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Dec 06, 2017 Symposium Feedback Form,
Lower incidence of CMV infection and acute rejections with valganciclovir prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection following lung transplantation. CMV replication in Symposium Form the lung allograft is described as accelerating the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Finding a strategy to prevent CMV infection is an 25+ Cafe Brochure Templates important issue. We performed a retrospective, single-centre study of 114 lung transplant recipients (LTRs) who underwent lung transplantation from January 2001 to December 2006. Symposium Feedback Form? In a smaller cohort of 88 CMV seropositive (R+) LTRs, three months of valganciclovir prophylaxis (2004-2006) was compared to three months of oral ganciclovir (2001-2003) with respect to the incidence of CMV infection/disease, the severity of CMV disease, acute rejection, BOS-free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. In the whole group of 114 LTRs the Timeline Calendar For Word Online, impact of CMV infection on long-term survival (BOS free 4 year survival and 6 year survival) was assessed. For the cohort of 88 CMV seropositive LTRs, the Symposium, incidence of CMV infection/disease at Example Of Acceptance Letter one year was lower in the valganciclovir group compared to Symposium, the ganciclovir group (24% vs.
54%, p = 0.003). There was a tendency towards reduced CMV disease, from 33% to 20% and a significant lower incidence of asymptomatic CMV infection (22% vs. Note Tool Kit - A Powerpoint From? 4%, p = 0.005). Symposium Form? A lower incidence of acute rejection was observed in Timeline Calendar the valganciclovir group. Feedback? However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BOS free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. For the entire group of 114 LTRs, BOS-free 4 year survival for recipients with CMV disease was (32%, p = 0.005) and among those with asymptomatic CMV infection (36%, p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection (69%). Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) than patients without CMV infection (84%). A lower incidence of CMV infection/disease and acute rejections was observed with valganciclovir (3 months) when compared to oral ganciclovir (3 months).
The long-term impact of CMV infection/disease was significant for BOS-free survival and Resume Resume Sample No survival. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-582 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the Symposium Feedback, most clinically significant opportunistic infection that can occur following lung transplantation (LTx). The reported incidence of Download Of The Your Plan - Asthma Uk CMV infection/disease ranges from 38% to 75% in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) in the absence of any prophylaxis [ 1 ]. In addition, CMV infections can have indirect effects; such as allograft rejection, diminished graft and patient survival as well as a predisposition for Feedback opportunistic infections and malignancies [ 2 , 3 ]. Finding strategies to prevent CMV infection/disease is a major challenge following lung transplantation. Download A Digital Copy Of The Asthma Action Plan? In a previous study of 187 LTRs we reported that oral ganciclovir (GCV) prophylaxis for 3 months delayed the onset and Symposium reduced the severity of CMV disease when compared to intravenous (IV) ganciclovir for 4 weeks [ 4 ]. Planning Online? Today, IV GCV followed by Symposium, VGCV or VGCV alone are the most common prophylaxis strategies [ 5 ]. However, there is no consensus on the optimal duration of prophylaxis for LTRs. Valganciclovir is a prodrug of ganciclovir with greater bioavailability (60%) than oral GCV (6%) and oral GCV 1000 mg t.i.d.is equivalent to VGCV 450 mg daily [ 6 ]. The main cause of long-term morbidity and mortality in LTRs is bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) that is present in 49% of recipients 5 years after lung transplantation and at 10 years the Note Kit -, rate reaches 75% [ 7 ]. BOS is a chronic allograft dysfunction/chronic rejection that is Symposium Feedback Form defined as a progressive airflow obstruction not explained by 25+ Cafe, acute rejection, infection or other confounding complication [ 8 ]. CMV replication in Feedback lung allograft is Example described as accelerating the development of BOS [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ]. The aims of this study were to compare 3 months of CMV prophylaxis using oral ganciclovir with 3 months of valganciclovir with respect to Symposium Form, incidence and severity of CMV disease and to study the impact of CMV infection/disease on long-term outcomes/survival. Patient population and study design. Medical records on patients transplanted between January 2001 and December 2006 were reviewed.
During the Sticky Note From, study period 128 lung transplantations were performed. Of these, 117 transplantations in 114 patients were selected for Feedback Form inclusion. Six patients who died within 30 days of transplantation and Job Description Consists five re-transplantations were excluded. CMV infection, acute cellular rejection (AR) and Feedback BOS related to Download Your Action - Asthma Uk, the initial lung transplantation were evaluated. Clinical episodes of Symposium Form CMV infection and AR at 12 months were evaluated. BOS development was followed annually. Follow-up on Webmaster Job Description, all patients was complete on January 20, 2011. The primary goal of the study was to Symposium Form, compare 3 months of prophylaxis with VGCV to GCV in both the short and Note Tool Kit - long term. Symposium? To exclude the influence of CMV serostatus, only the 88 patients with R + were included in this first cohort. All patients received VGCV or GCV; which was the Download A Digital Of The Asthma Action Plan - Asthma, standard care for CMV prophylaxis to R + . A secondary goal was to Form, assess the Of Four, impact of CMV infection/disease (regardless of prophylaxis) on the development of Symposium BOS and survival. Job Description Key Roles? In this part of the study, both R + and Symposium Form R- patients were included to get a larger group (i.e. the second cohort).
This research was approved by the local Ethical Committee at Ideas Resume 5 Acting Gothenburg University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden and Feedback Form it follows the Sticky Tool Kit - From Presentermedia.com, applicable standards set by the Declaration of Helsinki; reference number O 393-01. To identify CMV episodes; clinical parameters such as fever, cough, dyspnoea, hypoxemia and Symposium other clinical signs or symptoms mentioned in a clinical record were recorded as well as results from transbronchial biopsy (TBB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to detect CMV infection, (ie.histopathology with CMV inclusion bodies and Example Of Acceptance IHC analyses with monoclonal antibodies against CMV). Analyses of CMV replication by PCR were registered if it was performed, (i.e.in our study quantitative analysis of CMV DNA in serum). Results from Feedback Form TBB were collected to exclude or verify acute rejections. Data from Ideas Resume 5 Acting regular appointments was also collected to detect CMV infection (for details see the section on postoperative follow-up). Spirometry with FEV 1, to Form, annually evaluate BOS development. Induction therapy used antithymocyte globulin (ATG) with an initial dose of 2.0 mg ? 1 followed by Sticky Note Tool A Powerpoint Template From Presentermedia.com, 1.5 mg ? 1. The doses were based on daily CD3-positive T lymphocyte cell counts and were given until the concentration of cyclosporine was 350 ng/ml, (in most cases 2-4 doses of ATG). Together with ATG, 500 mg of methylprednisolone was given twice the day of transplantation; following surgery 125 mg of methylprednisolone was administered every 8 hours for Feedback a total of 3 doses.
All patients received triple immunosuppressive therapy that used cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone. The dose of Of Acceptance Letter CsA was monitored so as to Symposium Form, give an initial trough level of 350 ng/ml (0-3 months). This level was tapered to 300 ng/ml (3-6 months) and lastly tapered to 200-150 ng/ml at 6 months. MMF was given in the dose of 1.5 g ? 2/day which was then reduced down to 1 g ? 2/day after 3 months. Oral prednisone was initially given at Of Acceptance the rate of Form 0.3 mg/kg/day (0-3 months). Example Of Acceptance Letter? It was then tapered to 0.2 mg/kg/day (3-6 months) and finally tapered to 0.1 mg/kg/day at Feedback Form 6 months. If MMF was not tolerated it was switched to azathioprine (Aza) at the rate of Example 2 mg/kg/day.
For patients with repeated rejection episodes, CsA was replaced by tacrolimus (TAC). The dose of TAC was monitored to maintain an initial trough level of Symposium Feedback 25-15 ng/ml (0-3 months). This was then tapered to 15-12 ng/ml (3-6 months) and further tapered to 12-10 ng/ml at 6 months. No or minimal changes were made in the immunosuppressive regimes during 2001-2003 when oral GCV was used as prophylaxis and from 2004 to Sticky Tool Kit - A Powerpoint Template, 2006 when VGCV was used as prophylaxis. All R + patients were given oral GCV 1000 mg three times a day for 3 months. Symposium Feedback? In December 2003 the prophylaxis protocol was switched to oral VGCV 900 mg once daily for the same period. All D+/R- patients were given oral GCV 1000 mg three times a day for three months together with CMVIG (Megalotect®) 50 E/kg/day on days 0, 7, 14, 35, 56 and 77 after transplantation. In December 2003 the prophylaxis was switched to oral VGCV 900 mg once daily for 6 months; plus 6 doses of Project Planning Timeline Calendar CMVIG over the same time frame as described in the last sentence. The D-/R- patients received acyclovir for prevention of herpes infections.
IV GCV (except to Feedback Form, R-) was used if a patient was not able to take oral medication. Doses of Example Letter all drugs were adjusted for renal function. The treatment for CMV disease and Symposium Feedback Form asymptomatic CMV infection verified by Download A Digital Copy Asthma Plan - Asthma, a lung biopsy was IV GCV 5 mg/kg twice daily for 10 to 21 days (sometimes longer).Patients with hypoxia also received polyclonal immunoglobulin (Gammagard®) at Symposium Feedback a dose of Templates 0.5 g/kg every other day until improvement (maximum 5 doses). Patients who did not respond to GCV or who had severe bone marrow suppression were treated with foscarnet. A control biopsy was performed 4 weeks after the start of treatment. If needed, at least 2 more weeks of IV GCV 5 mg/kg twice daily was added. If CMV pneumonitis was not diagnosed, no further prophylaxis was given. Postoperative follow-up and monitoring. Regular appointments at the transplant unit, with clinical, radiological and pulmonary function evaluation and surveillance bronchoscopy using TBB/BAL were scheduled ?, 1, 2, 3, 4?, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after transplantation and Symposium Feedback Form then annually.
Pulmonary function tests consisted of A Digital Your Asthma Action - Asthma spirometry (forced vital capacity - FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), measurements of lung volume (total lung capacity - TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV), carbon monoxide - CO uptake (i.e. transfer factor/diffusing capacity) and the single breath N2 test. Symposium? TBB and BAL were also used if infection or rejection was suspected.TBB and BAL were repeated 4 weeks after episodes of acute rejection. TBB samples were used for histopathologic examination including evaluation of Template acute or chronic rejection, the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci and CMV infection. Evaluation of CMV infection was performed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) with monoclonal antibodies against CMV. BAL samples were cultured for Feedback Form fungi and bacteria, including Legionella and mycobacteria,
BAL samples were examined microscopically for CMV inclusion bodies, Pneumocystis jiroveci, other fungi and Astounding Resume mycobacteria, throughout the study period. From 2001 to 2006 all follow-ups were carried out using the same protocol. Detection of Form viral inclusion bodies (‘owl’s eye’) or a positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) in TBB and/or BAL together with parenchymal diffuse or perivascular inflammation or CMV DNA detected in serum, but with no clinical symptoms. In addition to CMV infection, at Of Acceptance Letter least 1 of the following signs and/or symptoms: subfebrility (? 37.5–37.9°C) ? 1 day, dyspnoea, cough or decreased FEV 1 and/or decreased CO diffusion. In addition to Symposium Feedback, CMV infection, at least 2 of the following signs and/or symptoms: fever ? 38°C for ? 1 day, dyspnoea, cough or decreased FEV 1 and/or decreased CO diffusion or white blood cell count (WBC) 4 ? 10 9 /l or platelet count 100 ? 10 9 /l. In addition to Letter, CMV infection, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or ventilator was required, or had CMV-related mortality. CMV was found in TBB and/or BAL after 4 weeks or more. Clinical symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, together with an endoscopically proven ulcer having microscopic mucosal lesions.
If CMV is Symposium detected by a positive IHC of the biopsy, we define it as a ‘proven’ gastrointestinal CMV disease. If CMV DNA only Tool Kit - A Powerpoint, was found in Symposium Feedback serum or the biopsy we call it ‘probable’ gastro-intestinal CMV disease. Download A Digital Of The Your Action - Asthma? If a patient had severe symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract and pos CMV DNA in serum, but no endoscopy was performed, we call it ‘possible’ gastrointestinal CMV disease. Fever, leucopenia or thrombocytopenia together with CMV DNA in serum and Symposium Feedback no other cause of symptoms/signs identified. TBB was routinely evaluated morphologically together with immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibodies to Example Of Acceptance, identify early and late CMV antigens (Avidin-Biotin Complex Method for IHC Detection). Feedback? The same IHC has been used during the study period.
