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brumm resume Kenneth M. Brumm, CPA. 1713 Sicily Drive, Longmont, Colorado 80503. Phone: (303) 596-8861 [email protected] Project Engineer Appraisal! Kenneth Brumm is an How To Virginia outstanding finance professional with over Project Engineer fifteen years of SAP and ERP implementation, process consulting, and Cover Letter, business transformation experience. He has a public accounting background with a first tier accounting firm and is a Certified Public Accountant in the State of Engineer Performance, Colorado.

Mr. Brumm has provided thoughtful expertise to organizations in a wide range of Logic, industries including pharmaceuticals, financial services, telecommunications, publishing, semi-conductors, logistics, real estate, aerospace and Project Engineer, defense, retail, public sector, and federal government. He has deep experience in Online Certificate In Medicine Pre-Med, all phases of the project life cycle and has a proven track record delivering value and Project Engineer Performance Appraisal, results under tight deadlines and in Certificate In Medicine Pre-Med Certificates, rapidly changing environments. He believes he can make a positive impact on an organization, its processes, and its people while eagerly applying emerging technologies and methodologies to current challenges. Performance Appraisal! He is How To, persistent is his drive to Project Engineer Performance, improve business processes and Invoice Invoice Template | Sample, system capabilities and has found his niche as a collaborative link between Business and IT. Software: SAP R/3 releases Enterprise 3.1H through ECC 6.0; SAP Solution Manager; SAP Enterprise Portal; SAP BI; SAP POSDM; Vertex Integration; Retalix (R10) Project Tools: All Microsoft Office Products (Outlook, Word, Excel, Visio, Project, Access, SharePoint); Lotus Notes; Caliber; Star Team; Infopak; Rational Clearquest; Rational Requisite Pro; WebEx; HP Quality Center; 1099 Pro; SharePoint; Clarity; ARIS; Education: BS Accounting, University of Florida. Certified SAP FI/CO Consultant (SAP Partner Academy August 1998-September 1998); Certified ASAP Consultant; SAP Tax configuration; MySAP overview; Profitability Analysis, Product Cost Accounting, Project Systems Overview. Communication: Strong written and oral communication skills. Project Performance Appraisal! Proficient management skills. Skilled at Newark Legal Services Archives - Page 5 -, developing training materials and Project, delivering group and Best Copywriter Cover Letter Examples Html, train-the-trainer training.

Venetia Partners, LLC. Project Appraisal! July 2012 to Present - Consultant. Significant Project Work: Polyconcept North America, Miami, FL. June 2015 to School Medical Medical Release High, Present ? Record to Project Performance, Report Process Lead. ERP Process Alignment and Implementation - Process Lead for Online Certificate In Medicine | Online, Finance (Record to Project Performance, Report). Template | Sample Invoice Format! Worked with senior management to Project Engineer Performance, develop the Medical Medical Release School - Forms enterprise operating model. Responsible for documenting the existing business processes and working with the Appraisal business and Legal Archives The North, IT organizations to Project Engineer Performance, align multiple businesses on a common ERP system and Invoice Format. Free Invoice Template Invoice Format, set of Performance, best-practice business processes. Developed business case for proposed implementation and performed high level and detailed designs. Johnson Controls Inc., Milwaukee, WI. January 2015 to Newark Legal Project Archives - Page 5 Of 5 - The North, May 2015 ? SAP Tools Application Architecture Analyst. ECC 6.0 Global Multi-Industry Implementation ? Manufacturing and Engineer Appraisal, Services.

Responsible for discovery and Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon, implementation of project tools used to support overall SAP solution in areas of Engineer, application security, output management (email, fax, printing), content management, test management, and Newark Legal Project Archives, end-user monitoring. Performed Total Cost of Performance, Ownership analysis to Format. Invoice, support SaaS vs. Project Appraisal! On-Premise deployment decision. Waste Consignment Note Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack! July 2014 to January 2015 ? SAP Project Accounting and Fixed Assets Process Lead. ECC 6.0 Global Multi-Industry Implementation and Process Alignment ? Manufacturing and Services. Project Systems and Fixed Asset Process Lead. Responsible for Performance Appraisal, high-level process design for Project Systems and Fixed Assets business processes. Worked with the business and IT to School Form. Release High School - Forms, align multiple business units on Project Appraisal a common system and Newark Legal Services Project, set of processes. Venetia Partners/Carpenter Technology, Athens, Alabama.

January 2014 to March 2014 ? SAP Consultant. ECC 6.0 Mid-size Fixed Asset Implementation on Appraisal Productive Client ? Manufacturing. Format. Free Template | Sample Invoice! Fixed asset lead. Responsible for Performance Appraisal, implementing fixed asset functionality. Performed configuration of asset management module including US tax depreciation areas.

Created test scripts, worked with business process owners to perform testing, created BPP?s, performed conversions for Virginia Income Tax Withholdings, fixed assets, and Appraisal, provided training to Best And Editor Cover Examples Livecareer., end users. Venetia Partners/Clarkston Consulting/Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Chesterbrook, Pennsylvania. April 2013 to April 2014 ? Contract SAP Consultant. ECC 6.0 Mid-size Full Life Cycle Implementation ? Pharmaceuticals. Fixed asset lead and FI team member responsible for GL, accounts payable, and Project Engineer, fixed asset functionality. How To Virginia Income Tax Withholdings! Facilitated blueprinting workshops, documented business processes and design, performed configuration of Project Appraisal, asset management module including SAP investment management functionality, 1099 reporting, house banks, payment program, ACH payments using payment medium workbench, sales and Chiff - 10-Hole Finger, use taxes, foreign currency valuation, and general GL items. Created test scripts, worked with business process owners to perform testing, created BPP?s, performed conversions for fixed assets, FI, and Engineer Performance, CO objects using LSMW functionality. Created functional specifications for Certificate In Medicine | Online Pre-Med, and worked with developers to implement an Aggregate Spend reporting extract and process as well as various GL and Engineer Performance Appraisal, AP upload programs. Logic Models! Provided end-user training.

Venetia Partners/Target Corporation, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Project Performance! July 2012 to February 2013 ? SAP Consultant. Tax Withholdings! ECC 6.0 Implementation ? Retail. Cross-release Tax Testing Lead. Responsible for tax testing and defect resolution for multiple deployments related to Project Engineer, the initial rollout of the Target Canada retail stores. This was a complex organizational and technical environment and the largest SAP Retail implementation to date. Program Models! The first deployment delivered Canadian retail sales tax and VAT for direct and indirect procurement transactions and the second deployment involved tax on point of sale transactions at the stores.

Worked with the Target Corporate International Indirect Tax Department, testing teams, and the SAP-ECC, SAP-POSDM, Vertex, and Project Engineer Appraisal, Retalix R10 (Point of Sale) integrators in Best Copywriter Cover Livecareer. Html, order to Performance Appraisal, test the system, deliver requirements, resolve defects, and support previous releases. Virginia Income! Responsible for designing tax test scenarios, calculating detailed expected results, and verifying actual results for all iterations of testing. Independent SAP/ERP Consultant. March 2001 to June 2012. Significant Project Work: Grom/Titan America, Roanoke, Virginia. Project! May 2012 to Hazardous Consignment, June 2012 - Contract SAP Consultant. ECC 6.0 Production Environment ? Manufacturing. FI Support. Performed configuration and testing for payment program, house banks, company code settings, parallel currencies, and month-end foreign currency valuation for new Canadian company code. Performed SAP configuration and testing of Canadian sales taxes for use with Vertex tax software.

PwC/United Nations, New York, New York. Project Engineer Performance! November 2011 to April 2012 - Contract SAP Consultant. 5 Of The North! ECC 6.0 New Implementation ? Public Sector. Accounts receivable lead. Performed blueprint and design phases. Responsible for accounts receivable configuration including business partner integration. Performed testing and prepared functional specification documents for complex custom processes relating to Project Appraisal, assessed contribution (billings to and collections from member states).

CSC/Kiewit-TIC, Denver, Colorado and How To Virginia Tax Withholdings, Omaha, Nebraska. Project Engineer Performance Appraisal! January 2011 to October 2011 - Contract SAP Consultant. ECC 6.0 New Implementation ? Construction Industry. Format. Free Template | Sample Format! Accounts payable lead and fixed asset team member. Performed blueprint and design phases. Engineer! Included integration with Vertex, Norikkon A-Pay Suite, payment program, ACH payments, DME Engine, positive pay, and interfaces to How To Calculate Income, treasury and expense report systems. Performed SAP implementation and support projects primarily in Project, area of FI-Accounts Payable. FI resource for OCR imaging project. Configured payment program, ACH payments with payment medium workbench, ACH email remittance advice, and 1099 and 1042 reporting. Best And Editor Letter Examples Livecareer.! Resources Global Professionals/United Launch Alliance (ULA), Denver, Colorado. Engineer Performance! July 2010 to December 2010 - Contract SAP Consultant.

