appear cold, inhospitable. The denotative meanings would be the same. By connotation we mean the interaction that occurs when the sign and the feelings of the viewer meet. At this point, meanings move toward the subjective interpretation of the sign (as illustrated by the above examples).

If denotation is On Needs And A Brief Point On How To what is photographed, connotation is how it is photographed. 5. paradigms and syntagms. Saussure defined two ways in which signs are organized into codes (Fiske, 1982, pp. 61-64): A paradigm is a vertical set of Plan Example Resumed units (each unit being a sign or word), from which the required one is selected, e.g., the set of shapes for road signs: square, round and triangular. A syntagm is the horizontal chain into which units are linked, according to agreed rules and conventions, to make a meaningful whole.

The syntagm is the statement into which the chosen signs are combined. A road sign is a syntagm, a combination of the chosen shape with the chosen symbol. Paradigms and syntagms are fundamental to the way that any system of signs is organized. — Healthlnk! In written language, the letters of the alphabet are the basic vertical paradigms. These may be combined into 8+ Sales Example, syntagms called words. These words can be formed into syntagms called phrases or sentences, i.e., according to the rules of grammar. Syntagms--like sentences--exist in time: we can think of them as a chain. But syntagms of visual signs can exist simultaneously in space.

Thus, a sign of two children leaving school, in black silhouette, can be syntagmatically combined with a red triangle or a road sign to mean: SCHOOL: BEWARE OF CHILDREN. The term difference describes the relationship between the elements at work in any given message. They work as rhetorical figures, such as the figures of addition , where the elements are added to a word, sentence, or image; or the figures of suppression , where elements are suppressed, concealed, or excluded. The key to understanding the structure of a system of signs, then, lies in understanding the relationship(s) the Resume Free Download, system utilizes. We are interested in 8+ Sales, the techniques of additions primarily, which include: Repetition is the repetition of the same element: word, sound or image; Similarity is similarity of form, as in rhyme, or on Format Download, similarity of content, as in comparisons; Accumulation refers to a number of different elements conveying the 8+ Sales Plan Resumed, idea of abundance or profusion, verging on disorder and chaos; and. Opposition occurs at the level of form (an ad set in two different countries) and Piano Sheet the level of content (an advertisement for detergent featuring a man in Plan | Cna Resumed, white smocking sitting on a heap of coal).

Thus, difference might be a function of contrast or opposition in terms of: high quality - low quality. The idea is — Healthlnk that nothing in and of itself has meaning: rather, meaning is a function of some relationship. 7. Metaphor and Metonymy. These terms--used by Roman Jakobson, the linguist--define the two fundamental modes by which the meanings of signs are conveyed. Metaphor involves a transposition or displacement from signified to signifier, together with the Plan | Cna Resumed, recognition that such a transposition implies an equivalence between these two elements of the sign. Likewise, visual metaphors are constructed, e.g., a portrait of a man is constructed in such a way as to convince us that the Really Good And A Brief Point On How To, two dimensional visual representation is equivalent to its three-dimensional reality. Similarly, a map signifies the reality to which it refers by constructing an 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed equivalent form in whose features we can recognize those of the object itself.

Thus, both verbal and non-verbal, arbitrary and iconic signs can be metaphorical. In metonymy, the signification depends upon the ability of a sign to act as a part which signifies the whole . Piano! Television advertisers are particularly adept at exploiting both metaphoric and metonymic modes in Example | Cna Resumed, order to Invoice Hvac Service Template Free cram as much meaning as possible into a short period of time. For example, the Plan Example | Cna Resumed, sign of Really Good Article And A Brief Point On How a mother pouring out a particular breakfast cereal for her children is a metonym of 8+ Sales Example Resumed all her maternal activities of cooking, cleaning, and so on, but a metaphor for the love and Resume Mechanical Free Download the security she provides. As we have suggested, the structural relationship between these modes can be visualized as operating on Plan Example Resumed, two axes, one vertical and one horizontal in character. 8. three orders of signification. In the study of signs, we can speak of different levels of meaning or orders of signification. In the first order of signification, the Piano Chord Sheet, sign is self-contained: the photograph means the individual car. This is the denotative order of signification. In the second order, this simple motivated meaning meets a whole range of cultural meanings that derive not from the sign itself but from the 8+ Sales Example | Cna Resumed, way society uses and values the Sr and the Sd. This is the connotative order of signification. In our society, a car--or a sign for a car--can signify virility or freedom.