CMV DNA in serum was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. These definitions are based on a modified version from a publication by Ljungman et al [ 14 ]. The following definitions; the Planning Calendar, severity of CMV pneumonitis, prolonged CMV pneumonitis and Form possible gastrointestinal CMV disease are not generally accepted. Astounding Ideas Resume Sample? The authors have found the definitions useful when it’s necessary to describe the Symposium Feedback Form, symptoms more clearly. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome ( BOS ) is defined as a baseline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) calculated as a mean of the two best measurements obtained at the 2, 3, 4.5, 6 and Job Description Consists Key Roles 9 month follow-up appointments at the transplant unit following transplantation. This baseline value is Feedback Form used for Project Online comparison with FEV 1 values measured later and to Symposium Feedback Form, calculate a patient’s BOS grade. BOS grade 1 has an FEV 1 of 65-80%, BOS grade 2 has an FEV 1 of 50%-65% and 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure Templates BOS grade 3 and FEV 1 less than 50% of the Feedback, baseline value. Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the histological correlate of Of Acceptance Letter chronic allograft rejection; a peribronchiolar infiltration of Feedback lymphocytes, leading to fibrous scaring in the bronchioles. Acute cellular rejection (AR) was diagnosed using TBB according to the ISHLT pathological scoring system. (A1 = minimal AR, A2 = mild AR, A3 = moderate AR, A4 = severe AR). Cumulative acute rejection score (CAR score) was defined as the cumulative grading of AR ? 1 (e.g. A1 + A1 + A2 = CAR score of 4) [ 15 ]. CAR score /TBB are defined as an Of Acceptance Letter individual’s CAR score divided by Symposium, their measurable TBB [ 11 ].
BOS-free survival in 107 lung transplant recipients related to CMV disease. No CMV infection (n = 65), Asymptomatic CMV infection (n = 11), CMV disease (n = 31). BOS-free 4 year survival for Webmaster Key Roles patients with CMV disease was 32%, (p = 0.005), for asymptomatic CMV infection 36%, (p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection (69%). Survival in 114 lung transplant recipients related to CMV disease. No CMV infection (n = 70), Asymptomatic CMV infection (n = 11), CMV disease (n = 33). Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and Symposium asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) than patients without CMV infection (84%). Demographics for the 114 lung transplant recipients in the study. Recipient Age years, mean (range) Donor Age years, mean (range)
CMV serostatus, n (%) R = recipient, D = donor, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CF = Cystic fibrosis, A1AT = alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency with emphysema, IPF = idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, PAH = pulmonary arterial hypertension, PH = pulmonary hypertension, GVHD = graft-versus-host disease. Oral GCV versus VGCV for 3 months in 88 R + recipients. Demographics of the 88 CMV seropositive (R+) lung transplant recipients. Oral ganciclovir 3 months. Valganciclovir 3 months. Recipient age years, mean (range) Donor age years, mean (range)
None of the differences were statistically significant. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CF = Cystic fibrosis, A1AT = alpha-1antitrypsin deficiency with emphysema, IPF = idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, PAH = pulmonary arterial hypertension, GVHD = graft-versus-host disease. Episodes of CMV infection or disease during the first 12 months in 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Templates 88 CMV- seropositive (R+) lung transplant recipients. CMV infection or disease. Oral ganciclovir 3 months. Valganciclovir 3 months. CMV infection/disease, n (%) CMV disease -Total n (%) Asymptomatic CMV inf., n (%) Prolonged CMV episode, n (%)
Gastrointestinal CMV inf., n (%) Ganciclovir resistance, n (%) Onset of CMV inf/disease, days, a Onset of Symposium Form CMV infection was 62 days after transplantation for Consists Of Four Key Roles one patient who probably had a GCV resistant virus. Two patients had no or inadequate CMV prophylaxis owing to Symposium Form, renal failure. Onset of CMV infection for these two patients was 23 days and 32 days after transplantation. For the Webmaster Of Four, remaining individuals in the VGCV group the Feedback Form, onset of CMV infection/disease was on Example, average 168 days after transplantation (range: 147 – 201 days). In our study, 6% (5/88) had CMV infection diagnosed by CMV-DNA in serum. In the Feedback, GCV group 2 patients were diagnosed with CMV DNA in serum (one with CMV syndrome and the other with possible gastrointestinal CMV disease). In the VGCV group three patients were diagnosed with CMV DNA in serum (one with an asymptomatic CMV infection and two with CMV syndrome).
From the medical records reviewed we found that 4 individuals in the R + cohort were diagnosed by a physician as having gastrointestinal CMV disease. Three had severe upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms and pos CMV DNA in serum; the fourth had lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms plus verified CMV pneumonitis. With three exceptions, the onset of CMV infection in Sticky Note A Powerpoint Template the VGCV group was between 147 and 201 days post-transplantation. Two of the three had no or inadequate CMV prophylaxis owing to renal failure (onset of CMV infection was for these two 23 and 32 days post-transplantation) and for the patient with a probable GCV resistant, the onset of CMV infection was at Symposium Feedback 62 days. And Restaurant Templates? Data for the length of CMV prophylaxis was missing for 2 of the persons in the GCV group and for 3 from the VGCV group; the remainder received prophylaxis for a median of 89 (GCV) or 90 (VGCV) days. Incidence of acute rejection (AR) at 3 and 12 months. CAR score a , median (quartiles) CAR score/TBB b , median (quartiles) At least one episode of Feedback Form AR grade ? 1, % (n) At least one episode of Project Calendar Online AR grade ? 2, % (n) At least two episodes of AR grade ? 2, % (n)
Number of TBB, median (quartiles) a Cumulative acute rejection score (CAR score) varied between 0 and Symposium 6 at 3 months and between 0 and 16 at Astounding Ideas Actors No 12 months. b Cumulative acute rejection score (CAR score) divided by the number of Symposium Form evaluable transbronchial biopsies (TBB). BOS-free survival and survival in R+ BOS-free 4 year survival in Project Online R + (both the GCV and VGCV groups) was 30% for Form patients with CMV disease and 67% for those without CMV infection (p = 0.018). Of The Your Action? There was no significant difference in Feedback long-term outcome (i.e.
4 year survival and BOS-free 4 year survival) between the GCV and VGCV prophylaxis groups. In the GCV group 32% (12/37) were diagnosed with BOS (measured with FEV 1 ) or OB (diagnosed by biopsy). Astounding Actors 5 Acting No? Six of these patients died and one was re-transplanted owing to BOS. In the VGCV group 24% (12/51) were diagnosed with BOS/OB. Feedback? Two of these patients died and Planning Timeline Calendar Online 2 were re-transplanted owing to BOS. In the GCV group, a total of 27% (10/37) died within 4 years. Six of these individuals died of BOS. Symposium Form? Two died of malignancies, one of infection (not CMV infection) and one of Astounding Ideas lung bleeding. In the VGCV group 20%, (10/51) of the Symposium Feedback Form, patients died within 4 years.
Two died of Note Tool Kit - From Presentermedia.com BOS, two of Symposium Feedback malignancies and six patients died of infections. (One of 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Templates them died owing to CMV disease). Episodes of CMV infection or disease during the first 12 months in 114 lung transplants recipient (R + and R-) Demographics are shown in Table 1 . Follow-up for Symposium Feedback CMV infection was 12 months. The impact of CMV serostatus was essential for onset of CMV infection. The incidence of CMV infection/disease was for Webmaster Job Description D+/R- 65%, for Form D+/R + 39% for D-/R + 27% and for Planning Timeline Calendar For Word Online D-/R- 11% (p = 0.03).
CMV disease was found in 29% (33/114) of the study participants. Among those with CMV disease, 4% (5/114) had severe disease, 18% (20/114) moderate disease, 7% (8/114) mild disease. Asymptomatic CMV infection was found in 10% (11/114) and no CMV infection was found in 61% (70/114) of the Symposium Feedback Form, study group. In this cohort only 5% (6/114) were diagnosed with CMV DNA in serum. Gastrointestinal (GI) CMV disease was seen in 8% (9/114) of the study group. Four patients from the high risk group (D+/R-) had proven GI CMV disease. One individual from the low risk group (D-/R-) suffered from a primary infection and had a proven GI CMV disease (as well as CMV pneumonitis). Download A Digital Asthma Action Plan? Four individuals categorised as medium risk (R+) had possible GI CMV disease. All had one episode of CMV infection/disease except for one who had 2 episodes.
Prolonged CMV episodes were found in 9% (10/114) of the entire study group. In the Symposium Form, high-risk group 35% (6/17) had a prolonged CMV episode. Long-term follow up in 114 lung transplant recipients (R + and R-) according to Sticky Note Tool Template From Presentermedia.com, the development of Symposium Feedback Form CMV infection. BOS-free survival in the total group (R + and R-) BOS-free 4 year survival (i.e. patients living without BOS 4 years after lung transplantation) was for patients with CMV disease 32%, (p = 0.005), for asymptomatic CMV infection 36%, (p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection, 69%, see Figure 1 . BOS data was available for 107 of the 114 patients. All patients were followed with regular function testing (FEV 1 ) for the entire four years (or until death). BOS-free survival was on the average 2.9 (95% CI; 2.6-3.2) years for the total group. Patients without CMV infection were free from BOS for 8.4 months longer than those with a CMV disease/infection.
Patients with D+/R- had the shortest time until the detectable onset of BOS. Survival in the total group (R + and R-) Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) as compared with patients without CMV infection (84%). Six year survival for the entire group of 114 patients was 75% see Figure 2 . Astounding Actors Resume 5 Acting Resume Sample? No patients were lost to follow-up tracking. Four of the Feedback, 11 patients with asymptomatic CMV infection died early - 2 of malignancy, 2 of infection (not CMV infection). The deaths of Resume 5 Acting Resume No 4 out of 11 may at least partially explain the apparently poor responses among the study participants with asymptomatic CMV infection. Two patients were treated with foscarnet. One had a proven GCV resistance (mutation in the CMV UL 97 gene).
The other had a rapid response after being switched from ganciclovir to foscarnet but no resistance test was performed. CMV serostatus for these two were D+/R- and D+/R + . Oral prophylaxis with VGCV seemed to Symposium Form, be more effective than GCV among the LTRs studied. A lower incidence of CMV infection/disease at one year was observed, 24% versus 54% (p 0.003), mainly due to a reduction of asymptomatic CMV infection from 22% to 4%. Montforte et al performed a similar study comparing 120 days of VGCV to GCV prophylaxis in LTRs and Webmaster Consists they found a lower rate of Symposium Feedback Form CMV disease in Of Acceptance the VGCV group, 16 versus 8%, but the difference did not reach statistical significance [ 16 ]. Symposium Feedback Form? There was no difference in the rate of asymptomatic CMV infection. In their study regular monitoring by shell vial or CMV antigenemia assay was performed while in Project For Word our study we monitored frequently with surveillance TBBs including IHC diagnosis. Only a few patients were diagnosed with CMV infection/disease solely on the basis of positive CMV DNA in Form serum. Monitoring of blood, today mostly done by Example Of Acceptance Letter, molecular assays, might lead to Symposium Feedback, earlier detection of asymptomatic CMV infection which enables treatment and prevention of CMV disease. Our extensive use of surveillance TBBs could also be a contributing factor to Sticky Note Kit - A Powerpoint Template From, our higher rate of Form tissue-invasive CMV disease. There was no difference between GCV and VGCV treatment regarding the Example Of Acceptance Letter, time for onset of CMV infection/disease or the Symposium, number of prolonged CMV episodes.
The rate of gastrointestinal disease, 4-5%, was also similar in the groups. Gastrointestinal CMV may be underreported in our study since patients with verified CMV pneumonitis treated with IV GCV who at the same time had gastro-intestinal symptoms were not regularly undergoing an endoscopy. Our centre uses ATG as induction therapy, which is Project Planning Online supposed to give a higher rate of CMV disease. However, the monitoring with CD3-positive T-cells has made it possible to Feedback Form, reduce ATG by 50% as compared to For Word Online, our previous fixed dose of ATG, why it now should only Symposium, have limited effect on the rate of A Digital Asthma Action - Asthma Uk CMV disease. We found that CMV disease was still 20% at Symposium Feedback 1 year with VGCV prophylaxis for 3 months.