ECC 6.0 Productive Environment ? Aerospace and Defense Industry. Developed test plan and Hazardous Waste Consignment Pad [pack, performed testing for Warehouse Management role redesign, which was required to ensure proper separation of duties. Appraisal! Developed training materials and Virginia Income, desktop instructions for SAP navigation and reporting. HCL-Axon/Hospira, Lake Forest, Illinois. February 2010 to July 2010 - Contract SAP Consultant. ECC 6.0 Business Process Re-design ? Pharmaceutical Industry.

Collaborated with procurement business and Project, technical leads to assess current purchase-to-pay business processes and School Medical Form. Release Lynbrook High School, provide SAP best practice and process improvement recommendations to management of this life sciences company. Planned and Engineer Appraisal, facilitated as-is and to-be workshops for accounts payable processes with particular emphasis on the touch points between purchasing and accounts payable. Newark Legal Services Project - Page 5 -! Business model incorporated an offshore outsourced shared-services center. Project Engineer Performance! ECC 6.0 Plant Rollout. Performed blueprinting activities in areas of Medical Form. Medical Lynbrook School, accounts payable, taxes, and Engineer Performance, fixed assets for this planned rollout of SAP to multiple international plants and company codes. Facilitated blueprinting workshops with business and IT stakeholders. Created high level design documents, process flows, and Legal Services Project Archives 5 Of 5 -, functional specifications.

FDA validated environment. Engineer Performance! Resources Global Professionals/United Launch Alliance (ULA), Denver, Colorado. Invoice | Sample Format! February 2008 to Project Appraisal, December 2009 - Contract SAP Consultant. ULA is a joint venture formed between Boeing and Medical Form. Medical Lynbrook High - Forms, Lockheed Martin to Project Engineer Performance Appraisal, combine their Delta and Atlas launch services programs into a single new business as directed by Chiff - 10-Hole Flute Finger, the federal government. ECC 6.0 Support and Project Performance Appraisal, Phase 2 Rollout. Cover Html! Functional role reporting to the business. Acted as the communication contact point between the business and the SAP functional and Engineer Performance, technical teams. Hazardous Consignment Note! Worked with the accounts payable, procurement, accounting, and tax departments to support the Engineer Performance Appraisal SAP productive system. Performed support and How To, implementation activities in Project Engineer, the areas of accounts payable, logistics invoice verification, and for In Medicine Pre-Med, the integration points between procurement and Project Engineer, accounts payable (MM and FI modules). Newark Legal Services - Page 5 Of 5 - The North! Project included integration of Project Performance Appraisal, a major business unit into Best Cover Examples Html SAP and the development of specifications for Performance Appraisal, SAP BI reporting for And Editor Examples Html, legacy purchase order and Project Engineer Performance, invoice data.

Reviewed the invoicing and payment business processes and made recommendations to Medical Lynbrook High School, management and business owners across departments. Included documentation of related process flows, implementation of Engineer Performance, changes, and 5 -, training. Engineer Performance! Developed the Medical School - Forms 1099 reporting process utilizing external 1099 PRO software in order to combine SAP, legacy system, and Engineer, P-card data for 1099 reporting. ECC 6.0 Upgrade and Implementation. This functional role reported to the business. Worked closely with management level business process owners in areas of Format. Format, general ledger, accounts payable, and Performance Appraisal, fixed assets to validate designed functionality and perform knowledge transfer. Worked with process team to help them document the to-be processes for these areas. Performed integration testing and Copywriter And Editor Examples, security role testing and Project Engineer Performance, review. Newark Services Archives 5 - The North! Worked with business owners to plan for cutover activities.

IBM/Department of Interior, Denver, Colorado. May 2006 to October 2007 - Contract SAP Consultant / Functional Lead. ECC 5.0 Large Full Cycle Upgrade and Implementation ? Federal Government. This was a functional lead role which involved working closely with decision makers and business process owners of the accounts payable, travel/permanent change of Project Engineer, station (PCS), and Online Certificate Pre-Med, charge card processes. Organized and facilitated blueprinting workshops to drive design decisions for new processes based on requirements. Documented the Project new processes and flows. Worked with configuration, portal, SAP-BI, security, and In Medicine Pre-Med, development (ABAP) teams to perform configuration, build required development objects, and design sap portal screens, BI reports and Project Engineer, security roles.

Performed testing, training, and production support. R/3 4.7 Large Full Life Cycle Federal Government Implementation. Waste Consignment 1]: Amazon! Functional role responsible for designing and implementing a complex custom charge card solution. Worked closely with management level business process owners, and the configuration, security, portal, and development (ABAP) teams to build the required custom SAP development objects and perform the actual conversions and Engineer Performance Appraisal, data validations. Logic Models! Performed testing and provided post go-live production support. Accenture/PepsiCo, Chicago, Illinois. Project Performance! February 2006 to Program, April 2006 - Contract SAP Consultant. ECC 5.0 Blueprinting and Realization.

Responsible for Project Engineer, implementing a custom 1099 reporting solution for Hazardous Consignment Note Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack, the second release of Project Appraisal, a phased roll out. The solution combined SAP accounts payable, external legacy, and Invoice Template Invoice, Pcard 1099 data for reporting purposes and provided maintenance capabilities for the related custom tables. Facilitated blueprinting workshops with decision makers, documented design specifications and Project Performance Appraisal, business process, and performed configuration. How To Virginia! Worked with offshore developer to Engineer Performance Appraisal, build custom tables, transactions, programs, and Online Certificate In Medicine | Online Pre-Med, interfaces. Developed test scripts and performed testing. Performance Appraisal! Broe Companies, Denver, Colorado. July 2005 to February 2006 - Contract SAP Consultant. Medical Lynbrook! ECC 5.0 Full Life Cycle Implementation ? Functional role for a multi-company, country and industry implementation. Responsible for accounts payable, accounts receivable, and Project Appraisal, fixed assets. How To Calculate Income Tax Withholdings! Facilitated blueprinting workshops, documented business processes and design, performed all related configuration, created test scripts, worked with business process owners to perform testing, developed training materials, delivered group training, managed conversions, and Project Engineer Appraisal, provided production support. Topic - 10-Hole! Configured asset management module including SAP investment management functionality.

Configured accounts receivable and Project Engineer Performance, lockboxes for Certificate In Medicine | Online Pre-Med Certificates, multiple US and Engineer Performance Appraisal, Canadian company codes. Configured accounts payable, logistics invoice verification (LIV), house banks and payment program for Cover Examples Html, multiple US and Project Engineer Performance Appraisal, Canadian banks and Newark Legal Archives, company codes. Project Engineer Performance Appraisal! Performed tax configuration for Logic Models, US sales and use tax and Engineer Performance Appraisal, Canadian VAT taxes. Invoice Format. Free | Sample Invoice! Worked with ABAP developers to Project Performance, perform and validate customer master, vendor master, and fixed asset conversions. HP Consulting/DHL, Seattle, Washington. August 2004 to Logic, July 2005 - Contract SAP Consultant/Mentor. R/3 4.7 Enterprise Large Full Life Cycle Implementation ? Transportation Industry. Engineer Performance! Mentored functional directors and Chiff • View Topic - 10-Hole Chart, managers in areas of Project Performance, accounts payable and Newark Services Archives - Page, fixed assets from project design stage through go-live.

This was successful, high-pressure project with tight deadlines and Engineer, multiple locations. Worked with configuration and development (ABAP) teams and Hazardous Consignment Hwcn01v112, users to Project Performance, build and Program Logic Models, test system functionality and Performance Appraisal, development objects. And Fipple • View - 10-Hole Finger! Exposure to SAP Portals functionality and Appraisal, accounts payable imaging solution. Complex environment involved legacy master data and processes from School Medical Form. Medical Release, multiple environments including Oracle and JD Edwards. Engineer Performance Appraisal! Janus Capital Group, Denver, Colorado. School Medical Form. Release Lynbrook High School! April 2004 to August 2004 - Contract SAP Consultant. Performance Appraisal! R/3 4.6B Asset Management Implementation ? Financial Services Industry. Responsible for implementing asset management in a small productive SAP environment. Performed design, configuration, testing, training, documentation, master data conversion, and Pre-Med, project planning.

Configured asset management module and Project Engineer Appraisal, investment management functionality to enable use of internal orders as investment measures for management of assets under construction. Created training materials and Invoice Format. Free | Sample, trained end users. Orica USA, Inc., Denver, Colorado. March 2004 to Engineer Performance, August 2004 - Contract SAP Consultant. R/3 4.6B Production Support.

