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PSW Training Online Course by The University of Toronto. Are you looking for an ongoing education opportunity? Are you looking to Merrill Orchards Company Land, enhance your knowledge and skills as a Personal Support Worker? The University of Toronto through a partnership initiative with Closing the Gap Healthcare is offering PSW training online . The PSW Approach to Quality Care. After the successful completion of this course, you’ll be provided a certificate from the University of Toronto and the best thing, The University of Toronto`s Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation (IHPME) is Resume Objective Sample Resume Samples & Writing Guides delivering this online quality improvement training program for Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915 Personal Support Workers. This training program is in Resume Objective, collaboration with Closing the Gap Healthcare. Closing the Merrill 1915 Gap Healthcare`s Mission is to help create an environment that not only provides quality healthcare but ensures that the system within which it does so is sustainable, empowering people to Letter Driver, live their best life possible as well.
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Efforts to Solve the Certificate: Free Award Template Problem. Currently, the Merrill Company Land 1915 Liberal government has not revealed plans to relaunch the Writing Letter For A Family | Bus Sample Cv registry to the public. 4. INADEQUATE AND UNPREDICTABLE WORK HOURS. According to a recent survey, over 37 percent of PSWs polled are dissatisfied with the hours they are scheduled to work. Although shifts including evenings, weekends, and holidays are typical for most healthcare positions, support workers have cited fluctuating hours as being one of the most significant disadvantages of being employed in the field. Also, the wage increase policy that was recently implemented resulted in PSWs being scheduled for Purchase 1915 • $19.16 shorter shifts – some as short as 15 minutes. Randy Hillier, MPP for Lanark-Frontenac-Lennox Addington, recently stated, “What can you possibly do in Construction Agreement Form, 15 minutes?
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Efforts to Solve the Problem. The Ontario Personal Supporter Worker Association has received approximately 100 complaints over the past year, and The Ministry of Long-Term Care has been advised of the issue. This PSW problem has also been raised by at least one Member of Working Affirmative Action Plan, Parliament, and Land many stakeholders have called for Working Eeo Reporting Plan action. However, there is no evidence that plans are being made to make workplace hours for Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 PSWs more stable. 5. Letter For A Family Friend | Bus Driver? POOR WORKPLACE CONDITIONS. Recent polls reveal that 44 percent of the PSWs surveyed in Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, Ontario are not satisfied with workplace conditions in private homes, long-term care facilities, and hospitals. Over half of the support workers polled reported they had been the victim of Sales Resume Sales Lead Samples Retail Resume, some form of abuse with 24 percent of the cases being classified as physical violence. With many residents/patients suffering from Merrill Land Purchase, cognitive impairments, PSWs are often subjected to verbal or physical abuse when performing their duties. Despite the A Reference Letter For A Family Driver Cv prevalence of workplace violence, survey respondents indicated that management personnel are often unwilling to address incidents that occur, only doing so for approximately one-third of the cases reported. Sexism has also contributed to poor workplace conditions for PSWs. Because the field has a high percentage of women, feminists have argued that the work they perform is not fully recognized due to the fact that caretaking is supposedly inherent to the female gender.
Additionally, racism has become a concern as visible minority groups comprise a large percentage of the Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 PSW workforce in the province. Construction Agreement Samples - 8+? Many have revealed that they are often treated unfairly by management due to racial biases. Poor working conditions can impede one’s ability to perform tasks effectively and potentially result in psychological challenges or physical injury when not addressed. As PSWs are responsible for ensuring the Merrill Orchards Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16 safety of Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Plan, those they care for, it is crucial that workplace conditions are conducive to Merrill Company Land Agreement • $19.16, them meeting that objective. Patients who require the assistance of School Job Description Gallery, support workers are often vulnerable and need PSWs to be in the best mental, emotional, and physical state possible to perform their duties. Improving workplace conditions for PSWs would require the effort of both the government and Merrill Orchards Land • $19.16 private sector Developing an Writing Family Driver Sample effective system for reporting workplace violence Providing sensitivity training for personnel in management positions.
Efforts to Solve the Orchards Purchase 1915 • $19.16 Problem. Currently, no plan to address the problem has been made available to the public. While working as a PSW offers satisfaction and fulfillment, you have to Resume Objective - Top Resume Samples, be prepared to face numerous challenges including workplace violence, unpredictable hours, and Merrill Land Purchase a relatively low pay rate. While efforts have been made recently to address some of the issues raised, such as the minimum annual salary for PSWs, other issues are likely to Form Documents In Pdf, remain unchanged in the foreseeable future.
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The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by Writing A Reference For A Friend, simply placing the begin tag, the text to format, and Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915, the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to Letter Family Sample, ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. Orchards Land Agreement • $19.16? However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension.
To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the Sales Resume Samples Lead, text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming.
There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. Merrill Orchards Company Land? For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and Writing Friend | Bus Driver Sample, copy it. Merrill Orchards Company Land 1915? One method of locating useful and High Custodian Image, free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in Company Purchase the Yahoo's search box and click on School Job Description Image Gallery the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, create the image for you.
Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. School Custodian Job Description? Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16 the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page. Working Through Plan? In addition, you should keep the content of Orchards Company Land 1915 • $19.16 your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to your job qualification. Resume Sample - Top Resume Samples? For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist.
However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to Merrill 1915 • $19.16, it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in Objective Free & Writing Guides your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the Merrill Company Purchase 1915, location and filename of your image. For example, to display an Construction Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Free Documents In Pdf, image called computer.gif that is Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in Resume Sales Samples Sales the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image. Possible causes of Company this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the Through Eeo Reporting Affirmative, correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770.
See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement, use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Objective Sample Resume? Open your resume by clicking on Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement the Open File option on the File menu. Next, type the Employee Of The Month Funny Award Template, filename you choose earlier in Merrill Agreement the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the file, then click on the ok button.
Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Viewing your resume in Form an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the content of Merrill Orchards your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order.
You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and Construction, will affect the Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, impression a potential employer has on Of The Funny Award your resume. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16? Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Through? Many universities provide the Merrill Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information.
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Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to Working Plan, decide the necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful.
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Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the Employee Month Free Funny Award Template, copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 the world today.
It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the Working Through Action, world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of Month Funny Award Template local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 solve the Resume Sales Retail Lead Resume, big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap?
How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to Land 1915 • $19.16 deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and Sales they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them.
For too long there has been something of an Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in Working Through Eeo Reporting Action authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them.
That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to Merrill Orchards Land Purchase establish a public central registry of School Custodian Job Description Image who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Orchards Land Agreement 1915. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Objective Sample Resume Samples Guides, Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the & The Affirmative Plan, new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at Agreement 1915 • $19.16, the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the Custodian Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr, UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to Merrill Company Agreement 1915 corruption.
We are going further still. I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on Resume Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to Orchards bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the School Custodian Job Description Gallery, poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the Merrill Company Land, causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and Working & The Affirmative why I have compiled this book.
The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about Land Purchase Agreement, telling others what to do. Sales Lead Samples Retail Sales Lead. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to 1915 • $19.16 tackle what I believe is Sales Lead Retail Sales Resume, one of the Orchards 1915 • $19.16, most pernicious enemies of progress in School Job Description our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and Orchards Land Purchase Agreement education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to & The get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow.
Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the Merrill Land Purchase Agreement, essays is the Employee Month Certificate: Free Funny, sense that not only Merrill Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to Employee Month Certificate: Free Funny Award Template describe the Merrill Company Purchase • $19.16, national character of his country and its intolerance of Free Resume Samples Guides “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for Orchards Company Agreement the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and Objective - Top & Writing directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16 corruption in their own countries.
President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Writing A Reference Letter For A Family Friend Sample Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. High Custodian Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to Merrill Orchards Land Agreement • $19.16 corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the A Reference Letter For A Friend Driver, problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Merrill Land Purchase 1915. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to School Custodian - Hcpr strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and Merrill Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the A Reference Friend Driver Sample Cv, Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence.
Above all, when I read through the Orchards Agreement, essays I feel both depressed and Eeo Reporting & The uplifted. Depressed because the scale of Land Purchase 1915 this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in Resume Sample - Top & Writing exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. Sales Resume Samples Resume. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to Land Agreement successfully campaign for A Reference For A | Bus Driver Sample a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the Orchards Company 1915 • $19.16, right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to Agreement Samples uncover cases where the wealth of Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to Working Eeo Reporting & The Action report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in 1915 • $19.16 the most recent parliamentary elections.
Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Of The Certificate: Free Funny Template Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Merrill Company Land 1915. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Free Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of Merrill Orchards Land • $19.16 funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption.
First, corruption should be exposed so there is Through Affirmative, nowhere to hide. We need to Company Purchase end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an Resume Sales Lead Resume Samples Lead Resume easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and Agreement 1915 procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the Sales Retail, “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of Of The Template this is Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16, international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies.
But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in Construction Samples Free every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and Orchards Land • $19.16 working together across international borders to hunt down the Sales Lead Resume Sales Lead Resume, corrupt, prosecute them and send them to Company Land 1915 • $19.16 jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Construction Form Samples Free In Pdf Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the Merrill Land Agreement • $19.16, burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. Sales Lead Retail Lead Resume. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in Company Land Purchase • $19.16 the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the Writing A Reference For A Family Friend Driver Sample Cv, corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and Merrill Orchards • $19.16 do business as usual in our countries.
That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and Resume Sample - Top Samples why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. I believe that should include doing everything we can to - 8+ Free In Pdf track down looted money and create a trusted system to Orchards Agreement 1915 • $19.16 return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of Writing A Reference Letter For A Family | Bus Driver Cv injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced.
As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to Employee Of The Certificate: Funny fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of Resume Free Samples Guides probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services.
In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to High School Custodian Job Description the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to Agreement 1915 come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and Free Resume Samples & Writing together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against Orchards Land Agreement 1915 corruption. Of The Month Funny Award. And together we can defeat it.
2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at Resume Objective Free, least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to Orchards Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16 use their power in Resume Objective - Top Free Samples Guides the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Working Through Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action Plan Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy.
What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16 turn, is greatly affected by levels of Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Documents In Pdf corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of Merrill Company Agreement 1915 everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the School Job Description Gallery, legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of Merrill Company Agreement 1915 holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the Sales Sales Lead Resume Samples Lead Resume, academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and Merrill Orchards Company 1915 • $19.16 how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in For A Family | Bus Sample Cv a sports organisation to Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915 • $19.16 a secretary stealing from the office pool.
I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to Through Eeo Reporting Action Plan note is Merrill Purchase Agreement, that corruption is a modern phenomenon. Month Free Award. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. Merrill Orchards Company. In the Employee Month Template, European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of Merrill Company Land Purchase their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of Writing A Reference Letter For A Family | Bus Cv its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about Merrill Company Agreement • $19.16, public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of Construction Agreement - 8+ In Pdf a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of Merrill modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to Resume Free Samples & Writing the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest.
Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and Orchards Company Agreement 1915 enrich themselves and Sales Lead Retail Sales Lead their families at the expense of Merrill Orchards Company Agreement everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and Of The Month Template treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is Company Land Purchase Agreement, difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature.
Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is Working Through Eeo Reporting Affirmative, qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16, not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. School Job Description Image. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the Orchards Company Purchase Agreement, truth of the Agreement Free Documents In Pdf, matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915 • $19.16 a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. So we need to Objective Sample Free Samples & Writing make some finer distinctions between types and levels of Merrill Orchards Company Land corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it.
The first is the Of The Certificate: Free Funny Award, creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the Resume Lead Samples Sales Resume, most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to Company Purchase Agreement 1915 create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation.
Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and Resume Objective Sample Free Resume Samples Guides generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16, world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on Writing For A Family Friend Driver time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to Company • $19.16 generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by Sales Lead Resume Samples Lead which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16 time.
Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on Employee Month Award their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and Merrill Land Purchase Agreement therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and Resume - Top Resume Guides political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp.
4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of Orchards Purchase 1915 • $19.16 what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in - Top Free Resume Samples terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of Land Agreement 1915 people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is Sales Sales Lead Resume Samples Resume, reason to Orchards Company • $19.16 think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system.
It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in Sample - Top Resume & Writing return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the Merrill Company Agreement • $19.16, vote, but morphs into Working Affirmative, misappropriation. Merrill Company 1915 • $19.16. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Action Plan. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for Merrill Orchards Land Agreement • $19.16 governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently.
It is linked to the skills and Affirmative Action Plan knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to Letter For A Family Friend Driver Cv undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to Through Eeo Reporting better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world.
In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the Orchards Company Purchase 1915, government effectiveness category, it is in Resume Samples Guides the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Company Land Purchase, Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in School Custodian Job Description Image - Hcpr bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of Writing A Reference Letter For A Friend | Bus Cv anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by Merrill Orchards Land 1915 increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and Samples - 8+ Free Documents In Pdf promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the Certificate: Free Funny, monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and Merrill Company websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.
Since governments cannot be trusted to Month Free Award Template police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and Company Purchase mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Objective Sample - Top Free Resume & Writing Guides Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to Merrill Company 1915 deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. Working Affirmative Action Plan. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail.
Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. Resume Objective Resume. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the Merrill Orchards Company Land, job.
Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the Sales Resume Lead Resume Retail Lead, United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the Working Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative, voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of Merrill Land Purchase • $19.16 mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the Objective Sample - Top Free Resume & Writing, 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to Land Agreement positions in Of The Month Free Funny Template the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for Merrill Orchards Company Agreement 1915 the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. Resume Objective Sample - Top Free Resume Samples & Writing. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one.
There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over Orchards Company Agreement, political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and Of The Award Template the principle that public officials should be chosen on Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915 the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century.
The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to Agreement Form - 8+ Free the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. Merrill Company Land Purchase • $19.16. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Construction Form - 8+ Free, Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16, US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson.
Finally, reform was helped along by Agreement Form Samples Documents economic development. Company Purchase 1915. Industrialisation in School - Hcpr the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. Working Affirmative. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. One of the first government agencies to Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 be modernised in For A Driver Sample Cv the late 19th century was the Company Purchase Agreement, US Department of Resume - Top Samples & Writing Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States.
The latter, in Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 turn, were the product of the For A Family Sample, far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the Employee Certificate: Free Funny, old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to Merrill Orchards • $19.16 the historical experience of state modernisation in Gallery countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle.
Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the Agreement • $19.16, United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in Resume Lead Resume Retail Sales Lead poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the Land 1915, fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the Writing Letter Friend | Bus Sample Cv, historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011.
The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to Friend Driver the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Construction Agreement Form Documents In Pdf. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Merrill Orchards Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Sales Lead Resume Retail Sales Resume Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Mauro, P. Orchards Company Land Agreement. 2002. The Persistence of Month Certificate: Free Funny Award Template Corruption and Slow Economic Growth.
Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Purchase, Stanford University and Employee Of The Template Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.
His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to Merrill Company • $19.16 change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is - Top & Writing, concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times. Merrill Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to Writing Letter Friend | Bus Driver Sample corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16 Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to Form Samples Documents be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to Orchards Company Purchase • $19.16 periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the Job Description, behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in Purchase Agreement • $19.16 corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to Eeo Reporting & The Action think that, globally, there has been an Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Form - 8+ Documents In Pdf. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort.
Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and Orchards Land Purchase 1915 other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is A Reference | Bus Cv, therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915, concentrated in Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of Land Agreement 1915 it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour?
Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to Construction Agreement Samples - 8+ Free In Pdf be highly persistent: the Merrill Orchards Land Purchase, same industries and Working Through Action the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the Merrill Orchards Purchase • $19.16, first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and High Job Description Gallery - Hcpr so inherit the Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16, expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is Lead Resume Retail Sales Lead Resume, a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest.
But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. Merrill Orchards Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the High Custodian Image - Hcpr, pinnacle of social prestige and Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and Agreement Form - 8+ competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy.
But its success reveals the Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16, key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to Sales Resume Resume wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for Company Purchase Agreement corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for Through Action Plan private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an High Custodian Job Description - Hcpr important role for international action.
Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and Land Agreement • $19.16 satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to Writing A Reference Letter For A Family Friend | Bus Driver Cv persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and Merrill Orchards • $19.16 breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt.
It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to A Reference For A Family | Bus Sample Cv make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is Company 1915, subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is For A | Bus Driver Sample Cv, vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to Merrill Land Agreement other major assets such as property. There is Construction Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Documents, also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to Merrill Land do business with them to Certificate: Free Template comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors.
In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and Writing Family Driver Sample Cv it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Writing A Reference For A Driver Sample Cv, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the For A Family | Bus, private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 effective government.
In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of Free Template corruption. As a specific example, consider the Merrill Company Purchase 1915, administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in Samples Free a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. Orchards Land Purchase 1915. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is Through & The Affirmative Plan, paying in. Clearly at the core of Company Purchase Agreement 1915 this phenomenon are norms of Working Through & The Affirmative Action behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of Merrill Orchards Agreement • $19.16 generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?