It may be possible to further reduce this rate with a longer prophylaxis and frequent monitoring with quantitative CMV PCR after cessation of Brochure Templates VGCV prophylaxis. CMV prophylaxis after lung transplantation varies widely between centres; most follow a regimen that has 3-6 months of Symposium Feedback prophylaxis with IV GCV or VGCV with or without CMVIG [ 5 ]. Recent studies recommend extending prophylaxis for LTRs [ 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ]. Palmer et al had less CMV disease with VGCV administered for 12 months when compared with 3 months (4% vs. 32%, p 0.001) [ 21 ]. In our study the frequency of Webmaster Job Description ganciclovir resistance based on treatment failures when using IV ganciclovir was 2% (2/114). Symposium Form? As we did not routinely use CMV DNA detected by Asthma Action - Asthma, PCR during the study period, GCV resistance may have been underreported. As only Symposium Feedback, two patients needed treatment with foscarnet instead of ganciclovir it is also possible that regular monitoring with quantitative CMV PCR would not necessarily have meant that more recipients with GCV resistance would have been identified. The overall incidence of Astounding Resume Resume No antiviral-resistant CMV in LTRs has been reported to be 6-9% and in high-risk groups (D+/R-) 10-27% [ 23 , 24 ]. We found a significant decrease in the rate of Symposium Feedback Form acute rejection in the VGCV group; at 3 and 12 months.
Between 2001 and 2006 there were few if any changes in the immunosuppression protocol used by our centre and For Word the significant reduction of acute rejections in the relatively small VGCV group is therefore an Symposium Feedback important observation. One explanation as to why the Note Tool Kit - A Powerpoint From Presentermedia.com, AR rate decreased could be that the significantly lower incidence of CMV infection/disease during the first year post transplant among those receiving the VGCV prophylaxis represented less inflammatory response in the transplanted lung(s); which then triggered fewer episodes of Symposium Form AR. Paraskeva et al observed a significantly lower incidence of acute rejection within the first 12 months when VGCV for 5 months was compared with GCV for 3 months when there was no difference in the immunosuppression protocols between the Project Planning Calendar, two groups [ 13 ]. Jaksch et al found that there was a non-significant positive trend towards a lower acute rejection score when D+/R- LTRs received 12 months of VGCV when compared with 3 months [ 20 ]. Cumulative acute rejection score (CAR) score is not used universally but many authors have found that it is a useful tool for measuring and assessing combined severity and frequency of rejection over time. CAR score and CAR score divided by Symposium Form, the number of evaluable TBBs has been used elsewhere and reported in other studies [ 11 , 13 , 20 , 25 ]. We found a tendency towards lower BOS/OB with VGVV prophylaxis (24% vs. 32%). Since our sample size was small; we believe that it was hard to reach significance. Development of BOS is believed to be an ongoing immunological process triggered by various factors as frequency and 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure severity of Symposium Form acute rejections, CMV infection, other infections, differences in HLA antigens between donor and recipient as well as other inflammatory processes [ 8 ]. CMV infections usually occur during the first year post transplantation, it’s therefore not surprising that when we compared BOS-free 4- year survival after transplantation in R+, we found no significant difference between the Sticky Tool Kit - A Powerpoint, treatment regimens considering the limited study population.
The effect on development of BOS associated with CMV infection/disease as such could be regarded as the Feedback Form, negative impact from CMV infection/disease is stronger than the A Digital Your Uk, difference in Form impact between the two drugs, it’s therefore not surprising that greater BOS development is noted for A Digital Copy Of The Action CMV infection/ disease as such compared to the effect caused by the difference of the drugs. BOS-free 4 year survival for R + individuals was 30% for those with CMV disease and 67% for those without a CMV infection. To better evaluate the Feedback, impact of CMV on BOS progression we included R- to give a larger study group. Example Letter? We found that BOS-free 4 year survival for the total group was 55% and it was lower for those with CMV disease (32%) compared to the 69% rate for those without CMV infection (p = 0.005). Our results support the idea that CMV infection is a risk factor for onset of BOS. Feedback? Other studies have pointed out Letter, that CMV infection is Symposium Feedback Form one of the reasons for development of BOS [ 9 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 17 , 19 , 26 ] yet other studies did not find that CMV infection had any impact of the onset of Webmaster Job Description Consists Of Four Key Roles BOS [ 27 , 28 ]. The survival after 6 years (in R + and Symposium R-) was 64% for those diagnosed as having CMV disease (p = 0.042), 55% for those with an asymptomatic CMV infection (p = 0.018) when compared with patients without CMV infection (84% survival). The strength of our study is the long-term follow-up, verification of CMV diagnosis by using frequent consecutive surveillance TBBs (including IHC for CMV), and the uniform evaluation and treatment process achieved because Sahlgrenska is Download Copy Asthma - Asthma a single centre. FEV 1 was followed for the entire four years. No or minimal changes were made in the immunosuppressive regimes during the period 2001-2006.
The definition of CMV was identical throughout the study period. A limitation is Symposium that different CMV prophylaxis drugs were studied during different periods of time. Another is Download Copy Your - Asthma that quantitative CMV DNA in serum was not used regularly during the study period. Monitoring was performed with TBB/BAL whereas frequent monitoring with molecular assays would have diagnosed CMV infections earlier. Confounding factors with the potential to Feedback Form, reduce the CMV infection rate may have included more frequent use of tacrolimus towards the end of the study period - although we do not believe that this affected our findings. 25+ Cafe Brochure? Another limitation is that data for immunosuppression was not collected for each patient. In the VGCV group a few more double lung (DL) transplants were included – this may have brought about a lowered development of BOS and improved survival. We observed a lower incidence of CMV infection/disease and acute cellular rejection during VGCV prophylaxis when compared with oral GCV – both being administrated for 3 months. Symposium Feedback Form? CMV disease/infection was 24% in the VGCG group and this rate needs to be reduced further. No significant differences were found in BOS-free survival or survival between the regimens after 4 years.
The impact of CMV infection/disease in Sticky Note Tool Presentermedia.com the total group (regardless of CMV serostatus and Symposium prophylaxis) was significant for BOS-free 4 year survival and 6 year survival. This study was financially supported by Agreement Concerning Research and Education of Doctors, The Goteborg Medical Society and Inger and Per-Ake Svenssons Foundation. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. IJ participated in Planning Timeline Calendar For Word the design of the Feedback, study, reviewed the medical records, evaluated CMV infection, the severity of CMV disease and drafted the manuscript. GM reviewed the medical records, evaluated FEV 1 and BOS grade. Sticky Kit - Template? SN is Symposium Feedback Form a statistician and Sticky Tool Kit - A Powerpoint Template From Presentermedia.com was responsible for Symposium Feedback the statistical analysis.
UN collected critical data, including donor CMV serostatus and Astounding Resume Resume No date of death, and assisted in collection of the other clinical data. RA and GM participated in the design of the study and reviewed the Feedback Form, manuscript. Sticky Note Tool A Powerpoint Template Presentermedia.com? All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Feedback? This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Astounding Actors Sample, Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and Symposium Form reproduction in 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure Templates any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Inger Johansson 1 Email author Gunnar Martensson 2 Ulla Nystrom 3 Salmir Nasic 4 Rune Andersson 1 1. Symposium Form? Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden 2. Astounding Ideas Sample? Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden 3. Transplant Institute Sahlgrenska University Hospital Gothenburg Sweden 4. Research and Development Centre Skaraborg Hospital Skovde Sweden. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.
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An unforgettable holiday: Barra and Eriskay, July 2017. Hello! What a fantastic holiday we had last month. We spent a week on the Isle of Barra, at the southern tip of the Outer Hebrides, before travelling up to Eriskay and points further north. We’d been to Barra on day trips before, but never for more than a few hours. Even after a week on Symposium Feedback Form, this small island (population 1200) we felt there was so much more we wanted to see. And the weather! Honestly, we had day after day of warmth and sun, with hardly any midges. In ten days, there were two afternoons that were not warm and sunny.
It was just glorious. Michael and the Dafter travelled by 25+ Cafe, the plane, because the Dafter’s ME pains get especially bad on Feedback, long car trips. I drove the car, with the wheelchair and most of our things. I spent a drenching day in Job Description Consists Of Four Key Roles Oban, because the Feedback Form, 1:30 ferry to Barra had “technical issues” (luckily repaired), and didn’t sail until the evening. It was so wet that I had to buy a waterproof cover for my backpack, as I was worried my phone and Project Planning, camera would be harmed. Symposium Form? My trousers got soaked through three times that day, as I mooched about. Project Planning Calendar Online? But they dried three times as well. Oban has a craft shop, a wool shop and a bookshop! So I was fine.
The weather caused the Dafter and Michael’s flight to be delayed by Symposium Feedback, four hours, but they landed on the beach just fine (Barra’s airport is on a cockle beach!) and their taxi driver was very obliging. By the time my ferry sailed at 7:30 pm, the monsoon was starting to abate, and as we were coming out of the Sound of Example Mull into the Minch the Symposium Feedback, weather was definitely improving to the west: On the Note Tool Kit - Presentermedia.com, ferry to Feedback, Barra, July 2017. Another ferry is Download Copy Of The Action - Asthma Uk, coming into the Sound of Mull, from Tiree and Coll. We docked in Castlebay at 12:30 am and I had joined them in the cottage by 1 am. And that was the Symposium Form, last rain we saw for Of Acceptance Letter, several days! The Dafter still has to rest for many hours a day, but she was able to walk short distances and she did a lot of art. The Dafter painting on the shoreline. Isle of Barra, July 2017. I enjoyed church on Sunday, and also attended Mass later on in the Symposium Feedback, week.
The islands in the south of the chain of the Outer Hebrides did not become Protestant at the time of the Reformation and it was interesting to see how much was happening on a Sunday. When I went to Mass, I asked the priest if I could sit at the back, and I was very warmly welcomed. The island has suffered some terrible tragedies in the past few months. Two of their teenagers were caught up in the Manchester bombing in May (one died and one is Astounding Actors Resume Resume Sample, severely injured), the Symposium Feedback Form, funeral of a young man took place the week we were there, and a few weeks ago two divers lost their lives in an accident. It’s hard to understand how such a small community could lose so many young people within a few months, but it is a very resilient community, and I think one where faith is Webmaster Job Description Of Four, still very important. I believe there is one school, serving children from Symposium Feedback, Barra and Vatersay, from nursery through to Project Planning For Word, age 18. Traditional music, ceilidhs and Highland dancing seem to be alive and well, and Symposium, enjoyed by A Powerpoint From, all age groups. When something tragic happens, I think people there (and all the family members on the mainland and further afield) will truly support one another. Many whose lives are tragically changed in an instant will not have such a close and supportive community to help them through. Castlebay, Isle of Form Barra, with Kisimul Castle in the bay. July 2017.
Castlebay is the main centre of population of the island, and as you can see it gets its name from the fact that there is a castle in the middle of the bay. I can show you more about that in a minute. One day we drove across the causeway to Vatersay, and Templates, enjoyed an afternoon on this stunning beach: Beach on Vatersay, July 2017. The Dafter and I, Vatersay. July 2017. Vatersay, July 2017. Machair flowers, Vatersay, July 2017. Michael and I went on a few excursions together.
We climbed up Heaval, which is the hill above Castlebay. And we really enjoyed Barra’s community shop. Michael was delighted by the selection of Symposium local foods, and I was amazed by the crafts, wool and craft supplies on Astounding Ideas Actors Resume Sample No, offer. Symposium Feedback? In fact, I broke one of my knitting needles while on Barra and so I was extremely grateful for the “Buth Bharraigh”: Buth Bharraigh, the community co-op on Barra. July 2017. Another day we all went to the charity shop. This was another Aladdin’s cave. Note Kit - Template Presentermedia.com? The islanders seem to recycle everything. Form? There were racks of school uniform, racks of formal wear, lots of good winter jackets, shoes and boots of every style and size.
And an entire room full of books! The selection of Consists Of Four Key Roles things on Feedback, offer was far greater than in Of The Asthma - Asthma any charity shop in a mainland city. On one of our days, the Dafter was well enough to come with us to Castle Kisimul, in the middle of the Form, bay. It is a very small place inside, and she was so happy to be able to clamber about it for a while. Me and Michael in Castlebay, Isle of Barra.
July 2017. Eaglais Reul na Mara (the Church of the Example Of Acceptance, Star of the Sea) is prominent behind us, and behind it is Heaval. The boat to the castle goes every half an hour. Castle Kisimul is the seat of the Feedback Form, MacNeil clan of Barra, and is managed by Historic Environment Scotland. The Dafter photographing Kisimul Castle, Castlebay, Isle of Barra. July 2017. Coming up to Kisimul Castle on Consists, the boat.
The courtyard inside Kisimul Castle. Many of the buildings were closed for renovation, but not all of them. “Finally, a doorway that’s too low even for me!” Inside the tower of Kisimul Castle. Form? July 2017. The indispensable fresh water well, Kisimul Castle.
Getting ready to take the Of Acceptance, boat back to Castlebay. I will always remember that hour spent exploring Kisimul Castle, because the Dafter almost seemed well, and Symposium Form, was having such a good time. Of Four? She had to rest all of the next day, but it was worth it. Another day we spent some time on the western side of the island, with the breakers coming in from the Atlantic. These cloudy days bring out a different set of colours than the sunny and sparkly days: The Dafter photographing the waves on the Atlantic coast of Barra.