According to Barthes (1964), signs in the second order of signification operate in two distinct ways: as mythmakers and as connotative agents. When signs move to the second order of signification, they carry cultural meanings as well as representational ones, i.e., the signs become the signifiers of CULTURAL MEANINGS. Barthes calls the cultural meanings of Piano Chord Sheet these signs MYTHS. The sign loses its specific signified and becomes a second-order signifier, i.e., a conveyor of cultural meaning. We can explain the connotative order of signification with a simple example.

A general's uniform denotes his rank (first-order sign) but connotes the respect we show it (second-order sign). Say that by the end of the war film we are watching the general's uniform is tattered and torn; it still denotes his rank; however, the connotative meaning will have changed. Thus, in the connotative order, signs signify values, emotions, and attitudes. Camera angle, lighting, and background music, for example, are used in film and television to connote meaning. The connotative meaning of a televised painting can be changed by 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed, the background music accompanying it. The range of Resume For Freshers Free cultural meanings that are generated in this second order cohere in the third order of 8+ Sales | Cna signification into a cultural picture of the world. It is in this order (the third) that a car forms part of the imagery of an Piano Chord Sheet industrial, materialist, and rootless society. The myths which operate as organizing structures, e.g., the myth of the neighborhood policeman as keeper of the peace and friend of all residents of the community, are themselves organized into a pattern which we might call MYTHOLOGY or IDEOLOGY. In the third order of signification, ideology reflects the broad principles by which a culture organizes and interprets the reality with which it has to cope.

This mythology is a function of the social institutions and 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed the individuals who make up these institutions. 9. semiological analysis. Barthes (1964) points out that semiological analysis involves two operations: dissection and articulation. The first operation (dissection) includes looking for Really Article And A Point On How fragments (elements) which when associated one with another suggest a certain meaning. The analyst looks for paradigms, i.e., classes or groups from which elements have been chosen (and endowed with specific meaning). The units or elements in this group or class share a number of characteristics. Two units of the same paradigm must resemble one another so that the difference which separates them becomes evident, e.g., to a foreigner, American automobiles seem to look alike, yet they differ in make and 8+ Sales Example color.

The second operation (articulation) involves determining the | Rabitah.net, rules of combination. This is the activity of articulation. In summary: The analyst takes the object, decomposes it and then re-composes it. 8+ Sales Plan Example! The analyst makes something appear which was invisible or unintelligible. 10. Concluding Remarks. Like structuralism, semiology decenters the individual, who is no longer the source of meaning. Semiology (Barthes, 1964) refuses the obvious meaning of a work: it does not take the message at Really Good On Needs Analysis face value. We are concerned with MESSAGES and the preferred ways to Plan | Cna READ them. I conclude these notes with a guide to Invoice Eps Free | Rabitah.net a semiological analysis, based on Barthes' (1977) seminal essay, The Rhetoric of the Image. a guide to a semiological analysis.

This guide identifies the 8+ Sales Example | Cna Resumed, key activities analysts undertake when they conduct a semiological critique of a text, such as an advertisement, a tv program, a movie, a painting, etc. Offer your reader a brief overview of the message. The idea is to provide a brief description of the advertisement (say) so that the reader can visualize the message. Identify the Piano Chord Sheet, key signifiers and signifieds . Ask questions like: What are the important signifiers and what do they signify? What is the system (of signs) that gives the Plan, text meaning? What ideological and sociological matters are involved? Identify the paradigms that have been exploited. Ask questions like: What is the central opposition in the text? What paired opposites fit under the Resume Format Mechanical Download, various categories? Do these oppositions have any psychological or social significance?

Identify the syntagms that come across. Ask questions like: What statements or messages (directly and implied) can you identify? Answer this question by considering. (a) the linguistic message. This message is made up of all the words, denotations and connotations. (b) the non-coded iconographic (literal) message. This message is made up of the denotations in the photograph. (c) the coded iconographic (symbolic) message.

This message is made up of the visual connotations we detect in 8+ Sales Example, the arrangement of Good Article And A Brief Point On How photographed elements. Finally, identify the principle at | Cna Resumed work in the message or text. Remember, the goal of analysis is to determine the rhetoric or the grammar tying together all the elements. Barthes, R. 1964. The Structuralist Activity. Free Service Invoice Service Template Free! From Essais Critiques , trans. R. Howard.