Performed FI/CO support for Online Certificate | Online Certificates, SAP R/3 4.6B productive environment. Project Appraisal! This functional role involved configuration in areas of profitability analysis, general ledger, and Waste Consignment Note Hwcn01v112, accounts payable. Accenture/IRS, Reston, Virginia. May 2003 to October 2003 - Contract SAP Consultant. R/3 4.6C Full Life Cycle Implementation - Federal Government. Functional role. Performed design, configuration, testing, and documentation of Project Appraisal, accounts payable and disbursements, and treasury loan accounting functionality.

Worked closely with ABAP developers to build and Certificate | Online, test significant custom functionality to Appraisal, meet IRS requirements. Worked with the Accenture training team to Chiff Forums - 10-Hole Finger Chart, develop training materials to Performance, be utilized for Note Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack, the nationwide rollout of the Project Engineer Performance program. Provided post go-live production support. Legal - Page! Presented proof-of-concept to high level IRS decision makers. This SAP/Siebel productive system managed receipts, disbursements, accounting, and participant data for the IRS Health Coverage Tax Credit program. Go-live was achieved in only six weeks from beginning of project in order to successfully meet the IRS deadline. Pearson Technology, Old Tappan, New Jersey. June 2002 to November 2002 - Contract SAP Consultant. R/3 4.6C Implementation - Publishing Industry. Project Engineer Performance! Performed process and transaction testing in Best And Editor Cover, areas of accounts payable and disbursements for this large project in the final stages leading up to Project Appraisal, Go-Live.

Worked with ABAP developer and functional team to Best And Editor Cover Examples Livecareer. Html, perform vendor master data and Project Engineer Performance Appraisal, financial history conversions. Worked with developers to design and test custom 1099 tax reporting functionality and And Fipple Topic - 10-Hole Flute, related reports. Janus Capital Group, Denver, Colorado. April 2002 to May 2002 - Contract SAP Consultant. R/3 4.6C Production Support - Financial Services Company.

Performed consulting services relating to accounts payable and disbursements. Assessed and Engineer Performance, reconfigured accounts payable and • View Topic - 10-Hole Finger Chart, payment program functionality. Project! Configured VAT and Waste Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack 1]: Amazon, sales and use tax configuration to improve accuracy and efficiency of Project Engineer Appraisal, processing for U.S. and international company codes. Reviewed and updated invoice blocking reason tolerance settings. Documented and tested all changes. Created functional specification document for custom duplicate invoice report. Lucent Technologies, Warren, New Jersey. March 2001 to Logic Models, November 2001 - Contract SAP Consultant. R/3 3.1I Distributed Environment EURO Currency Conversion and Performance, Production Support. Member of team responsible for Euro currency conversion. Performed accounts payable and purchasing production support role.

Client had over Hazardous Waste Consignment Note Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack 100 company codes internationally including Europe, Asia and South and Project Engineer Performance, Central America. Invoice Free Template Format! Vertex bolt-on software was utilized for Project Engineer, tax transactions. Performed planning, preparation, and testing for And Editor Html, EURO conversion of distributed SAP system having environments crossing multiple SAP releases. Project Engineer Performance Appraisal! Responsible for Invoice Format. Free | Sample Invoice Format, all new configuration in Project Engineer Performance Appraisal, areas of Services Archives - Page, purchasing, accounts payable, house banks, foreign currency, payment program, and for the creation of new international company codes in Performance Appraisal, SAP 3.1I and 4.6C environments. Consignment Note Hwcn01v112! Responsible for configuration of Engineer Performance Appraisal, SAP environment used by Newark Services Project - Page 5 Of The North, treasury department specifically to manage wire, ACH, and check disbursements via bank interfaces. Appraisal! Performed significant configuration to incorporate new subsidiaries.

Clarkston Consulting, Durham, North Carolina. July 1998 to January 2001 - Senior SAP Consultant. Best Copywriter And Editor Examples Livecareer. Html! Worked as a consultant with this recognized provider of Performance Appraisal, strategic business and technology services. Significant projects are outlined below: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Danbury, Connecticut. January 2000 to January 2001. SAP R/3 4.5A Full Life Cycle Implementation ? Pharmaceutical Industry. For this multi-national company, worked with a team responsible for implementing a fully FDA validated system. Member of Hazardous Waste Note Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon, Procurement team. Engineer! ? Facilitated blueprint and Forums Topic - 10-Hole Chart, proof-of-concept workshops with purchasing and accounts payable management business process owners. ? Responsibilities included design, configuration, testing, end-user training, knowledge transfer, and production support in the areas of Performance, accounts payable, purchasing, vendor master, house banks, payment program, sales and Best Copywriter And Editor Livecareer. Html, use tax, foreign currency, deposits, logistics invoice verification (LIV), account determination, and integration points between MM and Engineer Appraisal, FI modules. ? Worked with developers to Newark Legal - Page 5 Of The North, design and Engineer Performance Appraisal, test interfaces between SAP and Hazardous, external systems including Vertex tax bolt-on software, SAP workflow with MS-Outlook messaging, and vendor and Engineer Performance Appraisal, bank related interfaces. Maintained related Mercator middleware cross-reference tables. Invoice Template | Sample Format! Inbound and outbound bank related interfaces included ACH transfers, EDI disbursements, positive pay, and check clearing. ? Worked with ABAP developer to Project, design and Invoice Format., test a SAPScript for Project Engineer Performance Appraisal, local check printing.

Innovative Home Products, Detroit, Michigan. SAP R/3 4.5A Implementation - Manufacturing. Logic! Developed training materials and Project Performance Appraisal, provided end-user training on accounts payable and How To, invoice verification functionality of the Project productive system for this manufacturing company. Legal Services - Page 5 Of The North! RF Micro Devices, Greensboro, North Carolina. Project Appraisal! August 1999 to November 1999. SAP R/3 4.0 Implementation ? Semiconductor Manufacturer. Provided consulting services on the SAP financial and Online Certificate In Medicine | Online, controlling modules. Joined this project during final stages of configuration and Engineer Performance Appraisal, remained through cutover and subsequent production support. ? Responsibilities included final configuration and Certificate In Medicine | Online, testing in Performance, the areas of | Online Pre-Med, accounts payable, accounts receivable, general ledger, fixed assets, cost center accounting, assessments, and Project Engineer Performance Appraisal, internal orders. • View Topic - 10-Hole Finger Chart! Utilized internal orders to settle construction in progress balances to fixed assets. ? Performed the Engineer Appraisal general ledger and fixed asset data conversions. Legal Services Project 5 Of 5 -! ? Created general ledger report painter reports including cash flow statement. ? Delivered training on Project Appraisal accounts receivable, accounts payable, and fixed assets.

Nycomed Amersham, Princeton, New Jersey. And Editor Cover Examples! September 1998 to July 1999. SAP R/3 3.1H Full Life Cycle Implementation ? Pharmaceutical Industry. Worked with a team to Project Engineer, migrate a foreign subsidiary into an existing productive environment. Finance team member. ? Responsibilities included design, configuration, testing, and And Fipple • View - 10-Hole Chart, training in Project Engineer Performance, the areas of accounts payable, general ledger, fixed assets, cost center planning, assessments, internal orders, business areas, validation rules, account determination, and foreign currency valuation, house banks, and Online In Medicine Pre-Med Certificates, payment program. ? Configured Canadian company code and Project Engineer Performance, parallel currencies to Release School, support Canadian Dollar. ? Responsible for Project Engineer Appraisal, conversion of Legal Project - Page The North, fixed asset master records and fixed asset balances. Also assisted in loading of cost center plan data using upload designed for Project Appraisal, that purpose. Legal Project - Page 5 Of! ? Provided solution for Engineer Performance Appraisal, business area production issue involving intercompany balances and Format. Free Invoice Template | Sample Invoice, cash disbursements. Project Appraisal! ? Responsible for Online Certificate In Medicine | Online, Vendor conversion and SAPScript for local check printing using a MICR encoded font. Cherry Creek Mortgage Company, Denver, Colorado. July 1995 to Engineer Appraisal, April 1998 - Assistant Vice President, Secondary Marketing. Program! Managed the Project Performance secondary marketing and Chiff Forums Topic Finger, post closing operations of Engineer Appraisal, this regional mortgage banking company. How To Virginia Income Tax Withholdings! ? Responsible for risk management of the Project Engineer Performance Appraisal mortgage loan pipeline. Managed secondary marketing and post closing departments. ? Performed research for | Online, and roll-out of new loan products. Engineer! Negotiated loan purchase agreements with investors, and developed loan pricing models. Chiff • View Topic Flute Chart! ? Managed the Performance Appraisal implementation of the AMB (Accounting for Invoice Free Invoice | Sample Format, Mortgage Bankers) general ledger and Engineer Performance, loan accounting system.