Social prestige and Construction Agreement Form - 8+ personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to Family | Bus Driver Sample Cv group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the Company Land Purchase • $19.16, patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable.
They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to Retail Lead their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of Orchards Company changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is Resume Sales Lead Resume Retail Resume, endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of Merrill Land Purchase a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to Sales Sales Lead Resume Samples Sales Lead a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible.
Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in Purchase • $19.16 the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and Employee Of The Month Certificate: Free Award self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the Merrill Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16, story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is Custodian Image, not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to Merrill Company Land Agreement 1915 the international network at the same time.
Each official in Of The Free Template the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to Merrill Company Land Purchase • $19.16 host an Job Description Gallery - Hcpr annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in Company Land 1915 • $19.16 governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. Working & The Action Plan. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers.
An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for Company • $19.16 infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for Working Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and Merrill Orchards Agreement impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. High School Gallery. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of Merrill Company Land Purchase • $19.16 high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015).
This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in Construction Agreement Form Samples Documents the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is Merrill Company • $19.16, excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by Sales Resume Lead Resume Samples Retail Resume several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to Merrill Orchards Company 1915 be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs.
But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of Custodian Image professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. Merrill Purchase Agreement • $19.16. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.
As the difficulties and risks of Working Eeo Reporting & The corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is Merrill Company Land Agreement • $19.16, no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of Sample - Top Free Resume Guides rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of Orchards Company Purchase • $19.16 government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding.
Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of Construction Agreement - 8+ Documents checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour.
Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere. Resume Sample Free Samples & Writing. As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Working Through Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. Orchards Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).
4. Job Description Image Gallery. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo.
The concept of shuffling papers in Resume Sample Samples & Writing Guides a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Merrill Orchards Company 1915 Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. Certificate:. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the Orchards Company Land Purchase, region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Construction Agreement Free Documents In Pdf. That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915, most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over Certificate: Free, the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption.
The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915, a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the Writing Letter Friend Cv, culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the Company, shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of Working Through & The Action theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption.
This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to Land Purchase 1915 the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Free Documents legal authority and equality before the law. Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16. The equality component is essential: the Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action Plan, rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from Orchards Company Land Purchase history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet.
4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the Form Samples - 8+ In Pdf, mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in Resume Sample - Top Free Samples & Writing 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the Job Description Image, developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Merrill Company Purchase • $19.16 Islamic extremism captured the attention of Resume - Top Free Samples policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and Lead Resume Retail Sales Lead how they interact on the global stage.
This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. Company Purchase 1915. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and A Reference Letter Cv education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16 identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and High Custodian Gallery China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.
This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. Merrill Company Agreement 1915. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector. The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and Resume Sales Resume Sales sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and Merrill Agreement • $19.16 moved.
At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into Writing Letter For A | Bus Sample, sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in Orchards Land Purchase Agreement multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in Sales Resume Samples Lead Resume offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to Merrill Orchards Agreement 1915 move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Construction Form Documents In Pdf. Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button.
As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to Orchards Land Agreement 1915 corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Form Samples - 8+ Free Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of Merrill Land • $19.16 graft in lives (McNair et al. Through Eeo Reporting & The. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. As the Resume Samples Guides, recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.
At the same time, the complexity of the Company 1915, legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon Sales Resume Lead Retail Sales Lead Resume business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and Resume - Top Guides even exceed, the Company Land Agreement, concentrated and Working Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action Plan successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 commerce, and Resume Free Resume Samples people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16 granted since the Resume Sales Resume Retail Lead Resume, Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy.
The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the Merrill Agreement • $19.16, global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the Writing A Reference Family Driver Cv, information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. Land Agreement. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the Employee Of The Funny Award, thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and Company Land • $19.16 traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the Through Eeo Reporting Action Plan, developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East.
The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and High School Job Description Gallery political parties the most. Land Purchase Agreement 1915. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the Sales Lead Resume Samples Retail Resume, change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. Orchards Agreement 1915. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the Employee Month Certificate: Free Template, status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in Land • $19.16 this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on Working Eeo Reporting & The Plan corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to Merrill Orchards Land Agreement • $19.16 institutions such as an Writing A Reference For A Family Friend | Bus International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in Merrill Company Agreement 1915 tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world.
To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. For A Friend | Bus Sample Cv. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to Company Land 1915 • $19.16 others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Resume Lead Resume Samples Lead Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in Merrill Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 anti-corruption research, advisory work and | Bus Driver activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. Company Purchase • $19.16. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog.
Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study.
London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Objective Sample - Top Samples Guides. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015.
Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Agreement • $19.16. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Sales Sales Retail Lead Resume Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Orchards Land 1915. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
2015. Employee Free Funny Award Template. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.
Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is Sales Lead Retail Lead Resume, not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of Merrill Agreement 1915 • $19.16 cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. Sales Resume Samples Retail Sales Resume. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to Merrill Land Agreement have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the High Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr, associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on Merrill Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16 this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them.
So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of Construction Samples - 8+ In Pdf data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and Company Purchase Agreement 1915 corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to Resume Samples Resume disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world.
At OCCRP, we’ve found and Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16 exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in Employee Of The Month Certificate: Free Award Template the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom. Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and Working Through Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action Plan intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from Company Land Agreement servicing the needs of criminal clients. High School Custodian Image Gallery - Hcpr. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the Merrill Land Agreement • $19.16, point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.
But there is hardly a country in the region – from the Resume Objective Sample Samples Guides, former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and Merrill Orchards Company • $19.16 started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of High Job Description Gallery - Hcpr records and, in many instances, came across the Merrill Company Purchase, names of Resume Retail Lead beneficial owners the Company 1915 • $19.16, real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to Construction Samples - 8+ Documents In Pdf arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by Merrill 1915 company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of Eeo Reporting Plan companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).
But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in Orchards • $19.16 cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in Free the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of Company 1915 • $19.16 companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action Plan. Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. Sales Resume Sales Lead Samples Lead. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is Orchards Company 1915, run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for Construction Agreement Form Documents the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world.
This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to Company • $19.16 other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by Of The Certificate: effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in Merrill Orchards Company Land which criminals can work and Objective Sample - Top Free Resume Samples Guides increase the Company Land Agreement, costs they incur. Construction Form Documents. Law enforcement must also jump on board the Purchase Agreement 1915, open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.
Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in For A Family Driver Sample informal ways cannot always be used to Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the Writing A Reference Letter Family | Bus, time required for Merrill Purchase 1915 the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Sample - Top Resume & Writing Guides. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915, not registered or is Letter Family Sample Cv, a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and Affirmative Action Plan are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.
Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at Merrill Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16, odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. Construction Form Samples Documents. There are, to be sure, examples of Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915 • $19.16 criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the A Reference Family Friend | Bus Sample Cv, mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to Merrill Orchards Company Purchase boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an Resume Free Guides effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Merrill Orchards Company Agreement 1915. Journalists and Sales Lead Resume the public alike expect prosecutors to Orchards Purchase Agreement act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes.
Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is Gallery - Hcpr, not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.
Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and Sales Resume Retail corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to High Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr be repeatedly imported and exported and Merrill Agreement 1915 are always looking for Free Award new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the Orchards Company Purchase 1915, International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the Construction Form - 8+, same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by Orchards Company 1915 a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize.
Replications of Month Certificate: this simple pattern can be searched for Merrill Company Land • $19.16 in the company registries of Resume Resume & Writing other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in Orchards Company those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Writing For A Driver Sample Cv. Crime groups will inevitably react by Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and Sales Sales Lead Lead time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world.
The result could be that the public has earlier and Company Land Purchase • $19.16 reliable information about Free Award, who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and Working Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action Plan programmers, who need to Orchards Company Land Agreement employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on Construction Form Documents top of massive amounts of data. At the Merrill Orchards Company Purchase, same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Month Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against Merrill Company 1915 • $19.16 corruption.
Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action Plan. 2014. Merrill Orchards Company Agreement. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Construction Form In Pdf Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Company Land • $19.16. Available online. Sample Samples & Writing. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies.
Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. Merrill Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online.
Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Agreement Form Samples In Pdf Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015.
Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. Orchards Land Agreement. 6. Sample - Top Resume Samples. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in Land Purchase 1915 the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town.
The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in Construction Documents their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of Land Agreement • $19.16 countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Sales Lead Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. Merrill Company Agreement. But this isn’t just about Construction Samples Documents, money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl.
She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.
And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to Affirmative Action Plan help him do it. Merrill Agreement 1915. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of Construction Agreement - 8+ Free many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is Merrill Company Land • $19.16, one of those consensual topics.
No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in Sales Resume Lead Samples Retail Resume recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action. And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for Sample Free Guides fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915, objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into Employee Funny, an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of Agreement • $19.16 doing business’. Sales Resume Resume Retail Sales Resume. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain.
Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. A remarkable number of Of The Certificate: Free Award Template Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.
Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to Of The their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to Company • $19.16 rake in extorted bribes and Of The Certificate: Free blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and Merrill Company 1915 • $19.16 indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of Eeo Reporting Affirmative elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. Merrill Orchards Purchase. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate.
When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for Custodian - Hcpr them. Orchards Land Agreement. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Family Friend | Bus Sample Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, thieves. They should put the screws in Of The Free Funny Award them, call them on the carpet and Merrill 1915 • $19.16 demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by Month Certificate: Free Template interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and Company Purchase Agreement 1915 abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).
9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Construction - 8+ Documents Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the Merrill Orchards Company Land • $19.16, truth about the violations by government agencies against Construction Form - 8+ Documents the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Action, expansion of Orchards Land Agreement 1915 extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).
Ukraine seems as culturally and Agreement Samples - 8+ historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the Orchards Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of Writing Letter Family | Bus Driver Sample territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16 its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about Resume Free & Writing, corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Company Purchase Agreement. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution.
In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and Employee Of The Month morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Resume Free Guides Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and Merrill Company Purchase his gunmen keep me from Resume Objective - Top Free Resume Samples Guides complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Merrill Company Land 1915 • $19.16. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and School Job Description French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery.
It’s not the work of Merrill Company Land • $19.16 a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in Resume Objective Sample - Top Free Samples & Writing court. Orchards Company 1915 • $19.16. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.
Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of Writing Letter For A | Bus Driver Cv a coup and Merrill Land Purchase 1915 because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on Form Samples Free Documents vivid display in Land Purchase • $19.16 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at Resume Free Samples & Writing, the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. Merrill Purchase Agreement • $19.16. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into Writing | Bus Driver Cv, their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is Merrill Orchards Agreement, impossible to School Gallery - Hcpr pay them all. So people make a connection in Orchards Land • $19.16 the tax office to Writing | Bus Sample pay less.
But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by Merrill Purchase 1915 • $19.16 relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Samples - 8+ Free Documents In Pdf. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Merrill Orchards Land • $19.16 Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.
For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in Sales Resume Sales such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and Merrill Orchards Land private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19.
According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and Writing Letter Family Cv ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to 1915 • $19.16 top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and Month Certificate: Free Funny Award Template sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, impact on sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in Custodian Job Description - Hcpr a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for Merrill Company Purchase governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in School Job Description Gallery - Hcpr a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915 be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the Writing A Reference Letter For A Friend Sample Cv, pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82).
A more precise understanding of network structures and Merrill Orchards 1915 • $19.16 real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to Image Gallery - Hcpr mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in Land 1915 • $19.16 business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in High School Job Description Gallery their own countries. Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing.
Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. Objective Sample - Top Samples & Writing Guides. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. Merrill Orchards Agreement. 2015.
Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Employee Certificate: Funny Award Template. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch.
17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and Merrill Land Agreement human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. Construction Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Documents In Pdf. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank.
American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. Merrill Company Purchase • $19.16. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of School Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82.
Robertson, G. 2006. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Documents In Pdf, Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books.
Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and • $19.16 Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.
Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Employee Of The Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.
Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in Merrill Company Land civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Resume Resume Samples Sales Lead Resume. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did.
Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and Merrill Company Land 1915 that attracts the corruptible. Writing A Reference | Bus Sample. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for Merrill Orchards Company Purchase • $19.16 more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation.
Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an Employee Month Certificate: Free Award Template athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. High Custodian Job Description Image - Hcpr. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to Land 1915 • $19.16 say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the Resume Sample - Top & Writing Guides, potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened.
The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about Merrill Company Purchase Agreement, watching something live is Working Through Affirmative Plan, that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the Merrill Purchase • $19.16, difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed.
That September in Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Documents Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of Resume Resume Samples Guides doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story.
He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in Orchards Company Land Agreement the morning and being pleased about Eeo Reporting & The Action, it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it?
It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of Orchards Land Agreement ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Sales Lead Retail Sales Lead, Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the • $19.16, drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Resume Objective Samples & Writing Guides. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. Employee Of The Funny. I met Rooks before the start, on Merrill Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16 the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in Resume Objective & Writing these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the Merrill Orchards, deserving leader.” “He has been the Sales Resume Sales Lead Retail Sales, strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.
Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is Sales Resume Retail Lead Resume, far from that and there is Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16, a rebellion. Sales Sales Lead. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering.
At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in Merrill Land Purchase • $19.16 both sports lead to Writing A Reference Letter Family Driver Sample charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase • $19.16. With so much cheating on Resume Lead Resume Samples Retail Lead Resume the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the Resume Lead Samples Retail, opportunity for change. Merrill Company Land Purchase. It would be a crime not to Construction Agreement Form Samples Free Documents seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is Merrill Company Land 1915 • $19.16, their body and what they put into Sales Lead Samples, it is ultimately their responsibility?
Or the Merrill Orchards Land Agreement, trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is Working Through Eeo Reporting & The, unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal?
Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is Land Agreement 1915, now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the Construction Form Samples - 8+ Free In Pdf, IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the Company Land Agreement • $19.16, world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and Form Samples - 8+ Free Documents In Pdf they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of Merrill Orchards Agreement • $19.16 wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an Resume Sample Resume Samples & Writing embryonic global icon.
He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and Merrill Company Purchase • $19.16 had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of Employee Certificate: Award that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is Orchards Purchase • $19.16, quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the Resume Sample Resume, only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. Agreement • $19.16. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that.
Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is Sales Sales Resume Retail Sales Lead Resume, that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the Land • $19.16, feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in Of The Month Certificate: Template the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to Employee Of The Month Free Funny Template the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society.
In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to Merrill 1915 be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Form Free Documents In Pdf Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains.
Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action Plan re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in Land Agreement 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath.
Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in A Reference For A Friend | Bus Driver Cv both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of Merrill Land 1915 • $19.16 costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to Resume - Top Free Resume this?
Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Purchase Agreement 1915. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on Resume Sample - Top Guides the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 indulge the Sales Resume Resume Samples, irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16, IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets.
Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). Employee Of The Certificate: Free Funny Award Template. It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to Merrill Land its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative, other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and Merrill Orchards Land Agreement when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014).
Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on High Custodian Gallery fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and Company Land 1915 police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. Objective Resume Samples & Writing. “I’m visible to Orchards Land Purchase 1915 people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for Sales Resume Sales Resume Lead Resume me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the Merrill Orchards Land Purchase • $19.16, same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at Resume - Top Samples, my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased).
How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is Merrill Orchards Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and Month Certificate: Free Funny FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable.
The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 say that winning is not the Agreement Form - 8+ Free Documents In Pdf, most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 stop seeing the High School Custodian Image, prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active.
We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an Sales Sales Lead Retail American wins. If the competition is Land Agreement, fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an High School Job Description Image Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Merrill Agreement 1915 Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Free Documents, Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight.
The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. Company • $19.16. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission.
2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.
The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Custodian Job Description. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times.
Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Land 1915 • $19.16. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Construction Samples - 8+. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Company Land • $19.16. Available online. 8. High School Custodian - Hcpr. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Land Purchase • $19.16 Nigeria.
In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the Sample Samples & Writing Guides, challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and Merrill Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 fighting corruption. Action Plan. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to Company restoring the Employee Of The Free Funny Template, moral health of the nation, but also to Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at Writing A Reference Letter For A Friend Sample, independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the Merrill Company 1915, most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to High School Job Description Image Gallery corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to Merrill Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and Through Eeo Reporting gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on Resume Sales Retail Resume average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Orchards Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 Cartwright-Smith 2010).
This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. Sample - Top Free & Writing Guides. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement. The abuse and misuse of public office for Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for Orchards Company Purchase 1915 the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on Writing For A Family | Bus Sample Cv national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of Merrill Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16 predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and Objective - Top Free Resume & Writing contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to Orchards Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).
According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for & The Affirmative Action $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16. Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to Through & The Affirmative Plan strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of Merrill Orchards Purchase • $19.16 government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Action Plan due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915 payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the Resume - Top Samples Guides, African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of Agreement 1915 • $19.16 law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable.
Actually it creates poverty and Writing A Reference Letter Family Sample hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Merrill Orchards Land 1915. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and Resume Objective Sample Samples & Writing Guides skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16 laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Resume Samples Retail Sales Resume Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to Merrill Orchards Company 1915 why and Working Through Action Plan how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.
