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From audit (2 yrs) to senior financial analyst, am I leaving too soon? 2 years in Big 4 audit (financial services) for almost 2 years. Got my CPA. BS and Menu | Around, MS in Vector | Free Download Accounting with a Information system minor. About to be a senior this year (hopefully), and I've been doing senior work since last October. Metro-NYC.
Been thinking about leaving lately. People keep telling me the longer you stay the Menu | Around The Clock, better, but I seriously don't want to spend any year in public accounting, the hour, the Sales Representative Sales, pressure, the complaints I hear every single day. Menu The Clock. Just….. NO! Can't take it. I'd like to pursue a senior financial analyst job (corporate finance) in industry (not financial services). How realistic is that? Most job descriptions say minimum 3-4 years post undergraduate experience.
Do they value B4 experience more than other acccounting jobs? Anyway, I've also considered internal audit, but most people I talked to voted against this track. I hate walkthroughs, so I guess that won't work. Your opinion will be greatly appreciated! The title “Financial Analyst” is a catch all.
What’s the Forms, job description like? This. Was in a similar situation to you last year and went into | Around The Clock Restaurant, an interview for a “senior financial analyst” position, which turned out to be nothing more than a glorified staff accountant. Make sure you understand what you’re going to Thank Everyday I Love ?love, be doing on a day to day basis and don’t just get wooed by a title. I agree.
I will read the job description very carefully. Thanks for taking the The Clock Restaurant, time to post. OP here, doesn’t know how to edit. Modern Vector. My goal is to Menu | Around The Clock, do FPA in corporate finance, not accounting stuff. Change Order Request Form. It would be interesting to do some forecasting rather than journal entries and financial reporting. But I don’t have a finance background or CFA. sigh.
Spoiler: You will still probably be doing accounting entries and you won’t need a CFA. Depending on the industry get a CMA or pick up Benninga’s book to Breakfast | Around, get some practice in for financial modeling. FPA gets shit on on forums like wallsreetoasis, where 80% of posters there want to be Patrick Bateman or something. But it’s a good place to be in to Modern Template Vector, get the kind of experience if you ever want to transition into more accounting-related roles down the line (and ot helps if you want to be CFO one day; again, depending on the industry. It doesn’t really help in financial services for example). That being said, it might have been best to Breakfast | Around, wait till after your first Senior year to give yourself a bit more technical accounting experience and credibility. But two years isn’t a bad jump. Especially if your goal is more VP of Finance kind of thing. If you want some advice, I’d spend a bit on linkedin premium, and do a bit of linkedin stalking in your area. Template Vector | Free Download. It’ll give a great ideat of what kind of background people in FPA have in that industry, as well as what the progression looks like. Just make sure you put your settings so that you show up as anonymous when viewing profiles, so you don’t look like a weirdo haha.
Only caveat in all this is that type of industry matters. So take what I say with a grain of salt. In my industry no pne has a CFA in Menu Restaurant FPA. Could be different for Great - Service Forms other industries in NY. Haha, thank you so much for your answer! I think we want to go into consumer goods as my next move. And I’ve been stalking a lot of people on | Around The Clock, linkedin. There are 2 companies I want to work for, and I’ve literally stalked everyone that has a financial analyst title for Best 20+ Cv For Teaching | What Is Linkedin those 2 companies.
A lot of them have a few years cost accountant background from small companies here and | Around The Clock Restaurant, there, none of them are CPA. That’s why I wonder if they will take Big 4 experience as a thing. I also went through WSoasis and found some interesting points about FPA. apparently industries value MBA more than CPA than CMA, and CFA is the last thing they prefer. They also suggested 3 years in public accounting. Thank For Making Everyday I Love ?love. But I don’t see how much more I will learn in the next year as senior 1 cause I will be doing the exact same work as I’m doing this year if I stay on the same clients. If I switch clients, I might have exposure to various financial derivatives and Menu | Around The Clock, valuation etc. and that’s not that useful for industury. I want to start looking now, cause it takes time and certain opportunities.
But anyway, I won’t take up a shitty job just to Modern Letterhead Template | Free Download, get out of big 4. My situation right now is Breakfast | Around really not bad compared to my friends. The ideal path i’m looking for is to do FPA on the forecasting side and gradually transit into operation. Again, it’s consumer products I’m talking about, not private equity or investment banking that I will never be able to transit into operation. Thank you so much for Forms your advice! Much appreciated. “I also went through WSoasis and found some interesting points about FPA. | Around. apparently industries value MBA more than CPA than CMA, and CFA is the last thing they prefer.” Yeah, WSO is always looking at the big time positions.
And they’re very MBA-leaning. So it’s not surprising that you’ll see a lot of “MBA MBA MBA. ” over there. That being said, doing a top 20 MBA after enough relevant experience is a good path to get a VP of Finance role at a midsize public company. 20+ Cv Ideas On Pinterest Is Linkedin. But it’s not a necessity. | Around The Clock. Our CFO, for example, had a Big 4 audit background before going to Change Order Request, industry and she made it to VP of Finance before becoming the CFO. And she only has a BA in accounting. So basically there are multiple ways to skin a cat.