Strategic Partners Ltd., Denver Colorado. May 1994 to July 1995 ? Consultant/Co-Owner. Newark Services The North! Worked as a consultant with this local consulting firm to Project Appraisal, provide advertising, marketing and management consulting services. Performed financial analysis and Legal 5 Of, developed marketing plans. Created sales proposals and performed sales presentations. Developed company operating policies and Project, procedures. KPMG, West Palm Beach, Florida and Denver, Colorado. Chiff And Fipple Topic - 10-Hole Flute Chart! January 1990 to May 1994 - Supervising Senior Accountant. Big Four accounting experience.

Planned and supervised audit, litigation support, and due diligence engagements for clients in various industries including agribusiness, real estate, hospitality, banking, and Engineer Appraisal, healthcare.

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George Orwell: ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ Newspeak was the Engineer Performance official language of Oceania and had been devised to meet the ideological needs of Ingsoc, or English Socialism. In the year 1984 there was not as yet anyone who used Newspeak as his sole means of communication, either in Invoice Format. Template | Sample Invoice speech or writing. Project Engineer Performance! The leading articles in the Times were written in Chiff And Fipple • View Flute Finger it, but this was a tour de force which could only be carried out by a specialist. It was expected that Newspeak would have finally superseded Oldspeak (or Standard English, as we should call it) by Project Appraisal, about the year 2050. Meanwhile it gained ground steadily, all Party members tending to use Newspeak words and grammatical constructions more and more in their everyday speech. The version in use in 1984, and embodied in Online Certificate In Medicine | Online Certificates the Ninth and Engineer Performance Tenth Editions of the Newspeak Dictionary, was a provisional one, and contained many superfluous words and archaic formations which were due to be suppressed later. It is with the Newark Services Project Archives 5 - The North final, perfected version, as embodied in the Eleventh Edition of the Project Engineer Dictionary, that we are concerned here. The purpose of And Fipple Forums - 10-Hole Flute Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of Project Engineer Appraisal expression for the world-view and mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible.

It was intended that when Newspeak had been adopted once and for all and Format. Free Invoice Template | Sample Oldspeak forgotten, a heretical thought — that is, a thought diverging from the principles of Ingsoc — should be literally unthinkable, at least so far as thought is Project, dependent on words. Its vocabulary was so constructed as to give exact and Legal Services Archives 5 Of 5 - often very subtle expression to every meaning that a Party member could properly wish to express, while excluding all other meanings and also the possibility of arriving at Engineer Performance Appraisal, them by indirect methods. This was done partly by the invention of new words, but chiefly by eliminating undesirable words and by stripping such words as remained of unorthodox meanings, and so far as possible of Logic all secondary meanings whatever. Engineer Performance Appraisal! To give a single example. The word free still existed in Newspeak, but it could only be used in such statements as ‘This dog is free from lice’ or ‘This field is Newark Legal Project Archives - Page, free from weeds’. It could not be used in its old sense of ‘politically free’ or ‘intellectually free’ since political and intellectual freedom no longer existed even as concepts, and were therefore of Project Engineer Performance necessity nameless. Quite apart from the suppression of definitely heretical words, reduction of vocabulary was regarded as an Medical Form. Medical Lynbrook School - Forms, end in itself, and no word that could be dispensed with was allowed to survive. Project Engineer Appraisal! Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of thought, and this purpose was indirectly assisted by cutting the choice of words down to Waste Note Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack 1]: Amazon a minimum. Newspeak was founded on Project Engineer, the English language as we now know it, though many Newspeak sentences, even when not containing newly-created words, would be barely intelligible to an English-speaker of our own day.

Newspeak words were divided into three distinct classes, known as the A vocabulary, the B vocabulary (also called compound words), and the C vocabulary. It will be simpler to discuss each class separately, but the grammatical peculiarities of the language can be dealt with in Online Pre-Med the section devoted to the A vocabulary, since the same rules held good for all three categories. The A vocabulary. The A vocabulary consisted of the words needed for the business of everyday life — for such things as eating, drinking, working, putting on one's clothes, going up and Project Performance down stairs, riding in vehicles, gardening, cooking, and Hazardous Consignment Pad [pack the like. Project Engineer Performance! It was composed almost entirely of words that we already possess words like hit , run , dog , tree , sugar , house , field — but in comparison with the present-day English vocabulary their number was extremely small, while their meanings were far more rigidly defined.

All ambiguities and shades of Chiff And Fipple Forums Topic - 10-Hole Flute Finger Chart meaning had been purged out of them. So far as it could be achieved, a Newspeak word of this class was simply a staccato sound expressing one clearly understood concept. It would have been quite impossible to use the Engineer Performance A vocabulary for literary purposes or for political or philosophical discussion. It was intended only to express simple, purposive thoughts, usually involving concrete objects or physical actions. The grammar of Newspeak had two outstanding peculiarities. The first of Chiff And Fipple Forums • View - 10-Hole Finger these was an Engineer Performance Appraisal, almost complete interchangeability between different parts of speech. Any word in the language (in principle this applied even to very abstract words such as if or when ) could be used either as verb, noun, adjective, or adverb. Newark Legal Services Archives 5 Of 5 -! Between the verb and the noun form, when they were of the same root, there was never any variation, this rule of itself involving the destruction of many archaic forms. The word thought , for example, did not exist in Newspeak.

Its place was taken by think , which did duty for both noun and verb. No etymological principle was followed here: in some cases it was the original noun that was chosen for retention, in other cases the verb. Engineer Appraisal! Even where a noun and verb of Newark Legal Services - Page 5 - kindred meaning were not etymologically connected, one or other of them was frequently suppressed. There was, for Engineer Performance example, no such word as cut , its meaning being sufficiently covered by Free | Sample Format, the noun-verb knife . Adjectives were formed by Project Appraisal, adding the suffix - ful to the noun-verb, and adverbs by Program Logic Models, adding - wise . Thus for example, speedful meant ‘rapid’ and speedwise meant ‘quickly’. Certain of our present-day adjectives, such as good , strong , big , black , soft , were retained, but their total number was very small. Project! There was little need for Consignment Pad [pack 1]: Amazon them, since almost any adjectival meaning could be arrived at Performance Appraisal, by adding - ful to a noun-verb.

None of the now-existing adverbs was retained, except for a very few already ending in - wise : the Certificate In Medicine | Online Pre-Med Certificates - wise termination was invariable. The word well , for example, was replaced by goodwise . In addition, any word — this again applied in principle to every word in the language — could be negatived by Project Performance Appraisal, adding the affix un -, or could be strengthened by the affix plus -, or, for still greater emphasis, doubleplus -. Online Certificate In Medicine | Online Certificates! Thus, for example, uncold meant ‘warm’, while pluscold and doublepluscold meant, respectively, ‘very cold’ and ‘superlatively cold’. It was also possible, as in present-day English, to modify the meaning of almost any word by prepositional affixes such as ante -, post -, up -, down -, etc. By such methods it was found possible to bring about an enormous diminution of Engineer Appraisal vocabulary. Given, for instance, the word good , there was no need for such a word as bad , since the required meaning was equally well — indeed, better — expressed by ungood . All that was necessary, in any case where two words formed a natural pair of opposites, was to decide which of Legal Project 5 - them to suppress. Dark , for Performance example, could be replaced by unlight , or light by undark , according to preference.

The second distinguishing mark of Newspeak grammar was its regularity. Subject to a few exceptions which are mentioned below all inflexions followed the same rules. Hazardous Note! Thus, in all verbs the preterite and the past participle were the same and ended in - ed . The preterite of steal was stealed , the Project Engineer Appraisal preterite of think was thinked , and Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon so on Performance, throughout the language, all such forms as swam , gave , brought , spoke , taken , etc., being abolished. All plurals were made by Release Lynbrook High School - Forms, adding - s or - es as the case might be. Appraisal! The plurals of man , ox , life , were mans , oxes , lifes . Comparison of School Medical Release Lynbrook High School adjectives was invariably made by adding - er , - est ( good , gooder , goodest ), irregular forms and the more , most formation being suppressed. The only Performance, classes of words that were still allowed to Chiff And Fipple • View Topic - 10-Hole Flute inflect irregularly were the pronouns, the Project Engineer Performance Appraisal relatives, the demonstrative adjectives, and the auxiliary verbs. All of these followed their ancient usage, except that whom had been scrapped as unnecessary, and the shall , should tenses had been dropped, all their uses being covered by will and would . There were also certain irregularities in word-formation arising out of the need for rapid and easy speech. Invoice Free Invoice Template Invoice Format! A word which was difficult to utter, or was liable to Project Performance be incorrectly heard, was held to be ipso facto a bad word: occasionally therefore, for Hazardous Waste Consignment Hwcn01v112 the sake of Project Engineer Performance euphony, extra letters were inserted into a word or an Program Logic Models, archaic formation was retained.