In Partisan Review 34 (Winter):82-88. ---. 1967. Writing Degree Zero , trans. A. Lavers and C. Smith. Plan! 1953; rptd. On Needs Analysis Brief Point On How To! New York: Hill and 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed Wang. ---. Chord Sheet! 1967. Mytholgies , trans. A. 8+ Sales Example | Cna Resumed! Lavers. 1957; rptd. London: Hill and Wang. ---. 1967. Elements of — Healthlnk Semiology , trans. A. Lavers and Plan Example C. Eps Free | Rabitah.net! Smith. 1964; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1974. S/Z , trans. R. Howard. 1970; rptd. Oxford: Blackwell. ---. 1975. The Pleasure of the Text , trans. R. Howard. 1973; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed! 1977. Roland Barthes on Roland Barthes , trans. R. Howard. 1975; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. Invoice Eps Free! 1977. The Rhetoric of the Image.

In his book Image-Music-Text , trans. S. Heath. 1964; rpt. London: Wm. Collins Sons and | Cna Resumed Co., pp. 32-51. ---. 1981. Camera Lucinda , trans. R. Howard. 1980; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1983. The Fashion System , trans. Service Template. Template! M. Ward and R. Howard. 1967; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.

de Saussure, Ferdinand. 1960. Course in General Linguistics . 1916; rpt. London: Peter Owen. Eco, Umberto. 1976. A Theory of Semiotics . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Fiske, John. 1982. Introduction to Communication . London: Methuen.

Jakobson, Roman. 1960. Linguistics and Poetics. In Style in Language , ed. Thomas A. Sebeok. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 350-77. Williams, Raymond. 8+ Sales Example Resumed! 1976. Structural. In Key Words . London: Fontana, pp.

253-59.

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linked passage essay Subtopic: Rituals and Rites of Passage. Grade Level: 5th-6th. Author: Jennie Rasband. A rite of passage, which marks a time when a person reaches a new and significant change in his/her life, is something that nearly all societies recognize and often hold ceremonies for.

These ceremonies are held to observe a person's entry into a new stage of life and Plan | Cna, can be anything from a high school graduation ceremony or a birthday party, to a funeral. Good Brief! Most rites help people to 8+ Sales understand their new roles in society. They can also help others learn to treat people in 22+ Examples Of Interview, new ways after they experience certain rites of passage. Most rites of passage fall into three main phases: separation, transition, and incorporation. In the separation phase, the participant is taken away from his/her familiar environment and former role and enters a very different and sometimes foreign routine that they are forced to adjust to and become familiar with. A rite that would fall into this category would be birth. The infant leaves a very safe and 8+ Sales Resumed, secure environment in their mother's womb to an extremely different one in the real world. Death can also be a separation rite, depending on a person's belief about what happens after someone dies. Societies have devised ways to mark these separations and aid in the transitions that will take place. — Healthlnk! For instance, the naming of babies marks the significant event of birth.

Funerals and the many different funeral customs mark the separation that takes place when a death occurs. Funerals can also help those left behind to make the necessary changes needed to adjust to being separated from loved ones. The transition phase is the time that the participant learns the 8+ Sales | Cna appropriate behavior for the new stage they are entering. This phase can include the time when a person becomes engaged to be married. Resume Format Free! At this time, they are learning about the new stage of life they will soon enter -- marriage. They are also adjusting and 8+ Sales Resumed, preparing for it, or making a transition. The transition phase may also include the time that children enter adolescence and leave their childhood behind. This is the time when people learn and Service Invoice Hvac Service Free, grow and 8+ Sales Example, prepare to be an independent adult in the real world. The last phase, incorporation, takes place when the participant is formally admitted into the new role. Marriage is a good example of a rite that would take place in the incorporation phase.

After people are married, they have taken on a very new and different role, having prepared for it in earlier transition and separation rites. There are many, many rites of passage in For Freshers Engineers Free Download, our lives. Some are considered to be more significant than others, but almost every day we live can bring about transitions. However, there are five times in one's life that are often considered to be the 8+ Sales | Cna most significant times of change. These are the rites that we will learn about in Documents — Healthlnk, more detail as we study the significance behind rites of passage.

They are: Birth, Leaving childhood and becoming an adolescent, Leaving home, Weddings, and Death/Funerals. | Cna Resumed! To recognize these significant times in our lives, societies typically hold elaborate ceremonies. Each different culture or society may choose to mark these rites in very different ways. Each ceremony is unique and meaningful to one's own culture. In this mini-unit we will study these significant rites of passage and how different cultures uniquely mark these changes as they come to pass in the lives of their people. Bahti, T. (1971). Southwestern Indian Ceremonials. Las Vegas, Nevada: KC Publications.

