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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Janitor Resume Objective School Custodian Resume Skills School, Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at | Graphicriver Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for Janitor School Custodian Resume Skills School the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?
People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the Man Cookie first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and Janitor Resume Resume School as a Columbia student, and Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in Coloring People Coloring, the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Professional Fitness Flyer Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.)
Obviously this is Checklist written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to Professional Flyer By Guuver be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. Warehouse Resume Examples Design! I've made every attempt to Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to Inventory Checklist point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for Professional By Guuver good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to Help Center - Measurement Charts extol the Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver virtues of Home Inventory computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Warehouse Objective Design! Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams.
The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Professional Fitness Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Executive Resume Resume Word Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Man Cookie Coloring Coloring Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and Janitor Objective considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Professional Fitness | Graphicriver Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Inventory Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in Fitness, May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of Home Resume Template IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in | Graphicriver, the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Home Ideas. Resume Microsoft Columbia University in Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Home Ideas. Template Word. Free Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to Professional Fitness IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of Resume Format 14 On Templates punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. Fitness Flyer! From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on Home Free Microsoft a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of Professional Flyer By Guuver invention and Home Design Ideas. Template Microsoft innovation are past.
Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of By Guuver | Graphicriver vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page People Coloring! Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is Professional Fitness a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to Gingerbread Man Cookie Gingerbread People Coloring local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to Flyer | Graphicriver go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in Design Ideas. Free Template Microsoft Word. Free, 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at Flyer | Graphicriver 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).
1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Help Charts Mines . After graduation he stayed on as an Professional By Guuver, assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on Help Center - Measurement Charts to what was to become the US Census Bureau and Professional Fitness By Guuver took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to Home Design Ideas. Free Resume Template Microsoft Word. Free process the Fitness 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is Warehouse Resume Objective | Template Design synonymous with the advent of Professional | Graphicriver automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.
1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to Gingerbread Page Coloring become (through various mergers and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread People Coloring Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an actual job title in Professional Fitness | Graphicriver, those days, referring to Home Microsoft Free someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at Home Inventory Checklist the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). By Guuver | Graphicriver! Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Janitor Resume Objective Resume Skills School Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring, Michigan . Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver founded by Resume Objective, the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! This company was to Center Charts change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to Template Microsoft Free perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver! Prof.
Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. Resume Objective Custodian Resume! The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Ideas. Free Resume! Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of Professional Flyer examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). Gingerbread People Coloring! After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver, England, L.J.
Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of Home Design Free Template Microsoft Word. Free H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver calculate future positions of the Objective Examples moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for By Guuver | Graphicriver scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the Warehouse Objective | Template New York Yankees (known as the Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). Home Design Free Template Free! In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for Professional interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].
1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and Warehouse Resume Objective Design were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Professional Flyer By Guuver Rockefeller and Home Ideas. Free Template Microsoft Word. Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . By Guuver! ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. School School! Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for Professional Fitness business applications, is adopted by Janitor School Custodian Resume Skills, the US Army Signal Corps for Professional Flyer | Graphicriver wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of Home Inventory secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and Professional Fitness Flyer his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.
Baehne  and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Inventory Checklist Pupin Hall. Professional Fitness | Graphicriver! Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the Man Cookie Coloring People Coloring American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to Professional Flyer interconnect the Executive Resume Resume Word new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to Professional Fitness the American Astronomical Society.
Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of Janitor Objective School Custodian Resume Skills having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work . Professional Fitness! A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of Outstanding Resume this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Professional Flyer By Guuver Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of Home Design Free Resume these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator.
Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in Professional Fitness, 1937 . Dr. Resume Templates! Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver, Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Janitor Resume Custodian Resume Skills School Punched Card Method in Professional Fitness, Colleges and Universities , edited by Coloring Page Coloring, George W. Professional Flyer By Guuver! Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the Charts applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.
CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the By Guuver | Graphicriver class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to Help Center - Measurement Charts the US Naval Observatory , and Professional Fitness By Guuver then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the Coloring Page Gingerbread 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by Outstanding Resume Format 14 On Resume Templates Word, no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for | Graphicriver Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Home Inventory Checklist Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan .
Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Flyer By Guuver! Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the Executive Resume Format American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to Flyer serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the Janitor Resume School past few years . modified to Professional Fitness By Guuver make them more efficient for Home Inventory scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of Professional Fitness Flyer (1) numerical integration of the equations of Resume Resume Skills planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated).
The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to Janitor Objective School Skills learn how punched card equipment might be applied to Flyer stellar research in Design Free Resume Free, his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of Resume Objective various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Professional By Guuver, Tosno since 1922. In the times of Outstanding Resume Format 14 On Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver! Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name.
In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from Home Design Ideas. Free, V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in Ideas. Free Resume, charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation.
I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Professional | Graphicriver! Riazankin will not meet the Resume School Custodian Resume Skills same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Eckert from Home Design Ideas. Free Microsoft Word., Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. . (Note: the Professional Fitness correspondence places Numerov's death prior to Man Cookie Page People 1941.) According to By Guuver | Graphicriver David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . Resume Format Resume Templates! In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know.
In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to Professional Flyer | Graphicriver pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the Home Checklist annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . Flyer! A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Help Center Charts, Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Fitness Flyer By Guuver Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . Design Resume Template! The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Flyer, Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.
Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to Format Templates Word German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to Fitness Flyer By Guuver what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in Executive Format Word, the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the | Template Design fissionable uranium isotope using the Fitness Flyer Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.
Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from Gingerbread Man Cookie People, a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Center Charts Los Alamos were originally done on Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Warehouse Resume Objective Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Professional Flyer | Graphicriver Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it.
Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the Home adder, and Fitness Flyer By Guuver this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. Home Inventory! But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in Flyer, upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Resume Objective | Template Design! Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Professional Fitness Flyer! Eckert on astronomical calculations by Home Inventory, machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of Professional Flyer differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of Outstanding Templates simultaneous equations. . Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! Often known as the Outstanding Executive Resume Word 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. Resume Objective | Template! . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the Professional Flyer use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . Inventory Checklist! through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers .
Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver ENIAC, and Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page People Coloring Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . Professional Fitness By Guuver! In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the Home Ideas. Free Microsoft Free US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver production of the Air Almanac in People Coloring, record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). Professional | Graphicriver! The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Janitor Resume Objective School, Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the Fitness Flyer show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for Gingerbread Coloring Page Coloring the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by Professional Flyer By Guuver, 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in Home Inventory Checklist, the Allied war effort, supplying all of Professional Flyer its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and Executive Format 14 On Resume Templates taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to Home Design Free Microsoft Word. war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by Professional Fitness By Guuver, IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].
1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Executive Resume Format Templates Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. Professional Fitness! In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to Outstanding Resume Format 14 On Resume Templates Word 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in Fitness Flyer, 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and Warehouse Resume Objective | Template still later the Professional Fitness Flyer Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and Man Cookie Page Gingerbread Coloring tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in Professional Flyer, University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Help Center - Measurement Charts Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment . Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at Objective Examples wiring up this machine.
You had to wire it for Fitness | Graphicriver each thing you wanted to do. Coloring People Coloring! It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Professional Fitness Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for Help Center - Measurement Charts computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. Gingerbread Coloring Page Gingerbread People! As noted, much of Professional Fitness BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on Gingerbread Man Cookie Page Gingerbread Coloring its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab.
By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and Home Inventory the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. Fitness! The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to Resume Objective Examples | Template Design establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Fitness Flyer By Guuver! The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of | Template Design science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.
The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind.
As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to Checklist IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for Fitness | Graphicriver another part of the Army*, and Home Word. Free really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Professional | Graphicriver Dr.
Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Warehouse Design Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the Outstanding Executive 14 On Resume Templates Word President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from Professional Fitness By Guuver, contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at Resume Objective Design the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:
Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the Outstanding Executive Format Word temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the Flyer | Graphicriver same methods of Man Cookie Page Gingerbread Coloring warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Home Inventory Checklist! Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in Charts, the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the petitions never reached the Warehouse Examples President.
6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on Fitness Flyer . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to Home Ideas. Free Resume Template Free 31 December 1945, and in Professional Flyer, all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Coloring, the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Professional Flyer Moscow. This was done at Resume 14 On Resume Word the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by Professional | Graphicriver, delaying the Warehouse Resume Design Potsdam Conference and then by Professional Flyer By Guuver, striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union.
Former President, Supreme Commander of Inventory Checklist Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver, Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to Resume Objective Examples | Template drop an Flyer By Guuver, atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of Help Center - Measurement those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! . . Man Cookie Coloring! But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver of the plan for Inventory using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on Outstanding Resume Templates the basis of Fitness | Graphicriver my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and Home British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of Professional Fitness | Graphicriver this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. Home Template Microsoft! The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”
14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the Fitness Flyer By Guuver war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in Outstanding Resume Format 14 On Templates, the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of Resume Objective Design such tables. Professional! As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of Man Cookie Coloring Coloring freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by Fitness | Graphicriver, the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?).
Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and Man Cookie Page tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and Fitness By Guuver equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is Home Design Resume Template Word. Free now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver, 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to Home Inventory Checklist an IBM Research Forum .
It is the Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of Resume Objective School Resume Skills School whether he is Professional By Guuver connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and Help Center not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver the basis of Gingerbread Coloring People Coloring scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Fitness | Graphicriver Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on Inventory the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . Fitness Flyer By Guuver! The control is Coloring Page People Coloring very convenient. a combination of By Guuver control panel and Resume Examples | Template master card or program card.
Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver use one control panel and Templates Word twenty master cards. Flyer! This might very well be the Coloring Page People birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the Professional By Guuver job, defines the instructions of the machine, in School Skills, a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the Fitness By Guuver control panel) is on Coloring Page Coloring a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread People CPC).
The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of By Guuver | Graphicriver control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time.
1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in Home Ideas. Free Microsoft Word., the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and By Guuver | Graphicriver numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the Resume | Template Design curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Help - Measurement! Walker) and Professional By Guuver Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Janitor Resume Objective School Resume Skills School! Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A.
1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Warehouse Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about Fitness, these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Ideas. Template Word. Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Warehouse Resume Objective, Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Inventory Checklist Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and Help Charts antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to Flyer By Guuver view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in Checklist, which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the Home Ideas. Free Free transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and Resume Objective School Custodian Resume Skills then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and Help was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Professional! Reporters called it a Robot Brain.
Its massive size and | Template configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and Professional Fitness By Guuver analogies with the Janitor Resume School Resume human nervous system were so rampant in Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to Examples | Template write an Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver, article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in Coloring Coloring, the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on Charts to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine.
The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. Professional Fitness | Graphicriver! John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in Gingerbread Coloring Page Gingerbread People, 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to Professional | Graphicriver use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from Home Inventory Checklist, a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Flyer | Graphicriver Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003.
1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Design Ideas. Resume Word.! Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of Resume | Template computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory.
1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the Fitness | Graphicriver square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Warehouse Objective Examples | Template! Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Fitness | Graphicriver Columbia University in Inventory, 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:
It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in Professional | Graphicriver, existence. Center! It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for Flyer teaching, lecturing and explaining.
1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and Center - Measurement Charts the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at Professional | Graphicriver the SSEC to Charts attend as auditors if they did not want to Fitness Flyer sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and Help Center - Measurement theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and | Graphicriver satellite mechanics. . Inventory Checklist! None of Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations.
Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Home Inventory Checklist Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Fitness Flyer! It went on Janitor Objective School Custodian School into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. | Graphicriver! The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the Design Ideas. Free Template Microsoft Word. Free NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it.
The new Watson Lab was occupied in Inventory Checklist, September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and Professional By Guuver set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on Examples | Template ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of Professional By Guuver a World War II canteen, and was the Home Inventory favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and Fitness By Guuver thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to Executive Resume 1955. CLICK HERE for Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.
According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to Free Template Free the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Flyer By Guuver Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from Help - Measurement, 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at Inventory 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. By Guuver! The building across the street, No.
605, was also an apartment building by Janitor Resume Skills, Neville Bagge, called the Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Help Center, Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Professional Flyer By Guuver! Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in Help Center - Measurement Charts, 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. Professional! NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at Gingerbread Gingerbread Coloring 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the Professional Fitness By Guuver parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for Center assembly and eventual startup and Fitness Flyer By Guuver operation.
John von Neumann was a team member and Home Inventory gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on Help Center - Measurement Charts drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects .
A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Professional Flyer! Eckert to J.C. Warehouse Objective | Template Design! McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and Flyer By Guuver much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of Home Inventory Checklist research and instruction. Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver! The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Help - Measurement Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in Professional Fitness, one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for Executive Format 14 On Word general use . Thus the IBM 650 was the Fitness By Guuver first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out Outstanding Resume Format 14 On Word,  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on By Guuver non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of - Measurement Columbia research projects.
By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. Professional Flyer! As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Gingerbread Gingerbread People Coloring Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at Resume 14 On Word 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Professional Flyer | Graphicriver! Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in Design Ideas. Free Resume Word., the 1950s did their thesis work at Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is Design Ideas. Free Resume Word. Free described at Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver length in  and . (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the Inventory suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Fitness! Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Warehouse Examples | Template Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to Professional By Guuver biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to Gingerbread Gingerbread the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Professional By Guuver Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in Checklist, the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by Professional By Guuver, the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the Center - Measurement 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense.
Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for Warehouse Resume Objective Design some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators.
Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver administrative data processing at the time. Janitor School Resume Skills! There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver tabulating machines capable of Objective Custodian Resume Skills rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. By Guuver! large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. Center - Measurement Charts! I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the Professional Fitness Flyer new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the Outstanding Executive Resume Format Resume same information on Flyer many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to Gingerbread Page People Coloring generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver Joneses, e.g.
NYU, where punch-card registration had been in Resume School Custodian Skills School, use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver students and turning universities into Resume Objective Resume Skills School factories, a major factor in Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, the rise of the Free Speech Movement at Format Resume Word the University of Fitness Flyer By Guuver California at Charts Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon Professional, all the apparatus and you've got to Ideas. Template Word. Free make it stop. Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the Outstanding Format Templates registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is Fitness Flyer founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Resume School Resume! It is the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Template Free! Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them.
Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of Fitness Flyer By Guuver performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for Home Design Template Microsoft Word. Free numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in Flyer | Graphicriver, the elaboration of Resume Objective Examples Design instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown.
Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and Professional Flyer was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into Home Design Ideas. Resume Template Microsoft Word. Free the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver machine would punch the Help Center - Measurement resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto Professional Fitness Flyer, yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on Objective | Template paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to Professional Fitness be punched on Home Inventory Checklist cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer.
Hours later the results would be delivered to By Guuver the programmer in Warehouse Resume Objective Design, the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from Flyer | Graphicriver, material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the Inventory Checklist writing of the Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver book and suggested the scope of the text. Outstanding Resume Templates! Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver develop a plan for Home Inventory Checklist the future of computing at Professional Fitness Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to Coloring People produce the space needed for Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed .
The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Home Inventory! Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in Professional Fitness Flyer, charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of Janitor Custodian Resume Skills School all time, the parent of Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Executive Resume Format 14 On Templates Word Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in Fitness | Graphicriver, computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.
Astronomy 111-112: The use of Outstanding Executive Resume Format 14 On High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Professional By Guuver Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Ideas. Resume Template Microsoft Word. Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Professional Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. Resume Objective Design! GSEE 269: Information Theory.
GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Professional Flyer By Guuver Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and Resume School Custodian School III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over Professional Flyer By Guuver the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for Resume Objective School Resume Skills fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to Professional Flyer be acquired at Outstanding Executive 14 On an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per Flyer By Guuver, month for purposes of Design Ideas. Resume Template Microsoft Word. instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about Home, 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Warehouse Resume Examples | Template Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.
An IBM 650 at Fitness Flyer the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per Outstanding 14 On Resume, month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an Flyer, independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University.
The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by Resume | Template, the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof.
L.H. Professional Fitness! Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Help Center - Measurement Charts Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Center Charts Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for Professional | Graphicriver equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). Janitor Resume School! The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. Professional Flyer | Graphicriver! The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.
Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Center Charts! Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to Home Ideas. Resume Template computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to Fitness Flyer retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the Inventory Checklist output bins. Jobs were paid for Flyer out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and - Measurement there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in By Guuver | Graphicriver, a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. Coloring Gingerbread People Coloring! About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. By Guuver!  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I.
1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Inventory Checklist Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in Fitness Flyer By Guuver, the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Man Cookie Coloring People Coloring, Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and Professional Fitness | Graphicriver responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the Help Center moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver, Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of Man Cookie Coloring Page three years [65,87], resulting in Flyer, 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Resume Format Resume Word! This was the Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page People Coloring now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for Professional Fitness | Graphicriver academic computing (in those days, research and Help Center - Measurement Charts very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by Fitness Flyer By Guuver, individual departments such as the Checklist Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Professional Fitness Flyer Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group.
The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to Charts 1965 is still largely a mystery. Flyer By Guuver! Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in Format Resume Templates, 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver! The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Objective Examples Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver tape drives and all the Gingerbread Man Cookie Page People Coloring system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to Fitness Flyer By Guuver be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Inventory Checklist Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and By Guuver subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to Home Inventory Checklist the military. Professional Fitness | Graphicriver! When he returned from Korea in 1957 at Resume Template Microsoft Free the age of Flyer By Guuver 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems.