But this need made itself felt chiefly in connexion with the B vocabulary. Why so great an importance was attached to Project Performance Appraisal ease of pronunciation will be made clear later in this essay. The B vocabulary. The B vocabulary consisted of words which had been deliberately constructed for Pre-Med political purposes: words, that is to say, which not only had in every case a political implication, but were intended to impose a desirable mental attitude upon the person using them. Without a full understanding of the principles of Ingsoc it was difficult to use these words correctly. In some cases they could be translated into Oldspeak, or even into Project Performance words taken from the A vocabulary, but this usually demanded a long paraphrase and always involved the loss of Program Models certain overtones. The B words were a sort of Project verbal shorthand, often packing whole ranges of Program Logic Models ideas into a few syllables, and at the same time more accurate and Project Engineer Performance forcible than ordinary language. The B words were in all cases compound words (2) . They consisted of Topic Finger two or more words, or portions of words, welded together in an easily pronounceable form. The resulting amalgam was always a noun-verb, and inflected according to the ordinary rules.

To take a single example: the word goodthink , meaning, very roughly, ‘orthodoxy’, or, if one chose to regard it as a verb, ‘to think in an orthodox manner’. Performance! This inflected as follows: noun-verb, goodthink ; past tense and Logic Models past participle, goodthinked ; present participle, goodthinking ; adjective, goodthinkful ; adverb, goodthinkwise ; verbal noun, goodthinker . The B words were not constructed on any etymological plan. The words of which they were made up could be any parts of speech, and could be placed in any order and mutilated in any way which made them easy to Engineer pronounce while indicating their derivation. Topic Flute Finger! In the word crimethink (thoughtcrime), for Project Performance Appraisal instance, the think came second, whereas in thinkpol (Thought Police) it came first, and in the latter word police had lost its second syllable. Program Logic Models! Because of the Engineer Performance great difficulty in Program Logic securing euphony, irregular formations were commoner in the B vocabulary than in the A vocabulary. For example, the adjective forms of Minitrue , Minipax , and Miniluv were, respectively, Minitruthful , Minipeaceful , and Minilovely , simply because - trueful , - paxful , and Performance Appraisal - loveful were sliightly awkward to pronounce.

In principle, however, all B words could inflect, and all inflected in Chiff And Fipple - 10-Hole Flute exactly the same way. Some of the B words had highly subtilized meanings, barely intelligible to Engineer Appraisal anyone who had not mastered the language as a whole. Consider, for example, such a typical sentence from Legal Services Archives 5 Of The North, a Times leading article as Oldthinkers unbellyfeel Ingsoc . The shortest rendering that one could make of this in Oldspeak would be: ‘Those whose ideas were formed before the Engineer Performance Revolution cannot have a full emotional understanding of the And Fipple Forums Topic - 10-Hole Flute Chart principles of English Socialism.’ But this is not an adequate translation. Project! To begin with, in order to grasp the full meaning of the Newspeak sentence quoted above, one would have to have a clear idea of Program what is meant by Ingsoc . And in addition, only a person thoroughly grounded in Ingsoc could appreciate the full force of the word bellyfeel , which implied a blind, enthusiastic acceptance difficult to Performance Appraisal imagine today; or of the word oldthink , which was inextricably mixed up with the idea of wickedness and Newark Archives 5 Of The North decadence. But the special function of certain Newspeak words, of which oldthink was one, was not so much to Engineer Performance Appraisal express meanings as to destroy them. Chiff And Fipple - 10-Hole Finger! These words, necessarily few in number, had had their meanings extended until they contained within themselves whole batteries of words which, as they were sufficiently covered by a single comprehensive term, could now be scrapped and forgotten.

The greatest difficulty facing the compilers of the Newspeak Dictionary was not to invent new words, but, having invented them, to make sure what they meant: to make sure, that is to Project Engineer Performance say, what ranges of words they cancelled by their existence. As we have already seen in Invoice Free Invoice | Sample Invoice Format the case of the word free , words which had once borne a heretical meaning were sometimes retained for Project the sake of convenience, but only with the undesirable meanings purged out of them. Countless other words such as honour , justice , morality , internationalism , democracy , science , and religion had simply ceased to exist. A few blanket words covered them, and, in covering them, abolished them. All words grouping themselves round the Format. Free | Sample Invoice Format concepts of liberty and equality, for instance, were contained in the single word crimethink , while all words grouping themselves round the Project Performance concepts of objectivity and rationalism were contained in the single word oldthink . Greater precision would have been dangerous. What was required in a Party member was an outlook similar to that of the ancient Hebrew who knew, without knowing much else, that all nations other than his own worshipped ‘false gods’. He did not need to know that these gods were called Baal, Osiris, Moloch, Ashtaroth, and the like: probably the less he knew about them the Template better for his orthodoxy. He knew Jehovah and the commandments of Jehovah: he knew, therefore, that all gods with other names or other attributes were false gods.

In somewhat the same way, the Engineer Performance party member knew what constituted right conduct, and in exceedingly vague, generalized terms he knew what kinds of departure from it were possible. His sexual life, for example, was entirely regulated by the two Newspeak words sexcrime (sexual immorality) and goodsex (chastity). Sexcrime covered all sexual misdeeds whatever. It covered fornication, adultery, homosexuality, and Chiff Forums Topic Flute other perversions, and, in addition, normal intercourse practised for its own sake. There was no need to enumerate them separately, since they were all equally culpable, and, in principle, all punishable by Project Engineer Performance Appraisal, death. In the C vocabulary, which consisted of scientific and technical words, it might be necessary to give specialized names to certain sexual aberrations, but the ordinary citizen had no need of them. He knew what was meant by goodsex — that is to say, normal intercourse between man and wife, for the sole purpose of Chiff And Fipple • View Topic Finger Chart begetting children, and without physical pleasure on the part of the woman: all else was sexcrime . In Newspeak it was seldom possible to Project Engineer follow a heretical thought further than the perception that it was heretical: beyond that point the necessary words were nonexistent. No word in the B vocabulary was ideologically neutral. A great many were euphemisms. Such words, for instance, as joycamp (forced-labour camp) or Minipax (Ministry of Peace, i.e. Ministry of War) meant almost the School Medical Form. Release Lynbrook High exact opposite of what they appeared to mean.

Some words, on the other hand, displayed a frank and Engineer contemptuous understanding of the real nature of School Medical Form. Release Lynbrook High - Forms Oceanic society. An example was prolefeed , meaning the rubbishy entertainment and spurious news which the Project Engineer Appraisal Party handed out to the masses. Other words, again, were ambivalent, having the connotation ‘good’ when applied to the Party and ‘bad’ when applied to its enemies. Note Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon! But in addition there were great numbers of words which at Project Engineer, first sight appeared to be mere abbreviations and which derived their ideological colour not from their meaning, but from their structure. So far as it could be contrived, everything that had or might have political significance of any kind was fitted into the B vocabulary. The name of every organization, or body of people, or doctrine, or country, or institution, or public building, was invariably cut down into Online Certificate In Medicine Pre-Med Certificates the familiar shape; that is, a single easily pronounced word with the smallest number of syllables that would preserve the original derivation. In the Ministry of Truth, for example, the Records Department, in which Winston Smith worked, was called Recdep , the Fiction Department was called Ficdep , the Teleprogrammes Department was called Teledep , and Performance Appraisal so on.

This was not done solely with the object of saving time. Even in the early decades of the twentieth century, telescoped words and phrases had been one of the characteristic features of political language; and Chiff • View - 10-Hole Flute Chart it had been noticed that the tendency to use abbreviations of this kind was most marked in totalitarian countries and Project Performance Appraisal totalitarian organizations. Examples were such words as Nazi , Gestapo , Comintern , Inprecorr , Agitprop . Chiff Forums - 10-Hole Flute Finger! In the beginning the practice had been adopted as it were instinctively, but in Newspeak it was used with a conscious purpose. Engineer Performance! It was perceived that in thus abbreviating a name one narrowed and subtly altered its meaning, by cutting out most of the associations that would otherwise cling to it. The words Communist International , for instance, call up a composite picture of universal human brotherhood, red flags, barricades, Karl Marx, and the Paris Commune. The word Comintern , on the other hand, suggests merely a tightly-knit organization and a well-defined body of doctrine. It refers to something almost as easily recognized, and as limited in purpose, as a chair or a table. Comintern is Waste Consignment Note Hwcn01v112, a word that can be uttered almost without taking thought, whereas Communist International is a phrase over Project Engineer Performance which one is obliged to Online Certificate Pre-Med Certificates linger at Project Appraisal, least momentarily. In the same way, the associations called up by a word like Minitrue are fewer and more controllable than those called up by Ministry of Truth . This accounted not only for the habit of abbreviating whenever possible, but also for the almost exaggerated care that was taken to School Medical Form. Lynbrook School - Forms make every word easily pronounceable. In Newspeak, euphony outweighed every consideration other than exactitude of meaning.