Bruchac, J. (1994). A Boy Called Slow. New York, NY: Philomel Books. Lutske, H. (1986). The Book of Jewish Customs. Resume Download! Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc. Tiersky, E. M. (1975). Customs and Institutions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Van Gennep, A. (1960). Example | Cna Resumed! The Rites of Passage.

Chicago, Ill: The University of Chicago Press. Rite of Passage. Invoice Template. Service Invoice Free! The World Book Encyclopedia. 1989 ed. Slave Narratives-Part 3. Vol. 12 St. Claire Shores, Michigan: Scholarly Press, Inc., 1976. Students will be able to define what a rite of passage is. Students will recognize at least five specific rites of passage.

Students will be able to Example | Cna Resumed recognize the 22+ Examples significance in 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed, names and be able to explain the explanation behind their own names. Students will identify advantages and disadvantages of leaving home. Students will recognize that different cultures recognize rites of passage in different, but unique and meaningful ways. Students will illustrate their findings about Southwestern Indian funeral/death beliefs and Chord Sheet, customs. Time Allotment: 4-5 class periods plus homework. Resources Needed: A Boy Called Slow by: Joseph Bruchac. Numbered Heads Together information on weddings. Jigsaw information on SW Indian death/funeral customs. Butcher paper, markers, crayons (for name posters and murals) A. Brainstorm. 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed! Ask students if any of them know what a rite of passage is.

Allow for Format Free Download, a few different responses before revealing who was right, or if no one comes up with the right answer, to 8+ Sales Plan Example | Cna Resumed tell them the actual definition. (A rite of passage is something that marks an important change in one's life.) Have students brainstorm all the things they can think of that would be considered a rite of passage in Chord, their lives. Write their responses on the board. Ex: *Taking first steps *Turning a certain age. *Going to kindergarten *Staying up later than younger siblings. * Paying adult fares *Walking to school by Plan Resumed, themselves. B. — Healthlnk! Mini Lecture/Name Activity: Explain to students that the first rite of passage every person goes through is birth. Birth is 8+ Sales Example, a major adjustment for the infant as he/she leaves the familiar environment of the womb and takes his/her place in the world.

Naming a baby is a part of Piano Chord Sheet this birth rite. There are many unique customs that different cultures observe when naming their children. For instance, some people belonging to Example | Cna the Jewish faith believe it is improper to name a child after someone who is still living. Documents — Healthlnk! They also believe it is improper to discuss names before the birth of the 8+ Sales infant. Have students share with a partner where their names come from. (Who are they named after, what nationality is their name, etc.) Then assign students to Resume Format Mechanical Download go the library and look at a name book and find out what their own name means. Ask them to talk to parents at home about what family customs or traditions their parents observe when naming their children. C. Literature Extension . Read to 8+ Sales Example class, A Boy Called Slow . Piano Sheet! In this book, Sitting Bull performs a deed which is so courageous and significant that it earns him a new and more respected name. Have students write about something they have done or would like to do that would prove them worthy of leaving their childhood behind and Plan | Cna, gaining a new respect for themselves by becoming an adolescent. This could include things like, saving a cat that was stuck in a tree, teaching a little brother or sister how to read, etc. Have students give themselves a name that describes their worthy deed they have written about. (Example: Teacher of the Young. Their ideas will be much more creative than mine could be.) Have students design a poster with their new name and Of Interview, an illustration of their deed.

D. Group Discussions. Resumed! Another important rite of passage is that of leaving home, although not all people choose to do this. Some people move out Resume Format For Freshers Mechanical Free Download, as soon as they are through with high school to attend a distant college or to seek independence from parents. Some people choose to attend colleges close to home and continue living at home until they get married, while some choose never to leave home at all. Group students into groups of three or four.

Have them discuss in their groups the advantages and disadvantages of leaving home. Have a leader from each group tell the rest of the class two of their group's choices of advantages and disadvantages. E. Numbered Heads Together. Form class into small groups (3 - 4 students) and then give each group member their own number. Hand out to each group the included information on different wedding customs and ceremonies and the attached questions. Have groups read the information thoroughly. Then give the groups a certain amount of time to go over the questions together. Tell students that in order for the team to do well, everyone has to know the 8+ Sales answers. Ask student to make sure that everyone in their group knows the answers and Piano Chord, can explain them. Call out a number.

The student with that number answers the question for the team. (Students will answer by 8+ Sales Plan | Cna Resumed, writing answers on the board.) Talk with groups about the answers and how they made sure everyone in their groups knew the answer. What helped? What did not help? F. Chord! Interview. Assign students to interview their parents about 8+ Sales | Cna their wedding ceremony or their grandparents' wedding ceremonies. Share findings with class the next day. Invoice Template Eps Free | Rabitah.net! (Make sure students have options of asking grandparents or other adults in case of divorce, death, or single parents, in which interviewing could cause awkwardness or anxiety.) Some questions could include: Were there any traditions that were honored at your wedding? (Throwing rice, wearing something borrowed, new, blue, etc.) Where was the ceremony held?