We weren’t quite alone: The cows grazing near the beach. Sometimes they come onto the beach, as we could see from their hoof-prints. Isle of Barra, July 2017. I hugely enjoyed knitting during our holiday. I began making a fair isle skirt from scraps of wool. I took a big bag of scraps with me, since we had the car, and choosing which colour to use next was (and is) just so much fun! Details are on my Ravelry page here if you’re interested. Knitting on the beach, Isle of Barra, July 2017. The Dafter said, of the above photo, “People think that’s really funny – they don’t realise that’s just what you do!” And it’s true – I have several photos over the years of me knitting on Form, the beach in Scotland!
At the end of our week, we bid a sad farewell to Barra and travelled to Eriskay on the ferry, less than an hour’s journey. It was a beautiful crossing and the Dafter was able to stand up quite a bit, to take photos. There were seals sunning themselves on the rocks, and the colour of the water was gorgeous. On the ferry to Astounding Ideas Actors 5 Acting Resume, Eriskay, July 2017. Enjoying the crossing! We headed for lunch to Am Politician, a pub named after the Feedback, cargo ship that sank off Eriskay, loaded with whisky.
The tale of the Sticky Note A Powerpoint From, islanders’ cunning salvage operation was made into the film Whisky Galore, which starred quite a few of the local population at the time. I believe it’s been or is being remade as well. Symposium Form? The very obliging barmaid showed us some of the original bottles, as well as a machete from the ship: The Dafter gets to hold the machete from The Politician. In Am Politician pub, Isle of Eriskay, July 2017. She told us that people on the island are still coming across caches that were hidden in walls and other places to this day. Remodelling your house in Eriskay can be an interesting experience!
She said that all the Webmaster Of Four Key Roles, whisky has evaporated in such circumstances, but I think the pub still has some of the Symposium, original whisky. The view as we had our lunch was mesmerising to me: View from Am Politician, Isle of Eriskay. Sticky Tool? July 2017. The Dafter was feeling very unwell after lunch, but managed to walk from the car down onto the beach. Feedback Form? She wanted to paint, and Kit - A Powerpoint From, so took watercolours and painted while sitting in the gently lapping water – using the water for her paints! The Dafter watercolouring, Isle of Eriskay, July 2017. We travelled for a few more days, visiting friends in the Uists and of course the Isle of Harris where we’ve holidayed every year since 1994, except for a few years when the Dafter was bedbound.
The days after our week in the Barra cottage, where we could prepare our own food, were hard going on the Dafter because she now has so many stomach problems. (Food intolerances are a common symptom of ME – apparently the flora in the gut of people with ME is hugely less varied than in healthy people). However, she enjoyed seeing folk again and she was very patient for Symposium, our sakes. It was the longest holiday we’ve had in quite a few years. For me it was a full two weeks’ break, as I then drove back from Letter, Harris, staying overnight to break the journey. I came home feeling more rested than I have since 2010. Symposium Form? I’m hugely grateful. Now the schools are back in Glasgow, and the Dafter is Example Of Acceptance, about to begin a part-time Art course. She got an A for the course she did last year! That was wonderful, because it was such a struggle, from Symposium, beginning to end. Michael and Consists Of Four, I are making plans for the new academic year, too.
Some of the trees are even beginning to turn, and the nights are drawing in. However, we often have a beautiful Indian Summer in September, so let’s hope we’re treated to that. I hope you are enjoying life, whatever you are doing! Hello there! This is just a quick post to say that I am back from an Symposium Feedback Form amazing family holiday. I have a lot of photos to sort and I’m looking forwards to sharing them with you. Consists Of Four? In the Symposium, meantime, this is a photo of my knitting on the ferry back to the mainland: Knitting a Fair Isle skirt (from the Of Acceptance Letter, top down).
This is Feedback Form, a pattern by Maude L. Baril, which was a gift from a friend. Details are here on Ravelry. I hope you’re all having a great summer! Scottish Plainsong Choir: Vespers at Glasgow Cathedral. Glasgow Cathedral on the right, the 25+ Cafe, bridge leading across to the hill where the Necropolis is situated.
Thanks for Feedback, the many kind compliments about my Iona posts. I’m so glad you enjoyed them. Of Acceptance? A few of you were hoping you could hear the Symposium, music we were singing. Project Planning Timeline Calendar Online? There’s now a video on YouTube of the Scottish Plainsong Choir singing Vespers at Glasgow Cathedral in Symposium Form August 2016, here. (I wasn’t able to participate in Example that particular event.) The video is half-an-hour long so if you like medieval chant that will give you a good dose, and if you are a fan of Glasgow Cathedral you can enjoy seeing a service there. The minister is the Rev Dr. Laurence Whitley. If plainsong and Symposium, liturgy isn’t really your thing, I will be back in Project Planning Calendar For Word a few weeks with a post or two about a place I will be discovering pretty much for the first time. One clue: it’s an island! I hope you’re all enjoying your summer. Vespers in Iona Abbey (Celebrating St.
Columba, part III) This is the third post of a series about the wonderful weekend I spent on the Isle of Feedback Iona, singing with the Scottish Plainsong Choir. On Sunday morning we awoke to more rain tapping at the window. I was glad that I’d brought a sturdy pair of black shoes for my concert wear, since I had to forego my hiking boots that day. However, soon after breakfast, the sun appeared! Most of us walked up to the Abbey to take part in the morning service, although my roommate opted for Note Tool A Powerpoint Template, hiking to the north of the Form, island. Our main singing event was Vespers at 3, and morning service was optional.
The garden of the St. Letter? Columba Hotel looked very inviting in Symposium the sun. You can still see the raindrops on the sycamore leaves near the gate! Garden of the St. Columba Hotel, Isle of Astounding No Iona. We had sung in an informal performance the previous day, but this was the first time I had been to Feedback, a service in the Abbey, and I was very curious to Of Four, see what it would be like. The services are organised by Feedback, members of the Iona Community, which is an international and ecumenical movement founded in 1938 by George MacLeod, who was the minister at Govan Old church in Glasgow.
I can’t say I fully understand how the Iona Community and Historic Environment Scotland work together, but clearly they do. Astounding Actors Resume Resume? I was pleased to see that, while visitors must pay to visit the Abbey, they may join in services there without paying. Iona Abbey and one of the Symposium, large carved crosses. The oldest parts of the Abbey date from the 13th century. In the Job Description Consists Of Four, photo below you can see how long and narrow the sanctuary is. At the very far end, below the Symposium Feedback, window blazing with morning light from the east, is the red curtain behind the marble communion table. Between the two arches are the choir stalls, two rows on 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure, either side. (The quiet chapel is off to the right behind the choir stalls.) The small door, where you see someone in red, leads to Feedback, the cloisters. Iona Abbey, from just inside the front door. Preparing for morning service with Communion. Before the service, we warmed up and rehearsed in Brochure Templates the Chapter House, which is off the cloisters:
The Cloisters, Iona Abbey. The steps lead down to the door of the Form, Chapter House. I found the service very interesting. For one thing, all the Timeline For Word, leaders were female. The sermon was given by a Methodist minister from England, and Feedback Form, Communion was officiated by Webmaster Job Description, another female clergymember. There were a lot of young people there, I presume staying with the Symposium Feedback, Iona Community, perhaps on Calendar Online, retreat. Dress was informal: most people helping serve Communion were in jeans. (I regretted not having brought my thermal vest to Iona with me – I’ve spent enough time on Symposium, the Western Isles, and indeed in ancient cathedrals, to have known better!) Our contribution to Sticky Note Kit - Template Presentermedia.com, the service was singing Aurora Rutilat, a hymn in honour of St. Columba.
The common cup and large chunks of bread were used to serve Communion. I believe the sanctuary was pretty full. It was a very special experience for Feedback, me. I’ve been reading Henri Nouwen’s letters, and Astounding Actors 5 Acting Resume Sample No, he wrote a lot about the importance of the mystery of the incarnation. Also I’ve been reading Siddhartha Mukherjee’s The Gene: an Intimate History – excellent – and that has also been making me think about how miraculous our bodies and all of life is, with these miles of Symposium Feedback Form codes inside our cells. I felt very moved. After the service, we quickly made our way to the Catholic House of Prayer for our final rehearsal prior to 3 pm Vespers.
I loved singing the unison chants while looking at the boats in the Sound of Iona beyond! Then we had another delicious meal, at Example Letter which point I left all but jacket, music, pencil and water in my room – so I have no photos from the afternoon. The morning photos give you a good idea – just imagine rain and clouds! Do you see the swallow flying past? They were whizzing around the central courtyard of the cloisters in Symposium Feedback Form the morning. The Vespers service was in honour of St. Columba, whose feast day is June 9th, two days previous. Columba came from Ireland to the Isle of Iona in about 563; there he founded a monastic community, from which later emerged the Benedictine abbey. In those days, and still continuing in some monastic communities today, one of the most important functions the monks performed was to Download Asthma Action Plan, sing the Divine Office (the Liturgy of the Hours) throughout the day and night.
The Office of Vespers was an early evening service. In the course of a week, the Symposium Feedback, monks and nuns would sing through all 150 Psalms. We lined up in Example Of Acceptance Letter the Cloisters (choreography is one of the most difficult aspects of singing in a choir, for me!). Symposium Feedback? Before going through the open door into the sanctuary, we sang a short hymn in Latin standing there. Example Of Acceptance Letter? The acoustics in the place are so fantastic that I imagine people in the sanctuary would have heard us pretty well. I personally love hearing a choir begin singing from elsewhere – it forces me to listen carefully, and of course the quality of “disembodied” a cappella singing is very special. Then we processed while singing the first hymn with the congregation, a traditional Irish tune set to words by St. Feedback? Columba (“O God Thou Art the Father”). It’s a bit of a trick to walk over uneven stones and Example Letter, down steps, while holding a folder of Feedback music in your hand, and not walking (or singing) too fast or two slowly. Sticky Note Kit - From? We all managed it.
Sculpture in the cloisters courtyard, Iona Abbey. The candles were lit throughout the Abbey, and Feedback, the rain had come on, so it was very atmospheric. The service consisted of the Scottish Plainsong Choir singing Psalms from the medieval Inchcolm Antiphoner (in Latin and English) as well as Latin hymns in honour of St. Columba, the Holy Spirit, and Mary. The professional group Canty also sang Responsories. Hearing their voices in that space was breathtaking. There was a short reflection, in which the minister said that the chants would have been completely familiar to 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure Templates, the early monks in Iona, and that he imagined the stones of the Abbey were very pleased to hear this kind of singing once again. That gave me a little shiver! We sang the Pater Noster (Our Father – the Form, Lord’s Prayer) as part of the prayers offered. The service finished with us processing back out to Project Calendar Online, the cloisters while singing another hymn of St.
Columba’s words set to a traditional Irish tune (“Christ is the World’s Redeemer”). There was such an attentive hush as we sang the Symposium, last notes standing in the Cloisters, all of us looking at our conductor for And Restaurant Brochure Templates, the final cut-off. We got a big smile from Form, him, which was great as well. People who are encouraging can get a lot from Job Description Consists Key Roles, others! Some folks were headed back to the mainland that evening, but many of us stayed on and travelled the next day. Before our final group meal, a couple of friends and I walked out to a beautiful beach. On the map it’s called “Camus Cul an t-Saimh” but my Gaelic professor tells me it should be the older form “Camus Cul an Taibh”: The Bay at the Back of the Open Sea. Symposium Form? To modern eyes, Iona seems very remote.
But in former times, when the sea was the highway, Iona was at the centre of Celtic Christianity (which straddled modern-day Scotland and Ireland, and extended as far as what is now the Northeast of And Restaurant Templates England). Some believe that the Book of Kells was made or begun in Feedback Form Iona. In any case, when Columba established his monastic community there, Iona was not peripheral, but central. “Camus Cul an 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Taibh” on the West side of Iona. The last part of my Iona weekend seemed to have animals as a theme! At the beach, we watched a duck with her three ducklings in the surf: Three ducklings and Form, their mother in the sea. Templates? Eider ducks, possibly?
In the morning, as a group of us waited for the ferry, a very friendly cat came to say hello. She seemed to be waiting for someone coming over from Fionnphort, as when the ferry was approaching, she stood on the slipway and Symposium, meowed very pointedly at it! Friendly cat on the ferry slipway, Isle of Iona. Back we travelled across Mull, and by Note From Presentermedia.com, ferry to Oban: I was amused by this shop, and my lovely travelling companion told me that a “pokey hat” is a Scottish expression for an (ice cream) cone: Ice cream shop in Oban. We had a few hours there, and I really enjoyed getting to know her a bit better over lunch.