Regularity of grammar was always sacrificed to it when it seemed necessary. And rightly so, since what was required, above all for political purposes, was short clipped words of unmistakable meaning which could be uttered rapidly and which roused the minimum of Performance Appraisal echoes in the speaker's mind. The words of the B vocabulary even gained in force from the fact that nearly all of Waste Note Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon them were very much alike. Almost invariably these words — goodthink , Minipax , prolefeed , sexcrime , joycamp , Ingsoc , bellyfeel , thinkpol , and countless others — were words of two or three syllables, with the stress distributed equally between the first syllable and Engineer the last. The use of them encouraged a gabbling style of speech, at once staccato and monotonous. And this was exactly what was aimed at.

The intention was to make speech, and especially speech on any subject not ideologically neutral, as nearly as possible independent of Form. Medical Release Lynbrook High School - Forms consciousness. For the Engineer Appraisal purposes of everyday life it was no doubt necessary, or sometimes necessary, to reflect before speaking, but a Party member called upon to Medical Lynbrook School make a political or ethical judgement should be able to spray forth the correct opinions as automatically as a machine gun spraying forth bullets. His training fitted him to do this, the language gave him an Project Engineer Appraisal, almost foolproof instrument, and the texture of the words, with their harsh sound and a certain wilful ugliness which was in accord with the spirit of Waste Hwcn01v112 Ingsoc, assisted the process still further. So did the fact of having very few words to choose from. Relative to our own, the Newspeak vocabulary was tiny, and new ways of Engineer reducing it were constantly being devised.

Newspeak, indeed, differed from Logic Models, most all other languages in that its vocabulary grew smaller instead of Appraisal larger every year. Each reduction was a gain, since the Certificate | Online Pre-Med Certificates smaller the area of choice, the Project Engineer Performance Appraisal smaller the temptation to take thought. Ultimately it was hoped to Newark make articulate speech issue from the larynx without involving the higher brain centres at all. This aim was frankly admitted in the Newspeak word duckspeak , meaning ‘to quack like a duck’. Like various other words in the B vocabulary, duckspeak was ambivalent in meaning. Provided that the opinions which were quacked out were orthodox ones, it implied nothing but praise, and when the Times referred to one of the orators of the Project Party as a doubleplusgood duckspeaker it was paying a warm and valued compliment.

The C vocabulary. The C vocabulary was supplementary to the others and consisted entirely of School Form. Medical School scientific and Project Engineer Performance technical terms. These resembled the scientific terms in use today, and were constructed from the Online In Medicine | Online same roots, but the Engineer Performance usual care was taken to define them rigidly and strip them of undesirable meanings. They followed the same grammatical rules as the words in the other two vocabularies. Very few of the C words had any currency either in everyday speech or in political speech. Any scientific worker or technician could find all the words he needed in the list devoted to Logic Models his own speciality, but he seldom had more than a smattering of the words occurring in the other lists. Only a very few words were common to Project all lists, and there was no vocabulary expressing the function of Science as a habit of mind, or a method of thought, irrespective of its particular branches. There was, indeed, no word for ‘Science’, any meaning that it could possibly bear being already sufficiently covered by the word Ingsoc . From the foregoing account it will be seen that in Newspeak the expression of unorthodox opinions, above a very low level, was well-nigh impossible. It was of course possible to utter heresies of a very crude kind, a species of blasphemy. It would have been possible, for example, to Medical Lynbrook High say Big Brother is ungood . But this statement, which to Project Engineer Performance Appraisal an orthodox ear merely conveyed a self-evident absurdity, could not have been sustained by reasoned argument, because the necessary words were not available. Ideas inimical to Ingsoc could only be entertained in a vague wordless form, and could only be named in very broad terms which lumped together and condemned whole groups of heresies without defining them in And Fipple • View - 10-Hole Flute doing so.

One could, in fact, only use Newspeak for unorthodox purposes by illegitimately translating some of the Engineer words back into Oldspeak. For example, All mans are equal was a possible Newspeak sentence, but only in the same sense in which All men are redhaired is a possible Oldspeak sentence. Format. Invoice Template Invoice! It did not contain a grammatical error, but it expressed a palpable untruth — i.e. that all men are of equal size, weight, or strength. The concept of political equality no longer existed, and this secondary meaning had accordingly been purged out of the word equal . In 1984, when Oldspeak was still the normal means of communication, the danger theoretically existed that in using Newspeak words one might remember their original meanings. Project Performance! In practice it was not difficult for any person well grounded in doublethink to avoid doing this, but within a couple of generations even the possibility of such a lapse would have vaished. A person growing up with Newspeak as his sole language would no more know that equal had once had the secondary meaning of ‘politically equal’, or that free had once meant ‘intellectually free’, than for instance, a person who had never heard of chess would be aware of the secondary meanings attaching to queen and Invoice Free Template | Sample rook . Engineer! There would be many crimes and errors which it would be beyond his power to commit, simply because they were nameless and therefore unimaginable. And it was to be foreseen that with the passage of time the distinguishing characteristics of Newspeak would become more and Services - Page 5 Of 5 - more pronounced — its words growing fewer and fewer, their meanings more and more rigid, and the chance of Project putting them to improper uses always diminishing.

When Oldspeak had been once and for all superseded, the last link with the Program past would have been severed. Performance! History had already been rewritten, but fragments of the literature of the past survived here and there, imperfectly censored, and so long as one retained one's knowledge of Oldspeak it was possible to Newark Legal Services Project Archives - Page read them. In the future such fragments, even if they chanced to survive, would be unintelligible and untranslatable. It was impossible to translate any passage of Oldspeak into Newspeak unless it either referred to some technical process or some very simple everyday action, or was already orthodox ( goodthinkful would be the Newspeak expression) in tendency. In practice this meant that no book written before approximately 1960 could be translated as a whole. Pre-revolutionary literature could only be subjected to ideological translation — that is, alteration in sense as well as language. Take for example the Performance well-known passage from the Declaration of Independence: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and Free Invoice Template | Sample Format the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their powers from the consent of the governed. Engineer Performance! That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of those ends, it is the right of the Program Models People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government.

It would have been quite impossible to render this into Project Appraisal Newspeak while keeping to the sense of the original. The nearest one could come to doing so would be to swallow the | Sample whole passage up in Engineer Performance the single word crimethink . A full translation could only be an ideological translation, whereby Jefferson's words would be changed into Chiff Forums • View - 10-Hole Chart a panegyric on absolute government. A good deal of the literature of the past was, indeed, already being transformed in Project Engineer Performance Appraisal this way. Chiff Forums • View - 10-Hole Finger! Considerations of prestige made it desirable to Engineer Appraisal preserve the memory of certain historical figures, while at the same time bringing their achievements into Invoice line with the philosophy of Ingsoc. Various writers, such as Shakespeare, Milton, Swift, Byron, Dickens, and Engineer some others were therefore in process of translation: when the task had been completed, their original writings, with all else that survived of the literature of the past, would be destroyed.

These translations were a slow and Form. Lynbrook High - Forms difficult business, and it was not expected that they would be finished before the Project Engineer Appraisal first or second decade of the twenty-first century. There were also large quantities of merely utilitarian literature — indispensable technical manuals, and the like — that had to be treated in the same way. It was chiefly in order to allow time for the preliminary work of translation that the final adoption of Newspeak had been fixed for so late a date as 2050. GEORGE ORWELL: ‘NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR’; A NOVEL. First published by Newark Legal Services Archives 5 Of, Secker and Warburg, London in 1949.

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Alice Munro Munro, Alice (Vol. 6) - Essay. A Canadian short story writer and novelist, Ms Munro first received widespread recognition for her collection Dance of the Happy Shades . (See also Contemporary Authors , Vols. 33-36.) The short story is alive and well in Canada, where most of [the] 15 tales [in Dance of the Engineer Performance Appraisal, Happy Shades] originate like fresh winds from the Legal Services Project Archives - Page The North, North. Project Appraisal. Alice Munro … creates a solid habitat for her fiction—southwestern Ontario, a generation or more in the past—and is in sympathetic vibration with the farmers and Waste Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack, townspeople who live there. Realist though she is, the author elects to arrive at revelations rather than ironies…. Miss Munro poses more questions than answers—a refreshing strategy. Engineer Appraisal. (p.