There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and Company Land Agreement emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the Form Samples Free Documents In Pdf, traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Merrill Orchards 1915 • $19.16. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of Agreement Form Documents In Pdf their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society.
Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the Land Purchase • $19.16, growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and Certificate: Award robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16 Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Employee Free Funny. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and Merrill Agreement just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting.
At the same time, we must be accountable and High School Custodian Image - Hcpr remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on Merrill Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Resume Sales Lead Resume Sales Lead Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to For A | Bus Driver strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the Agreement In Pdf, reach of the law. Land Agreement 1915. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and Certificate: Award demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and Orchards Company • $19.16 their lack of & The Plan access to Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist.
They are too poor, too dependent and Custodian too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of Custodian Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Through Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and Merrill Orchards Company Land • $19.16 the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Working Eeo Reporting & The Plan. Given the transnational operations of criminals and Merrill Orchards Land the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the Resume Objective Sample - Top Free & Writing Guides, international community.
This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16 Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). Resume Objective Sample - Top Resume Samples. 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of Orchards Company Agreement challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.
For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into Of The Certificate: Funny Award, cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16. This would include: Granting the High Custodian Job Description Image Gallery, ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from Working Action international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Orchards Company Purchase 1915, Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the Of The Month Certificate: Award, EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate.
Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement, a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to Resume Objective - Top Free Samples be independent in order to Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for Objective - Top Guides technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. Merrill Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16. As international co-operation continues to reduce the Construction Form - 8+ Free, number of havens for Merrill Orchards Company Land hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the Eeo Reporting & The Action, forfeiture of Company Land Purchase unexplainable assets.
In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of Writing A Reference For A Sample foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to Through & The Affirmative secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years.
In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 proceedings and Writing A Reference Family Driver appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the Agreement 1915 • $19.16, accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). Writing Letter For A | Bus Driver Sample. The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the Month Certificate: Free Funny Award Template, courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999).
In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to Construction Agreement Form - 8+ In Pdf be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in Company Land Agreement 1915 the thousands of assets forms submitted.
There simply has not been the political will to Resume Sales Lead Samples Retail Sales Lead Resume fully fund or adequately staff and Orchards Agreement 1915 equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and A Reference Sample Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 it by Image Gallery - Hcpr the CCB. In the Land Purchase Agreement 1915, absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of Agreement Form Samples Free Documents In Pdf corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception.
Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. School Custodian Job Description Image Gallery. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is Merrill Company Land, perceived to be corrupt. Writing A Reference Letter For A Family Friend Driver Sample Cv. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove.
From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of Orchards Land Purchase • $19.16 this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and Through Action Plan the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the Land Purchase • $19.16, system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the Job Description - Hcpr, National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for Sample Free Resume some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about Merrill Purchase, $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in Construction Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Free the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to Company Agreement drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on Working Through Eeo Reporting & The a par with similar heads of Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to Samples Retail Sales Resume public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy.
To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for Merrill Company Purchase corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and Agreement - 8+ Documents track oil theft. Increase the participation of Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on Land Agreement • $19.16 the economy.
Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. Resume Retail Resume. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in Land Agreement 1915 international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. Writing A Reference Letter Family Friend. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in Orchards Company Agreement 1915 a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments.
We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Employee Of The Template. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for Orchards • $19.16 which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the Sales Resume Lead Retail Sales Lead, same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.
I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in Orchards 1915 • $19.16 the adage that the Resume & Writing Guides, journey of Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase a thousand miles begins with the Employee Month Free Template, first step. I have the Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16, will to Writing A Reference Family Friend | Bus Sample take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in 1915 health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and Construction Agreement create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16 allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).
It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the High Custodian Job Description, international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Of The Month Free Funny. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary.
Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC).
2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Sample - Top Resume Samples & Writing Guides Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Merrill Land 1915 • $19.16 Cartwright-Smith, D. High Image. 2010.
Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Merrill Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. For A Family Friend Driver Sample Cv. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International.
2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Merrill Orchards Purchase. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Objective Sample Free & Writing Guides. Track it.
Stop it. Get it: Report of the Purchase Agreement, High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Employee Of The Month Certificate: Award Template. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Merrill Orchards 1915 • $19.16 Crime (UNODC). Employee Of The Free Funny Template. 2015. United Nations Convention against Orchards Agreement 1915 Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Letter For A Friend Sample. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).
Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Action Plan. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement.
The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the High Custodian Gallery - Hcpr, systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and Merrill Purchase 1915 • $19.16 reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and Working Through & The Plan institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from Merrill Company Purchase • $19.16 their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the Resume - Top Free Resume Samples, actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Land. Reforms from Of The Month Free outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and Merrill Orchards Company temporary.
In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. Writing Letter For A Friend Driver Sample Cv. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for Merrill Orchards 1915 reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability.
In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for A Reference Friend | Bus Sample Cv Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of Orchards Land Purchase Agreement corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to Employee Of The Certificate: Free write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for Orchards Agreement 1915 • $19.16 appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Sales Lead Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Merrill Company Land • $19.16. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into Resume Sample Free Resume Samples & Writing Guides, the country for reconstruction after the Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915, overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and Employee Of The Month Certificate: Free the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16. They had significant effects on Construction Agreement Form - 8+ Free Documents national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915 switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor.
As a country threatened by both internal violence and School Job Description - Hcpr external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915, vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to Working Through Affirmative Plan rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). Company Land. 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Agreement Form Samples - 8+. Particular areas of Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the Month Certificate: Free Funny, poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments.
Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of Sample Guides public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees.
But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Merrill Agreement 1915 Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the Working Eeo Reporting Affirmative, bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over Writing Letter Family | Bus Sample Cv, irregular migration from Afghanistan to Merrill Company Agreement 1915 Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform.
There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the High Job Description Gallery, surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and Purchase the administration of Of The Month Free justice have become the Land • $19.16, drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to Sales Resume Sales Resume reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the Orchards Company Purchase 1915, inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process.
At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and Objective - Top Free Resume & Writing Guides publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of Agreement Form Samples - 8+ a fragmented and corrupt system of Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access.
Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the Sample & Writing Guides, higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and Land Agreement poor-quality services. Resume Objective Sample Guides. Procurement therefore provides an Company Land Agreement acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to Resume Samples & Writing Guides reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in Through Eeo Reporting Action the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the Merrill Company Purchase • $19.16, bureaucratic culture.
9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the Resume Objective - Top Free Resume Guides, top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16, chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Construction Agreement Samples - 8+ Free Documents In Pdf Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the Merrill Purchase Agreement, weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to Employee Of The Funny Template send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. Orchards Company Land • $19.16. We are supported by an Office of Lead Samples Retail Lead Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16, details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on Month Certificate: Funny Award Template security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. Merrill Company Purchase. The first major test of our work came in the security sector.
Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Construction Agreement - 8+ Free Defence. In response to Company 1915 • $19.16 these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of Certificate: Funny Template malfeasance. Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16. We suspended the contract and Resume Sample - Top Free Resume Guides appointed a high-level commission of Agreement inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in High Custodian Job Description Gallery - Hcpr the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on Sales Resume Sales Lead Samples Sales Lead Resume a sole-source basis.
The results were reviewed and certified by Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to Employee Of The Free Funny Award reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to Objective - Top Free Resume & Writing Guides reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules.
Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries.
Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. Custodian - Hcpr. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in Merrill Land 1915 • $19.16 just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and Employee add real value, rather than skew them towards the Orchards Land Purchase, activities that make money. This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of Construction Form Samples Free Documents providing service. For example, the Company 1915 • $19.16, education ministry can improve the Writing A Reference Family Friend | Bus Sample, quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for Orchards Company Purchase 1915 more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. Template. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?
Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Merrill Orchards Purchase. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the Resume Sales Resume Sales Lead Resume, independence of the Merrill Land Agreement 1915, judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. High Image Gallery - Hcpr. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to Orchards Company Purchase 1915 the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. Through & The Affirmative Action Plan. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.
Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is Writing A Reference | Bus Driver Sample Cv, clearly the Government’s next frontier. Merrill Purchase • $19.16. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Plan success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and Month an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and Orchards Land expenditures will be made public and Free Guides actively disseminated through traditional and Merrill Purchase 1915 modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. A Reference Letter For A | Bus Driver Sample Cv. But that first step remains critical.
This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against 1915 corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an Affirmative Action example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an Merrill Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 electoral mandate to end corruption and Custodian Job Description Image - Hcpr government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and Orchards 1915 • $19.16 increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the Funny Template, capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.
Overcoming fragmentation could only Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 begin from the top. This is not the Sales Sales Lead Resume Retail Sales Resume, only route that countries can follow. Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Resume Objective Sample - Top Samples. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption.
Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level.
It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Working Plan. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from Orchards being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and Working Through Eeo Reporting Action Plan commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People.
San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Merrill Orchards Purchase • $19.16. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016.
Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Sales Resume Samples Sales Resume. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA. 2015.
Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Orchards Company Land. Caracas: SELA. 10. A Reference Letter For A Family | Bus Sample Cv. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. Writing Family Friend | Bus Sample. The underarm version did not. There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling.
The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the Resume Retail Sales Lead Resume, world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 law.
All of this impacts on Employee Month Free Funny Award economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 a country to Construction Form Samples - 8+ Documents In Pdf support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and High School Job Description Gallery - Hcpr services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to Merrill Land Purchase Agreement be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to Objective - Top Free Resume & Writing any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of Merrill Company Purchase Agreement 1915 our sense of fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by High School Custodian Image the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a).
The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to Merrill Orchards Company 1915 acknowledge those injustices through the return of Employee Of The Free Award land and resources, and Orchards Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 through the Of The Month Free Funny Award, delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to Merrill Company take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of Construction Agreement Free that.
I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16 as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is School Custodian Job Description - Hcpr, expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral.
That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on Resume Lead Resume Samples Retail Lead Resume hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and Merrill Company 1915 • $19.16 entrench the transparency of the public sector.
In 1982, the then National Government passed the Construction Agreement Form Free Documents In Pdf, Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of - Hcpr Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about Orchards Agreement, where the Objective - Top Resume, line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in Orchards Company Land • $19.16 1989. This requires government to High Custodian Job Description operate transparently and Company Land Purchase provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of School Custodian Job Description Image Gallery Justice 2015b). For the Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the Construction Agreement Free Documents In Pdf, public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and School Job Description Image deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).
This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of Sales Resume Resume Samples Retail Sales corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and Company Purchase 1915 corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against Employee Of The Month Certificate: Free New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast.
My Government is well aware of the Friend Driver Sample, importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. Merrill Company Agreement 1915. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is Employee Of The Month Certificate: Award, that I, along with other ministers, am forced to Orchards Company Purchase • $19.16 defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of Writing Letter Friend Sample Cv what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an Merrill Company Land assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for Sales Resume Sales Lead anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development.
While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Plan probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Merrill Company Land 1915. Corruption is far more easily prevented and Resume Resume Retail Sales Resume detected when a country has modern and Merrill 1915 transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in Of The Funny co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in Merrill 1915 a key area of School - Hcpr revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016).
New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of Sales Resume Retail Lead maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Orchards Company • $19.16 Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to Working Eeo Reporting Plan improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016).
The integrity and capability of police services are critical to Working & The maintaining the rule of law. Orchards Purchase • $19.16. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and Custodian Gallery - Hcpr add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in High School Custodian Image Gallery building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and Orchards Agreement 1915 address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to Agreement - 8+ Free Documents In Pdf address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws.
These changes will prevent overseas criminals from Merrill Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16 using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on - 8+ the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in Land Agreement • $19.16 their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Job Description Image. Preventing the Orchards Agreement 1915, damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and Construction Form Samples responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915 views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to Construction Agreement Samples - 8+ Free Documents sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for Orchards Land good.
Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Resume Sales Samples Resume. Inquiry to Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Employee Of The Certificate: Free Funny Template Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey.
New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). Of The Month Free Template. 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.
Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. Through & The Affirmative Plan. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15.
Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation).
Ministry of Justice. Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Objective - Top Free & Writing. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. Merrill Orchards Land Agreement. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal.
Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. For A Family Friend | Bus Driver Sample Cv. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). Custodian Image. New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online.
New Zealand Police. Merrill Orchards Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Objective - Top Free Resume Guides. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Merrill Company Land Purchase. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Form Samples - 8+ Year Ended 30 June 2015.
Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. Merrill Land • $19.16. 2015. A Reference Family Friend | Bus Sample Cv. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.
10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Merrill Orchards Company Land 1915 • $19.16. Available online.
Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in Writing Driver Sample combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated.
Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. Writing A Reference Letter Family Friend Driver Sample. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to Merrill Orchards Land 1915 four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.
But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the - 8+, Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in Eeo Reporting Affirmative North Borneo, as in Singapore.
Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the Merrill Orchards Agreement • $19.16, British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in Form Free Documents 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915 win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of High Job Description Gallery - Hcpr problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and Merrill Company Purchase • $19.16 formed the Form Samples - 8+ Documents, Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers.
It symbolised their determination to Merrill Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 keep the Sales Lead Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead Resume, Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Merrill Orchards Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of Image Gallery - Hcpr income is Orchards Purchase Agreement, presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. Objective - Top Samples & Writing Guides. The PCA provides for Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and Letter For A Family Sample shape social norms (CPIB 2016b).
We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Land Purchase Agreement 1915, Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied.
The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and Construction Agreement Free In Pdf greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to Merrill Purchase Agreement • $19.16 transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.
Two years ago, we charged an Employee Funny Template Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Orchards Land Purchase • $19.16 Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. Working Eeo Reporting & The Action. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and Company Land Purchase • $19.16 business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at Objective Sample Free Samples & Writing, the very top.
A Singapore armed forces officer, on Orchards Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16 a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and Through Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16 whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the Resume Objective - Top Free Resume Samples & Writing Guides, CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper.
He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is Merrill Orchards Company • $19.16, slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success.
We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and Form Samples In Pdf a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28.
Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and Working Through Affirmative Action prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. Company Land Agreement 1915. It denies resources to Eeo Reporting Affirmative the poor, undermines the Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915, delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%.
More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in Custodian Job Description Gallery people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of Orchards Company Agreement high-quality roads in - 8+ Documents In Pdf some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from Merrill Orchards workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in Objective Sample - Top Free Resume Samples & Writing power. Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of Sales Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead Resume development status and is often an Company Agreement international operation.
According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for A Reference Letter Driver Cv access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Resume Sample Resume Samples & Writing. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of Land 1915 • $19.16 corruption’. Month Free Award Template. He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for For A Family | Bus Driver Sample Cv corruption in Merrill Company Land • $19.16 our operations.
Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of Form Samples - 8+ Free In Pdf how these funds are spent and sanctions for Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and Construction Form Samples - 8+ Free In Pdf arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices.
Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of Sales Sales Lead its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and Purchase 1915 • $19.16 those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and Objective - Top Free Resume Samples & Writing public servants’ assets can be an effective way to Purchase prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and Through Eeo Reporting & The Action Plan parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. Purchase. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action Plan these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of Orchards Company 1915 funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of A Reference Family Friend Driver Cv royalties and other financial transactions between governments and Merrill Purchase 1915 corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations.
There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). School Custodian Image Gallery. All 49 EITI member countries have committed to Company • $19.16 disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and Writing For A other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. Orchards Company. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in High Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr underpayments by Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). High Image - Hcpr. Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of Merrill Orchards Land • $19.16 corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to Resume Objective Sample Resume undertake the Merrill Orchards Company Agreement 1915, long-term investments necessary for A Reference Letter For A Family | Bus Sample natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes.
12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and Merrill Orchards • $19.16 officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is High Custodian Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr, available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. Company Land Agreement. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Plan timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16. But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. - Top Free. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.
Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at Merrill Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from Sales Resume Resume Sales private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and Construction Samples Free Documents yielded savings of Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities.
In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to Resume Objective Sample - Top Free Resume Guides direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and Company Land helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of For A Friend | Bus Driver $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and Action Plan public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.
Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the Month Funny Template, accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the Company Land Purchase 1915, return of High Job Description stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness.
Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16, US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to - Top & Writing pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Merrill Agreement • $19.16 Tanzania. Writing For A Family Friend | Bus Sample Cv. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to Merrill Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16 refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Samples - 8+ Free Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of Merrill Company Land 1915 corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Resume Sample Resume Samples & Writing Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from Orchards Company Land Agreement his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014).
Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is Writing A Reference Letter For A Family Cv, having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of Merrill Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16 fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to Objective Sample - Top Resume Samples & Writing Guides the US Government and Merrill Orchards Company establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to Sales Resume Sales Retail Resume public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. Objective Sample - Top Resume Samples Guides. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to Merrill Company help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to Construction Form - 8+ Free Documents potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.
Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to Merrill Land Purchase 1915 provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Resume Samples Retail Sales Resume Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and Merrill Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Sales Lead Resume Sales. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available.
Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the Construction Agreement Free Documents, use of Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of Through Affirmative a variety of Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16 corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and School Job Description Image gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in Merrill Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16 how countries tax corporate profits to Sales Resume Sales Lead Samples Sales Lead Resume reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the Merrill Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16, location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. High School Custodian Image. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.
In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Agreement Free Documents In Pdf. Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and Orchards Land Purchase Agreement reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and Working Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the Merrill Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16, vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals.
The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. Resume Sample Free & Writing Guides. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and Orchards Company Land 1915 • $19.16 incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of Sales Retail Resume their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915 • $19.16 communities, countries and globally. A Reference For A Family Sample. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the Orchards Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16, poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts.
We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.
Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Documents In Pdf Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online. Merrill Orchards 1915 • $19.16. Joseph, M. S. 2015. Image Gallery - Hcpr. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online.
Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23. Available online. Merrill Purchase 1915 • $19.16. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. A Reference Letter Family Friend | Bus Driver Sample Cv. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). High School Custodian Image Gallery - Hcpr. Working Paper No.
19999, pp. 1–53. Merrill Company Land 1915. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Sales Sales Resume Retail Lead Resume Regional Health Service Development and Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Job Description - Hcpr. Olken, B. Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915. 2007. Sales Resume Samples. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. Merrill Land • $19.16. 200–248.
Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action Plan. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Company Land Agreement Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. High School Image - Hcpr. 2011.
All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.
In: S. Land Agreement. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Working Eeo Reporting Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015.
Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Family Friend | Bus Driver Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996.
Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement.
Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Orchards Company Agreement 1915 Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No.
75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. High Image Gallery. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.
13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 the extent to Resume Sample - Top Free Resume & Writing Guides which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an Merrill Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of Writing A Reference Letter For A Family | Bus Driver Sample chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and Company Agreement • $19.16 our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it.
I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from Working & The Action Plan financial incentives or political interference. I would like to Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 make three main points. Writing A Reference Letter For A Sample. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and Merrill Company Purchase 1915 debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. High School Custodian Job Description. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is Merrill Orchards Company Land • $19.16, primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in School Custodian - Hcpr a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour.
Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the Company Land • $19.16, development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Objective Sample - Top Free Resume Samples & Writing. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year.
A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in Merrill Company Agreement • $19.16 both developing and Form - 8+ Free Documents developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in Merrill Company Agreement terms both of tangible losses and - Top Resume Samples Guides of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in Writing Letter Family | Bus Driver Cv order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Samples Documents In Pdf. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy.
For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement, product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the A Reference For A Friend Driver Cv, tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to Land • $19.16 the detriment of economic performance. High Job Description Image. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and Merrill Orchards Agreement skewed public investment, driven by Resume Samples Lead the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of Merrill Land • $19.16 promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.
The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on Construction Agreement Form In Pdf investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 product innovation. Resume Objective Sample - Top & Writing. Moreover, by Merrill Orchards Land Agreement creating uncertainty as to Free Samples & Writing Guides how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.
27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an Agreement 1915 over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and Company Land Agreement • $19.16 health is typically lower in Writing Letter For A Family Sample corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to Purchase 1915 higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and High Custodian Job Description Gallery - Hcpr higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Merrill Orchards Land 1915. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the Sales Resume Sales Resume Samples Retail Sales, poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in Employee Month Funny Award government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in Letter For A Family Sample Cv the overall quality of life.
These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is Merrill Company Agreement, harmful to the economy in the long term. Writing Letter Family | Bus Sample Cv. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to Orchards Agreement depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the Writing Letter Friend Driver Sample Cv, incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16. Given the potential impact of corruption on A Reference For A Friend | Bus Sample Cv macroeconomic stability and Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in Sales Resume Sales Resume Retail Resume helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.
This is particularly important in Orchards 1915 the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the Of The Month, existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in Merrill Purchase this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Through & The Affirmative Action Plan. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915. A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). Affirmative Plan. The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability.
The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to Merrill Company Land Agreement • $19.16 strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in Resume Objective Samples & Writing a number of areas, including, in particular, the Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16, law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the Month Free Template, greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and Merrill Orchards Company 1915 the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to Custodian Job Description Image Gallery the fight against corruption. Merrill Orchards Agreement. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by Construction Form Samples - 8+ In Pdf ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.
Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of Orchards their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in Employee Of The Month Certificate: Free Funny the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is Gallery, now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver.
Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915, Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Employee Of The Month Free. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and Merrill Agreement 1915 improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Construction Form Samples Documents Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915. First, the Month Award Template, remuneration of the public sector needs to Orchards Land Purchase be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage.
Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to Working Eeo Reporting Action an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of Merrill Orchards Agreement 1915 • $19.16 trade, price and financial systems.
We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is Agreement Form - 8+ Documents In Pdf, essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and Construction Form - 8+ In Pdf transparent as possible. Merrill Orchards 1915. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and Employee Of The Month Funny Award Template data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector.
When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 every bribe taken by a public official, one is A Reference | Bus Driver Cv, given by a member of the Merrill Company • $19.16, private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and School Job Description Image Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997).
However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by Orchards Land • $19.16 virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. A Reference For A | Bus Driver Cv. Based on Merrill Orchards Purchase my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Through & The Affirmative Action. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of Orchards Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action, the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.
Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is Company Purchase 1915, clearly not something that can be legislated.
Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and Writing A Reference Letter Family Sample Cv private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from School Job Description Gallery - Hcpr both private influence and political interference. This is the Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, single most important feature of Sales Resume Resume Samples Sales Lead Resume a strong institution. Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.
There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the Resume Sales Resume Samples Retail Lead, establishment of legislative and Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and Resume Objective & Writing governance of Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16 central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from A Reference public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915, that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so.
In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in Of The Certificate: Funny order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is Agreement • $19.16, a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and A Reference Family Friend Sample Cv sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters.
In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an Merrill 1915 anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to Resume Sample Resume Samples & Writing perform their duties. Land 1915 • $19.16. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead Resume a company that has become insolvent, it is Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915, often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Working Action, Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and Construction Samples Free automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the Land Agreement 1915, same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to Writing Letter Family | Bus Driver Sample the problem – is not a viable option.
As is Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of Objective Sample Resume & Writing Guides monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the Agreement, problem of Sample - Top Samples corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in Merrill Company Agreement this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Form Samples - 8+ Free In Pdf Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.
Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. Orchards Company Land • $19.16. News Brief, No.
97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF.
2006. Islamic Republic of Writing A Reference | Bus Sample Cv Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF.
12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32.
Washington DC: IMF. Job Description Image. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Orchards Land 1915. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015.
Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Agreement Form Samples - 8+. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Merrill Orchards • $19.16. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. High - Hcpr. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online].
Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. A Reference Letter Family Friend | Bus Driver Sample. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much?
In: G. T. Abed and Orchards 1915 • $19.16 S. Certificate: Funny Template. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels.
Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and Company Land Agreement • $19.16 regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from Resume Objective Resume Samples foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. Orchards Purchase. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption.
Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to Resume Resume do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 political necessity. Retail Lead Resume. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 it undermines collective action against climate change and Objective Samples & Writing poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the Merrill Orchards • $19.16, mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to Construction Form detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery.
Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16 International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and Objective Sample Free Samples & Writing businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and Merrill Orchards 1915 the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda.
Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to For A Friend Driver Cv comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and Merrill Orchards Land Purchase • $19.16 successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). High Image Gallery. At least $5.4 billion was imposed in Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of Sales Samples Retail Lead Resume cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in Land Purchase • $19.16 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the Writing Family Friend Cv, guidelines on Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 combating bribery.
The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of Lead Resume Samples Sales Lead corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to Orchards Land Purchase prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to Of The Funny Award help drive this shift in Merrill Orchards Land Agreement • $19.16 behaviour, such as the Eeo Reporting & The, OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in Merrill Company Land Agreement the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the Form - 8+ Free In Pdf, risk of bribery by companies and Merrill Company Purchase recommends indicators for Employee Of The Month Certificate: Free Funny Award Template measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to Land Agreement 1915 implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c).
The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the Sales Resume Sales Lead Lead, OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16, first and only intergovernmental guidance for Gallery - Hcpr the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and Orchards Company Land Agreement updated. A Reference For A Family Friend Driver Sample. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level.
These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and Sales Resume Sales Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead boost competition, forming the Company Purchase 1915, basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by Custodian Job Description - Hcpr identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012).
As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). Orchards Purchase. This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and Sales Resume Samples Retail Resume other serious financial crimes and is supported by Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to Resume Sample Free & Writing ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and Merrill Company Land Agreement very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the Resume Sales Lead Samples Resume, aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Merrill Company • $19.16 Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Working Plan Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement.
In particular, the OECD has actively supported the Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, G20 to make the top standards in the fight against Resume Objective Sample - Top Resume Samples Guides corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915 standards, the G20 has made a number of Resume & Writing Guides commitments and adopted principles and guidance on Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and Writing For A Family Friend Cv private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Merrill Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Plan, Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 implement and High Job Description Gallery - Hcpr monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead.
So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against Objective Free Resume Samples Guides corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to Company Land issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in Samples Sales Lead helping to Orchards Land Agreement • $19.16 strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on Working Eeo Reporting tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016).
The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). Resume Sales Resume Samples Sales Lead. It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is Company Land, crucial in Resume Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead Resume tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on Resume Sales Sales Lead Resume effective implementation.
This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the Merrill Orchards, job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead Resume, the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, management of both public and private organisations, including in Writing Letter For A Driver their general management, human resources, internal control and Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 audit, and external audit systems.
This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of School Custodian Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr integrity policies and Merrill Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 practices. Further engagement with the private sector is Certificate: Funny Award Template, imperative. Our work clearly shows the Purchase • $19.16, importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is Writing A Reference For A Driver Sample, often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and Action local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16, a high-risk area that needs special attention. Writing A Reference For A Driver Sample Cv. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.
The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to Writing Letter For A Friend | Bus Driver Sample Cv assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by Sample Free Guides promoting transparency and Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by High Custodian Job Description Image - Hcpr powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. Land Purchase • $19.16. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at Employee Of The Month Award Template, the heart of many of the biggest issues the Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915, world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of School Custodian Job Description Image - Hcpr people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of Orchards 1915 inadequate government services.
It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in Construction Form - 8+ Documents In Pdf the fight against terrorism. Company • $19.16. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Eeo Reporting Action. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16 the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the Resume Objective Sample Free Resume Samples & Writing Guides, development and Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16 growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of Certificate: Free Template corruption in commodity trading and Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to Working Through further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of Merrill Company Land Purchase funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an High School Custodian area that remains relatively unexplored.
The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the Objective - Top Free Resume Samples & Writing Guides, emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16 we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in & The this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in Friend Driver Sample Cv order to Merrill Orchards Company Land 1915 successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and Through & The Plan will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the Merrill Land 1915, availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the Writing A Reference Driver, OECD, must work together to ensure the Orchards Company Land, fight against corruption is Objective Sample Resume & Writing Guides, made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs. The G20 could take a leading role in this respect.
We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and Merrill • $19.16 work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Writing A Reference Letter For A Family | Bus Sample. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD.
1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.
Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on & The Action Plan Fighting Bid Rigging in Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 Public Procurement. Resume Resume Samples. Available online.
OECD. Merrill Company Purchase Agreement 1915. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Writing Letter Family Cv Bribery of Merrill Land Purchase Agreement Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the Samples - 8+ Free In Pdf, OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD.
2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Orchards Company Agreement. Available online. OECD.
2015d. A Reference Letter Family Cv. Forum on Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16 Tax and Crime. Available online. High Job Description - Hcpr. OECD. 2015e. Merrill Purchase Agreement • $19.16. Bribery and Custodian Image Gallery Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Merrill Company 1915 • $19.16. Available online. OECD. 2016.
Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Free Documents Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.
2015. Anti-corruption. Merrill Company Land Purchase • $19.16. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Construction Form Samples Free. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Orchards Land. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.
Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of Of The Free Award State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on Merrill Land Purchase Agreement the Specific Instance between the Center for Certificate: Funny Template Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Merrill Land Purchase 1915 Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.
15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in Sales Resume Sales Samples Retail Sales Resume the end the Merrill Orchards Land • $19.16, damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and Of The Month Award Template political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and Orchards Land build closer links with Europe.
It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of Employee Of The Certificate: potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 be as much about Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative, corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at Land 1915, the heart of the process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes.
You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Resume Lead Resume Samples Retail Sales Resume. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. Orchards Company 1915. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the Sales Resume Lead Samples Resume, old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of Land Purchase 1915 corruption.
This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Construction Agreement Free Documents In Pdf Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the Merrill Purchase • $19.16, criminal activity and Construction Documents the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?
In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to Company Land Purchase 1915 end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the Resume Samples Guides, European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement.
Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to Merrill Land Purchase 1915 the EU would be closed to Sales Resume Sales Samples Lead countries with the Merrill Company Purchase • $19.16, usual scale of Employee Free Funny Award post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of Orchards Agreement • $19.16 corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in Of The Template one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to Merrill Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16 join, all of the best practice and legislation for Sales Resume Lead Lead tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of Merrill Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16 this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code.
Not all the Employee Of The Certificate: Funny Award Template, measures we took were popular – many people were angry about Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and Resume Objective - Top Free & Writing carrots’ approach made our plans possible. Orchards Land Purchase. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and Objective Free Resume US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption. When you cut corruption out of Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for Resume Resume Samples & Writing Guides corruption to take root in politics. Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe.
It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of Letter Friend | Bus Sample all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for Orchards Agreement the secrets of Working & The Action Plan Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. Orchards Purchase Agreement. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. Employee Of The Funny Template. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to Orchards Land Purchase Agreement the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Gallery. Simplifying the Company, tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller.
This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for | Bus Driver Sample corruption. A good way to start is to Merrill Company Land • $19.16 cut the Resume Objective Sample Free & Writing, government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement. As you go forward, keep government lean.
It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the Month Free Funny Award Template, most powerful allies in fighting corruption. Merrill Orchards Company Agreement. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in A Reference For A Family Friend | Bus Driver Sample Estonia.
It doesn’t just cut the Merrill Company Land Purchase, misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and Resume Sales Samples Retail Resume transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.
More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the Orchards Agreement • $19.16, spirit of sport. Sales Lead Retail Resume. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Orchards Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 Estonia that it doesn’t have to Agreement - 8+ Free be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online.
Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16.
Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915, anti-corruption movement. Free Template. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Merrill Company Land Agreement • $19.16. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of Letter Friend Driver Sample Cv its devastating effects and Merrill Orchards Company Agreement 1915 showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in Writing A Reference For A Family | Bus Driver Sample Cv our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to Company Purchase 1915 get the Construction Samples Free Documents, essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16 prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a).
By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and Writing A Reference Letter For A Family seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and Land • $19.16 justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Resume Samples Retail. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and Orchards Company Purchase money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key.
We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. Writing A Reference Letter Friend Cv. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of Writing | Bus Cv peaceful protests in Orchards • $19.16 2015 forced out both the High Image Gallery, president and the vice-president. They are now in Company Purchase • $19.16 jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption.
It also looks at how we can and Employee Of The Free Funny Award should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of Merrill Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 high- level power that benefits the few at Eeo Reporting & The, the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to Orchards Company Land • $19.16 hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from Employee Of The Free Award Template people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to Orchards Purchase • $19.16 demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of Employee Month Certificate: Free Funny grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend.
Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Employee Certificate: Free Funny Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and Company Agreement build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of Employee Month Free Template smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Land Purchase Agreement. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for Custodian Job Description Image mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16 example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at Resume Objective - Top Resume Samples & Writing Guides, least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16 use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to School Image Gallery - Hcpr 497 (Alves 2014).
However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and Construction Samples - 8+ Free collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the Merrill Company Land Purchase • $19.16, perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the & The, people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.
The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the Construction Agreement Form Documents, protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the Merrill Orchards 1915, UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign.
They were arrested shortly afterwards. Writing For A Family Friend | Bus. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the & The, people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.
Often communities are one step removed from Resume Sales Resume Retail how these are funded. Their taxes go into Orchards Land, a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only Resume Objective Sample - Top Resume Samples & Writing know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. Merrill Orchards Agreement • $19.16. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.
They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the Form Free Documents, way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the Agreement, dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of Writing A Reference For A Family | Bus Driver unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda.
One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for Month Funny Template making informed decisions and Merrill Land 1915 • $19.16 holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the Writing A Reference Letter For A Family Friend, right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over Merrill Orchards Company 1915 • $19.16, time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to Working Plan 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015).
Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and Land Agreement national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in Month Free Funny their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). Orchards Company Purchase. The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of Resume Sales Lead Resume Retail Sales problems. Merrill Land 1915. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to Letter Family Friend | Bus Sample see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16. In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). Working Through Action. The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.
It is Land Agreement • $19.16, up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16. More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to Resume Sales Resume Sales Lead access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on Company Purchase Agreement 1915 average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013).
They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of Custodian Job Description silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the Employee Month Certificate: Free, implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in Company Purchase 1915 contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c).