The last leg of our journey was by train. As we waited for the train to Symposium Feedback Form, be ready to board, a mallard landed amongst us. A young man told us that a pair of mallards had nested nearby, and that the Astounding Ideas Resume 5 Acting, people at the station were feeding them and giving them water. Mama duck was nowhere to be seen. Daddy duck had some water from the bowl and flew off again, nearly missing our heads! Daddy duck, Oban Rail Station. The train journey was beautiful. Here is a peek down Loch Lomond, taken near Ardlui:
Loch Lomond, June 2017. Unlike James James Morrison Morrison Wetherby George Dupree’s mother, I was back in Symposium Feedback Form time for Webmaster Consists Of Four Key Roles, tea. Feedback? Michael and 25+ Cafe Brochure Templates, the Dafter had survived perfectly well without me for four days, and I felt so very much stronger and lighter having had a good break. It was such a wonderful thing to be able to Feedback Form, do! Singing in Iona Abbey (Celebrating St. Columba, part II) So to continue my story of a wonderful trip to Iona with the Scottish Plainsong Choir, most of us were awakened on our first night by the wind and rain.
At breakfast, those who had walked down from the youth hostel were absolutely sodden. I was very grateful that we didn’t have to Download A Digital Plan - Asthma, wear concert dress that day, and I was so glad of my sturdy hiking boots and Symposium Form, my serious raincoat. Our first rehearsal was at Iona Abbey: Iona Abbey in Tool From the rain. Isle of Iona, June 2017. I had never been inside before, and was entranced by its beauty and by its acoustics. At 11:00 we took part in an informal performance by the group Canty.
It was pretty amazing to hear professionals singing medieval chant in that space! Our own contribution was “Aurora Rutilat,” a piece the Symposium, Scottish Plainsong Choir has sung quite often, and so we didn’t disgrace ourselves. Some members of the Download A Digital Of The Your Plan, audience came all the way down to sit in Form the choir stalls next to us, and they were pretty enraptured by the experience. Ideas Resume 5 Acting Resume Sample? There were many lit candles, above the choir stalls and by the Communion Table. After the performance, a woman came and put them out by waving a piece of paper. You can see her on the bottom right of the photo below: Inside Iona Abbey. While we had been singing, the sun had come out, and Symposium Form, you would never have guessed at the soaking horizontal rain that had been battering the island since about 3 am: Iona Abbey in the sun. We could please ourselves for lunch, so my lovely roommate and Note Template From Presentermedia.com, I opted for fish at the St. Columba Hotel.
We loved sitting by the window and watching the Form, weather change. Sticky Note Tool A Powerpoint Template From? One minute you could see Fionnphort, across the Sound of Iona, clear as a bell. A few moments later, all was obscured by mist and low rain. That would pass, and Fionnphort reappeared. That hide-and-seek weather pattern happened about three times in an hour and a half. View from our table at the St. Columba Hotel, Isle of Iona. Iona Abbey on the left of the Symposium Form, photo. The Isle of Mull across the Sound of Iona.
We spent the Planning For Word Online, afternoon rehearsing in Feedback the Parish Church, with a generous tea break. Brochure? The windows of the church were pelted by rain at regular intervals. Then it was back to the Abbey for another rehearsal, and the sun was obligingly out as we walked over. We finished our rehearsal at 7:30 pm and had a chance to look around the Abbey briefly. I was very interested in the ferns allowed to grow in the masonry: Inside Iona Abbey: ferns in the walls near the Communion Table. It may surprise you to know (as it did me) that there was a marble quarry on Symposium Form, this tiny island! The Communion Table at the Abbey is made from the greeny stone. You can see how highly polished it is, from the reflection of the bronze plate and curious visitor: Communion table made from Iona marble.
Iona Abbey. At twenty to eight in 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure the evening, the Symposium Feedback, sunlight was still strong: Quiet side chapel, Iona Abbey. And in minutes, the rain came again: View from side chapel window, Iona Abbey: rain’s on Astounding Resume 5 Acting Resume Sample, again! Beautiful verse and beautiful embroidery. “Iona of my heart, Iona of my love / Instead of monks’ voices will be lowing of cattle. / But ‘ere the world ends / Iona shall be as it was.” Needlepoint cushion, Iona Abbey. And by ten to eight it had cleared again. I like the shadows made by the bright evening sun, shining from the West:
Cross in front of Iona Abbey: rain’s off again! We all came together for another delicious meal, and a good laugh. We’d really enjoyed our day. Feedback? After dinner I roped a couple of friends into going for a walk with me. At 9:30 pm, the sky was graced with multiple rainbows: Evening walk on Iona: looking across to Fionnphort on the Isle of Mull. Rainbows on Iona.
Sheep parliament? Isle of Iona. We were very amused by the sheep all sitting along the Key Roles, top of this rocky outcrop! I had been able to get some intermittent texts and emails (phone signal and WiFi on Symposium Form, Iona being quite patchy), so I knew that Michael and the Dafter were doing very well, and although it’s nice to get away from it all, it’s also very nice to know that the “all” you are away from is fine! It was still very light when I got back to my room at nearly 10:30, but I slept very well indeed that night, having sung, eaten and explored to my heart’s delight.
The next day, Sunday, was the 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure, event we’d been preparing for – but I’ll tell you about Symposium Feedback Form that in my next (and final) post about my trip to Iona.
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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. Symposium Feedback Form? The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for Note A Powerpoint Template, a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and Symposium Form use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Sticky Kit - A Powerpoint Template Presentermedia.com Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to Feedback Form, download the materials and choose from a wide range of Project Planning Online businesses in different industries in which to base your plan. Form? Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners.
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The PDF templates come filled in with example information for small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for any business venture. The template has space for 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure Templates, information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans. When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the Form, advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is Planning Timeline Calendar Online legally sound. The template is questionnaire-style and asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only aims at helping you create a blueprint for your business, but also for investors. Your completed document is available for download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at Symposium Form no charge. The document is $10 on Astounding Resume 5 Acting Resume Sample No, its own without a subscription. SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to Feedback Form, help entrepreneurs launch and grow small business across the Note Kit - Template, United States.
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Jennifer Post graduated from Your Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for Symposium Feedback, the 700th time.
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essay on joe hill AUTHOR: Words: Alfred Hayes/Music: Earl Robinson. EARLIEST DATE: 1938 (music copyright; the words are older) KEYWORDS: death dream labor-movement lastwill. 1879-1915 - Life of Symposium Form Joel Emmanuel Hagglund, known as Joe Hillstrom or Joe Hill. 1902 - Hill emigrates to the United States. Jan 10, 1914 - The Salt Lake City robbery/murder for Planning Timeline Calendar Online, which Joe Hill was arrested. Nov 19, 1915 - Execution of Joe Hill for the murder. FOUND IN: Britain(England) US. REFERENCES (6 citations): Arnett, p. 175, Joe Hill (1 text, 1 tune)
Burt, p. 95, (Joe Hill) (1 fragment) Fireside, p. 48, Joe Hill (1 text, 1 tune) ADDITIONAL: Sam Richards, The Joe Hill Legend in Britain, essay in Archie Green, editor, _Songs about Work: Essays in Occupational Culture for Richard A. Reuss_, Folklore Institute, Indiana University, 1993, pp. 316-331 (1 full text plus excerpts and fragments, 1 tune0. Gibbs M. Smith, _Joe Hill_, 1969 (I use the 1984 Peregrine Smith Books edition), pp. 194-195, (no title) (1 text) Pete Seeger, Joe Hill (on PeteSeeger39) (on PeteSeeger48) NOTES: Lori Elaine Taylor wrote an essay, Joe Hill Incorporated: We Own Our Past, which appeared in Green.
It details the history of this song. Symposium! According to p. 26, * Alfred Hayes's poem was first published in New Masses and 25+ Cafe Templates then in a Communist anthology, Proletarian Literature in the United States. * Hayes gave a copy of the poem to Earl Robinson in 1936. Robinson set it to music to Symposium supply a song for a Joe Hill campfire that evening. * The song spread across the country that summer. * Reportedly Alfred Hayes avoided association with the song throughout his life, but Robinson was proud of it; he recorded it in 1941, and Webmaster Job Description Of Four Key Roles had earlier played piano on Michael Loring's recording. The song became even more popular after Paul Robeson recorded it. Earl Robinson, shortly before his death, counted translations of the song in twelve languages.
Not all parts of the Feedback Form song are accurate, even if one believes Hill was falsely convicted. The line the copper bosses killed you, Joe, for instance, is said to Of Acceptance refer to Form the mine owners who opposed a Western Federation of Miners strike in Bingham, Utah in 1912. But Hill and the I.W..W. had little to do with this, and the mine owners had little reason to care about Hill (Smith, p. 117). Taylor suggests, on p. Tool Kit - A Powerpoint Template From! 33 of Green, that it is this song more than anything else that accounts for Feedback Form, the Joe Hill legend. 25+ Cafe! Another part of the legend is due to Symposium Feedback Big Bill Haywood. Hill, according to Taylor, wrote to Haywood, Don't waste any time mourning -- organize! Haywood shortened this to the memorable Don't Mourn -- Organize! -- which proved a brilliant slogan. Green's book also contains the Sam Richards essay The Joe Hill Legend in Britain mentioned as an Additional entry above.
It supplies evidence that this piece has actually gone into oral tradition -- and notes on p. 320 that this song about Project Planning Online Hill is more popular than any of Hill's own songs except perhaps The Preacher and Symposium Feedback the Slave. Richards in fact believes (p. 326) that this may be the Copy Of The Your Plan Uk most popular labor song in Britain today. Richards mentions on pp. 320-321 that Paul Robeson premiered his version of the Symposium Form song in 1947 in Salt Lake City itself.
That must have been something to see. The innocence of Joel Emmanuel Hagglund, Joe Hill, is such an article of faith in the folk community that it was stated as fact in the earlier editions of this index. The I.W.W. regarded it as a frame-up from the first (Smith, p. Resume! 122). This even though the sources containing this song knew so little about the case that different sources gave different dates for Hill's execution. An honest assessment has to admit uncertainty. Facts are sadly few -- indeed, little is known of Form Hill's dozen years of freedom in And Restaurant Brochure Templates the United States; even before his death, he was legendary enough that he is said to have been part of far more labor actions than any man could possibly have participated in. Hill did not encourage intimacy; one many who knew Hill relatively well said that Joe was a most reticent cuss. To drag anything biographical out of Symposium Form Joe was a man size job; the guy just wasn't a fluent talker (Smith, p. Project Planning For Word! 43). Nor was he universally regarded as honest; Haywire Mac McClintock called him a plain crook and thought him willing to shoot a company man (Smith, p. Symposium Feedback! 54). Born Joel Hagglund in 1879 in Sweden, he was a violinist from the age of eight. And Restaurant Brochure! He lost his father in that year, leaving the family very poor.
Hill seems to have been obsessed with music (Adler, p. Form! 101), but was irreverent from an early age; his worst school subjects were religious (Adler, p. 102). When his mother died in 1902, the family sold the Of Acceptance house, with some children staying in Sweden and some departing. Joel and a brother migrated to America, where Joel worked as a common laborer (Adler, pp. 29-30). Symposium Form! Although his first stop in Project Planning Timeline Calendar Online the New World was New York, he soon headed west (Adler, p. Symposium Feedback! 31). Interestingly, although skilled on violin, guitar, and Calendar For Word piano, and with some skill on organ and accordion (Smith, p. 44), songwriting does not seem to have been easy for Hill (Adler, pp. 206-207), perhaps because he was working in a foreign language. Smith, pp. 38-39, prints several of Form his non-Union songs (one of which may have been sold commercially); they frankly are not very good.
Nonetheless his superior labor songwriting skill seems to have ben acknowledged instantly (Smith, p. Brochure Templates! 19). Once in America, Hill rambled -- but probably not as much as the tales imply (Lefebvre, pp. 57-58). Presumably he worked at least some of the Symposium time, but records of this are few. All that is really certain is that he early on joined the Planning Calendar Online IWW (Industrial Workers of the World, a socialist union), and Feedback became their best and most important songwriter. The I.W.W. song The Preacher and Astounding Ideas Actors 5 Acting Sample the Slave appeared in the Little Red Songbook in 1911 (Smith, p. 20), although it did not have Hill's name attached at that time. If Hill's history is mysterious, the story of his trial and execution is frankly troubling. What is known is that Hill was in Utah starting in Feedback 1913, supporting a strike against the Utah Construction Co. (Foner, pp. 16-17) and staying with some friends he had earlier met in California (Adler, p. 209, etc.). He apparently worked for a while upon arrival, but lost his job due to illness (Smith, p. Ideas Resume Resume! 63).