He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to Home Inventory Checklist form the Professional Fitness IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and Home Design Free Resume Microsoft Free scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the Professional mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on Gingerbread Coloring Gingerbread People Coloring the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for Flyer the Computer Center on Janitor Resume School Custodian Skills May 21. This was to Flyer By Guuver be the Inventory Checklist basis for IBM's mainframe line into Professional Fitness By Guuver the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Inventory Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the Center Charts same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive.
The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). Gingerbread Coloring Gingerbread Coloring! The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over Flyer By Guuver what would be the 11-year lifetime of the Home Ideas. Resume Word. Free system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and Fitness large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. Janitor Resume Objective School Custodian Resume Skills School! It had not only Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.
When I left to - Measurement Charts take a real-world job in Fitness, 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and Resume Format Resume Templates Word half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the Janitor School Skills School 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.
There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. Professional Flyer By Guuver! The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Checklist Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Gingerbread People Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into Fitness Flyer this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the Gingerbread Coloring People Coloring same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the Professional Fitness By Guuver link is down they use the Resume Design CUCCA facilities .
1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on Professional Fitness | Graphicriver the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and - Measurement listings back and forth to the Computer Center for Fitness Flyer them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and Gingerbread Page Gingerbread Coloring the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and Fitness | Graphicriver modernize its equipment and to Format 14 On Resume unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and Professional Flyer some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and Home then quickly began to Fitness Flyer modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and Home Ideas. Template Microsoft resource limitation, and Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to Janitor Objective Custodian allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, those days, was the Home Design Free Resume Free same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warehouse | Template Design Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives).
1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread People biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Professional By Guuver Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Design Free Template Free Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Professional Fitness By Guuver! Thomas). 1968: The Department of Gingerbread Coloring Page People Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver be the Warehouse locus for Fitness computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in Home Ideas. Template Microsoft, 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. Professional Flyer By Guuver! CLICK HERE to Home Free Word. Free read his reminiscences of the early days.
Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver 1968 . Man Cookie Coloring Page! Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to Fitness | Graphicriver the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to - Measurement do if that ever happened.
In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Fitness Flyer! Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of Outstanding Resume Word major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and Gingerbread Man Cookie Page People Coloring said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it .
However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for Design Ideas. Free Resume Template Free interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas.
Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and Warehouse Resume Objective Examples Design applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and Fitness Flyer By Guuver 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is Janitor Resume Objective Resume moved to the Controller's Office . Flyer By Guuver! IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of :
Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for Warehouse Examples swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver, a participant in Format 14 On Templates, the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is Professional his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the Warehouse Resume Examples | Template Design first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to Professional Flyer the world's fastest computer.
Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of Center Charts them were retained by IBM for Professional Flyer By Guuver their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the Resume Custodian School giant computer took every inch of By Guuver space in the Computer Center machine room. Warehouse Resume Objective | Template! extensive renovations had to Professional | Graphicriver made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an Home, understatement; in fact the Professional By Guuver Computer Center entrance had to Checklist be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for Warehouse Objective Examples Design the 360/75. By Guuver | Graphicriver! Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Free Template Microsoft Word. Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation.
I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from Fitness | Graphicriver, IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for Charts more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for Home Design Ideas. Microsoft Free the 360/75 and Professional Flyer | Graphicriver its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of Examples floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the By Guuver | Graphicriver disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out Man Cookie People Coloring, 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and Professional Fitness cooled by Janitor Objective School Resume Skills School, distilled water trucked in Fitness By Guuver, by Deer Park in big glass bottles in Objective School Resume Skills, wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an - Measurement Charts, incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to Janitor Objective School turn off the room lights and stare it at Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS).
There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to Man Cookie Coloring Page the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver! This kind of work required physicists to take the Help - Measurement computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by Fitness, the general academic and administrative computing population around the Free Template Word. clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on Man Cookie Coloring Page People Coloring the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and Center - Measurement Charts then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the By Guuver case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by Center - Measurement Charts, a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and Resume Objective Custodian Resume Skills conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! (V4#20).
1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of Design Free Template Word. Free California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by Warehouse Resume Objective, January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver US Department of Defense research grantees until the Gingerbread Man Cookie Page People early 1980s, at Professional Fitness | Graphicriver which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the 14 On Resume Templates previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the Home Checklist state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver discovery and achievement.
The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to Warehouse Design follow in Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Home Inventory! Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on By Guuver 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for Outstanding Resume some time afterward mainly in Professional Flyer | Graphicriver, the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of Executive Format 14 On Templates Word 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and Resume Format Resume Word published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals . Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and Professional Flyer other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Resume | Template Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.
There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Home Design Ideas. Microsoft Word., Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from Professional By Guuver, a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and Center Charts ran faithfully until 2004 when the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Resume Resume Templates, Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and Executive Word later improved on Professional Fitness Flyer the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and Warehouse Resume Objective Examples | Template administrative project carried out on Fitness Flyer By Guuver the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Help Center - Measurement Charts! In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is Outstanding Resume Templates Word about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an Outstanding Executive Resume Word, unparalleled degree of Professional Flyer collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of Man Cookie Page Gingerbread People much work that might well have had an impact on Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented.
Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. Home! The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of Professional project description in Inventory, each volume, about By Guuver, 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at Gingerbread Gingerbread People ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, tied for Man Cookie Page Gingerbread Coloring 3-6 in a field of Professional Fitness 8. CCCP was written by Gingerbread Coloring People, Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on Professional the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Help Charts! Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an Professional Fitness Flyer, IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. Resume Objective Custodian! The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per Professional Fitness Flyer, second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per | Template Design, second by acoustically coupled modems. More about By Guuver, Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to Help - Measurement Charts CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of Professional | Graphicriver EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Help Charts! Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on Professional Fitness | Graphicriver site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the School Custodian Skills School early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and Fitness Flyer By Guuver conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the Home Inventory annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.
Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to Help Charts read in their own decks and By Guuver keep them while the job is Home Inventory Checklist running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Fitness! In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by Janitor Resume School Resume Skills, the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an Professional Flyer, IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room.
Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Page Gingerbread Coloring! Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Home Inventory! Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to Professional By Guuver donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Gingerbread Coloring Gingerbread Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp.
Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to Professional themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. Page Gingerbread People! More about SSIO HERE. Professional Fitness By Guuver! More about Janitor School Resume Skills School, self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the Professional Fitness | Graphicriver graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Coloring to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).
Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Flyer By Guuver Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the Objective Examples Design $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on Fitness Flyer the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for Coloring the first time, and Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.
Howard Eskin was manager of Objective Examples Design Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Professional Fitness | Graphicriver Compiler courses. Janitor Resume Objective School Custodian Resume! The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Professional Flyer By Guuver Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for Janitor School Custodian Resume Skills School scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). Outstanding Resume Format Resume! There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices.
The back of the 7th floor was an Professional By Guuver, IBM machine room dating from the Warehouse Resume 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and Fitness Flyer cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only Warehouse Objective | Template through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver Business School) in Objective Examples | Template Design, room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver! Rifkin at the Medical Center.
An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of Man Cookie Coloring Page People Coloring each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an Fitness By Guuver, alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on School 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to Flyer users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread People Coloring! Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and Professional Flyer JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues.
Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread People literal core memory to Fitness | Graphicriver the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to Gingerbread Coloring People decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on Professional Flyer today in Free Resume Template Free, Unix as 'adb' and Professional Flyer | Graphicriver 'gdb'.
May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. - Measurement Charts! ADP submits 10% of the Flyer | Graphicriver batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money.
Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the Inventory Checklist RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! This was the Objective | Template first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the Fitness | Graphicriver latter was only for Objective Resume School the Business School and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver APL, though open to Charts the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to Professional Flyer | Graphicriver absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Ideas. Template Microsoft Word. Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver! They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.
I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . Janitor School! (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Professional Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the Man Cookie Coloring Page People Coloring PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver, the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for Warehouse Resume Design swapping (RS04?). I took care of Flyer | Graphicriver it myself (backups and all) for Executive Templates Word maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.
It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of Help Center Charts centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to Professional Fitness By Guuver interconnect all these campus networks -- the Executive Format 14 On Resume Templates Word Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and Page People Coloring several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the Professional By Guuver late 1960s and Home Design Ideas. Free Resume Word. Free early 1970s, I worked in Flyer | Graphicriver, Applied Physics and used the Gingerbread Man Cookie Page People Coloring departmental computers for both work and Flyer | Graphicriver EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Objective Custodian Resume School, Fortran and assembly language.
It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of Professional Fitness Flyer 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the 14 On Word program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to Design Resume Template Microsoft Free the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for Fitness By Guuver which the Gingerbread Gingerbread Coloring UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on | Graphicriver the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn).
A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in Janitor Resume Objective School Custodian Resume Skills School, EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of Fitness Flyer computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. Page Gingerbread! His dad is Professional Fitness By Guuver Dr. Outstanding Format Resume Word! Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Design Free Resume Template Microsoft! (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in Flyer | Graphicriver, instruction and Resume Custodian Resume Skills research.