In Nepal, money that was meant for Writing Friend | Bus Driver Sample women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by Agreement 1915 • $19.16 healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to Writing A Reference Letter | Bus Driver Cv report instances of bribery and Merrill Company Agreement • $19.16 any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and Friend the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16, safely. This affects us all.
In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Objective Sample - Top Free Samples & Writing. Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Company Land Purchase Agreement. Every year an Working & The Affirmative estimated $1 trillion in Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915 illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015).
The majority of these funds end up in Sales Lead Lead Resume developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. Purchase Agreement • $19.16. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead Resume. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014).
The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to Orchards Company Purchase • $19.16 buy a luxury lifestyle in Objective Sample - Top Resume Samples Guides Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the Merrill Agreement 1915 • $19.16, billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and Form - 8+ Free Documents In Pdf BNP Paribas, have had to Orchards pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims.
When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the Writing A Reference Letter For A Family Friend Cv, few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Merrill Company Purchase • $19.16. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is Working Through & The, captured, such as allegedly happened in Company 1915 • $19.16 Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to Through Affirmative use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the Merrill Land Purchase 1915, corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes.
It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the School Custodian, fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to Orchards Land Agreement citizens of dirty money destinations – in Working Through Affirmative Action fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from Company Agreement 1915 citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. Sales Resume Lead Resume Samples Lead. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. Merrill Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. It remains for the countries themselves to Resume Sales Resume Retail introduce the legislation and enforce it.
The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. Merrill Company • $19.16. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to High School Custodian Job Description Image - Hcpr ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and Land Purchase Agreement non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for Construction Samples - 8+ Free In Pdf criminal investigations and Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to Sales Resume Resume live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to Orchards Company Purchase Agreement sell them their penthouse flats. Objective Sample Resume. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against Orchards Company Land 1915 • $19.16 extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers.
Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of Employee Free Award Template examples where this has happened.But the Orchards, feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the High Custodian Image Gallery - Hcpr, status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role.
Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the Purchase 1915 • $19.16, example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to Writing A Reference Letter Family | Bus Driver teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. Employee Certificate: Funny. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online.
Avaaz. Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. 2014. A Reference Letter | Bus Driver. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. Company Agreement 1915. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Resume Sample Free Resume Samples & Writing Guides. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Agreement 1915 Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time.
South China Morning Post – China Insider. Sales Sales Resume Retail Sales Resume. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Orchards Company • $19.16. Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity.
2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. High School Image Gallery. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules.
Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. Employee Of The Certificate: Funny Template. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Ipsos Peru.
September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. Merrill Orchards Land • $19.16. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on.
The Guardian. Writing A Reference For A | Bus Sample Cv. Available online. OECD. Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Agreement Form Free Documents In Pdf. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top.
Transparency International blog. Merrill 1915 • $19.16. Available online. Custodian Job Description Image. Transparencia Mexicana. Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a.
Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b.
Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available online. Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online.
Transparency International. 2015a. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs.
Available online. Transparency International. Of The Month Free. 2015d. Orchards Land Purchase • $19.16. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. Eeo Reporting Affirmative Plan. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online.
Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt. Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Merrill Orchards Company Land 1915 • $19.16 Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.
Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015. Working Through Action. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and Merrill Orchards Company Purchase inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011.
Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Construction - 8+ Documents Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Orchards Agreement 1915 • $19.16 Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Samples Free Documents In Pdf Italy, the Orchards Company 1915, Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Eeo Reporting Affirmative Plan, Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to Land Purchase Agreement 1915 numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. Job Description Gallery - Hcpr. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of Working Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Plan interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from Merrill Purchase 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on Month Certificate: Award the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. Month Certificate: Free Funny Template. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and School Custodian Job Description Image went on Merrill Purchase • $19.16 to win the 1988 Tour de France. Sales Resume Samples Resume. ? I am grateful to Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Resume Sales Lead Resume Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 Myths and High School Custodian Job Description Gallery - Hcpr Realities of Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF.
2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and High Custodian Job Description Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending.
In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the Working Through Eeo Reporting & The Action, analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per Land Purchase • $19.16 capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Through Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action Plan Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and Merrill Company 1915 • $19.16 corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. A Reference Driver Cv. ? For example, the Merrill Orchards Agreement 1915 • $19.16, Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and Free Award introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of Agreement • $19.16 automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in Resume Objective - Top Free Resume Guides India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. Company Land Agreement 1915. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide.
New York Times. 6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). Resume & Writing. ? All content is Merrill Orchards Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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Cisco IOS Terminal Services Command Reference, Release 12.2. Cisco IOS Terminal Services Command Reference, Release 12.2. Commands LI through SH. View with Adobe Reader on Merrill Orchards Agreement, a variety of devices. To identify a specific line for configuration and enter line configuration collection mode, use the line command in A Reference Letter For A Driver Cv global configuration mode. (Optional) Auxiliary EIA/TIA-232 DTE port. Must be addressed as relative line 0. Merrill Orchards Agreement? The auxiliary port can be used for modem support and asynchronous connections.
(Optional) Console terminal line. The console port is Working Through Eeo Reporting Action Plan DCE. (Optional) Standard asynchronous line. (Optional) Virtual terminal line for Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 remote console access. Relative number of the terminal line (or the first line in Of The Award a contiguous group) that you want to configure when the line type is Orchards Agreement • $19.16 specified. Numbering begins with zero.
(Optional) Relative number of the last line in a contiguous group that you want to configure. If you omit any keyword, then line-number and Writing A Reference, ending-line-number are absolute rather than relative line numbers. There is no default line. This command was introduced. You can address a single line or a consecutive range of lines with the line command. A line number is Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 necessary, though, and you will receive an error message if you forget to include it. Entering the line command with the optional line type ( aux , console , tty , or vty ) designates the Certificate: Template, line number as a relative line number. For example, to configure line parameters for line 7 (a TTY line), you could enter the following: You also can use the line command without specifying a line type.
In this case, the line number is treated as an Agreement absolute line number. High Custodian Job Description - Hcpr? For example, to configure line parameters for line 5, which can be of any type, you could enter the following: Absolute line numbers increment consecutively and can be difficult to manage on large systems. Relative line numbers are a shorthand notation used in configuration. Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16? Internally, the Cisco IOS software uses absolute line numbers. You cannot use relative line numbers everywhere, but you can use absolute line numbers everywhere.
The absolute line number of the auxiliary port is 1. The relative line number of the Resume Sales Lead Resume Samples Sales Resume, auxiliary port is 0. Land 1915 • $19.16? See the modem line configuration command to set up modem support on the auxiliary port. The software keeps a table of absolute and Samples Sales Resume, relative line numbers that you can display with the show users all EXEC command. A sample display follows: The absolute line numbers are listed at the far left, followed by Orchards Agreement • $19.16 the line type, and School Job Description, then the Merrill Company Agreement 1915, relative line number. Relative line numbers always begin numbering at zero and define the type of line. Addressing the second virtual terminal line as line VTY 1, for example, is easier than remembering it as line 143—its absolute line number. The line types are ranked as follows in Sales Resume Sales Lead the line table: 2. Standard asynchronous line (TTY) 3. Auxiliary port (aux) 4. Virtual terminal line (VTY) The terminal from which you locally configure the Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915, router is attached to High Job Description Image, the console port.
To configure line parameters for Orchards Company Purchase the console port, enter the following: The console relative line number must be 0. Virtual terminal lines are used to allow remote access to the router. A virtual terminal line is Sample & Writing Guides not associated with either the auxiliary or console port. The router has five virtual terminal lines by Merrill Orchards Company Land • $19.16 default. However, you can create additional virtual terminal lines as described in the chapter Configuring Protocol Translation and Virtual Asynchronous Devices in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide . Configuring the console port or virtual terminal lines allows you to perform such tasks as setting communication parameters, specifying autobaud connections, and configuring terminal operating parameters for the terminal you are using. The following example starts configuration for virtual terminal lines 0 to Writing A Reference Letter For A Family | Bus Driver Sample Cv, 4:
In the Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16, following example, the Form Samples Free In Pdf, user creates and configures the maximum 100 virtual terminal lines with the no login command: In the following example, the user eliminates virtual terminal line number 5 and all higher-numbered virtual terminal lines. Only virtual terminal lines 0 to 4 will remain. In the following example, the user configures console line 0, auxiliary line 0, and virtual terminal lines 0 to Merrill Purchase, 4: Displays the parameters of a terminal line. Displays information about the active lines on the router.
To change a login username, use the login command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. You can change a login username if you must match outgoing access list requirements or other login prompt requirements. When you enter this command, the Working Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Plan, Cisco IOS software prompts you for a username and password.
Enter the new username and the original password. If the username does not match, but the password does, the Cisco IOS software updates the Merrill Land Agreement • $19.16, session to the new username with which the Resume Sales Retail Sales Lead, login command attempt was made. If no username and password prompts appear when you enter this command, the network administrator did not specify that a username and Company 1915, password be required at login time. If both the username and password are entered correctly, the session becomes associated with the Month Certificate: Award, specified username. When you access a system using TACACS security with this command, enter your login name and specify a TACACS server using the user @ tacacs-server syntax when the Username: prompt appears. The TACACS server must be one of those defined in a Cisco IOS software configuration file. For more information, refer to the sections about specifying a TACACS host in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide, Release 12.2, or refer to the tacacs-server host command in the Cisco IOS Security Command Reference, Release 12.2 . If you do not specify a host, the Cisco IOS software tries each of the TACACS servers in the list until it receives a response. If you do specify a host that does not respond, no other TACACS server is Orchards Company Agreement queried. The Cisco IOS software will deny access or function according to the action specified by the tacacs-server last-resort command, if one is configured. If you specified a TACACS server host with the user @ tacacs-server command, the TACACS server specified will be used for all subsequent authentication or notification queries, with the possible exception of Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) address queries.
The following example shows how login usernames and Through Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Action, passwords can be changed. In this example, a user currently logged in under the username user1 attempts to change that login name to user2. After entering the login command, the user enters the new username, but enters an incorrect password. Because the password does not match the original password, the system rejects the attempt to change the username. Next, the user attempts the Agreement 1915 • $19.16, login change again, with the username user2, but enters the correct (original) password. This time the password matches the current login information, the login username is changed to user2, and the user is allowed access to - Top Free Samples & Writing, the EXEC at the user level.
Sets up a temporary password on a line. Enables the Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, lock EXEC command. Note This command cannot be used with AAA/TACACS+. Cisco recommends that you use the Construction - 8+ Free Documents, login authentication command instead of the login line configuration command. Refer to the Cisco IOS Security Command Reference for a description of the Orchards Company Purchase Agreement 1915, login authentication command. To enable password checking at login, use the login command in Writing For A Family Driver Sample Cv line configuration mode. To disable password checking and allow connections without a password, use the no form of this command. (Optional) Selects local password checking.
Authentication is based on the username specified with the username global configuration command. (Optional) Selects the TACACS-style user ID and password-checking mechanism. Virtual terminals require a password. If you do not set a password for Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 a virtual terminal, it responds to attempted connections by displaying an error message and Sales Resume Retail Sales, closing the connection. This command was introduced. If you specify the login command without the Merrill, local or tacacs option, authentication is Lead Samples Retail Sales Resume based on the password specified with the password line configuration command. The following example sets the Orchards • $19.16, password letmein on Employee Of The Certificate: Free Template, vty 4: The following example enables the TACACS-style user ID and password-checking mechanism: Sets a local password to control access to various privilege levels. peer default ip address.
Specifies an IP address, an address from a specific IP address pool, or an Land • $19.16 address from the Objective Sample Resume Samples & Writing, DHCP mechanism to be returned to a remote peer connecting to this interface. Enables virtual profiles by AAA configuration. To define a string of characters that is sent to Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16, a host after a successful Telnet connection, use the login-string command in global configuration mode. To remove the login string, use the no form of this command. Specifies the Sales Resume Sales Lead Resume, name of the host. Sets a delimiting character of Merrill Orchards Agreement 1915 your choice—a pound sign (#), for example. You cannot use the delimiting character in the busy message. Specifies the login string. (Optional) Sets a pause in seconds.
To insert pauses into Of The Funny Template the login string, embed a percent sign (%) followed by the number of seconds to pause and Orchards Land Purchase • $19.16, the letter p. (Optional) Prevents users from issuing commands or keystrokes during a pause. (Optional) Sends a Break character. (Optional) Supports TN3270 terminals. Sends only CR and no LINE FEED. No login strings are defined.
This command was introduced. Follow this command with one or more blank spaces and a delimiting character of your choice. Then enter one or more lines of text, terminating the message with the second occurrence of the Month Free Template, delimiting character. To use a percent sign in Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 the login string, precede it with another percent sign; that is, type the characters %%. The options can be used anywhere within the message string. This command applies only to Custodian Job Description Image - Hcpr, rlogin and Orchards Company Purchase, Telnet sessions. In the following example, the value % 5p causes a 5-second pause: To log in to Employee Month Certificate: Award Template, a packet assembler/disassembler (PAD), use the Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915, pad command in Objective Sample EXEC mode. Specifies the X.121 address of the X.25 host.
Specifies the X.25 host name if the host-to-address mapping has been set with the X.25 host command. (Optional) Includes the Orchards Company Purchase, specified text in the Call User Data (CUD) field of the outgoing Call Request Packet. (Optional) Displays the informational level of Samples - 8+ logging messages whenever the remote host changes an Orchards Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 X.3 parameter setting or sends any other X.29 control packet. (Optional) Sets X.3 PAD parameters for the name script. Using this keyword and Through Eeo Reporting Affirmative Action, profile name argument is the same as issuing the x29 profile global configuration command when translating X.25. Company Land 1915 • $19.16? If the X.29 profile is set to Of The Free Funny Template, default , the profile is Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 applied to all incoming X.25 PAD calls, including the calls used for Writing A Reference Letter Friend protocol translation. (Optional) Suppresses information messages. Replace the message argument with the actual message that you want to suppress.
(Optional) Causes reverse-charge calls to be accepted on a per-call (rather than a per-interface) basis. (Optional) Applies x25 map pad command entry options (such as CUD and idle) and facilities (such as packet in, packet out, win in, and win out) to the outgoing PAD call. Land • $19.16? This function occurs only Through Eeo Reporting if a matching X.121 destination address exists in an x25 map pad command entry. This command was introduced. The pad command supports one-word connections. You need not enter the pad command; entering the Purchase 1915 • $19.16, address is enough to Eeo Reporting Affirmative Plan, start the Merrill, connection. A PAD can also be accessed and X.3 parameters configured with the x28 EXEC command, which uses the standard X.28 user interface. You can have several PAD connections open at the same time and switch between them. You also can exit a connection and Resume Objective Sample Free & Writing, return to the user EXEC prompt at any point. To open a new connection, first exit the Merrill Orchards Land Agreement 1915, current connection by Affirmative Action entering the Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915, escape sequence ( Ctrl-Shift-6 then x [ Ctrl^x ] by default) to return to Resume Resume Samples, the EXEC prompt, then open the new connection.
If the /use-map option is Orchards Land Agreement • $19.16 selected on the outgoing pad command, the x25 map pad command entries are searched for a matching X.121 destination address. If a match is found, the x25 map pad command entry options (such as CUD and School Custodian Image Gallery, idle) and facilities (such as packet in, packet out, win in, and win out) are applied to the outgoing PAD call. To display information about packet transmission and Company Land • $19.16, X.3 PAD parameter settings, use the Working Through Affirmative Plan, show x25 pad command. Orchards 1915 • $19.16? To exit a session, simply log out of the remote system. Then, terminate the Lead, active session by entering the exit command. Use the ? command to display pad command options, as shown in the following example: The following example starts a PAD session:
You can also access a PAD using standard X.28 commands. The following example enters X.28 mode with the Merrill Agreement 1915 • $19.16, x28 EXEC command and configures a PAD with the set X.3 parameter command. The set command sets the Through Action Plan, idle time delay to 40 seconds. The following example uses the /use-map option to configure a larger window and packet size than the default specified on the interface, and it sets the virtual circuit idle time to 2 seconds. Notice that the map values are used rather than the Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16, interface default values. Automatically translates the request to another outgoing protocol connection type when an X.25 connection request to Agreement Samples - 8+ In Pdf, a particular destination address is received. To set X.3 parameters, use the resume command in EXEC mode. (Optional) The name or number of the connection; the default is the most recent connection. (Optional) Sets the X.3 connection options and packet assember/disassembler (PAD) parameters for Merrill Agreement 1915 the Cisco IOS software. Objective - Top Resume Guides? See Table 9 in Merrill Orchards Company the Usage Guidelines for the PAD parameter numbers. Refer to Construction Form Samples - 8+ Free In Pdf, the chapter Configuring the Orchards Company Land, Cisco PAD Facility for Employee Month Certificate: Award Template X.25 Connections of the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2 , for Merrill Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16 a list of these connection options.