The Utah government reacted strongly to the UCC strike, attacking the strikers and limiting their right to Feedback Form speak and Actors Resume Resume Sample No demonstrate (Foner, pp. 17-18). Little wonder that Hill wanted to play a part! -- although Smith, p. 63, and Symposium Feedback Form Lefebvre, p. 60, say that he was just passing through on his way to Project Planning Calendar Online Chicago; Adler, p. 27, believes that, having just gotten out of prison in Feedback Los Angeles, he wanted a new start somewhere else. On the Webmaster Job Description Consists evening of January 10, 1914, perhaps a little before 10:00 p.m. Feedback! (Foner, p. 18; Lefebvre, pp. 59-60), a murder took place at a grocery store in Salt Lake City. John G. Morrison and his son Arling were slain. Example Of Acceptance! Arling, according to Morrison's surviving son Merlin (the only Feedback, witness), appeared to have shot one of the 25+ Cafe Brochure attackers. Symposium Form! The killers left without actually taking anything. The police thought the case was a revenge killing -- Morrison, who had briefly been a police officer (Adler, p. 44), had fought off robbers twice in the previous dozen years (Foner, p. 19; Adler, p. 47).
And Merlin Morrison reported that the killers had shouted We've got you now upon Note Kit - A Powerpoint Presentermedia.com entering the store (Adler, p. Feedback! 53). Hill later turned up at a doctor's with a bullet hole in Download Copy Of The Asthma - Asthma his chest (Lefebvre, p. 60). It was a clean injury; the bullet had entered the chest cavity and passed through (meaning that it could not be placed in evidence when the trial came -- although its absence was possibly significant). Hill offered no real explanation, saying that the Form fault was as much his as the other man's (Foner, p. Letter! 34). The doctor, Frank McHugh, treated and released him.
Later, McHugh said that Hill had told him that he had been shot by a friend who believed Hill had insulted his wife (Smith, p. 64). (It is fascinating to note that Dr. McHugh much later said Hill confessed to Feedback the crimes -- Adler, p. 76; Smith, p. Of The Your Asthma Plan! 75, notes several inconsistencies in the revised tale -- but McHugh did not testify to this in court, only in a letter written decades later.) Hill did throw away a gun at this time; he would never explain why (Foner, p. 21). Symposium Feedback Form! He had bought it at a pawn shop on Astounding Ideas 5 Acting Resume, December 15, 1913, but there was no record of the model (Adler, p. 259), so Hill could not prove that the gun was not the murder weapon. The doctor's practice was at least two miles from the crime scene, and possibly as much as five or six; the contemporary reports of the distance varied (Foner, p. Symposium! 20n; Adler, p. 70, says five miles but cites no sources; Smith, p. 78, says 4.9 miles while saying that the Example Of Acceptance streets have been renumbered, which perhaps explains the disagreement). This is significant, because a man in Hill's condition after he was shot probably could not have walked five miles to seek help (Foner, p. 41). Also, Hill did not seek treatment until about an hour and Feedback Form a half after the robbery (Foner, p. 20) -- a long wait for someone with a chest wound!
On the Project Planning For Word Online other hand, the Dr. Symposium! McHugh whom Hill visited was a known socialist (Adler, p. 217), so Hill might have felt that he would be more sympathetic. Example Of Acceptance! And Adler believes that McHugh did not report on Hill's injury until a reward had been announced in Symposium Feedback Form the Morrison case (Adler, p. 216). Hill's injury meant that, when the police looked for Letter, a killer, they found Hill with an injury that fit the description, and he had no alibi. As Smith says on Symposium Feedback, p. Copy Action - Asthma! 78, In short, the entire police case seems to have been hased on the fact that Joe Hill received a gunshot wound on the same night as the murder. And Hill did have a police record in Feedback California, although the only charge resulting in a conviction was vagrancy, i.e. Webmaster Job Description Of Four Key Roles! being unemployed and a socialist. Thus arresting Hill was certainly not unreasonable; how many guys were there in 1914 Salt Lake City (the city of the conservative, law-abiding Mormons) with bullet wounds in Symposium Form their chests? Perhaps only one other: Frank Z. Wilson, who is Adler's candidate for the real criminal (Adler, p. 23). Wilson had no known connection with Morrison, but this could be because he was never investigated.
He was in 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure Templates the right place, according to Symposium Adler, p. 57 -- and he even resembled Hill (Adler, p. 69). Hill was taken into Ideas Actors Resume 5 Acting Resume, custody three days after the murder (Foner, p. Feedback Form! 21), having been drugged by the doctor (Adler, p. 70). The problem wasn't really the arrest (although Hill was shot in Actors Resume No the hand in Symposium Feedback Form the process, and later claimed police brutality; Foner, p. 22; Adler, p. 87, notes that he was still feeling the Download A Digital Asthma Action - Asthma Uk effects of his wounds when arraigned a week later); it was what followed. Hill was charged with first degree murder in the case of John Morrison (Foner, p. 24); the murder of Arling Morrison was attributed to an unknown accomplice (Adler, p. 4). Unfortunately, the transcript of Symposium this preliminary hearing is Resume Resume Sample missing (Adler, p. 225); we can only Symposium Feedback Form, reconstruct it from news stories (Smith, p. 79). But the only witness to the crime, Merlin Morrison, could not identify Hill (Foner, p. Of The Asthma Action Uk! 23), and Feedback there were no other witnesses in position to testify (Foner, p. Astounding Ideas Actors Resume No! 30). It appears that Hill did not object to having the witnesses hear each others' testimony (Adler, p. 225), which of Feedback course allowed their testimony to influence each other. Nonetheless, a Mrs. Phoebe Seeley eventually convinced herself that she had seen Hill near the murder scene (Foner, p. 31). Such eyewitness testimony is Kit - From Presentermedia.com generally quite weak, and Form Hill's lawyers eventually got her to concede that she wasn't entirely sure (Smith, p. 88), but it would be important in Webmaster Key Roles this case. The trial began on June 10, 1914 (according to Foner, p. Symposium Form! 28) or June 17, 1928 (according Smith, p. 83, and Lefebvre).
Hill claimed throughout that the trial was fixed, and certainly he was guilty in Job Description Consists Key Roles the eyes of the public (Foner, p. 27). Hill was at first defended, pro bono, by an out-of-state attorney, E. Feedback Form! C. MacDougall (Foner, p. 24; Adler, p. 228, says that he appeared at the jail and volunteered his services). But Hill dramatically and angrily fired his defense part-way through the trial (Adler p. 238; Smith, pp. 85-86, quotes the court record). It was an And Restaurant Brochure obvious mistake (Foner, p. 36). Hill felt that the lawyers had been too gentle to teenage Merlin Morrison, the key witness against Hill.
Their argument, which sounds entirely reasonable to me, is that they did not want Morrison to break down, which would surely influence the jury (Adler, pp. Form! 237-238). But their gentle questioning concealed what appear to have been significant inconsistencies in Merlin's testimony. Foner, p. 28, offers significant exculpatory evidence. First, no bullet could be found at the site of the robbery which could have caused Hill's injury (significant, since the bullet had passed through Hill's body; wherever Hill was shot, the bullet should have been there) and Download A Digital Your Action Plan Uk the fact that there was no blood found where Hill was alleged to have been shot.
Which, of course, still leaves the Symposium Feedback Form question of where Hill had been on Download Of The Asthma Action Uk, the night of the robbery. Things went downhill fast once Hill got rid of his lawyers -- in Symposium Form part because the judge was clearly prejudiced against him and allowed the Example Of Acceptance prosecution undue liberties (Lefebvre, p. 61). Form! Hill, a non-lawyer, didn't know when to protest -- and when his lawyers (who had been retained by the judge to advise him) tried to help out, Hill continued to attack them (Adler, p. 242). No evidence could be presented to directly connect Hill with the murder. The whole case consisted of Merlin Morrison's testimony about the robbery, including a statement that one of the Ideas Actors Sample attackers was shot; Mrs. Symposium! Seeley's testimony that she thought she had seen him there, and 25+ Cafe Brochure Templates a trail of blood that could not even be shown to be human or contemporary with the shooting. Foner, pp.
37-38, sums up Hill's defense under six heads: * That many others fit the vague description of the murderer. * That Hill was shot with a steel bullet, and Arling Morrison's weapon fired lead bullets (a strong point if true, but the evidence is weak; according to Feedback Form Adler, p. 257, it was based on the testimony of one doctor long after the shooting. Of The Asthma Action Plan! The judge did not allow the testimony; Smith, p. Symposium Feedback Form! 95) * That it was not possible that Hill had been shot by Astounding Ideas Actors Resume Resume Sample No Arling Morrison because of the nature and location of the wound. * That if Morrison had shot anyone (a point for Symposium Feedback Form, which the only evidence was Merlin Morrison's testimony), the And Restaurant Brochure Templates bullet must still be in Symposium Feedback the man's body (since it was never found; Smith, p. Example Of Acceptance Letter! 97, says that six bullets were located in the investigation and none matched Morrison's gun), and the bullet used to shoot Hill had exited his body. * That the gun Hill carried could not have inflicted the wounds found on Symposium Feedback Form, the Morrisons (a weak point, since Hill had thrown away the Actors Resume 5 Acting No gun) * That the police had tried to influence the witnesses against Hill. There was also the point that, while there was an empty chamber in Morrison's gun, the Feedback Form police expert who claimed it had recently been fired could not in fact have known, because it was smokeless powder; also, the Salt Lake police practice was to leave one chamber empty, so Morrison might have done the same (Adler, p. 249). The defense also raised the point that Hill had no motive for murder (Adler, p. 250).
The first point is strong. The rest of the points are convincing if true -- but all look like attacks on the witnesses or the police, which would make them less likely to be accepted in a law-and-order state. Plus the 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure Templates judge suppressed some of the Symposium supporting evidence for Project Timeline Calendar For Word, these claims -- at least in Feedback the view of Foner (pp. 38-39). And, again, this is 25+ Cafe Utah, and Hill was a radical outsider. Symposium! In the circumstances, is it any surprise that Hill was convicted and sentenced to die? It took the jury parts of 25+ Cafe Brochure Templates two days to reach a verdict of first degree murder (Foner, p. 45). The verdict was announced on June 27, 1914. On July 8, Judge Ritchie sentenced him to death.
Offered the choice of hanging or a firing squad, Hill chose to be shot (Foner, p. 49). The judge ordered the Feedback Form execution for September 4 -- but then granted a stay pending a hearing on a new trial. The decision caused a series of Download A Digital Copy Of The Asthma Action Uk labor protests (Foner, p. 52), although I suspect they just made the citizens of Utah more determined. On September 1, Judge Ritchie denied the request for Feedback Form, a new trial (Foner, p. Calendar! 55), leaving few options but an appeal to Utah's Supreme Court. This failed to gain Hill any relief (Foner, p. 57; Adler, pp. 282-283; both charge the court with many errors of fact). The decision came down on July 3, 1915 (Adler, p. 282); Hill's delayed execution was rescheduled for October 1, 1915 (Foner, p. 62). Hill's friends discussed an appeal to the Federal Supreme Court, but there was no money for such an appeal (Foner, p. Feedback! 62). I doubt there was much point anyway; Edward Douglas White's court had recently shown its conservative leanings in the Leo Frank case (see the notes to Mary Phagan [Laws F20]. The Frank case was actually mentioned in Hill's appeal for clemency, according to Foner, pp.
66-67, but not on legal grounds). If anything, the Download Your Asthma Action Plan Uk court would have become more conservative in Symposium Feedback the months since the Frank case as the pro-business, anti-minority, anti-defendants rights Judge James Clark McReynolds (appointed 1914) strengthened the conservative alignment that eventually became the four horsemen (Hall, pp. 542-543). Copy Asthma Plan - Asthma Uk! Hill's lawyer also suggested that there was no basis for the Federal court to intervene (Adler, p. Feedback Form! 285). Hill didn't want to make the effort in Note Tool Kit - From Presentermedia.com any case, so his supporters instead turned to the Utah Board of Pardons. One of those convinced that Hill should die was the Symposium Feedback governor of Utah, who was one of And Restaurant Brochure five members of the Board of Pardons (the others being the Feedback Form state attorney general and Actors Resume No the justices of the Supreme Court who had already condemned Hill; Adler, p. 286). Symposium Feedback Form! So the various calls for clemency and a new trial (including one from the Swedish embassy; Foner, p. 69) were denied. Even an appeal from President Wilson brought only a brief stay (Foner, p. 78); a later appeal by Wilson earned the Download A Digital Of The Action Plan - Asthma president a harsh rejoinder from Governor Spry.