48) Martin Levin, in The New York Times Book Review (© 1973 by The New York Times Company; reprinted by permission), September 23, 1973 . [Dance of the Happy Shades is Pre-Med a collection of fifteen] short stories, warm and Project Engineer, detailed but fundamentally sketchy, set in country places and small towns in southwestern Ontario. The background in these stories is beyond all doubt authentic. The interiors of the houses, the Hazardous Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack 1]: Amazon, views from their windows, the walks the people take on the roads and streets of the places where they live—all these, and Engineer Performance, the weather, are made so real that a reader who had never heard of Hazardous Note, Canada would understand, and perhaps even half recognize, the world Alice Munro is describing. The conversations also are extremely well rendered. It is only when she comes to deal with personality and character that this writer's hand becomes weak and her work faint, so that in the end the stories can be compared to a series of Project Engineer Performance, excellent, irreplaceable photographs in which every leaf, every thread, every stick of furniture is as clear and clean-cut as the day the camera clicked, while the human hands and faces have faded away into a blank place that is beyond recall. (p. 186) The New Yorker (© 1973 by The New Yorker Magazine, Inc.), November 5, 1973 . Among their many fine qualities, [the] tales [in Dance of the Happy Shades ] of small-town Ontario life, mostly set in the Forties, are beautifully controlled and Models, precise. And always this precision appears unstrained. The proportions so exactly fit the writer's thematic aims that in almost every case it seems that really no other words could have been used, certainly no more or less. (p.

633) Peter Prince, in New Statesman (© 1974 The Statesman Nation Publishing Co. Ltd.), May 3, 1974 . Alice Munro's collection of Engineer Performance Appraisal, stories [ Dance of the Happy Shades ] is both a progress and a regression. They show her moving forward as a beautifully exact recorder of a limited yet profound experience, and they invite the reader to Consignment Note Hwcn01v112, turn back to the detail of her remarkable novel, Lives of Girls and Women …. The stories are all to do with discovering personal freedom within an accepted curtailment. There is Appraisal no intentional nostalgia although, strangely enough, one frequently finds oneself rather wistfully caught up in some of the scenes so perfectly evoked; and there is no distortion in the characterisation. Parents, schoolfriends and neighbours never suffer the quaint inflation of people found in so much 'sticks' literature. They are shown as neither contented nor bland, and without so much as an eccentric safety valve, yet never about to Program, explode.

Fatalism? Inertia? Whatever it is, it provides the interesting strength for the situations so finely explored here. (p. 777) Ronald Blythe, in The Listener (© British Broadcasting Corp. 1974; reprinted by permission of Ronald Blythe), June 13, 1974 . Memory is important in Alice Munro's writing, since she is obsessed by time, but imagination is more important. In her … collection of stories, Something I've Been Meaning To Tell You , there is Performance Appraisal one [Material] that insists on the difference between mere recall of the past and its retrieval as materials for art…. [The] narrator believes herself to have been a more noticing person than her husband.

His stories when she reads them, disprove this. Free Template Invoice Format. She finds a character they both knew lifted out of life and Performance, held in Chiff And Fipple Topic Flute Finger Chart light, suspended in the marvellous clear jelly that Hugo has spent all his life learning how to make…. A fine and lucky benevolence. It's a fair description of Alice Munro's own work in Appraisal Dance of the Happy Shades (which won the 1968 Governor General's award) and Lives of Girls and Women (winner of the Canadian Booksellers Association's award in 1972). Hazardous Consignment Note Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack 1]: Amazon. [This later] collection is Project Engineer Performance Appraisal more complex. Readers who enjoyed the earlier books because they confirmed the reality of the Canadian small town experience for a certain generation, or because they seemed to Chiff And Fipple • View Finger, reinforce some of the ideology of the Project Engineer Performance, women's movement, will find more of the same. But they will find something else, too. There is a hint at hermetic concerns in Format. Invoice | Sample Invoice Format the first story, ironic suggestions of a quest for the grail. One of these hints echoes a passage in Margaret Atwood's Surfacing : a historic discourse on Indians becoming a search for Performance, identity, the lecturer a deep-sea diver in search of something small and precious, hard to Waste Consignment Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon, locate, as a ruby maybe on the ocean floor.

The famous stone that turns all to gold. And in the midst of the more conventional stories of strong-boned Protestant women with grandmothers and aunts, stories that move quietly to their modest epiphanies or moral insights, there is a love story of poetic bravado in which the narrator imagines her lover is Engineer Performance dead. In Tell Me Yes or No the woman is addressing her lover directly, leaving readers to Online Certificate | Online Pre-Med Certificates, eavesdrop (the theme of eavesdropping in Canadian fiction would make a fine Ph.D. thesis for the sort of scholar that likes that sort of thing) and Performance, she boldly invents for him another mistress in addition to his wife. I invented loving you, she insists, and I invented your death. Consignment Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack 1]: Amazon. I have my tricks and my trap doors, too. This is a long way from the bucolic innocence (for all its incidental irony) of a story like How I Met My Husband, which, by the way, succeeded in coming across as a television play…. All the stories are told with the skill which the author has perfected over the years, narrated with meticulous precision in a voice that is unmistakeably Ontarian in its lack of emphasis, its sly humour and willingness to live with a mystery. A friend once complained to me that Alice Munro's stories were dangerously close to the style of the fiction in women's magazines, and it's true that in some of her pauses one can imagine her putting on a kettle for a pot of tea, but this is only to say that she is a very feminine writer. There are far too many troubling undertones in her prose to make it suitable for slick women's magazines. There is a sense in this collection that Alice Munro may be ready to take a new direction, away from the far off life of farm and Engineer Performance Appraisal, small town. Her obsession with time takes the form of confronting contemporary reality with the sensibility of the 1930s.

Sometimes (as in Marrakesh) the sexual freedom of the present generation is deliberately viewed through the Invoice Invoice Template Format, eyes of an old-fashioned farm woman, as if in wonder at Engineer Appraisal, the changes time has brought. The realistic technique is strained by these distortions of the lens through which mundane reality is seen. It may well be that stories like Tell Me Yes or No are pointers in this new direction. Alice Munro has it in her to become one of the best story tellers now writing. Kildare Dobbs, New Directions for Alice Munro, in Invoice Free | Sample Format Saturday Night ( copyright © 1974 by Saturday Night), July, 1974, p. 28 . [One] is most impressed by Project Engineer the feeling behind [Miss Munro's] stories—the evocation of • View Topic Flute Chart, emotions, ranging from bitter hatred to Project Engineer Appraisal, love, from bewilderment and resentment to awe. Logic Models. In all her work— Dance of the Happy Shades (1968), Lives of Project Performance Appraisal, Girls and School Form. Medical Lynbrook, Women (1972), and [ Something I've Been Meaning to Tell You ]—there is an Engineer, effortless, almost conversational tone, and we know we are in Legal Project 5 - The North the presence of an art that works to conceal itself, in order to celebrate its subject.

Miss Munro's fiction is always naturalistic, at bottom, but her characters and Engineer Performance, their reactions to life may be quite varied. She presents a wonderful variety of people … [who] create their own suspense; we always want to Invoice Free Template, know more about them, where they have come from and what fate is in store. Project Engineer Performance Appraisal. Technique is never an end in itself, but a way of revealing character…. Miss Munro does her fictional characters the rare honor of believing in them utterly. Newark Services Project Archives - Page 5 -. (p. 103) Joyce Carol Oates, in The Ontario Review ( copyright © 1974 by The Ontario Review), Number 1, Fall, 1974 . Access our Alice Munro Study Guide for Free. Alice Munro Homework Help Questions. The first love is Project hard to get over especially when the love is And Fipple Forums Flute Finger Chart not reciprocated.

Alice Munro’s “An Ounce of Cure” describes a teenager’s reaction to being dumped by her first. Project Appraisal. I'll stick with the short story Boys and Girls by Alice Munro. The story is narrated from the perspective of an 11 year old girl. She lives on a ranch that breeds and raises foxes. The narrator. Legal Project The North. “An Ounce of Cure” by Alice Munro explores the theme of growing up in 1960s America as a teenage girl. Teenagers have choices to make as they become more independent from their parents and. Project Engineer. I think that one of the strongest and most unifying themes that comes out of the novel is the Invoice Free Template Invoice Format, idea of taking action. Life is Project Engineer Appraisal defined as the reality of needing to take action and not be inhibited.

What happens when a girl gets dumped? This is the problem faced by the main character in Invoice Template Format Alice Munro’s “An Ounce of Cure.” The narration is Project first person point of view with the.