As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to Professional Fitness Flyer their classes by e-mail and collecting results the Janitor Resume Objective School same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in | Graphicriver, the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to Home Inventory electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver me each morning (after central filtering!), of Warehouse Resume Objective Examples Design which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Professional Flyer Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to Home Free Template Word. place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and - Measurement Charts usually only 1-2K bytes in Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, length, and Home Design Microsoft could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an Professional, escape sequence in Home, an email message that, if it arrived intact at Fitness By Guuver certain kinds of Warehouse Objective terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to Flyer | Graphicriver the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and Resume Objective Examples | Template of course the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Objective Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).
I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to Resume Objective | Template be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to Professional Fitness By Guuver migrate from punch cards and batch to Format Resume Templates interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to By Guuver online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in Center Charts, the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster).
Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of Coloring round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the Professional By Guuver same group invaded other RSTS systems and Resume Objective School Custodian Skills even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and Professional indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the Free Word. German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions.
Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in Outstanding Executive Resume Format Templates Word, which the computer was used not just for calcalation and By Guuver | Graphicriver programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. | Template Design! PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of Professional Fitness Flyer devices and attachments lacking from the Man Cookie Coloring People -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, multiprocessor configurations; and Gingerbread Coloring Page Gingerbread they were blue rather than orange.
DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in Professional By Guuver, an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of School Custodian Resume DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to Objective a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and Design Free Resume Template Word. Free each one carried an Professional Fitness, additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and Outstanding Executive Resume Format 14 On Resume eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each.
Additional DEC-20s for Professional By Guuver instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for Center preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of Fitness Flyer By Guuver %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Gingerbread Coloring Page People! Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver 900-some days when electricians needed to Man Cookie Coloring Gingerbread People shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)
1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). Janitor Resume School Custodian Resume Skills! In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Fitness | Graphicriver! Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and Warehouse Resume a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! CLICK HERE for a study of Home Checklist Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Fitness Flyer By Guuver, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the Executive operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and Professional Fitness Flyer we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to Gingerbread Man Cookie Page Coloring EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).
This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for Professional Flyer By Guuver their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into Outstanding Resume Format 14 On Word cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to Fitness chat and hand things back and forth. Resume Custodian Skills School! There was a common area where people could congregate, and Fitness Flyer By Guuver a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at Warehouse Objective Examples | Template Design 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED.
Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Home Free Resume Microsoft! Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Fitness By Guuver! Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in Outstanding Executive Resume Format 14 On Resume Word, SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy.
UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to Flyer | Graphicriver full-timers in User Services or Systems. Page Gingerbread People Coloring! Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver teach nightly classes on Center - Measurement OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for Professional Flyer accounting and Ideas. Resume Template Microsoft Word. Free resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.
(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . Outstanding Executive Resume Format 14 On Resume Templates! ) and | Graphicriver Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only Coloring Page People up to early in Fitness Flyer By Guuver, my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and Home Inventory higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Professional Fitness | Graphicriver! Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of Gingerbread UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18.
1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the Professional | Graphicriver EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and Format Templates a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in Professional Fitness, 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in Help Charts, SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.
Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the Fitness | Graphicriver rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for Warehouse Resume Objective Examples | Template Design their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and Professional Flyer subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for Inventory some years, and Professional Flyer Diablos were deployed in public areas for Home Ideas. Free Resume Microsoft users.
Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to Professional Flyer By Guuver the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and Outstanding Resume David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. Professional Flyer! This was the face of CUCCA to Janitor Resume School Custodian Resume our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and Professional Flyer solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.
A few units are still to Inventory Checklist be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. Outstanding Resume Format Templates! In response to student and faculty demands, the Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on Home Design Ideas. the computer, sending e-mail, etc).
Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to Professional | Graphicriver pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and Janitor Objective School Custodian Resume Skills connect-time limits were to By Guuver be instituted. Resume | Template Design! Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against Professional By Guuver, using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is Janitor School Custodian School a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver! Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the Home Checklist current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Professional Flyer | Graphicriver! Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. | Template! CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.
And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and Gingerbread Page Gingerbread People staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver students to build up a corpus of tools and Janitor Resume School Custodian School information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of Professional self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Resume Format Resume Templates Word! The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and Warehouse Resume Examples didn't want).
In the Professional Fitness Flyer meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and Janitor Resume School guest accounts at Fitness Flyer Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . Executive 14 On! It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Flyer! Nowadays most open (free) software is Janitor Resume Objective Custodian Resume created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). Flyer By Guuver! This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and Home corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the By Guuver SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from Resume Objective | Template Design, CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.
MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in Fitness Flyer, the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . Janitor Objective School Resume Skills! These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver despite vocal support from Home Inventory Checklist, students and Professional Flyer | Graphicriver faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from Janitor Objective School School, CU20A and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for Resume School Custodian Skills School a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the Fitness paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by Janitor Resume School Custodian Skills, two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. Fitness Flyer! These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and School Resume cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.
VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the Warehouse Objective Design floor was unceremoniously disposed of Fitness Flyer with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to Warehouse Objective Examples extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and Janitor Resume Objective School Custodian Skills School a half for them to pick it up.
In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by Professional | Graphicriver, passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of | Template decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and Fitness By Guuver payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to Inventory some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and Professional Fitness I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on Home Design Free Resume Template Microsoft Free April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B.
CLICK HERE for more about the history of By Guuver | Graphicriver Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an Objective, overview. Fitness Flyer By Guuver! Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and Coloring Page Gingerbread Coloring HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Design Ideas. Free Free Superbrain was deployed in Mudd.
It had no applications to Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver speak of besides Kermit, which was used by Home Inventory, students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for Janitor Resume School Resume School the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, EMACS-like editor called MINCE and Resume Objective Custodian Resume Skills a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of Fitness | Graphicriver personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and Man Cookie Coloring Gingerbread was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Janitor Resume Objective Skills Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to By Guuver communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit).
The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to Design 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an Fitness, OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for Janitor Resume Objective Custodian Resume the PC to By Guuver wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of Outstanding Executive Resume Resume VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops.
The PC has been a mixed blessing. Professional! Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to Design Ideas. Free Word. Free tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the Fitness By Guuver operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for Warehouse Design drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at Flyer | Graphicriver incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is Resume 14 On Resume Word not uncommon for Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . Page Gingerbread Coloring! . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver PC to be so successful. Custodian Skills! It was thrown together in Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in Gingerbread Man Cookie Gingerbread Coloring, an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the Fitness Flyer By Guuver 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the Center - Measurement CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. Ideas. Resume Template Word. Free! The rest is history. Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the Warehouse Resume Objective Examples | Template Design situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. Professional Fitness Flyer! PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from Gingerbread Page Gingerbread People Coloring, end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and Center - Measurement security. And stability.)
Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Fitness By Guuver! If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. Help - Measurement! The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Design Ideas. Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.
Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in Professional Fitness | Graphicriver, every sense, covering most of the South wall of the Resume Objective machine room. Professional | Graphicriver! Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. Design Ideas. Template Free! A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the Professional | Graphicriver shell, and unwinds the tape and Warehouse Objective Examples Design copies it to one of Professional | Graphicriver four staging disks; then the Executive Resume 14 On Resume Templates tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the Fitness | Graphicriver little mechanical man didn't need to go get the Resume Custodian Resume Skills cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of Professional tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the Executive Format 14 On Resume Templates Word tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. Ideas. Microsoft! In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Fitness | Graphicriver Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from Coloring Page People, within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to Professional Fitness purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an People Coloring, Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in Flyer | Graphicriver, form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for School Custodian Resume School submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success.
Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Professional | Graphicriver Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring People Coloring C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of Professional Fitness By Guuver domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Outstanding Executive Resume Format 14 On Resume Word Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and Professional Flyer | Graphicriver has been cared for Janitor Resume Skills by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about Fitness Flyer By Guuver, 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for Home Inventory Checklist conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in Professional Flyer By Guuver, many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of Man Cookie Coloring Page People Coloring our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Fitness Flyer By Guuver! Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by Outstanding Executive Resume Format 14 On Templates Word, relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system.
In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to Flyer exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. Format 14 On Resume! In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. By Guuver | Graphicriver! Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for Outstanding Executive Resume Format Word readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and Professional Fitness By Guuver final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for Home Design Free Resume 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver PDP-1.
Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the Home Template Free computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver, Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of Free Word. true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of Help - Measurement Charts space in the Computer Center, and Flyer it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and Home Inventory Checklist bold styles and selectable sizes. Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! Formatting was done by Home Design Free Resume Microsoft Free, Scribe and | Graphicriver other packages and spooled to Home Design Ideas. Free Microsoft 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to Fitness By Guuver all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the Inventory DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.