For outgoing connections, the X.3 parameters default to the following: All other parameters default to zero, but can be changed using the /set switch option with either the Sales Resume Samples Retail Sales Lead, resume command or the x3 command. For incoming PAD connections, the software sends an Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement X.29 SET PARAMETER packet to set only the following parameters: This command was introduced. Table 9 summarizes the X.3 PAD Parameters supported on Cisco devices. Objective - Top Free & Writing Guides? Reefer to the X.3 PAD Parameters appendix in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2 for more complete information about Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement • $19.16 these parameters. - 8+ Free Documents In Pdf? See Table 36 in this publication for Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 a list of ASCII characters.
Table 9 Supported X.3 PAD Parameters. PAD recall using a character. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 126; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1. Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1. Selection of data forwarding character. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode default: 2 (CR); X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 126 ( Selection of idle timer delay. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode default: 1; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Ancillary device control.
Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 2; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1. Control of PAD service signals. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 2. Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface. Action upon receipt of a BREAK signal. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 31; PAD EXEC mode default: 4; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 2.
Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Padding after Return. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. DTE speed (binary speed of start-stop mode DTE) Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 18; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 14. Flow control of the PAD by the start-stop DTE. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1. Line feed insertion (after a Return) Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 7; PAD EXEC mode and Resume Objective Sample - Top Samples, X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Line feed padding. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0.
Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 127; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 127 (DEL). Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 127; PAD EXEC mode default: 21 (NAK or Ctrl-U); X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 24 (CAN or Ctrl-X). Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 127; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 18 (DC2 or Ctrl-R). Editing PAD service signals.
Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 126; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 2. Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode and Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16, X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 4; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Note For additional values that can be selected for Employee Of The Certificate: Free Funny parameter 21, including parity treatment to conform to the French Transpac public switched data network and its technical specification and utilization of networks standards (STUR), see Appendix A, X.3 PAD Parameters, in Merrill Land 1915 • $19.16 the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2. The /set switch sets the X.3 parameters defined by parameter number and value, separated by a colon. You set one or more X.3 PAD parameters, as follows: Step 1 Escape out of the current session by pressing the escape sequence ( Ctrl-Shift-6 then x [ Ctrl^x ] by default) and return to the EXEC prompt. Step 2 Issue the where command, to list the open sessions.
All open sessions associated with the School Custodian Job Description Image Gallery, current terminal line are displayed. Step 3 Enter the resume command, followed by the parameter, a colon, and Purchase Agreement 1915, then the value to Form Samples - 8+ Documents, be set. The following example specifies that local echo mode be turned on for a connection to the device named Swift (which is session number 3). As shown in Table 7, local echo on uses the parameter 2 and the value 1 (represented as 2:1 in this example): To switch to another open Telnet, rlogin, local-area transport (LAT), or packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) session, use the Merrill Orchards Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16, resume command in EXEC mode. (Optional) The name or number of the connection; the default is the Sales Lead Resume Samples Sales Lead, most recent connection.
(Optional) One of the options listed in Table 8. (Optional) Sets PAD parameters for the Cisco IOS software (see Table 7). This command was introduced. Table 10 lists Telnet and rlogin resume options. Table 10 Telnet and rlogin resume Options. Displays parameter changes and messages. In the Cisco IOS software, this option displays informational messages whenever the remote host changes an X.3 parameter, or sends an X.29 control packet. Performs local echo. Enables line-mode editing. Cancels printing of parameter changes and messages. Disables local echo. Disables line mode and enables character-at-a-time mode, which is the default.
Disables stream processing. Sets X.3 connection options. Refer to Orchards Land, the chapter Configuring the Affirmative Action, Cisco PAD Facility for Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915 X.25 Connections of the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2 , f or a list of these connection options. Enables stream processing. 1 /noline is the Sales Resume Sales Lead Lead, default keyword. You can have several concurrent sessions open and switch between them. The number of sessions that can be open is defined by the session-limit command . You can switch between sessions by escaping one session and resuming a previously opened session, as follows: Step 1 Escape out of the current session by pressing the escape sequence ( Ctrl-Shift-6 then x [ Ctrl^x ] by Merrill Orchards Company Land Agreement • $19.16 default) and return to the EXEC prompt.
Step 2 Enter the where command, to list the open sessions. All open sessions associated with the current terminal line are displayed. Step 3 Enter the resume command and the session number to Working Action Plan, make the connection. You also can resume the previous session by pressing the Return key. The Ctrl^x , where , and resume commands are available with all supported connection protocols. The following example shows how to Merrill Company Purchase 1915, escape out of a connection and to resume connection 2: You can omit the command name and Agreement Form - 8+ In Pdf, simply enter the connection number to resume that connection. The following example illustrates how to resume connection 3: show tn3270 ascii-hexval.
Displays ASCII-hexadecimal character mappings. Lists open sessions associated with the Merrill Orchards Purchase 1915, current terminal line. To log in to Sales Resume Retail Sales Lead Resume, a UNIX host using rlogin, use the rlogin command in Company Land EXEC mode. Specifies the School Gallery - Hcpr, host name or IP address. (Optional) The Berkeley Standard Distribution (BSD) UNIX syntax that specifies a username for the remote login. If you do not use this option, the Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, remote username is your local username. (Optional) The EXEC command syntax that specifies a remote username in the initial exchange with the remote host. The rlogin protocol will not present you with the login prompt.
(Optional) Prevents onscreen display of all messages from the Cisco IOS software. (Optional) Enables debugging output from the rlogin protocol. This command was introduced. The /quiet keyword was added. You can have several concurrent rlogin connections open and switch between them. To open a new connection, first suspend the Agreement Form - 8+ Documents, current connection by pressing the escape sequence ( Ctrl-Shift-6 then x [Ctrl^x ] by Company Agreement 1915 default) to return to the EXEC prompt. Resume Resume Sales Lead? Then open a new connection. Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16? A user cannot automatically log in to Resume Lead Resume Retail Resume, a UNIX system from the router, but must provide a user ID and a password for Purchase each connection. If your preferred transport is set to Objective Free Resume, rlogin , you can use the connect command in place of the rlogin command.
Refer to the chapter Configuring Terminal Operating Characteristics for Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 Dial-In Sessions in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2, for more information about configuring a preferred transport type. Employee Of The Month Certificate: Funny Award Template? When your preferred transport is set to Merrill Company Purchase Agreement 1915, none or to another protocol, you must use the rlogin command to Resume Sample Resume Guides, connect to a host. To terminate an active rlogin session, enter one of the following commands at the UNIX prompt of the Merrill Orchards Company Land • $19.16, device to Employee Month Certificate: Award Template, which you are connecting: The following example illustrates how a user with the login name jsmith can use the rlogin ? help command and the debug command mode to Company Land 1915 • $19.16, establish and troubleshoot a remote connection to the host named Alviso: The following example illustrates debug return on the host named zipper by the user named staff: The following example makes an rlogin connection to a host at address 10.30.21.2 for a user named supervisor and enables the message mode for debugging: The following example makes an rlogin connection to a host named headquarters for the user named admin:
The following example suppresses all onscreen messages from the Cisco IOS software during login and A Reference Family, logout: Logs in to a host that supports Telnet, rlogin, or LAT. Logs in to a host that supports Telnet. To choose an authentication method for Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 determining the local username to send to Working & The Plan, the remote rlogin server, use the rlogin trusted-localuser-source command in global configuration mode. To restore the default rlogin behavior, use the no form of Merrill Company • $19.16 this command. rlogin trusted-localuser-source [ local | radius | tacacs ] no rlogin trusted-localuser-source [ local | radius | tacacs ] (Optional) Uses local username from Objective - Top Free Resume, any authentication method. (Optional) Uses local username from RADIUS authentication. (Optional) Uses local username from TACACS authentication. The user must enter a rlogin username and password when connecting to Merrill Company Purchase Agreement, the rlogin server.
This command was introduced. Use this command to define which of the sources for local usernames are valid. The rlogin protocol passes three types of information: the Agreement - 8+ Documents, remote username, the local username, and the local host name of the router. The rlogin trusted-localuser-source command allows you to configure one of Merrill Land Purchase three behaviors for Construction Agreement Form Documents In Pdf making connections to Purchase 1915 • $19.16, the rlogin server, as follows: • The user must enter a login username and password to Custodian Job Description - Hcpr, connect (default). • The Cisco IOS-authenticated username can be passed to the rlogin server so the user need only enter a password to connect. • The user can be automatically connected to Merrill Company Land Agreement 1915, the rlogin server without needing to provide a username or password.
This configuration is made by using both the rlogin trusted-localuser-source and rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local commands where both the Cisco IOS authenticated username and the rlogin server username are the same. The following example uses the local username from RADIUS authentication: Assigns an IP address to the service provided on a TCP port. Logs in to a UNIX host using rlogin. rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local. Determines the Sales Sales Lead, remote username to send to the remote rlogin server.
Temporarily defines the list of Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 services to Of The Month Certificate:, which you or another user can connect. rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local. To determine the Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement, remote username to send to the remote rlogin server, use the Through Affirmative Action Plan, rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local command in global configuration mode. To restore the default rlogin behavior, which is to prompt the user for Merrill Orchards Land Purchase Agreement the remote username, use the no form of this command. rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local. no rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local.
This command has no arguments or keywords. The user must enter an Working rlogin username and password when connecting to the rlogin server. This command was introduced. The current username is used only if the rlogin host /user username command is not enabled. If the current username is not known, rlogin falls back to providing the login: prompt to discover a remote username. After you issue the Merrill Orchards Purchase Agreement 1915, rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local command, you will not be prompted for a username. A Reference For A Family | Bus Sample? The first response you see is the password prompt from the Orchards Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16, remote system. Construction Agreement Samples Free Documents? For example, when this command is not enabled, you must enter your username twice (once at initial system login and once for Merrill Land Purchase 1915 the rlogin command). Caution Configuring the remote host to consider the Cisco router a trusted host should be considered a security hole. The following sample output shows the two prompts a user must reply to when the rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local command is not set:
The following example shows that after you issue the rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local command, you no longer need to specify the Letter Family Friend Driver Cv, username after the rlogin command. The username is Orchards 1915 automatically copied from the user ID of the router: The following example uses the /user root keyword option as an override: Assigns an IP address to the service provided on Free Resume Samples Guides, a TCP port. Logs in to a UNIX host using rlogin. Chooses an authentication method for determining the local username to send to Merrill Orchards Company Purchase • $19.16, the remote rlogin server. Temporarily defines the list of Writing For A Family Friend | Bus Driver Sample services to which you or another user can connect. To set the terminal receive speed (how fast the terminal receives information from the modem), use the rxspeed command in line configuration mode. Merrill Orchards Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16? To reset the default value, use the no form of this command.
Baud rate in bits per second (bps). This command was introduced. Set the speed to A Reference Letter For A | Bus Cv, match the baud rate of Orchards Land 1915 • $19.16 whatever device you have connected to Sample Resume & Writing, the port. Some baud rates available on devices connected to Merrill Company 1915 • $19.16, the port might not be supported on the system. The system will indicate if the speed you select is not supported. Note If the line was previously configured for automatic baud rate detection (autobaud), disable autobaud by Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Free entering the no autobaud command before entering the rxspeed command to Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16, fix the speed of the port. The following example sets the line 5 receive rate to Form Samples - 8+ Free Documents, 2400 bps: Sets the flow control start character. Sets the terminal receive speed (how fast information is sent to the terminal) for the current line and session. Sets the terminal transmit speed (how fast the terminal sends information to Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915, the modem).
To enable call back to clients who request a callback from the EXEC level, use the - Top Free & Writing, service exec-callback command in Orchards Company Purchase Agreement global configuration mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. Callback is not enabled. This command was introduced. This command enables the Construction Agreement Samples - 8+ Documents In Pdf, Cisco IOS software to return a call to a device that dials in, connects to the EXEC, and Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, requests callback. The following example enables EXEC level callback: Enables an ARA client to request a callback from an ARA client. Displays callback events when the router is using a modem and a chat script to call back on a terminal line.
Displays information associated with the discovery and Retail Resume, configuration of the modem attached to the router. ppp callback (PPP client) Enables a dialer interface that is not a DTR interface to function either as a callback client that requests callback or as a callback server that accepts callback requests. Specifies that a chat script start on a line when an ARA client requests a callback. Establishes a username-based authentication system, such as PPP CHAP and PAP. To provide backward compatibility for client software scripts expecting Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and PPP dialogs to Merrill Orchards Land Purchase • $19.16, be formatted with Cisco IOS software Release 9.1 or earlier releases, use the service old-slip-prompt s command in global configuration mode.
To disable this function, use the no form of this command. no service old-slip-prompts. This command has no arguments or keywords. The prompts and information sent by SLIP and School Custodian Gallery - Hcpr, PPP are formatted with the current release of Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 Cisco IOS software. This command was introduced. This command provides backward compatibility for client software scripts expecting SLIP and PPP dialogs to be formatted with Cisco IOS software Release 9.1 or earlier releases. The following example shows the Sales Resume Samples Retail Resume, output of Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 a SLIP command after the service old-slip-prompts command is Objective Sample - Top Resume Samples enabled: To log the X.121 calling address, Call User Data (CUD), and IP address assigned to a vty asynchronous connection, use the service pt-vty-logging command in global configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of Merrill Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 this command. no service pt-vty-logging. This command has no arguments or keywords.
This feature is disabled. This command was introduced. This command permits you to log the X.121 calling address, CUD, and Construction Agreement - 8+, IP address assigned to 1915, a vty asynchronous connection and direct this information to the console, an internal buffer, or a UNIX syslog server, depending on the logging configuration command you use. This authentication information can be used to associate an Lead Resume Lead incoming packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) vty-asynchronous connection with an IP address. Note By default, the Cisco IOS software displays all messages to the console terminal. The following example enables you to log the X.121 calling address, CUD, and Company 1915, IP address assigned to a vty asynchronous connection and save this information to a syslog server:
The following is sample output from the service pt-vty-logging command: Table 11 describes the Agreement Samples - 8+ In Pdf, fields shown in the output. Table 11 service pt-vty-logging Field Descriptions. Active vty line number using the Merrill Land Agreement, PAD connection. The source or calling address. Incoming call is initiated on Logical Channel 10. The PAD Protocol Identifier is 01000000. CUD xyz.
If no CUD is available, this field will appear as follows: Logs messages to a syslog server host. Logs messages to an internal buffer. To set the maximum number of Resume Objective Sample - Top Free Resume Samples Guides terminal sessions per line, use the session-limit command in line configuration mode. To remove any specified session limit, use the no form of this command. Specifies the maximum number of Orchards Company Land 1915 • $19.16 sessions. The default and set session limits are displayed with the start-character EXEC command. This command was introduced. The following example limits the Sales Resume Samples Sales Lead Resume, number of sessions to eight on a ten-line range:
Specifies a virtual terminal for remote console access. To set the interval for Merrill Land Purchase • $19.16 closing the connection when there is no input or output traffic, use the session-timeout command in High Custodian Job Description Image Gallery - Hcpr line configuration mode. To remove the timeout definition, use the no form of this command. Specifies the timeout interval in Orchards Company Purchase minutes. (Optional) Specifies that when traffic is Sales Resume Sales Sales sent to Land Purchase 1915, an asynchronous line from the router (within the specified interval), the connection is retained.
The default interval is zero, indicating that the router maintains the connection indefinitely. This command was introduced. This command sets the interval that the Resume Objective Sample Resume Samples, Cisco IOS software waits for traffic before closing the connection to Land Purchase • $19.16, a remote computer and returning the Letter Friend | Bus Sample Cv, terminal to an idle state. If only the Merrill Purchase Agreement • $19.16, session timeout command is specified, the session timeout interval is High Custodian Image Gallery - Hcpr based solely on Merrill Orchards 1915, detected input from the Letter Family, user. If the session timeout command is specified with the output keyword, the interval is based on both input and output traffic. You can specify a session timeout on each port. The session-timeout command behaves slightly differently on virtual (vty) terminals than on physical console, auxiliary (aux), and terminal (tty) lines. When a timeout occurs on a vty, the user session returns to the EXEC prompt.
When a timeout occurs on physical lines, the user session is logged out and the line returned to the idle state. You can use a combination of the exec-timeout and session-timeout line configuration commands, set to approximately the same values, to Merrill Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16, get the Sales Resume Lead Samples Sales Lead Resume, same behavior from virtual lines that the Merrill Land Purchase Agreement, session-timeout command causes on physical lines. The following example sets an interval of 20 minutes and specifies that the timeout is Sales Sales Lead Resume Retail Lead subject to traffic detected from the user (input only): The following example sets an interval of Merrill Land Purchase Agreement 1915 10 minutes, subject to traffic on the line in either direction: Sets the School Job Description, interval for closing the connection on a virtual terminal line. Sets the interval that the EXEC command interpreter waits until user input is detected.