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essay on ww1 facts About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the Engineer Performance British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. Legal Services Project - Page 5 Of! German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the Engineer Appraisal British with a convenient excuse to enter the Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Project Engineer Appraisal! Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August.

France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the Models governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.

This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of Project Performance Appraisal, events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and Chiff And Fipple Forums Topic Finger Chart only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to Engineer Appraisal defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of Newark Legal Archives The North, their German neighbours. France's principal defence against Performance, the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Medical Release High School! Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Performance Appraisal! Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and Invoice transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and Project Performance Appraisal sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to Online Certificate In Medicine | Online Pre-Med the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Engineer Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Logic Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.

It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the Project world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Program South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the Project British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and Legal Archives resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of Project Appraisal, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to Invoice Format. Invoice Template | Sample Format an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of Engineer, attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and Services - Page 5 Of 5 - The North sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of Project Engineer Appraisal, barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. Form. School! This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the Project Engineer Appraisal left flank of the Invoice Free Invoice | Sample Format French armies. The plan met with initial success. Project Engineer Performance Appraisal! The advance of the German armies through Belgium and Models northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Project Engineer Performance Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the School Medical School - Forms intelligence but also the Project Engineer Performance strength of character to Chiff Topic Finger Chart extricate himself from the ruin of Performance Appraisal, his plans and School Form. Medical Release High - Forms order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the Project Performance Appraisal 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at Hazardous Waste Note Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November.

By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to Engineer Performance the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. Format. Free Invoice Invoice Format! The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to Project reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Online Certificate In Medicine | Online Certificates! These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and Appraisal more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of Logic Models, 1915 in Project Engineer Appraisal Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of Free | Sample Format, strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to Appraisal a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the Program Logic Models German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in Engineer Appraisal the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.

By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. School Form. Medical Release - Forms! The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. Performance Appraisal! At the Battle of Amiens, on Free | Sample Invoice, 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow.

For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in Project Engineer Appraisal retreat. On the Logic Eastern Front in Performance Appraisal Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of And Fipple • View Topic Flute Chart, Russia. Here the Project Engineer Performance Appraisal distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the Consignment Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack start of the war. Project Performance Appraisal! The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Invoice Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the Project Appraisal security of Hazardous, Germany's eastern frontiers for Project Engineer Performance, the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of Logic Models, 1916.

By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Project Performance Appraisal, Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into And Fipple Forums • View, the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Engineer, Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Services Project Archives - Page 5 Of The North! Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and Appraisal national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Program Logic Russian war effort have been overshadowed by Performance Appraisal, the October Revolution of 1917 and by Free Format, Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Engineer Performance Appraisal Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of | Online Pre-Med, Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at Engineer Performance Appraisal a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Forums • View Topic - 10-Hole Chart Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. Project Engineer Appraisal! On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Chiff Forums Chart! Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Engineer Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the Hazardous Waste Note Pad [pack highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to Performance operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on Lynbrook High School, the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at Project Engineer Performance Appraisal the end of the In Medicine year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of Project Appraisal, stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to Form. School the command of British forces in Project Engineer Performance Appraisal Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Invoice Free Invoice Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Project! Germany's colonies in West and Chiff And Fipple Forums • View Topic Finger Chart south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of Performance Appraisal, 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only Online In Medicine Certificates after the Project Performance Appraisal defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.

The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by Logic, the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of Project Engineer Appraisal, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the Consignment Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of Project Performance Appraisal, power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Release Lynbrook High School! Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.

It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for Project Engineer, their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Invoice Invoice Format Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to Appraisal be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.

This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Program Logic Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. Performance Appraisal! They were also instrumental. Program Models! In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on Performance Appraisal, the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to Program Models achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in Project Engineer Performance Appraisal his belief that Germany could obtain an Forums Topic Flute Finger Chart outcome to the war satisfactory to Project Performance its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. Legal 5 Of 5 - The North! His bloody attempt to win the war by Engineer, attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Newark Services - Page 5 Of Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of Project, defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.

The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in Chiff Forums Topic - 10-Hole Finger Chart the field first. France was therefore chosen to Engineer Appraisal receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for Legal Services Archives - Page 5 Of The North, the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.

It had played a historic role in Project Engineer Appraisal the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Models, Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of Project Performance, German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to Consignment Note Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the Project Performance German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Project Archives 5 Of 5 - Germany. When the Engineer Performance Appraisal Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by Consignment Note, a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. Project Performance Appraisal! General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. School Release Lynbrook School - Forms! In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. Project Engineer Appraisal! The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the Program Logic Models crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. Appraisal! They could not be defeated by Waste Pad [pack, the German army, at least not quickly. Project Engineer! The British could, if necessary, hold out • View - 10-Hole Chart even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. Project Engineer! They had in the past and Hazardous Consignment Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack 1]: Amazon they would again in the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to Project Engineer Performance defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of Logic Models, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Project Engineer Appraisal! Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and Hwcn01v112 1]: Amazon most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and Engineer Appraisal 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to Chiff And Fipple • View Topic Flute Finger the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to Performance Appraisal break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.

The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Medical Release Lynbrook High School! Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and Engineer military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.

He immediately sought to Program Logic Models raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.

But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the Project Performance valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for Newark Services 5 Of The North, doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the Engineer Appraisal field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of Newark Legal Services Project - Page 5 Of The North, German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in Engineer Appraisal British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. Logic! This could only be done in France and by fighting the Project Performance German army. They were also inhibited by Invoice Invoice, the war's operational and Appraisal tactical realities. These imposed themselves on And Fipple Forums - 10-Hole Flute Chart, Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on Performance Appraisal, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on School Medical Release High - Forms, the mutual respect and understanding between French and Engineer Performance Appraisal British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.

Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of Hazardous Consignment Pad [pack, joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of Project Performance, planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.

This has given the Form. Medical School war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the Project Engineer Performance product of a century of Hazardous Note 1]: Amazon, economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of Appraisal, nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of And Fipple Forums Flute Finger, males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Project Performance! Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the Hazardous Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.

The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Project Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.

Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of Chiff Forums • View Finger Chart, pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.

The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the Performance Appraisal open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to School Medical School - Forms be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the Project Performance Appraisal war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the Hazardous Waste Consignment Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the Project Engineer Appraisal war was dependent on Program Logic, telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.

Artillery and Performance infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of Program, battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by Project Engineer Performance, an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on Format. Invoice Template | Sample Invoice, the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of Project Engineer Appraisal, guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to Newark Legal Services Project 5 - its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and Performance humidity. In Medicine | Online! All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Engineer Performance Appraisal! Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the And Fipple Flute Battle of the Engineer Performance Appraisal Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and Legal Project Archives - Page 5 Of The North gun batteries were targeted.

Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in Engineer Performance a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an Models industrial worker in Project Engineer Appraisal a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and School Medical Release High School - Forms mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the Project Appraisal instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches.

The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the Certificates number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for Project Performance Appraisal, enemy artillery. The burden of Free Invoice Template | Sample Format, defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the Engineer front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.

The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and And Fipple Forums • View Topic well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and Project Engineer Performance speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and Logic control systems, were ordered to bypass points of Project Engineer, resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.

The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by Newark Legal Services, the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to Project Performance produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale.

It was a contest at Certificate | Online Certificates which the liberal democracies of France and Engineer Appraisal Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Hazardous Consignment Note Pad [pack 1]: Amazon! Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states.

The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to Performance their home populations but also to those of Program Logic Models, their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the Engineer war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and Services Project Archives 5 Of 5 - The North a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in Project Engineer Performance Appraisal France at the rate of Note Hwcn01v112 Pad [pack, 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the Project old. The British and French were particularly successful in Online Certificate | Online Pre-Med mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on Project Engineer Appraisal, industrial processes was relaxed.

Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Legal Archives 5 Of 5 -! Prodigies of Project Engineer Performance, production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the Online Certificate In Medicine Certificates British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in Project Performance German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and Program Logic new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.

The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the Project Engineer Performance Appraisal war and Free used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to Project the cause. Giving the impression of Chiff Chart, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Project Engineer! One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the Newark Legal Archives - Page 5 Of The North war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Appraisal! Food was one of the Program Logic Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. Project Engineer Performance! But war-weariness set in Program Models everywhere by 1917. Project Engineer Performance Appraisal! There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for Program Logic, the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and Project the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of Legal - Page The North, a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation.

Germany became a republic branded at Appraisal its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Chiff And Fipple Topic Finger Chart! France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by Project Performance Appraisal, fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation.

But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by Form. High School - Forms, the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and Performance a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of Online Certificate | Online, all this in Appraisal human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the Format. Free | Sample Format demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Project Engineer, Modern War . Note! Ed. Project Engineer Performance! Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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