Who was invited? Were traditions included from 8+ Sales Example Resumed, both the groom's family and the bride's family? How did they differ? It might also be interesting to Documents — Healthlnk have children search out cross-cultural examples of different kinds of weddings. G. Jigsaw. Explain to class that the final rite of passage a person enters is 8+ Sales Plan Example Resumed, that of death. Piano Sheet! Each culture has its own unique way of burying their deceased and holding funerals. At this time, we will discuss the different beliefs and customs ancient Southwestern Indians observed when taking care of their dead. 8+ Sales | Cna! Divide class into groups of four and 22+ Examples Of Interview, number students off. Have students first meet with their expert groups (those who have the same numbers). Hand out reading material (provided at the end of this unit) to Plan expert groups and allow adequate time for thorough and thoughtful reading of the material.

Then allow experts to discuss what they have read and what they thought to be the most important points from their reading. Now have students go back to their original groups. Each person should share with their group the Eps Free information they were responsible for. To make sure each person is accountable for the information, have each group collaboratively create a mural, illustrating what they have learned from this jigsaw experience. H. Open Discussion/Thought paper. After all of the previous activities have been completed ask the students to answer the following question: What is a rite of passage and 8+ Sales Plan | Cna, what are some of the ways they are recognized among different cultures? Allow students to discuss answers openly. Really Good Article Analysis And A To! After discussion, have each student individually write a short essay, describing their own personal response to the previous question.

*Responses for brainstorming activity will be assessed. *Explanations of 8+ Sales Resumed names will be assessed. *Posters for literature extension will be assessed. *Group responses on advantages/disadvantages of Good Article On Needs And A Brief On How To leaving home will be assessed. *Answers to Numbered Heads Together will be assessed. *Murals on funeral/death customs will be assessed. *Thought papers and responses to 8+ Sales Example | Cna final question will be assessed. Wedding Information (for Numbered Heads Together)

In this article, you will learn about traditions observed in three different wedding ceremonies. A common practice among Jewish couples is the tradition of the bride circling her groom seven times under the wedding canopy. She does this because the phrase and when a man takes a wife is mentioned seven times in the Bible. The circling is also significant of the seven days of creation and the Bible story in Questionnaires, which Jacob labored for seven years for Rachel. Another tradition Jewish couples observe during wedding ceremonies is the breaking of a glass underfoot by Resumed, the groom. When he does this, the wedding party shouts Mazel Tov! a dozen times.

This is done because of the loss of the Temple in Jerusalem. It is 22+ Examples Questionnaires, recorded in a sacred Jewish book that during the joyous wedding of an important man, he took a glass of great value and shattered it, startling his guests. When asked why he did this, he told them that even in the midst of the most joyous occasion, one should never forget the destruction and loss of our Temple. In many American weddings, it is Plan Resumed, tradition for the bride to throw her bouquet out to her guests. The person who catches it is said to be the one who will be the next to marry. In a typical American wedding, it is said to be bad luck for the groom to see the bride on the day of the wedding before the Invoice Template Eps Free | Rabitah.net ceremony has taken place. It is also considered to be bad luck for the groom to see the | Cna wedding dress at anytime before the Service Hvac ceremony.

In the 8+ Sales Plan Resumed days of slavery in Service Invoice Hvac Free, America, there was no way to legally recognize the union of slaves in 8+ Sales Plan Example, marriage, since slaves were not seen as citizens. Resume Free! So in order for slaves to 8+ Sales Example demonstrate their union in marriage, they would jump over a broomstick, the woman jumping one way, the man jumping the other way. This was their way of recognizing that a marriage had taken place. 1. What is the significance of the Invoice Template. Invoice Free Jewish bride circling her groom seven times during the wedding ceremony? 2. | Cna! What is one of the superstitions typically observed during American weddings? 3. Why did slaves have to Chord Sheet come up with their own way of recognizing their union in Plan | Cna Resumed, marriage? 4. What is the Really Brief Point symbolism behind the Jewish groom breaking a glass during the wedding ceremony? 5. Why do you think traditions are important parts of weddings? Death/Funeral Information (for jigsaw)

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The spirits of children who die before they are initiated are believed to return to | Cna the mother's house to be born again.