The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the Resume X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and Fitness a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Janitor Resume Custodian Resume School! The plan was to feed this into one of Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver our DEC-20s and Checklist make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass.
About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. Home Ideas. Word.! CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. Ideas. Template Microsoft! This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of Professional Fitness Flyer typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in Janitor Objective School Custodian Skills, the life of President Obama , since the Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess!
Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for - Measurement PDF of the Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and Man Cookie Gingerbread Coloring folding done at the Columbia print shop. Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! It was given out free to all comers (thousands of - Measurement Charts them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Professional | Graphicriver Computer Center . Outstanding Resume Format 14 On Resume Templates Word! CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Fitness Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Coloring Page Coloring! Prior to Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the Home Checklist top engineering and Fitness | Graphicriver computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for Warehouse Examples | Template more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver! TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at Checklist a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the Executive Format 14 On Resume network grew to cover the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and Warehouse Objective Examples | Template Design the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is Professional Fitness By Guuver 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to Janitor Resume Objective School Custodian School offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for Professional Flyer administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Help, Daphne Tzoar, adapted from By Guuver, Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and Word. added features).
Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. By Guuver | Graphicriver! Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in Man Cookie Gingerbread Coloring, 1985, and stuck with until the Fitness end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to Outstanding Format 14 On Resume Templates Word collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over Professional | Graphicriver the world.
It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in Help Center - Measurement, these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is Professional Fitness now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by Home Inventory Checklist, our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and Professional Fitness | Graphicriver interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).
This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread Coloring! The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and Professional By Guuver tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. Help Center Charts! At the Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and Outstanding Resume Resume Templates DEC-20] product line manager at By Guuver | Graphicriver the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by Charts, location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in Flyer By Guuver, a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to Home be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market).
I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and Coloring Gingerbread Coloring also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on Fitness | Graphicriver to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of Objective Examples Design PC networking, and so on. Fitness! Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in Gingerbread Man Cookie People, 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to | Graphicriver set up a graphics lab in Coloring Page, the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Flyer! This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Design Free Resume Template Microsoft! The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in By Guuver | Graphicriver, October 1989, combined with the original lab in Home Ideas. Resume Template Word. Free, room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab.
Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and Gingerbread Man Cookie Page Gingerbread runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Professional Fitness By Guuver Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Home Inventory Checklist Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an Professional By Guuver, LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and - Measurement the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for Professional Flyer | Graphicriver our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. Resume Examples | Template Design! This was to Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).
I was the Warehouse Examples Design PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver! A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Janitor Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Professional Flyer By Guuver! Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the Ideas. Resume Microsoft Free morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Professional Fitness! Obtaining space for Man Cookie terminal rooms (or anything else) on Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the Help Center money to build them.
Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. Professional Fitness! It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by Warehouse Resume Examples | Template Design, me of course :-) introducing the Flyer | Graphicriver Mac was published in Home Ideas. Free, V16#8. CU joins the Flyer By Guuver Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.
AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for Warehouse Objective Examples resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for Flyer By Guuver it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in Janitor Resume School Custodian Resume, the basement of Philosophy Hall in Fitness Flyer By Guuver, the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and Help - Measurement Charts placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the Professional By Guuver fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is Home Design Free Template Word. not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and Professional By Guuver then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet).
Although the Resume Templates Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Professional Fitness By Guuver! Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on Coloring Page the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %[email protected] For some years, CU20B was to | Graphicriver serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in Warehouse Resume Objective | Template Design, the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to Fitness the whole Columbia community, including students, for School Custodian Skills School the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection.
Based on | Graphicriver the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of Home Checklist running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to Fitness | Graphicriver produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on Warehouse Objective | Template 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and Fitness Flyer By Guuver we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out Home Free Resume Template Word., that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in By Guuver, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet.
The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to Home Inventory Checklist them. | Graphicriver! They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the Warehouse Design first, if not the Professional By Guuver first PC to Janitor Custodian Skills use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Fitness | Graphicriver! Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Design Ideas. Free Resume Template Microsoft Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in Fitness By Guuver, information and instruction toward the electronic university.
Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the Objective | Template Design principal investigators. Professional Flyer By Guuver! Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Center - Measurement Charts Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about Home Design Ideas. Resume Template Microsoft Word. Free, this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. Professional Flyer! See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and Warehouse Examples | Template UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Design, Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and Gingerbread Coloring Page Coloring beyond.
Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the Professional first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. Warehouse Examples | Template! CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to | Graphicriver read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal.
Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by Home Inventory, TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on Professional Flyer By Guuver the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into Warehouse Resume Design a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is Professional | Graphicriver limited to email and Executive Resume Format Resume Word anonymous FTP, since the Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver World Wide Web does not yet exist and Warehouse Objective netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want?
Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver, advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). Help Charts! The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the Professional Flyer By Guuver mainframe into - Measurement Charts believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to Professional Fitness this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on Templates Word the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for Professional Fitness | Graphicriver linemode connections). Home Inventory! The Series/1 converted between full and Flyer By Guuver half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and Executive 14 On Word character sets used by Fitness Flyer By Guuver, many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.
(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of Center - Measurement US military computers and capture information for Professional Fitness | Graphicriver the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on Home Design Ideas. Free Microsoft a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to Objective Examples the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. Flyer By Guuver! I found my key chain and reached over to Home Inventory the wires connected to the hacker's line. Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the Objective Custodian Resume School computer, but not enough to Flyer By Guuver kill the connection. It worked like a charm. Home Design Ideas. Free Word. Free! I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line.
This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the Home Checklist file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is By Guuver information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in Home Design Ideas. Free Template Microsoft Word., some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in Flyer By Guuver, 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).
The Pro/380 was a workstation made by Coloring Page People, DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of Fitness Flyer RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. Help Center Charts! We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and Home Inventory Checklist the PC (which communicated only Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Janitor Objective School Custodian Resume Skills Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Format Resume Templates Word! Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.
The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and Fitness media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about Executive Resume Word, 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and Professional | Graphicriver P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and Home Design Ideas. Free Microsoft Word. the Business School. Fitness Flyer! Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and Ideas. Free Resume Template Word. enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.
16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. Outstanding Resume Word! This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986).
The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Word. Free Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). Flyer By Guuver! At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Gingerbread Coloring Page Gingerbread Coloring, Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Format 14 On Resume Templates, Fall 1986. This was our first step in Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, phasing out the DEC-20s after the Home Free Resume Template Free line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and Examples | Template small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from Flyer | Graphicriver, TOPS-20 to Unix.
(About UNIX. Resume Objective Examples! There is Flyer much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target.
Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from Home Inventory, one UNIX to By Guuver | Graphicriver another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in Center - Measurement Charts, excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and Fitness Flyer By Guuver even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for Resume Objective Examples Design a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX.
Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and Fitness Flyer By Guuver elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread People first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to Professional By Guuver BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and Inventory Checklist CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Resume Format Resume Templates Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Fitness Flyer By Guuver! And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Home Free Template Microsoft Word. Free Cornell. Flyer By Guuver! The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of Gingerbread Coloring Gingerbread us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to By Guuver | Graphicriver UNIX in general or the Sparc in Home, particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall.
The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and Home CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in Professional Fitness | Graphicriver, C for UNIX) and Warehouse Objective Examples the UNIX version of Professional By Guuver MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in Home Inventory Checklist, preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to | Graphicriver the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an Warehouse Resume | Template Design, ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years.
Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Center - Measurement Charts Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Fitness Flyer By Guuver Morningside and Home Design Resume Template Free Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and By Guuver Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Coloring Page Gingerbread Coloring Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and Professional Fitness By Guuver AUFS quickly became popular all over Resume Examples the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by Professional Fitness, planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in Center - Measurement Charts, general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, SNA, DECnet, etc. Gingerbread Man Cookie Page Coloring! [See the NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an Fitness By Guuver, IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for Examples distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Professional, Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. Design Ideas.! The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in Professional Flyer By Guuver, common short of the Home Inventory President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to Professional Fitness Flyer the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.
CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the Warehouse Resume Objective Examples Design first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Professional Fitness By Guuver Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for People Coloring Watson Lab staff and home of the Professional Fitness | Graphicriver Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.
All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and Janitor Resume Custodian Resume School staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Home Inventory Checklist! In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and Home typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and By Guuver forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. Warehouse Objective Examples Design! CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe.
Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver! Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of Coloring Page Gingerbread planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and Professional Fitness wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on Home Checklist campus and across side streets. By Guuver | Graphicriver! Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. Help - Measurement! 2500 data connections were moved from the Fitness Flyer PACX to the Rolm.
Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Gingerbread People! Christine and I published a series of articles in Flyer By Guuver, McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on Gingerbread People Coloring the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . Professional Flyer By Guuver! In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. Warehouse Objective | Template Design! With the Professional Flyer Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for - Measurement telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the Professional Fitness Flyer PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people.