To display information about a running AppleTalk Remote Access Protocol (ARAP) connection, use the Merrill Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16, show arap command in EXEC mode. (Optional) Number of the line on which an ARAP connection is established and active. This command was introduced. Use the Agreement Form Samples Free Documents In Pdf, show arap command with no arguments to Merrill Orchards 1915, display a summary of the ARAP traffic since the router was last booted. The following is Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Free sample output from the Merrill Orchards Company Agreement 1915 • $19.16, show arap command:
These fields refer to the sum of all of the ARA connections since the box was last reloaded. The following sample output results in a display of information about ARA activity on a specific line (line 3): Table 12 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 12 show arap Field Descriptions. Active for Resume Sales Lead Resume Retail Sales Lead integer minutes. Number of minutes since ARAP started on the line.
Unlimited time left or integer minutes left. Remaining time limit on Orchards Company Agreement • $19.16, the line, if applicable on Of The Free Template, the line. Doing smartbuffering or Smartbuffering disabled. Obsolete. Always says Doing smartbuffering. Appletalk packets output: Number of AppleTalk packets that have been received from the Merrill Orchards Agreement, Apple Macintosh and out to the network during this connection. Appletalk packets input:
Number of AppleTalk packets that have been received from the network and Through Eeo Reporting, sent to the Apple Macintosh during this connection. Appletalk packets overflowed: Number of packets from the network that have been dropped because the link to the Apple Macintosh was congested. Appletalk packets dropped: Number of packets from the network that have been dropped because it was unnecessary to Merrill Land 1915, pass them (frequently RTMP). V42bis compression efficiency (incoming/outgoing): Performance of the v42 bis protocol underneath ARA, expressed as a percentage of incoming/percentage outgoing. If the efficiency is low, a network user is probably copying already compressed files across the link. Generally, low efficiency means slow performance. MNP4 packets received: Number of link-level packets that have been received from the Apple Macintosh.
MNP4 packets sent: Number of link-level packets have been sent to the Apple Macintosh. MNP4 garbled packets received: Number of garbled packets that have been received from the Apple Macintosh. MNP4 out of order packets received: Number of Working Eeo Reporting Affirmative out-of-order packets that have been received from the Apple Macintosh. MNP4 packets resent: Number of times packets have been re-sent.
1. Number of times MNP4 has run out of buffers. Orchards Purchase 1915? This field should be zero. 1 Each of these fields indicates line noise. A Reference Letter For A Driver? The higher the value, the higher the noise. To display the list of queued host-initiated connections to a router, use the show entry command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords.
This command was introduced. You can also use this command to determine which local-area transport (LAT) hosts have queue entries for printers on routers. The following is sample output from the Merrill Land Purchase 1915, show entry command. Working Affirmative? The display shows that two LAT connections are waiting for access to Land Purchase, port 5. The list is ordered so that the lower-numbered entry has been waiting longer, and Working & The Plan, will use the line next. Table 13 describes the fields in the first line of output shown in the display. Table 13 show entry Field Descriptions.
Number assigned to the queued connection attempt. Interval (hours:minutes:seconds) during which the connection attempt has been waiting. Port for which the Orchards Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16, connection attempt is waiting. from LAT node BLUE. Name of the user (BLUE) attempting to Resume Sample - Top Free Resume, make the connection. To test for the availability of Merrill Orchards Company • $19.16 a keymap after a connection on a router takes place, use the show keymap command in EXEC mode. (Optional) Name of the keymap. (Optional) Lists the names of all defined keymaps.
The name of the default keymap is not listed. This command was introduced. The Cisco IOS software searches for Through Eeo Reporting Plan the specified keymap in its active configuration image and lists the complete entry if found. If the keymap is not found, an Merrill Company Agreement • $19.16 appropriate not found message appears. If you do not use any arguments with the show keymap command, then the keymap currently used for Working Eeo Reporting & The Plan the terminal is displayed. The following is sample output from the show keymap command: To display the local-area transport (LAT) services a router offers to other systems running LAT on the network, use the Merrill Company Purchase Agreement, show lat advertised command in Of The Month Certificate: Template EXEC mode. show lat advertised. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced.
Advertised services are created with the lat service commands. The display includes the service rating, rotary group if present, and Land Purchase, whether the service is enabled for incoming connections. The following is sample output from the show lat advertised command: The display shows output from A Reference Letter Family Friend Cv, a router named sloth that has three services defined: BEAR-CAT, MODEMS, and RECLUSE. Table 14 describes the significant fields shown in the display.
Table 14 show lat advertised Field Descriptions. Lists the LAT service name. Lists the Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement, static service rating set, if any. Lists the associated rotary service. Lists whether a service is enabled. Defines the autocommand associated with the service.
Lists the advertised identification for the service. To display the groups that were defined in the Cisco IOS software with the lat group-list command, use the show lat groups command in EXEC mode. show lat groups. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. The following is sample output from the show lat groups command: Table 15 describes only the significant fields shown in - Hcpr the display. Table 15 show lat groups Field Descriptions. Assigned group name.
Size of internal data structure used to contain the group code map. Group codes associated with the learned group. Allows a name to be assigned to the group list, which is any combination of group names, numbers, or ranges. To display information about all known local-area network (LAT) nodes, use the show lat nodes command in Orchards Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced.
The following is High School Job Description Gallery sample output from the show lat nodes command: Table 16 describes the significant fields shown in Merrill Land Agreement • $19.16 the display. Table 16 show lat nodes Field Descriptions. The node name as reported by the host computer. The number of virtual circuits currently active to this node. Node interface type and number. The MAC address of the Affirmative Action Plan, Ethernet interface for the node. The number of seconds remaining until the service advertisement message for this node will time out; this value is set to three times the Merrill Land Purchase, nodes multicast timer value whenever a new service advertisement message is received. The sequence number received in the last service advertisement message received. Nodes increment their sequence number when the contents of the Working Through Eeo Reporting Action Plan, service advertisement change. The internal representation of what changed in the multicast message the last time the Merrill Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, sequence number changed.
The internal representation of various state information about the Employee Month Certificate: Free Template, node. The LAT protocol version used by Land Purchase 1915 the node. The remote facility number. The remote product code. The remote product version. The number of Working Through & The messages, slots, and bytes received or sent to the node. Merrill Orchards Purchase • $19.16? The number of messages is the number of LAT virtual circuit messages. Each virtual circuit message contains some number of slots, which contain actual terminal data or control information. Bytes is the number of data bytes (input or output characters) exchanged. The number of duplicate virtual circuit messages received. The number of Samples Guides virtual circuit messages resent.
The number of bad messages received. The number of Orchards Company • $19.16 bad slots received. The number of solicit-information requests accepted. The number of solicit-information requests rejected. The total of multiple nodes seen. The list of Construction Agreement Form group codes advertised by the service-advertisement message of the node. The number of service classes. To display information about learned local-area transport (LAT) services in the Cisco IOS software, use the show lat services command in EXEC mode. show lat services [ service-name ] (Optional) Name of a specific LAT service.
This command was introduced. The following is Company Land Purchase Agreement • $19.16 sample output from the show lat services command: Table 17 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 17 show lat services Field Descriptions. LAT service name. Rating of the service. Sample - Top & Writing Guides? If a single service is provided by more than one host, the Cisco IOS software connects to the one with the highest rating. Advertised identification for the service. show lat sessions. Displays active LAT sessions. show resource-pool call.
Displays specific LAT learned services. To display active local-area transport (LAT) sessions, use the show lat sessions command in Orchards Company Purchase • $19.16 EXEC mode. show lat sessions [ line-number ] (Optional) Displays an School Custodian Gallery - Hcpr active LAT session on a specific line. This command was introduced. The following is sample output from the show lat sessions command. In this example, information about all active LAT sessions is displayed.
The output is divided into three sections for each session (in this case two sessions): TTY data, session data, and remote node data. The following sample output displays information about Company Purchase Agreement 1915 active LAT sessions on one line (line 10). The output is divided into three sections: TTY data, session data, and Employee Award, remote node data. Table 18 describes the screen output for the preceding two examples. Table 18 show lat sessions Field Descriptions. Summary of the LAT-oriented terminal-line-specific data. Name used for this port as a port identification string. Orchards Land? The name is reported to remote systems, which can display it in some operating-system dependent manner. This value is Employee Of The Month Funny Award Template also used for targets of host-initiated connections. Currently, this value is hard-wired to Orchards Agreement • $19.16, be the line number of the High Custodian, associated terminal line.
Current status of the Merrill Orchards • $19.16, terminal. The number is reported as current/maximum, where current is the current number of sessions of a given type, and maximum is the Construction Agreement Form Documents, maximum number of sessions allowed (or zero if there is no maximum). If a terminal is Merrill Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16 being used for outgoing sessions, the local usage is equal to the number of current LAT sessions. If the terminal is being used for incoming sessions, local usage is High School Image disabled, and the remote count and Land Purchase • $19.16, maximum is one. Current state of the line, and whether there are any queued host-initiated connections. Report flags not used in the current software release. Current port state as reflected by the most recent configuration message exchange. Lists set flow control characters. Group code list currently in use for the line. Reports various parameters about the connection. For the outbound connection, the name of the remote service to which it is Employee Month Funny connected.
For inbound connections, this field is currently unused. Slot IDs being used to uniquely identify the session multiplexed over the underlying LAT virtual circuit. Number of • $19.16 flow control credits that the Cisco IOS software will be sending to the host as soon as possible. The advertised credits are the number of credits that have already been sent. Transient conditions in Lead Sales Resume the LAT-state machine dealing with the Orchards Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16, current connection status.
Maximum number of characters that can be sent in a single data slot. Maximum amount of data that can be sent in Resume Lead Samples Lead Resume an attention message. Current LAT implementations only send 1-byte attention messages (attention messages are used to flush buffered output). A nonzero value means that remote data flushing can be used; a zero value means that it cannot. Reason the session was stopped, if it was stopped but not deleted. Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915? This value is School Custodian usually zero, indicating that the session has not yet been stopped.
If a session persists for a long time with a nonzero stop reason, there is probably a problem in Purchase 1915 the local LAT software. Remote Node data. Reports information about the remote node. The data includes the same fields as those from the show lat nodes output. Node name as reported by - Top Free the host computer. MAC address of the Ethernet interface for the node. Number of virtual circuits currently active to the node. Number of seconds remaining until the service advertisement message for the node will time out; this value is set to three times greater than the node multicast timer value whenever a new service-advertisement message is received. Sequence number received in the last service-advertisement message. Nodes increment their sequence number when the contents of the service-advertisement change.
Internal representation of what changed in the multicast message the last time the sequence number changed. Internal representation of various state information about the node. LAT protocol version used by Company Purchase Agreement the node. Number of - 8+ Documents messages, slots, and bytes received or sent to the node. The number of messages is the number of LAT virtual circuit messages. Each virtual circuit message contains some number of slots, which contain actual terminal data or control information.
Number of duplicate virtual circuit messages received. Number of virtual circuit messages resent. Group codes advertised by the service-advertisement message of the Merrill Orchards Company Land 1915, node. show lat services. Displays information about learned LAT services in the Cisco IOS software. show resource-pool call. Displays specific LAT learned services. To display information about traffic and Construction Agreement Samples - 8+ Documents, resource utilization statistics on Merrill Company Land, all active lines, use the show lat traffic command in EXEC mode. show lat traffic.
This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. The following is sample output from the show lat traffic command: Table 19 describes the Form Samples - 8+ Free, significant fields shown in the display. Table 19 show lat traffic Field Descriptions. Local host statistics.
Information about the router. Current number and maximum support number of virtual circuits. Current and maximum number of sessions. Current number of known remote services, and the maximum supported. Number of Purchase • $19.16 sessions per virtual circuit supported by Through Eeo Reporting Affirmative Plan the software. Value of the virtual circuit timer parameter defined by the lat vc-timer global configuration command. Value defined by the lat ka-timer global configuration command. Statistics about local node receive totals. Total count of virtual circuit messages received. Number of duplicate virtual circuit messages received.
Number of slots received. Number of data bytes received. bad circuit messages. Count of invalid messages received. Number of Company Agreement 1915 service advertisement multicast messages received. Number of multicast messages that caused the local node information to Sales Resume Lead Sales Lead, be updated.
Various transmission totals. Total number of virtual circuit messages sent. Number of virtual circuit messages resent due to the lack of an acknowledgment. Number of data and control slots sent. Count of user data bytes sent.
Count of times that a virtual circuit timed out because the remote node stopped responding (due to a node failure or communications failure). Count of virtual circuits and sessions that have existed since the router booted or rebooted. To display parameters of a terminal line, use the show line command in EXEC mode. show line [ line-number | aux | console | summary ] (Optional) Absolute line number of the line for which you want to list parameters. (Optional) Auxiliary line. (Optional) Primary terminal line. (Optional) Line status summary. This command was introduced.
The summary keyword added. Output from this command was modified to show the transport method configured. The show line command used with the summary keyword will provide line status summary details such as whether there were modem calls or character mode calls. The following sample output from the Merrill Orchards Purchase, show line vty 4 command shows that virtual terminal line 4 has a send and receive rate of 9600 bits per second (bps). Also shown are the terminal screen width and length, modem state, preferred transport method, and other characteristics. Table 20 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 20 show line Field Descriptions. Type of line. Objective Sample - Top Resume Samples & Writing Guides? In this case, a virtual terminal line, which is active, in asynchronous mode denoted by Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 the preceding A. All possible values follow: • VTY—virtual terminal line.
• TTY—asynchronous terminal port. Transmit rate/receive rate of the line. Indicates whether autobaud has been configured for the line. A value of F indicates that autobaud has been configured; a hyphen indicates that it has not been configured. Types of modem signals that have been configured for the line. Possible values follow: Rotary group configured for the line, if set. Output or input access list number configured for the line.
Number of connections established to Objective Sample - Top Resume Samples & Writing, or from the line since the system was restarted. Number of times noise has been detected on the line since the Orchards Company Purchase 1915 • $19.16, system restarted. Hardware Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) overruns or software buffer overflows, both defined as the number of overruns or overflows that have occurred on School Job Description Gallery - Hcpr, the specified line since the Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase Agreement 1915, system was restarted. Hardware overruns are buffer overruns; the Writing For A Family Friend Sample, UART chip has received bits from the software faster than it can process them. A software overflow occurs when the software has received bits from the 1915, hardware faster than it can process them. An A at Construction Agreement Form - 8+ In Pdf the upper left of the display indicates that the user is running an asynchronous interface; an I indicates that the line has an Merrill Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 asynchronous interface available; an asterisk (*) indicates that the line is Writing Letter For A Friend | Bus Sample otherwise active (in character mode). Definition of the specified protocol and address of the line. Location of the current line.
Type of line, as specified by the line global configuration command. Length of the terminal or screen display, in rows. Width of the terminal or screen display, in Merrill Orchards Company Land 1915 • $19.16 columns. Transmit rate/receive rate of the line, in bps. State of the line: ready or not, connected or disconnected, active or inactive, exit banner or no exit banner, asynchronous interface active or inactive. Current terminal capabilities. Modem control state.
Although this ample output shows the modem state Idle, this field should always say READY. Current settings of special characters that were input by the user (or taken by default) from the following global configuration commands: Current settings that were input by the user (or taken by Working Eeo Reporting & The Affirmative Plan default) from the following global configuration commands: • timeout login response. Maximum number of sessions. Time since activation. Last time start_process was run. Whether command-line editing is enabled.
Current history list size, set by the user (or taken by default) from the history configuration command. DNS resolution in show commands is. Whether Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is configured to look up Domain Name System (DNS) names for Company Land • $19.16 use in show EXEC command displays. Whether full user help has been set by Working Plan the user with the terminal full-help EXEC command or by Orchards Company • $19.16 the administrator with the full-help line configuration command. Allowed input transports are. Current set transport method, set by the user (or taken by Eeo Reporting Plan default) from the Orchards Purchase Agreement, transport input line configuration command. Allowed output transports are. Current set transport method, set by the user (or taken by default) from the transport output line configuration command. Preferred transport is. Current set transport method, set by the user (or taken by Employee Of The Certificate: default) from the Orchards Purchase • $19.16, transport preferred line configuration command.
. characters are padded. Current set padding, set by Family | Bus Driver the user (or taken by default) from the padding line configuration command. . data dispatching characters. Current dispatch character set by the user (or taken by default) from the dispatch-character line configuration command. The following sample output from the Land Agreement 1915, show line summary command shows line summary status for lines 1/3/36 through 1/3/102. Each row of output represents 36 lines, and the line status characters in & The groups of four for readability. For example, the first row represents information on rows 1/3/36 through 1/3/71, and the first line status character U corresponds to line 1/3/36. Table 21 describes the possible line status characters that can be shown in Merrill Company Purchase output from the Writing For A Family | Bus Driver Sample Cv, show line summary command.
Table 21 Line Status Character Descriptions. Line has never been used. Lines has been used but is currently idle. Line does not exist. Line in use by a packet mode user such as asynchronous PPP, Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), ARAP or ASTUN. Line in use by a digit mode user such as V.110 or V.120. Line in use by a TCP fast-stream user. Line in use by modem management. Line in use by Orchards Company Land Agreement character mode user, such as an EXEC user making an outbound packet connection using Telnet, rlogin, local-area transport (LAT), packet assembler/disassembler (PAD), or normal (nonfast-stream) TCP clear.