The local newspapers were firm in their rejection of Wilson's request (it is Form perhaps worth noting that Utah was one of only two states to have cast its electoral votes for 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure Templates, Taft in the three-way election of 1912). Hill meanwhile was proving stubborn. New trial or bust, he declared (Adler, p. Symposium Form! 287). And so the A Digital Action Plan - Asthma days passed until his execution. Governor Spry received death threats and privately hired Pinkertons as guards, but publicly declared that he would not give in (Adler, p. 299). Clearly he felt no qualms about the death penalty! Hill's last messages of Feedback course became famous -- the Last Will that began My will is easy to decide (supposedly handed to a guard at 10:00 p.m. the night before his death; Smith, p. 174; the message that Big Bill Haywood summarized as Don't mourn, organize!; the farewell to Elizabeth Gurley Flynn that ended I have lived like a rebel and I shall die like a rebel (Foner, p. 96). Little wonder that he became a legend. He did put up a brief resistance when the Sticky Note Tool Kit - guards came to take him before the firing squad, but stopped when reminded that he had said he would die like a man (Smith, pp. 175-177). Hill was executed on November 19, 1915.
He did not wish to have a minister present (Adler, p. 323). He asked not to be blindfolded when shot; he wanted to look the shooters in the eyes (Adler, p. 324). The witnesses he had hoped would be present were denied permission (Adler, p. 331; Smith, p. Symposium! 177). Rather than let the executioner give the order, Hill shouted fire! himself (Adler, p. 333). He had written that he didn't want to be caught dead in Utah (the line was in a letter to Copy Of The Your Asthma Bill Haywood that also had the quote about not mourning but organizing; Smith, p. 172), so his body was cremated and the ashes sent all over the country as a rallying point. His ashes were scattered in every state except Utah, and on Feedback, every continent except Antarctica (Smith, p. 188). We might note that, although Hill never ceased to 25+ Cafe And Restaurant maintain that he had been shot in Form a fight over a woman, neither the woman nor the shooter ever came forward, not even in a testimonial while dying or after death -- at least publicly.
As we shall see, Adler thinks there is a private account. And the same prejudicial incompetence that let the court convict Hill based on insufficient evidence also leaves those who seek to prove his innocence with very little to work with. Lefebvre, p. A Digital Copy Asthma Action Uk! 62, sums up the Symposium whole case pretty well: Whether Hill was guilty of murder or not, he clearly did not receive a fair trial, one that might have credibly determined the Astounding Actors Sample truth. It does seem that few people actually want the truth. Smith's is the only account I read that seemed to have an open mind. I visited Amazon.com in trying to Feedback find good additional sources to allow further research.
The reader reviews were absolutely useless -- clearly most of them had already decided their opinions, and they reviewed the Sticky Note Tool Kit - A Powerpoint Template books positively or negatively based on Symposium Feedback, what *they* think happened. A mild example of this occurs in 25+ Cafe Brochure Templates Sing Out! magazine, volume 27, number 5 (1979), p. 39, which mentions the Form attempt, on the hundredth anniversary of Hill's birth, to win him a pardon. It mentions the holdup, and it mention's Hill's bullet wound. It does not mention the eyewitness testimony that one of the robbers was injured, nor does it describe how feeble Hill's alibi was, nor does it describe his feeble attempts to represent himself. Of Acceptance Letter! Thus, while it never quite says that Hill was innocent, it makes the case against him appear much weaker than it actually was.
Foner, it seems to me, is Symposium Form equally one-sided. He gives very few details about the robbery, attacks the prosecution's case in the trial without ever explaining Hill's wound, never considers the Of Four evidence against Symposium Feedback Form him, and spends most of Webmaster Job Description Consists Of Four Key Roles his book detailing the relatively unimportant course of the appeals. He doesn't want the truth; he wants Hill's conviction set aside. His last paragraph (p. 108) says that Salt Lake City should erect a statue to Symposium Form Hill and declares We never forget -- hardly the statement of an unbiased reporter. As a result, while he does a good job of Timeline For Word showing that Hill's trial was unfair, I do not think he proves Hill to be innocent. I will admit to having a lot of trouble with Hill's defenders. Symposium Feedback Form! They tend to be so passionately pro-Hill as to seem unreliable. Of course, that is not actual proof of anything.
The Richards essay cited above lists several books about Hill's life and Webmaster Consists Key Roles trials. Feedback Form! Richards himself thinks that Hill's conviction was on very slender circumstantial evidence. (We should note that circumstantial evidence is now known to be generally more reliable than eyewitness evidence. The weak point in the evidence, if anything, is the eyewitness testimony to what went on during the 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure Templates fatal robbery.) Ralph Chaplin published an account that was largely hearsay. Wallace Stegner felt Hill to Symposium be guilty (although he admitted that Utah did not prove its case; Smith, p. Tool A Powerpoint From Presentermedia.com! 200). Feedback Form! Foner of course was certain Hill never had a fair trial. There matters stood as of 2010. In 2011, the situation changed, as several folkies note below: - RBW. A new biography, William Adler's The Man Who Never Died: The Life, Times and Legacy of Astounding Resume 5 Acting Resume No Joe Hill (Bloomsbury, 2011), reaches the conclusion that Hill was probably innocent; the Feedback Form author has unearthed a letter written by Hill's girlfriend Hilda Erickson, saying that Hill told her he'd been shot by the girlfriend's former fiancee. Astounding Ideas Actors 5 Acting Resume! Adler concludes that the probable killer of the grocer and his son was a career criminal named Magnus Olson (who physically resembled Hill). - PJS.
Stephen Reynolds reports further on this book: For anyone who may not yet have seen the publicity, a new book, The Man Who Never Died, by William Adler, just published by Bloomsbury, offers at last an explanation of Joe Hill's wound, the Symposium only real evidence against him. Planning Timeline For Word! Mr Adler discovered a letter written in 1949 by Hilda Erickson, who as a young woman in 1914 had just recently broken her engagement to one Otto Appelquist because she had become enamored of Joe Hill. Feedback Form! According to her, Appelquist had shot Joe in retaliation. And why did Joe Hill not testify when he had a good explanation for his wound? Adler suggests that he wanted to Webmaster Job Description Consists Key Roles protect Hilda Erickson from scandal. Feedback! It was a different age a century ago, and Consists her prospects would certainly have been dimmed by Symposium Form association with the lurid publicity surrounding the trial, no matter how little her responsibility for any of the violent events. Who then did commit the Example Of Acceptance Letter murders?
Adler believes that it was a notorious armed robber, Frank Z. Wilson, who was arrested on the night of the murders in the neighborhood where they occurred, walking outside without an overcoat (in January) and carrying a bloody handkerchief. Wilson repeatedly lied to the police when interrogated, and was the original suspect, but was soon released for reasons never explained. (He was later implicated in the Valentine's Day Massacre.) The Appelquist/Hill incident is fascinating, because they were living in the same house -- indeed, sharing the same cot -- as well as courting the Symposium Feedback same woman. Hilda Erickson was only 20 at the time of the Asthma Plan - Asthma fight between Hill and Feedback Appelquist (Adler, p. 74). Somehow, until the quarrel, Appelquist and Astounding Actors Resume Hill had stayed on decent terms (indeed, the police thought Appelquist was the other man at Morrison's grocery; Adler, pp. Symposium! 82-83); afterward, when the doctor brought Hill home, they necessarily expelled Appelquist from his cot, and he soon stormed out to look for work in Webmaster Consists Of Four Key Roles the middle of the Feedback night (Adler, p. 75). It should be kept in mind that Erickson did not witness the shooting of Hill; she reported what Hill told her had happened.
But it is noteworthy that she was one of 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Brochure Templates Hill's pallbearers, and that she visited him frequently in the county jail. Why, then, did she not testify on his behalf if she had something to say? There was actually press speculation that she could provide an alibi (Smith, p. 89). Adler, having found Hill's alibi (which would at minimum have saved his life; Adler, p. 23), asks a follow-up question: Why did Hill insist on dying? Even during the Symposium trial, Hill's own lawyers found his refusal to really defend himself strange (Smith, p. 93(.
Adler's answer (pp. 23-24) is in effect that Hill wanted to be a martyr, to strengthen the IWW. He perhaps half-succeeded: he became a martyr to the left -- but hardly to society as a whole, or even to today's unions. And the IWW he fought so hard for, although it technically still exists, was rendered almost impotent by government action in 1917 (Adler, pp. 342-347). Could Hill have done better had he lived? Who can say? (I will admit that I think Adler has missed something: That Hill was probably mildly depressive or, even more likely, suffered from bipolar II disorder -- not a rare thing among highly creative people.
This would make him less willing to Job Description Consists Key Roles fight with all his ability, and Symposium Form would explain some of his fatalism -- and his desire to die with his eyes open. Astounding Ideas 5 Acting Sample! Indeed, I strongly suspect that Hill was mildly autistic -- this would explain the depression, the stubbornness, and the substantial talents that he never really managed to harness.) The one caution in all this is Adler's attitude. He is clearly very pro-labor and pro-Hill. This does not make his evidence wrong.
But his analysis will be less than perfectly balanced. The data really needs to be examined by other scholars before we permit him the final word. The bottom line question: Was Hill guilty? It's surprisingly hard to tell. Reading Lefebvre's version of accounts made me think there was strong reason to think him the murderer. Foner, since he refused to take on the issue, did nothing to alleviate those suspicions. Having read Adler, I now strongly incline to think Hill was innocent. But I am not certain, and Smith's balanced book did little to resolve the matter either way. Adler's data really needs to be sifted -- and, even then, there is likely to be a slight doubt, simply because the crime investigation and the trial, which should have discovered the truth, instead did their best to conceal it from posterity. - RBW.
Bibliography Adler: William M. Adler, The Man Who Never Died: The Life, Times, and Legacy of Symposium Joe Hill, American Labor Icon , Bloomsbury Press, 2011 Foner: Philip S. Foner, The Case of Joe Hill , 1965 (I use the 2000 International Publishers paperback) Green: Archie Green, editor, Songs about Work: Essays in Occupational Culture for Online, Richard A. Reuss , Folklore Institute, Indiana University, 1993 Hall: Kermit L. Hall, editor, The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States , Oxford, 1992 Lefebvre: Ben Lefebvre, Joe Hill: 'I Never Died,' Said He, article on pp. Feedback! 56-62 of American History magazine, Volume 40, #5, December 2005. Example! Smith: Gibbs M. Symposium Feedback Form! Smith, Joe Hill , 1969 (I use the 1984 Peregrine Smith Books edition) Last updated in version 4.0. The Ballad Index Copyright 2017 by Robert B. Waltz and David G. Engle.
Need Someone Write My Paper - Symposium Evaluation Form - Institute for Analytical… pdf - Concordia University
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done book report One of the often-recurring requests on the newsgroup rec.arts.books.tolkien is from students requesting a synopsis of J.R.R. Tolkien's epic work The Lord of the Rings. The work is extremely long, and because of Symposium this many students simply can't find the time to give the work a thorough reading before giving a written report on it. In the interests of cutting down the number of requests for this material, I have written a short synopsis of the three volumes which make up the Lord of the Rings as well as an accompanying synopsis for Tolkien's posthumous book The Silmarillion. As an added supplement, I have also listed some possible topics for term-papers and book reports for those who don't feel a desire to come up with their own. Of course, I feel compelled to point out that a much better understanding of Tolkien's work can be achieved by reading the actual books; it's well worth the effort. If you simply don't like to read, however, I'm sure the following synopsis and suggestions will help you make the grades you obviously deserve. Readers will be interested to know that this synopsis has been endorsed by the prestigious London Sunday Times . At least, they thought it was accurate enough for them. Vol.
I - THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING: The story starts with the twentieth birthday-party for Frodo Baggins, a Hobbit who lives with his brother Sam in a mythical land called the Shire. Frodo owns a magic Ring which makes him invisible when he wears it, a gift from his cousin Bilbo who stole it from the hoard of a Dragon years ago. One day the Planning old wizard Gandalf comes to the Shire, and he tells Frodo of an evil being named Sauron who wants to capture the Ring for himself. In ages long past Sauron stole the Ring from the Elves, to protect him from the Powers of Good; but the Ring was stolen from him by a creature named Gollum,and then stolen from Symposium Feedback, Gollum by the Dragons, and Example Of Acceptance, then from the Dragons by Bilbo, who finally gives it freely to Frodo. Sauron has been searching for the Ring for Symposium Form years, Gandalf tells Frodo, and now he has sent his ally, the evil Witch-king, to the Shire to Download Of The Asthma look for it. Frodo and Sam consult with their loyal friends Merry and Pipsqueak, and when the evil Witch-king appears with his nine servants the clever hobbits trick them into going into a mushroom-patch, disorienting the witches just long enough to escape the Symposium Feedback Form Shire. But the tone of the book rapidly becomes more serious as the 25+ Cafe And Restaurant Templates Witch-king and his evil servants pursue the hobbits through the Symposium Form forest. Project Planning Timeline Calendar For Word. Frodo discovers that the witches have destroyed the village of Bree, and the Witch-king uses a magic spell to burn down the home of their old friend Tom Bombadil.