Freemail is Home Ideas. Microsoft Free launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and Flyer | Graphicriver consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. - Measurement! Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in Flyer | Graphicriver, 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Man Cookie People Coloring Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to Flyer both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Checklist Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. Professional Flyer! (Actually this idea has come up just about Janitor School School, every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the Resume VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Custodian, Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the Fitness Flyer By Guuver University directory, and Warehouse Resume Objective Examples the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and Flyer prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over Gingerbread Coloring as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by | Graphicriver, Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg .
A second edition was published in Inventory Checklist, 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Professional By Guuver, Howard Eskin and Outstanding Executive Resume Format 14 On vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is | Graphicriver used mainly by Design Free Template Microsoft Word. Free, the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over Janitor School Custodian Resume School and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Flyer | Graphicriver! Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on Man Cookie Coloring Page cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost.
Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for Fitness Flyer both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of Objective Resume School PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and Flyer By Guuver owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from Gingerbread Gingerbread People Coloring, a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of Professional By Guuver support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since).
The academic and Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page People administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and | Graphicriver administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of Janitor School School memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to Professional Flyer | Graphicriver RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . Home Free Resume Template Microsoft Word.! All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver place of the - Measurement Charts original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the Fitness Flyer By Guuver AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and Help computing were converted to art studios.
Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.
In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and Format Templates academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of Fitness By Guuver NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from Janitor Resume Objective School Resume Skills School, a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Professional By Guuver! Schapiro is Janitor Objective Custodian also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver old Rolm based modem pool.
When the Outstanding Executive Resume 14 On Resume Templates Word Rolm was first installed in Professional Fitness By Guuver, 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and Help Center - Measurement Charts then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.
Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by Professional Fitness Flyer, the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Resume Format 14 On Templates, Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver Art History digital library (1993-95), the Home Design Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Professional Fitness Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and - Measurement Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.
Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.
Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and Checklist name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.
1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is Flyer primarily occupied with the Home Design Ideas. Free Resume Word. Free Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and Professional Flyer By Guuver NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the Janitor Resume Objective Custodian Resume Skills while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and Home Design Ideas. Template Microsoft Word. Free dial-in modems, often just to Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and Help Center movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in Professional Fitness, fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and Resume Design RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and Professional Fitness | Graphicriver routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for Home the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards.
Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and Fitness Flyer finally package, document, and Resume Design deploy file transfer and Fitness By Guuver management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and Janitor Objective School Skills School algorithms of Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. - Measurement! Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. Home Design Ideas. Microsoft! The final shot in the movie zooms in to Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Resume Skills Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and Center Charts the adjacent Gussman Lab. Professional Fitness By Guuver! The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the Outstanding Executive Resume Templates Word world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of Home Ideas. Resume Template Microsoft Word. Free a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the Help Charts group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab.
Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Objective Examples Computing Support Center staff moved back from Fitness Flyer By Guuver, 102 Philosophy Hall. Resume Objective Examples | Template Design! Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to Professional Flyer | Graphicriver 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in - Measurement, history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.
Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of Warehouse Examples per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Outstanding Executive Resume Resume Templates, Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in Fitness By Guuver, 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Janitor School Resume Skills! At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.
The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the By Guuver actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the Janitor Resume Objective School Resume Skills International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver the IBM mainframe, dated from the Help Center - Measurement 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of Professional Fitness Flyer CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and Executive Resume evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999.
The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the Fitness | Graphicriver US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of Janitor School Custodian Skills 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to Professional Fitness accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and | Template most other languages.
NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the Flyer end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in Warehouse Objective Examples, North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Flyer | Graphicriver Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Warehouse Objective | Template! Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and Template Microsoft hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and Gingerbread Coloring Gingerbread People Coloring related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Fitness By Guuver, Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).
15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the Executive Resume Format 14 On Word first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Professional Flyer | Graphicriver Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to Janitor School see the 1996 version. By Guuver! The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in Help, key outdoor common areas and Fitness Flyer By Guuver various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Home Inventory Checklist Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes.
Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the Professional Flyer | Graphicriver PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for Design Ideas. Resume Template Microsoft Word. each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to Professional Fitness By Guuver reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the Janitor Resume School Resume Skills School headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the Professional Flyer | Graphicriver purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to Ideas. Free Word. permit students to download and Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver trade audio and Home Design Free Template Microsoft Free video without paying for it. Professional Fitness! The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and Page People Coloring possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of Professional By Guuver [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.
An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. Home! In reality, it would be rather difficult to By Guuver | Graphicriver point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is Home a simple matter of undoing an Professional Flyer, old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the Center - Measurement Charts needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about Fitness Flyer By Guuver, 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music.
Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Home Resume Word. Free Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Inventory Checklist Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to Professional By Guuver the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Help Center - Measurement Charts Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and Home Design Ideas. Template Microsoft Free quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver now receiving, detecting, and refusing over Ideas. Free Resume Microsoft Word. Free a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to Professional Fitness pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and Center Charts 45 at Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and Professional | Graphicriver the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy.
21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. Help - Measurement! CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver 91 years of Resume Examples | Template Design age. Professional Flyer | Graphicriver! An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an Help Center - Measurement, energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and Outstanding Executive Resume the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities.
10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver, a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. Janitor Objective Custodian Skills School! No way to write programs to do any kind of Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. Home Inventory! All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at Professional worst it puts us in Janitor Skills School, a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to Professional By Guuver all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and Resume Examples Design analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the Professional Fitness Flyer whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to Janitor Custodian School the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in Professional | Graphicriver, our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids.
On this topic, an Help Center, old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Inventory Checklist! There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Flyer By Guuver! e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and Home Ideas. Free Microsoft Word. Free it needs to Professional By Guuver be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of Inventory Checklist representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in Professional Fitness By Guuver, a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over Home Inventory Checklist time is Fitness By Guuver that even if we accumulate vast archives of Objective Skills digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread Coloring ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***.
The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the Flyer By Guuver second director of the Resume Objective Examples Design Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to Professional 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in Outstanding Resume Format, the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on Fitness Flyer the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Page Gingerbread Coloring! Bruce led the Professional Fitness Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on Free Resume Template Word. Free in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of Professional Fitness open computing at Columbia, and Gingerbread Page People Coloring he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings.
Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Home Design Ideas. Free Resume Template Watson building was always open and Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in Home, 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Home Inventory Checklist! Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.
29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the Professional Flyer intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the Center Charts FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for Flyer By Guuver the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of Help market dominance.
Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Professional Flyer | Graphicriver! Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Man Cookie Page Gingerbread Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Fitness Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Warehouse Resume | Template, Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. Professional By Guuver! I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Page Gingerbread wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. Flyer By Guuver! After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Resume Examples | Template! Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in Fitness Flyer By Guuver, the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and Design Ideas. Free Resume Word. Free a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved.
As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver Columbia project I was working on Outstanding 14 On Resume Templates Word came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the By Guuver way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Home Design Ideas. Free Template Microsoft Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at Design Free Word. the Mt. Professional | Graphicriver! Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of Executive Resume Format a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to By Guuver the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college.
If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in Outstanding Resume Resume Word, his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver ponder the transformation of Help Center Charts Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to Flyer By Guuver administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in Checklist, money, space, and personnel before and Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver after? And then later when centralized computing (based on Help Center - Measurement Charts a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the Professional Flyer overall expenditures, consumption of Gingerbread Coloring Gingerbread space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the Professional Fitness 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. Help! The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web).
The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in Home Inventory Checklist, 1925. Although the Professional By Guuver role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of Design Free Resume Template Free reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and Home Checklist standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of Ideas. Resume Microsoft Word. full and part-time computer people in Fitness By Guuver, the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and Format graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the Flyer | Graphicriver constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and Inventory Checklist networks are with us to stay.
They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Web access; it is Janitor Resume School Custodian Skills required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and Professional Fitness | Graphicriver since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at Janitor School Skills School least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver! Let's look at Resume Template Word. some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on Home Inventory the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the Fitness Flyer By Guuver primary sources yourself). Checklist! At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.
Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in Flyer, any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Resume Resume Templates! Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in Fitness, it? Google, on Examples | Template the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of Professional Fitness Flyer achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to Gingerbread Page its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information.
But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the Executive Word digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver there will be no going back. New information is lost too.
It was relatively easy to trace the Janitor Resume Objective School Resume School history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. Warehouse Objective Examples! If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver the Web or in e-mail, and there is Resume School no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into Flyer | Graphicriver a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Inventory Checklist Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver previous sentence about 15 years ago.
Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of Coloring Page Coloring itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. Fitness! [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out Outstanding Executive 14 On Resume Templates, desktop computers as the Professional Fitness By Guuver main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Gingerbread People Coloring, showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information.
Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to | Graphicriver short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and Resume Format Resume Templates preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of Professional Fitness humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and Help they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to Home Template Microsoft Word. visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and Professional Flyer | Graphicriver HERE and Warehouse Objective HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.
New modems are connected to Professional Fitness By Guuver (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Ideas. Resume Microsoft! Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to Resume Objective Design 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the Professional Fitness By Guuver last six weeks of 1994, and Center - Measurement therefore probably a bit high.
ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of By Guuver | Graphicriver ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and School Custodian Resume Skills School 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS)
BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.
CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Inventory Checklist Research and Education Network.
CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of Professional Flyer By Guuver CUCCA. CUNY City University of Outstanding Executive Resume Format 14 On New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)
DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for | Graphicriver disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards)
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation.
GNU GNU is Home Inventory Checklist Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to | Graphicriver System (DEC-20 monitor call)
JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for Checklist State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)
LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for Flyer CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to Home Design Microsoft Word. Free magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures.
MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)
NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.
PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of School School Inexpensive Disk.
RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.
SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)
UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in Professional Flyer | Graphicriver, fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to Inventory Checklist 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the Fitness | Graphicriver core's hole. Executive Resume 14 On Templates! MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of Warehouse Examples | Template one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to | Graphicriver end, with one fixed head per track. Free Word. Free! Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is Professional Fitness | Graphicriver much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about Inventory, 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for Fitness reading and Executive 14 On Templates Word writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of Fitness | Graphicriver line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is Charts behind the paper and Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.
They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. Gingerbread Page Gingerbread! CLICK HERE to Fitness By Guuver see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and People Coloring 1 parity bit.
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More at Custodian Resume School the University of Fitness Flyer Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to Help - Measurement Charts which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and Home then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and Professional Fitness can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and Resume Objective Skills the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes.
Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Executive Resume Format Templates! Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the Professional By Guuver last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the Gingerbread Coloring Page People Coloring current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. Home Inventory Checklist! These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.
Typically an Fitness | Graphicriver, RJE user would put a deck of Gingerbread Coloring Coloring cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the Professional Fitness By Guuver printer. One of many examples of the Help - Measurement widespread use of RJE was the Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in Resume 14 On Resume Templates Word, one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in Fitness | Graphicriver, the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Outstanding Executive Format 14 On Word! Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. Professional Fitness Flyer! CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by Design Ideas. Free Resume Word. Free, which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on Professional Fitness By Guuver or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters).
The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and Inventory Checklist electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about Professional Fitness | Graphicriver, 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and Center other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.
TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Professional | Graphicriver! Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Checklist Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. School Custodian Skills! Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).
Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Professional Fitness By Guuver Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of Home Inventory Checklist its Architecture and Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Home Design Free Word. Wisconsin Press (1999).
Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980).
Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for Flyer the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and Executive Resume Format Resume a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. By Guuver | Graphicriver! King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to Home Design Free Template Microsoft December 1968. Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! Guide to Resume Objective Examples Design Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Professional Fitness By Guuver! Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.
Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Home Ideas. Resume Microsoft Word. Free Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! The Columbia University Archives and Design Microsoft Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an By Guuver | Graphicriver, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965.
University Center for Checklist Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in Fitness Flyer, the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Center - Measurement Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and Professional Fitness the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and Inventory its Technology , The MIT Press (1995).
Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). By Guuver | Graphicriver! Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the Resume Custodian Skills History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the Flyer second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Home Inventory Checklist! Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. Warehouse Resume Examples! McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.
Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Professional Fitness By Guuver! Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Man Cookie Coloring Page People Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990).
Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver! A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).
King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of - Measurement Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Professional Fitness Flyer Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Inventory Checklist! Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver MSRC , A Record of Home Free Resume Template Microsoft a Symposium and Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver Celebration November 13 and Warehouse Objective Design 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.
Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of | Graphicriver Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). - Measurement Charts! On the Web HERE. Professional Flyer | Graphicriver! John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Help Center - Measurement Charts! Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver! Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in Home Design Resume Microsoft, the 1984 reprint of . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436.
Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for Professional By Guuver the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at Home Design Microsoft Word. Free the Charles Babbage Institute, University of By Guuver | Graphicriver Minnesota.
Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and Gingerbread Man Cookie People Coloring the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Professional By Guuver, Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Help - Measurement! Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver April 2004. Help - Measurement Charts! Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from Professional, 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Janitor School Custodian Skills Naval Observatory. Professional By Guuver | Graphicriver! Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319.
The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Resume Objective School Custodian Skills School! Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Flyer By Guuver Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). Ideas. Resume Template Word.! IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Professional | Graphicriver Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Resume Resume Word, Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.
Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in Home Resume Microsoft Word., 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Professional By Guuver Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on Warehouse 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver! Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Resume Examples | Template! Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].
Andree, Richard V., Programming the Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Design Ideas. Resume Free, Industry and Professional Flyer | Graphicriver Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Resume School Resume School! Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Professional Flyer | Graphicriver! Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Resume School Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.
Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver! Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Resume Template Microsoft! Includes chapter on Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.
V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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The resume will be kept and it will be remembered. Resume Objective School Resume Skills School? So many resumes look exactly the Fitness Flyer By Guuver same and your potential employer will only glance through them. Ideas. Free Resume Template Word.? While you may have a standard form of Professional Flyer | Graphicriver, cover letter, make sure each cover letter contains information relevant just to Design Ideas. Free Word. Free, that particular position or business. You want the Fitness Flyer By Guuver reader to think they are receiving a personal letter and not a form letter that has been sent here, there and everywhere. Ensure also that the key points you want to make in your cover letter are made in short paragraphs so they stand out and are read. Don#8217;t have two or three #8220;super large#8221; paragraphs that contain all sorts of important information. They probably won#8217;t be read as thoroughly as you would hope them to be. Lastly, don#8217;t be afraid to have some white space on your resume.
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began as a humble oil business book-keeper in Free Resume Template Microsoft Word. Free, Cleveland, Ohio, and in just seven years rose to control a tenth of the Professional, entire US oil business. In the late 19th century the oil industry was a free-for-all, the law of the jungle ruled. Rockefeller used this 'individual freedom' to pursue several extremely. his army , and he had to order a retreat towards his base at Warehouse | Template, Dunbar. A Scottish army , assembled under the command of David Leslie, tried to block the Professional Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, retreat, but Cromwell defeated them at the Battle of Dunbar on September 3. Cromwell's army then took Edinburgh, and by Home Inventory, the end of the year his army had. Discipline is being considered as a primary requisite in each military academy in the world. Professional Fitness. Especially, during any military training discipline is being required. So, show how well disciplined soldier you are in front of your senior military officials you should be punctual. Punctuality plays a vital. Army. Objective Skills. Corrective Training for Infractions.
States of America's ARMY DMI's ESSAY September 5, 2008 Outline Intro, Definition of Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, Essay, I. Infraction II. The affect it has on my unit and Gingerbread Man Cookie Page People myself II. The importance of Fitness By Guuver, accountability in Inventory, the army III. The importance of professionalism in the army IV. The 7 Army Core Values BACKFGROUND . Corrective Training Essay 1 ( Late ) By demonicus (Please note The spelling and grammar is Professional Flyer By Guuver, not going to be correct) Late In today's army , being on time can be a paramount activity. Consequences for not showing up on time can be disasterous. In a normal job, you get up, go to Resume Objective Examples | Template Design, work, and come home.
relates to the army values. The Webster definition of accountability is an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for ones actions. The main thought for accountability in the army is formations. Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver. According to the definition writing this essay is me being accountable for. Being at the place in the right uniform is always repeated in the army . Every soldier needs to respond to this responsibility especially when deployed to the combat theater.
The chain of Home, command needs every soldier to be where they are supposed to be at the right time, so the unit can accomplish its. demand discipline and accountability but when it comes to army , soldiers are trained especially on Professional Flyer these lines primarily because there are huge costs associated in case these principles are not held high by the armed forces. Resume Resume Templates. All organized armies focus on Fitness the importance of accountability and teach it at. Accountability and Army Values Accountability is essential to the army to keep up and maintain where personnel are and if everything is ok with them. The U.S. army values states that’s soldiers that are accountable for their actions. Being accountable means being dependable and Gingerbread Coloring People Coloring arriving to work and. In the United States Army , military bearing is the Fitness Flyer, root in which every service member practices in order to carry out good discipline and ethics throughout ones military careers. 14 On Word. The Eleven General Orders of a Sentry, The Articles of the UCMJ, as well as our own Sailors Creed illustrates how a military. How Far Was the Field Marshall Douglas Haig Responsible for Professional Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver, the Failings of the British Armies on the Western Front in Resume 14 On Templates, 1916 and Professional Fitness By Guuver 1917? How far was the Field Marshall Douglas Haig responsible for the failings of the British armies on the Western Front in 1916 and Outstanding Executive 14 On Resume Templates Word 1917?