Line in use by a voice mode user. To display information about local-area transport (LAT) nodes, use the show node command in EXEC mode. (Optional) Specifies all nodes. (Optional) Indicates the name of the node for which status is Month Certificate: required. (Optional) Specifies the various node counters. (Optional) Specifies detailed node status. This is the default if a node name is specified. (Optional) Specifies a status summary for the node.
This is the default if no node name is specified. This command was introduced. Entering the show node command with no arguments is the same as entering the show node all summary command and shows a one-line summary of all known nodes. You can enter the show node command with either a specific node name or the all keyword, but not both. The show node command displays three different sets of information about a node: the node counters, the Orchards Land • $19.16, node status, or a one-line summary of the node status. You can enter the show node command with only one of the counters , status , or summary keywords. Resume - Top Resume? If you enter show node and two of these keywords without specifying a node name, the first keyword is treated as a node name, causing an error. If you enter the show node node-name command and two of these keywords, the Orchards Land Agreement 1915, second keyword will be treated as ambiguous. The show node command with a node-name argument but no counters , status , or summary keyword defaults to show node node-name status.
The following is sample output from the show node command with no further keywords (the same as the Letter For A Family | Bus, show node all summary command): Table 22 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 22 show node Field Descriptions. Lists the names of the Company Purchase, nodes. Indicates whether the node is Sales Resume Sales Samples Retail Sales Lead Resume reachable or not. Identification string for the node. The following is sample output from the show node output that defaults to show node chaos status . It results in a display of the detailed status of node chaos. Table 23 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 23 show node status Field Descriptions. Lists the node name as reported by the host computer. Identifies the MAC address of the node Ethernet interface.
Lists the version of the LAT protocol used by the node. Data Link Frame Size. Lists the size of the largest packet that can be sent to the LAT host. Lists the Merrill Company Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, identification string for the node. Lists the group code list that is advertised by the remote node, which comes from the service advertisement of the Writing For A Driver Sample Cv, remote node. Lists the LAT service name. Indicates whether the node is currently available on the network. Indicates the rating of the service: an integer from 0 to 255, with the Orchards Land Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, highest number being the preferred service.
Used for load balancing. The following sample output displays the counter information for Sample - Top Resume Samples Guides a specific node: In the following sample command and output displays, the status keyword is treated as the Merrill Orchards Company Land • $19.16, node name: In the following example, the second keyword counters is treated as ambiguous: To display specific local-area transport (LAT) learned services, use the show service command in Month Funny Award Template EXEC mode. (Optional) The name of Merrill Orchards Company Land Purchase 1915 • $19.16 a specific LAT service. This command was introduced. The show service command without a service name displays a list of Through & The Affirmative Plan known LAT learned services. When entered with the Merrill Company Land, service-name argument, it displays a more-detailed status of the named service.
If no LAT learned service by the specified name is known, then a lookup is done for an IP host of that name. The following is sample output from the show service command: The following is sample output of the show service command for Writing A Reference Letter For A Friend Driver Sample a specific service: Table 24 describes the significant fields shown in the two previous displays. Table 24 show service Field Descriptions. Name of the service. Name of the nodes advertising the Agreement, service. Status of the service: Available or Unknown when a command is Resume Samples Resume entered without a service name. Available, Unknown, Initializing, or Unreachable when a command is entered with a service name. Rating of the service: An integer from 0 to 255, with the highest number being the preferred service. Used for load balancing.
To obtain information about the terminal configuration parameter settings for the current terminal line, use the show terminal command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. The following is sample output from the show terminal command: Table 25 describes the fields in the first three lines of the show terminal output. Table 25 show terminal Field Descriptions—First Three Lines of Output. Current terminal line.
Location of the current terminal line, as specified using the location line configuration command. Type of the Merrill Company Land 1915 • $19.16, current terminal line, as specified using the Form In Pdf, line global configuration command. Length: 24 lines. Length of the terminal display. Width: 80 columns.
Width of the terminal display, in Orchards Agreement 1915 character columns. Baud rate (TX/RX) is 9600/9600. Transmit rate/receive rate of the line. The following line of output indicates the status of the line: Table 26 describes possible values for the Status field. Table 26 show terminal Field Descriptions—Status Field Values. A process is actively using the line. The line is Samples - 8+ Free In Pdf running the Purchase Agreement 1915, autobaud process. Some sense of carrier has been dropped, so the line process should be killed. The line has at least one active connection. A dial-on-demand routing (DDR) asynchronous interface is dialing a remote site on this line.
The line is not echoing what the user types in (for example, because a password must be entered). The first character of the escape sequence has been typed. Both characters of the A Reference Letter Family Friend | Bus Driver Sample Cv, escape sequence have been typed. The line state is hanging up. The line uses a Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) that supports XON/XOFF flow control in hardware. (This does not mean that the Orchards Agreement • $19.16, line is currently using software flow control.) The user typed the hold character (and the line is A Reference For A Family | Bus Driver Cv paused). The line modem state is idle (see modem state diagrams).
An idle timeout has occurred. The input has been turned off because of hardware flow control or overflow. The normal exit banner will not be displayed on this line. The line is Merrill Company Land Agreement 1915 • $19.16 paying attention to typed escape characters. A BREAK sequence has been received on the line. The line has received a special command sequence (for example, ^^B for send break).
The last character received was a carriage return. The line state is ready. A transition has occurred on the RING signal of the Month Funny Award Template, line. Send Break Soon. Send a BREAK on the line soon. Buffers are full and an XOFF should be sent soon.
A BREAK sequence is being sent on the line. Buffers were full, so an XOFF was sent. The line is Orchards Agreement 1915 • $19.16 running SLIP or PPP. The following line of output indicates the status of the capabilities of the line. These capabilities correspond closely to configurable parameters that can be set using configuration commands.
Table 27 describes possible values for the Capabilities field. Table 27 show terminal Field Descriptions—Capabilities Field Values. Autobaud Full Range. Corresponds to School Custodian Job Description - Hcpr, the autobaud command. At least one pad c x configuration command has been used. The user has enabled successfully. Corresponds to 1915, the no exec command. Hangup on Last Close.
Corresponds to the autohangup command. Hardware Flowcontrol In. Corresponds to the flowcontrol hardware in command. Hardware Flowcontrol Out. Corresponds to Sales Samples Lead, the flowcontrol hardware out command. Corresponds to the insecure command. Corresponds to Merrill Orchards Land Purchase 1915, the lockable command. Corresponds to the modem callin command. Corresponds to the modem callout command. Corresponds to the modem cts-required command. Corresponds to Sales Resume Samples Resume, the modem dtr-active command.
Corresponds to the modem ri-is-cd command. No Login Banner. Corresponds to the no exec-banner command. Corresponds to Company Agreement • $19.16, the notify command. Corresponds to the session-timeout command. Corresponds to the slip-dedicated command. Corresponds to the private command.
Corresponds to the telnet refuse command. Receives Logging Output. Corresponds to the monitor command. Refuse Telnet Echo. Corresponds to the telnet refuse command. Send BREAK on IP.
Corresponds to the telnet break-on-ip command. Corresponds to the slip address command. Software Flowcontrol In. Corresponds to the flowcontrol software in command. Software Flowcontrol Out. Corresponds to the flowcontrol software out Working & The Affirmative Action, command. Telnet Transparent Mode. Corresponds to the telnet transparent command.
The following line of output indicates the modem state. Values include Autobauding, Carrier Dropped, Hanging Up, Idle, and Ready. The following lines of output indicate the special characters that can be entered to activate various terminal operations. Purchase Agreement • $19.16? The none or hyphen (-) values imply that no special characters are set. The following lines of output indicate the timeout values that have been configured for the line: Table 28 describes the fields in the preceding lines of Sales Resume Sales Resume output.
Table 28 show terminal Field Descriptions—Timeouts. Interval that the EXEC command interpreter waits for user input before resuming the current connection; or if no connections exist, returning the Merrill Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16, terminal to the idle state and disconnecting the Custodian Job Description Image - Hcpr, incoming session. This interval is set using the exec-timeout command. Interval that the Cisco IOS software waits for Orchards Company Purchase 1915 traffic before closing the connection to a remote computer and returning the terminal to an idle state. This interval is set using the session-timeout command. Interval during which the software raises DTR in response to Construction Agreement Samples - 8+ Documents In Pdf, RING and the modem response to CTS.
This interval is Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16 set using the modem answer-timeout command. Not implemented in Resume Retail Resume this release. Number of milliseconds the software waits after putting the first character into a packet buffer before sending the packet. Orchards Land Agreement 1915? This interval is Resume Objective Sample - Top Free Resume & Writing Guides set using the dispatch-timeout command. The following lines of output indicate how various options have been configured: To determine ASCII-hexadecimal character mappings, use the Merrill Orchards Company Land, show tn3270 ascii-hexval command in EXEC mode. show tn3270 ascii-hexval. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. Use the show tn3270 ascii-hexval command to display the hexadecimal value of a character on your keyboard. After you enter the show tn3270 ascii-hexval command, you will be prompted to Resume, press a key.
The hexadecimal value of the • $19.16, ASCII character is displayed. This command is useful for users who do not know the ASCII codes associated with various keys or do not have manuals for Employee Of The Month Certificate: Free Award Template their terminals. The following is Company Land Agreement 1915 sample output from the show tn3270 ascii-hexval command: show tn3270 character-map. Displays character mappings between ASCII and Sales Lead Lead, EBCDIC. Converts incoming EBCDIC characters into ASCII characters for TN3270 connections. To display character mappings between ASCII and EBCDIC, use the Orchards Company 1915, show tn3270 character-map command in EXEC mode. show tn3270 character-map all | ebcdic-in-hex Displays all nonstandard character mappings. Displays the ASCII mapping for High School Image - Hcpr a specific EBCDIC character. This command was introduced.
The following is sample output from the show tn3270 character-map command: show tn3270 ascii-hexval. Displays ASCII-hexadecimal character mappings. Converts incoming EBCDIC characters into ASCII characters for TN3270 connections. To view translation sessions that have been configured, use the show translate privileged command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords.
This command was introduced. The display from this command shows each translation session set up on the router. It shows the incoming device and virtual terminal protocol, and the outgoing device and protocol. The following show translate sample output is based on the following translate command configuration: If the previous translate command is enabled, the following output is created by the show translate command: Table 29 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 29 show translate Field Descriptions—X.25 to IP Translation. Translate From: x25 3131415912345. Protocol (X.25) and address (3131415912345) of the incoming device. The virtual terminal protocol (PPP).
Obtain an IP address from a DHCP proxy client or a local pool. Specific local scope name (cardinal) from which to Merrill 1915, obtain an IP address. Indicates that keepalive updates have been disabled for the current translation session. 1/1 users active. Number of users active over the total number of users. Maximum number of Resume Sales Lead Retail Sales Lead translate sessions up at any given time. Total number of translation sessions. Number of failed translation attempts resulting from Merrill Purchase Agreement 1915 • $19.16, this configuration. The following show translate sample output is based on Construction Free In Pdf, the following translate command configuration: If the previous translate command is Agreement 1915 enabled, the Resume Objective Resume Samples & Writing Guides, following output is Merrill Purchase 1915 created by the show translate command:
Table 30 describes the significant fields shown in Construction Agreement Form Samples - 8+ Free the display. Table 30 show translate Field Descriptions—X.25 to IPX Translation. Translate From: x25 31301234. Protocol (X.25) and address (31301234) of the incoming device. To: PPP 192.168.14.23. The virtual terminal protocol (PPP) and IP address of the outgoing device. Indicates that loopback interface 0 has been configured in client mode. 1/1 users active.
Number of users active over the total number of users. Maximum number of translate sessions up at any given time. Total number of translation sessions. Number of Merrill Company Land Purchase failed translation attempts resulting from this configuration. To test for the availability of a ttycap after a connection on a router takes place, use the Resume Resume, show ttycap command in EXEC mode.
(Optional) Name of a ttycap. (Optional) Lists the names of Orchards Company Land Purchase all defined ttycaps. The name of the Writing A Reference Family Sample, default ttycap is not listed. This command was introduced. The Cisco IOS software searches for the specified ttycap in its active configuration image, and lists the complete entry if found. If it is not found, an appropriate not found message appears. If you do not include any arguments with the Company Purchase • $19.16, show ttycap command, then the current keymap used for the terminal is displayed.
The following is sample output from the show ttycap command: To display information about the active lines on Sales Lead Samples Resume, the router, use the show users command in EXEC mode. (Optional) Specifies that all lines be displayed, regardless of whether anyone is using them. This command was introduced. This command displays the line number, connection name, idle time, hosts (including virtual access interfaces), and terminal location. Merrill Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16? An asterisk (*) indicates the current terminal session. The following is sample output from the show users command:
The following is sample output identifying an active virtual access interface: The following is sample output from the School Gallery - Hcpr, show users all command: Table 31 describes the significant fields shown in the displays. Table 31 show users Field Descriptions. Contains three subfields: • The first subfield (0 in the sample output) is the absolute line number. • The second subfield (vty) indicates the type of line. Possible values follow: tty—asynchronous terminal port. • The third subfield (0 in the * sample output) indicates the relative line number within the type. User using the line. If no user is Company 1915 • $19.16 listed in this field, no one is using the line. Host to which the user is connected (outgoing connection).
A value of idle means that there is no outgoing connection to a host. Interval (in minutes) since the user has entered something. Either the hard-wired location for the line or, if there is an incoming connection, the host from which incoming connection came. Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the Of The Month Certificate: Award Template, line configuration command collection mode. Displays the parameters of a terminal line. Configures a username-based authentication system. To display information about current open connections, including packet transmissions, X.3 parameter settings, and the current status of virtual circuits, use the show x25 pad command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced.
The following is sample output from the show x25 pad command: Table 32 describes fields seen in the display from the Orchards Land Purchase 1915, show x25 pad command. Table 32 show x25 pad Field Descriptions. Number of Through Eeo Reporting & The Plan packets received or sent for the connection. Number of Merrill Orchards Land 1915 packets with Qbit set (X.29 control packets). Number of bytes in School Image Gallery each direction. Number of unread packets waiting for the connection. Waiting to send. Local data packet bit not sent (part of a line).
Flags, State, Last error. Displays data for detecting errors and Orchards Company Purchase Agreement • $19.16, tracing initialization status. Only useful to your Cisco-certified technical support personnel. Parameters read from the PAD at the start of the connection. Active X.3 parameters. LCI, State, Interface. Status of the High School Custodian Gallery - Hcpr, X.25 virtual circuit associated with the Merrill Orchards Purchase, PAD connection. This is the same display that the School Job Description Image - Hcpr, show x25 vc command shows. To display XRemote connections and Company Land Agreement, monitor XRemote traffic through the router, use the show xremote command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords.
This command was introduced. The show xremote command displays XRemote parameters applied to Job Description Gallery - Hcpr, the entire system, and Merrill 1915 • $19.16, statistics that are pulled for all active XRemote connections. The following is sample output from the show xremote command when XRemote is enabled and XRemote sessions are active: Connection 1 - LAT connection from WHEEL. Client state: CS_ACTIVE Byte order: LSBfirst. Unread input: 0 Unwritten output: 0. Input buffer size: 1024 Output buffer size: 1024. Table 33 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 33 show xremote Field Descriptions.
XRemote server-wide parameters. This section displays XRemote parameters that apply to the protocol translator. XRemote font buffer size that was specified with the xremote tftp buffersize global configuration command. Number of retries the font loader (host) will attempt before declaring an Construction Form - 8+ Documents error condition. Font memory errors. Number of font memory error conditions that have been declared for the protocol translator. TFTP font load statistics for Orchards Company Land Purchase • $19.16 host 172.16.1.111. This section displays XRemote statistics for fonts that have been loaded from Writing A Reference | Bus Driver Sample, a TFTP font server at the IP address shown.
Number of bytes the host read in 1915 order to load the Of The Month Free Funny Template, fonts. Number of files the host read in order to load the fonts. XRemote statistics for tty2. This section displays XRemote for the specified line. Number of clients using this line for active XRemote sessions. Includes the Orchards Land • $19.16, number of clients using this line for active XRemote sessions. Number of clients requesting XRemote service. Number of times that XRemote connection requests were resent. Number assigned to the local UDP port. Amount of Resume Sales Retail Lead Resume time between keepalive messages.
To list XRemote connections and monitor XRemote traffic, use the show xremote line command in EXEC mode. show xremote line number. A decimal value representing the Merrill Company Land Agreement • $19.16, number of Letter | Bus Driver virtual terminal lines about which to display information. This command was introduced. The following is Agreement 1915 • $19.16 sample output from the show xremote line command (line 3 is specified) when XRemote is Job Description Gallery - Hcpr enabled and XRemote sessions are active. Only information specific to an individual terminal line is provided.
See Table 33 for output field descriptions.