Frodo, horrified, wants to go back and fight the evil witches, but at a hill called Weathertop he meets a noble man named Aragorn who convinces him to go to the city of Rivendell. In Rivendell you will be safe from their magic, Aragorn tells him, for Elrond is a sensible man, and does not believe in it. Symposium Form. With that Aragorn leads them rapidly to Rivendell, with the witches in hot pursuit. Copy Your Asthma Action Plan Uk. As they ford the last river between them and Rivendell the Witch-king casts a spell on the river-water, causing it to rise up and Symposium Feedback Form, try to drown them; only Frodo's quick thinking can save them, and he uses the power of the Ring to make all the water evaporate into fog. The fog is so thick that the Astounding Actors 5 Acting Resume Witch-king and his servants become hopelessly lost, and our heroes make it to Symposium the safety of Rivendell. At Rivendell, Elrond holds a Council where the fate of the Ring is discussed. The only way to keep Sauron from recovering the Ring, they decide, is to throw it into the volcano of Mount Doom where it will be destroyed. During the Council Gandalf arrives late, saying that he had been held prisoner in the tower of Orthanc, the Wizards' Tower. Curiously, he refuses to describe how he escaped.
But it is more important than ever that we destroy the Ring, Gandalf says, for now the other Wizards know of it, and seek it as well. He tells of how the Example Of Acceptance dark wizard Saruman, once an ally of the forces of Good, has turned to evil and now controls Orthanc with an iron hand, and how the other Wizards are roaming the countryside seeking the Ring for themselves. They all agree to set out to destroy the Ring at once. Gandalf and Aragorn agree to go with the four Hobbits, as does Glorfindel, a descendant of the ancient ruler Ar-Pharazon, and Boromir, from the Royal House of Gondor; also joining them are an Elf and a Dwarf who don't really do much in the story but are there for comic relief. Form. Together Gandalf and his nine companions - the Fellowship of the Ring, as they call themselves - set out for the dark land of Mordor. On the way, their path is repeatedly beset by evil forces. First they are attacked by evil Orcs in Tool Kit - Presentermedia.com, the woods; next they are driven into the dark forest of Lothlorien, where they are imprisoned by the beautiful but evil Queen Beruthiel. They make their escape when Beruthiel's good sister, Galadriel, frees them from their prison-cell and floats them down the river in barrels. Form. After that they think it best to leave the woods and head to Moria, the secret city under the mountains; here, however, they face a terrifying setback when they are found by the evil wizard Radagast. Gandalf sacrifices his life to destroy Radagast the Balrog, and the others escape the Download A Digital Copy mountains while the battle rages. Symposium Form. At the end of the book, however, the Fellowship is destroyed from within; Glorfindel, lusting for Of The Action Plan power, tries to kill Frodo for the Ring.
Aragorn stops Glorfindel by shooting him through the throat with a black arrow; Glorfindel dies, but not until he maliciously sets fire to the grasslands. In the resulting smoke and Symposium Feedback Form, confusion the Fellowship of the Ring is hopelessly scattered. Well, everybody ends up running around Middle-earth in different directions. Ideas Actors Resume Sample. Aragorn and Symposium, that Dwarf and Elf whose names I can't remember go to this place with lots of horses, but inexplicably they have no racetrack. Boromir heads South to Gondor alone, bearing a parchment he has taken from Glorfindel describing the Note Tool Royal House of Gondor; he speaks to no one as he leaves, consumed with some new private worry. Merry and Pipsqueak get kidnapped by forty-foot-high walking trees, but as the Symposium Feedback Form story goes on they convince the trees that it's best to be kind to strangers; the lesson is well-learned, and when Aragorn and the others arrive the trees welcome them with open limbs. Just as this reunion is taking place Gandalf reappears, having ultimately defeated the evil Radagast; he reveals that there were actually two of Example Letter him all along, and Symposium Form, the other one is still trapped at Orthanc, now under the control of the wizard Saruman, Gandalf's half-brother.
Everybody goes to Orthanc and frees Gandalf's twin, but the first Gandalf dies fighting Saruman at the top of Sticky Note Kit - Template Presentermedia.com Zirak-Ziogi, the great mountain of Japan. At the end they all ride to the defense of Gondor, Mordor's most hated enemy. Meanwhile Frodo and Sam are captured by the evil Gollum, but they are rescued by Symposium Form Faramir, Boromir's cousin, who has escaped the Astounding Ideas Actors Resume 5 Acting Resume Sample No people of Gondor. Faramir reveals that he had to Symposium Feedback Form leave Gondor because Boromir and his brother Denethor have ordered that he be killed; Faramir is the true heir to the kingdom, but Boromir and Example Letter, Denethor wish to go on ruling Gondor themselves. Frodo agrees to give him the Ring to help him regain the kingship; but Gollum manages to escape with it, and takes it into Mordor in Symposium Form, hopes of receiving a reward. Frodo and Sam race after him, while Faramir holds back the Orc-army which is sent by Sauron to waylay them. Frodo, however, gets bitten by a tarantula which Gollum has summoned with the Ring, and Sam stands near his master at the end of the book, thinking him dead and the Ring irretrivably lost. Everyone except Frodo and Sam arrives at Template Presentermedia.com the kingdom of Form Gondor, and though the people of Gondor are amazed and frightened at first by the huge army of walking trees that accompany them, everyone smiles and Example Letter, accepts them when Gandalf and Aragorn reveal themselves.
The brothers Denethor and Boromir, however, see that Aragorn brings knowledge from the North which will give their kingship over to Faramir, the Symposium Feedback Form true King, and so they secretly conspire against him. And so later on, when the forces of Mordor arrive to attack Gondor, they successfully plot to have Aragorn positioned so he must face the Witch-King in single combat. The battle is too much for Aragorn, and just as he is about to die he is And Restaurant Templates, saved by Eowyn, a woman of Symposium Feedback Form Rohan who loves him, and Merry, who slays the Witch-king in Consists Key Roles, single combat by using ancient hobbit-magic and so reveals himself to be the lost Thain of the Shire. Even as the forces of Symposium Feedback Mordor retreat, they are swept into the Sea by great ships brought by Faramir, the true Prince of Dol Amroth, from the hidden city of Osgiliath further up the Great River. Meanwhile Sam chases the tarantula back to the lair of Ungoliant, the Queen of Spiders, and after a tense argument about the nature of good and evil she finally reveals to Sam the A Powerpoint Template From cure for the spider's-venom which holds Frodo in thrall. Sam thanks Ungoliant for Symposium Form her mercy and wisdom and Webmaster Job Description Consists Key Roles, revives Frodo, and they set off into Mordor to Symposium Feedback Form find Gollum. Oft help will come from the weak when the Wise are foolish, Gandalf once said, and sure enough all the spiders of Mordor are willing to help Frodo and Sam in their quest.
Their course leads them to Mount Doom, where just as they arrive they find Gollum claiming the Ring for himself. Job Description. The Dark Lord Sauron then becomes aware of them, and leaves the Symposium Dark Tower to come forth and destroy them; but just them Frodo and Sam rush Gollum and Example Of Acceptance Letter, force him backwards into the Cracks of Doom. The Ring is destroyed, and without it Sauron is destroyed by the sunlight. Symposium Feedback. Frodo and Sam leave the Mountain just in time to see the great armies of Aragorn and Faramir coming across the plains of Mordor to greet them. Boromir and Denethor are driven away from Gondor forever, but mercifully spared by King Faramir, and Webmaster Of Four, Aragorn is Symposium, revealed to Project Planning Calendar For Word Online be the long-lost King of Symposium Feedback Arnor, the North-Kingdom of old. Yet you may still rule the Shire, he says to Merry the Example Of Acceptance Letter Thain, for with Mordor fallen, there may be kingships enough for all.
The heroism of Frodo and Sam is sung in Gondor and Arnor for long ages, and even Pipsqueak finds honor in his new role as Faramir's bootblack. There's room for advancement in Form, this job, he tells the other hobbits knowingly, his eyes on Faramir's crown. Faramir smiles at Pipsqueak's jest and tells him he will always be welcome wherever he goes. (Indeed, the Appendices note that Pipsqueak's journeys take him far and wide in later years, and he becomes the best-known hobbit of them all.) The other hobbits eventually return to the Shire, only to Project For Word Online find it corrupted and in chaos because of an onslaught of evil Men; they eventually find the evil brothers, Denethor and Boromir, trying to set themselves up as dictators of the Shire. Frodo and Merry fight the evil brothers hand-to-hand and slay them at the very door of Bag-end. Merry takes up the Thainship, and at the end they all go West to Symposium Feedback Form the shores of the And Restaurant Brochure Sea, there to bid Gandalf farewell as he sails back across the Sea and into Heaven, for Feedback Form he was an Elven-king all along who was trying to improve the relations between Elves and Men long-sundered, and now he had found his reward. Well, this book is really complicated, but I'll try to Planning Timeline For Word hit the high points real quickly. Form. Maybe someday, when I have more time, I can improve on this. God created the angels, and the angels created the world. But the Elves created the Of Four Key Roles Silmarils, the Great Jewels, and fought over them for generations until Melkor, one of the greatest angels, took them away for safekeeping. But Melkor's brother Morgoth stole the Silmarils, and the Elves swore they would fight the angels forever until they got the Silmarils back.
The story is an allegory for Form greed, and also a tale JRRT told to Example demonstrate that you can never hope to fight God. Symposium Feedback Form. In the end a brave Man named Beren steals the Silmarils from Morgoth, and when the Elves try to kill him to get them back (this is where the estrangement of Elves and Men occurs, which is to haunt JRRT's other works), he gives them to his son Earendil to take across the Sea and back to Heaven. And that's how peace is Download A Digital Copy Asthma Action Plan Uk, restored to Middle-earth. Possible Subjects for Lord of the Rings Term Papers. 1. Brothers in the Lord of the Rings. Many of the characters in Tolkien's work have brothers, or sometimes sisters, who demonstrate different aspects of their families' beliefs. You could write a paper contrasting the many family relationships, such as the way Frodo is helped by Form his brother Sam, the way Denethor and his brother Boromir conspire, and the way Feanor is Job Description Consists Of Four Key Roles, assisted by his brother Feenamint. Contrast this to the sharp differences seen in other Tolkien families, such as Beruthiel and her sister Galadriel, Melkor and his brother Morgoth, and Gandalf and Symposium Feedback Form, his half-brother Saruman. 2. True Royalty. One recurring theme of Lord of the Rings is the theme of And Restaurant good royalty defeating tainted royalty. Feedback Form. Just as Faramir defeats his evil cousins to reclaim the Throne of Gondor, Aragorn restores the Kingdom of Timeline Calendar For Word Arnor with his marriage to Eowyn.
Even Merry reveals his heretofore-unknown lineage to the Thainship of the Shire by book's end. Remembering that Tolkien wrote this book even as Queen Elizabeth was taking the throne of England when King Edward VIII abdicated and married a commoner, write a paper showing the Symposium Feedback Form influence of Tolkien's aristocracy beliefs on his work. 3. Use of Project Calendar For Word Online Fire in Lord of the Rings . Whenever the forces of evil try to strike a blow in Tolkien's work, they almost always use fire. Feedback Form. Denethor tries to set fire to Faramir; Glorfindel sets fire to the grasslands; Radagast tries to set fire to Gandalf. Even the dragon in The Hobbit tries to set fire to LakeTown; and And Restaurant, Queen Beruthiel, while she never actually sets fire to anybody, is Symposium Feedback Form, portrayed as an incessant chain-smoker, waving the fire about in her hand like a hot poker ( Fellowship of the Ring , towards chapter seven). You could write a pretty fair paper on the use of Job Description Consists Of Four Key Roles fire in Symposium Feedback, Tolkien's works. Remember that Tolkien's family took him away from South Africa at the age of four when their house had just burned down. Maybe it left a lasting impression.
Perhaps one day we'll have this all down to the point where someone can just download a book-report straight from the Web without ever having to read the books at all. Obviously we're not quite there yet; but for those interested in that idea, I'm sure this web-page will be considered a great step forward.