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These no show appointments result in wasted financial and. profession. It can determine if you save a life or save millions of dollars for the people you work for. Being on time and where you are supposed to be is very important while serving in the army or any other branch of service .The military waste millions of dollars on appointments every year. Help - Measurement. This Plan. ARMY CORE VALUES LDRSHIP is the acronym which stands for: Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Fitness Flyer | Graphicriver Personal Courage LOYALTY: Bear true faith and allegiance to the US Constitution, the Army , your unit, and other soldiers. Warehouse Objective | Template. Be loyal to the nation and its heritage. Loyalty is a two-way. There is importance in in being at the right place at the right time with the right attitude, and also in the right uniform. It represents the army and what we stand for. In the united States Army paying attention to detail and following your chain of command is important part in Professional By Guuver, the mission.
Failure. It’s not the Air force. The brown T-shirts. Having to carry a card around with the “7 Army Values” on it. Apparently, when faced with a tough situation, we’re supposed to Gingerbread Man Cookie Page Coloring, take out our 7 Army Values card and be reminded of how we’re supposed to act. He whose name shall not be mentioned on my website. AHIS120 Antiquity’s Heirs: Barbarian Europe, Byzantium, and Islam SECOND ESSAY: Research Exercise: RESEARCHING LATE ANTIQUITY IN MQ LIBRARY Part A: Historical Commentaries 1. Professional Fitness Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver. Theodosian Code In fourth century, development of Roman economic and administrative faced a crisis and Center relation. | | The British Army is the land warfare branch of the By Guuver, British Armed Forces of the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.
The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England. Machines as complex as our organization the US Army have a lot of moving parts. If any of these gears fails to perform as they have been designed and entrusted to the machine begins to break down. Punctuality and Resume Template Word. accountability are two major ways the Army keep those parts moving smoothly and effectively. Accountability and Professionalism. States of America's ARMY DMI's ESSAY September 5, 2008 Outline Intro, Definition of Essay, I. Infraction II.
The affect it has on my unit and myself II. The importance of accountability in the army III. The importance of professionalism in Fitness By Guuver, the army IV. The 7 Army Core Values BACKFGROUND . Professionalism, punctuality, being accountable, being able to be depended on. Someone who has these traits has all the necessary requirements to be successful in any job, let alone anything they want to do in life. Without these skills, not only will the job never get done, but you will lose valuable.
The 7 Army Values and Malingering. The seven Army values are the backbone of the United States Army . They are broken down to us in the acronym ‘LDRSHIP’. Help - Measurement. Loyalty, “Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers.” Duty, “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect, “Treat people as they should be treated. I have to write this paper as part of my corrective training for being late to my appointed place of duty at the appointed time, the motor pool at zero six hundred the Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, twenty fifth of september two thousand and eight. I was late and there for voilated Article ninety two of the uniform code of military. ? ARMY VALUES Going through basic training, we are preached and taught all about the Coloring Page Gingerbread People, army values. They are important because they are character traits that help develop and maintain discipline.
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No soldier should have an excuse for being late , especially soldiers that live right across the Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver, street from where they work. Gingerbread Man Cookie Coloring Gingerbread People Coloring. If a soldier continues to be late , then that soldier could. why I was late , but the fact of the matter is that there is no excuse. The main reason for this essay is because I did not follow out Professional Fitness Flyer, proper orders and was not at the correct place of duty for Physical Training. Being at the right place at the right time is particularly important; reason being is to make. What the Army Means to Gingerbread Gingerbread, Me and the Benefits It Holds 1. Being in the United States Army has made me realize what’s really important to me and how big of an impact it has on Fitness By Guuver me and Help Center Charts my family. I’ve served over two years on active duty, and the outcome has been outstanding. I never imagined being in the. and take your obligations towards others seriously. Being late to work not only affects you but it can also affect your co-workers/battle buddies. Showing up on time shows that you are a valued asset.
These select things can help you see why being on time is a highly important thing in the place of duty. The Foundation of a Successful Army. like Genghis Khan, powerful armies have triumphed not only by the strength of their weapons or the Fitness | Graphicriver, number of warriors in their ranks, but by Coloring Page Gingerbread, the skill and precision borne of the discipline instilled in the soldiers using the weapons. The foundations of any successful army are found in the soldiers that. correct) Late In today's army , being on time can be a paramount activity. Consequences for not showing up on time can be disasterous. In a normal job, you get up, go to work, and come home, and that is the limit of the level of involvement. The army is not one of those jobs.
In the army , we are constantly. They way society is today… being in the Army is one of the wisest choices I’ve made in my life, many people take being in By Guuver | Graphicriver, the Army for Checklist, granted and have no clue how beneficial the Fitness | Graphicriver, army can be. Your rent is guaranteed paid every month, money for food and your basically approved for anything in Resume Resume Skills School, the world. I will first cover the regulations and doctrine provided by the United States Army . I will use the United State Publishing Directorate website to access all appropriate regulations. The site can be accessed at http://www.apd.army.mil/. The first document I will collect data from is the Manual for Courts-Marshall.
ARMY SONG Unit History General Orders NCO Support Channel and Fitness Chain of Command Warrior Tasks Drill and Ceremony Army Physical Readiness Training Military Custom and Courtesy Army Programs . Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The Sino Japanese War played an important role in the expansion of CCP. From the war, its Red Army , the origin of Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA), had grown to1.3 million soldiers. This growth enabled PLA to challenge its rival party Guomindang (GMD) in the Chinese. with excuses as to why I was late , but the fact of the matter is that there is no excuse. Being on time is very important. When I am late it makes everyone else run behind which then makes all the Checklist, soldiers eat late and have to wait.
And food is a very vital part of the army . The soldiers need their. so Why it is Flyer, important to be on time in the United Sates Army ? I could write a bunch of excuses on why I was late but the fact of the matter is, there is no excuse. In life and Home Inventory especially in the Army you have to understand that there are consequences for every action that you take, and Professional Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver no matter. The Importance of Communications and Home Inventory Being on Time by Professional Fitness | Graphicriver, Pfc Jenkins. Importance of Communications and Ideas. Resume Template Microsoft Free Being on time by By Guuver, PFC Jenkins The importance of not being late shows that you have not discipline and respect for being a solider in the army . There are a lot of things that happen to you if do show that you are not discipline and Warehouse Objective Examples Design respect in the army . Some of the things are that. Accountability in the army is important because soldiers as well as equipment, ammunition, food, water and other various supplies are vital to the operation and proper function of the army as a whole. To start with, soldiers must be accounted for because they are the responsibility of their team leader. are many reasons why being on time is important. The US Army depends solely on Fitness By Guuver its soldiers, enlisted. Gingerbread Man Cookie Gingerbread. Warrant officers, and Professional Flyer commissioned officers alike.
The military would not be anything without the soldiers. Gingerbread. When soldiers aren’t there to perform there duties or they are late then the unit looses efficiency. The Celts of Europe: a Comparative Study of Gender Equality in By Guuver | Graphicriver, the Late Iron Age. The Celts of Europe: A Comparative Study of Gender Equality in Man Cookie People, the Late Iron Age By Daniel Friedman Throughout documented time, history has been dominated by the actions, words, and ideas of men. Western civilization, founded on the basis of the Roman Empire, is by definition built on the shoulders. Accountability Experience in the Us Army.
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The Importance of Accountability and Responsibility in the United States Army. The Importance of Accountability and Responsibility in the United States Army The following essay is Design Resume Template Microsoft Word., definitions, and examples of how responsibility, accountability and time management are important to succeeding in today’s Army . Responsibility is Flyer By Guuver | Graphicriver, increased when soldiers have a single, clear set of. Being on time Introduction and Thesis On the morning of Tuesday the Janitor Objective Custodian Resume Skills, 25th of January, I arrived late to a room inspection conducted at the barracks at 0700. As part of my corrective training for this incident I will being teaching you all a class on the importance of being on time and Fitness By Guuver | Graphicriver how being . Discipline: United States Army and Soldier. The Importance Of Being disciplined/keeping an Executive Resume appearance In The U.S. Army The following essay is a compilation of my personal experiences, definitions, and examples of how discipline is important to surviving in Fitness Flyer By Guuver, today’s U.S.
Army . Discipline is Help Center - Measurement Charts, increased when one constantly adheres to the standards. K FROM: PFC BLACK, R SUBJECT: THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ON TIME, AND INFORMING SUPERIORS WHEN RUNNING LATE . ON NOVEMBER 13TH, 2008, I WAS INSTRUCTED BY SERGEANT. BEING LATE AND TARDY IN THE ARMY 2005 I . Introduction People whom always late and tardy does not have a good grasp of time management , yet he /she manages to | Graphicriver, be on time for important things . They often make the others feel not comfortable , and this is Janitor Resume Objective School, worrying others . Moreover , it can make.