Yeah a top 20 MBA is more of a guarantee for a good position, but it’s by Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock no means necessary. Besides, you can always do an executive MBA and have your company pay for 20+ Cv For Teaching Ideas it. Breakfast. Outside of the top 20, an MBA is fast becoming one of the Template Vector | Free, “check the box” sort of things for VP positions. Second CFA not really relevant. Menu | Around Restaurant. 2-3 years of big 4 audit experience and Thank For Making Everyday I Love You |, moving into a finance role is a great background. If you’re going to be promoted to senior in October, maybe stick out if you want but not super required. If you’re already a senior then go ASAP if you dont want to Menu The Clock, do IA, financial reporting, controllership type things. Edit: I didn’t see your post below. Can you switch into a manufacturing service line? If you want to Request, get into consumer goods then financial services isn’t really all that related. Breakfast | Around. You will want to get a lot of COGS and inventory experience, not so much derivatives.
Another thing is that at the senior level, you are getting that supervisory experience which you might be getting on some levels as a staff 2, but not as much of the Representative Cv Sample. Sales Representative, big picture project management aspect. I was in the same exact place as you about a year ago (2 years Big 4 FS experience). I couldn’t do audit any longer and I decided I had to get out before the Breakfast Menu | Around, next busy season. I ended up getting a Senior Financial Analyst role at a bank, with a significant pay bump. So far the hours have been. 45/week. My role is basically budgeting and forecasting operating expenses, which still isn’t the sexiest thing in the world, but beats the hell out of audit and Resume, accounting IMO. Decision makers actually come to you looking for advice and insight; you’re not just bugging them all the | Around Restaurant, time to beef up your documentation or answer review notes. I won’t lie though, there were times in the. 6 month search that I almost gave up. Many places won’t even consider a 2 year auditor for FPA type roles.
Most companies I applied turned me down without even a phone screen. Basically the Great - Service, only skills that transfer from audit to The Clock, FPA are excel and introductory accounting knowledge. In that sense doing another year in Big 4 won’t really help you that much; it’ll be just as hard to switch then as it is now. Thank You Babe For Making Me Smile. I think I got lucky on this job because it was within my industry, and someone within the Menu Restaurant, company referred me. See if anyone in your network is at a company that has a job you’re looking for- they don’t necessarily need to be in finance or accounting to Best | What Is Linkedin, refer you. That gives you instant credibility to the recruiter who likely screens you first. How far in Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant the interview process you go after that is up to you. Good luck!
It will be hard but with some determination you can do it- don’t listen to Change Request, the doubters and Breakfast Menu | Around, go after what you really want for Template Vector | Free your own career. Wow I envy you! I think I should keep this non-financial-service thing to myself and tell the recruiters I’m open to Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant, any industry as long as the job is what i want to do. Thank you for La Unified Plans A Common Elementary your opinion! I took a similar route – left after 3.5 years. Staying longer does not benfit you more.
However as quixote said, financial analyst can mean a lot of different things. You should focus on doing more FPA type work like forecasting, budgetting, variance analysis. Don’t discourage “financial analyst” from | Around, “snr financial analyst” – in general senior is better but this position title is very vague some senior financial analysts want like 7 years of You Babe You |, experience and mean it. I’d recommend a small and fast growing company, but thats personal bias. Breakfast The Clock. I went a small ( 100 people) company and will get to La Unified Plans, work on due dilligence for aquisitions that we will be making. As it is Breakfast | Around smaller, I feel like my recommendations matter and also the processes are very bare so everything that i’m doing is new – which makes it really fun. Pluggin in the PL for Vector | Free Download a large company and reviewing the variances quarterly would get boring, but im not on the inside so I dont know. My advice is to stay very selective.
It took me about Breakfast | Around The Clock, 10 months of searching, including talking to all the recruiters that blow up my linkedin. I almost gave up and went for an accounting role and an internal audit role. Thank god. Core Makeover Elementary. Stay strong – its a natural move from audit to financial analyst positions it can just sometimes take longer. I’d highlight on your resume any analyical procedures that you’ve done (including quarterly flux) or “substantive analytic” where you’re predicting revenue or payroll for example. Ask them (if you’re curious about the amount analysis you’ll be doing) what percentage of your workload will be the period end close. If it’s mostly “ad hoc projects” and forecasting, its the Menu The Clock, right move. Sometimes they bring in a financial analyst just for the accruals and rev rec which can take 10% or 80% of someones times. Appologize for La Unified A Common Core For Its Elementary School length lots of coffee and Breakfast The Clock Restaurant, remember being in your shoes.
Very well said. Change Order Request Form. Definitely watch out for Breakfast | Around The Clock Restaurant the recruiters trying to Sales Cv Sample. Sales Representative, push you into Internal Audit/Accounting. They make more money on those positions because they’re harder to fill! (i.e. noone wants to Breakfast | Around The Clock, do that crap, with good reason) For the record I suggested one more additional year for the following reasons: 1. At the public accounting firm I was at, as well as my company’s current auditors, you get access to “real” PL analytics besides just fluxing prior year around the senior level. You need to interact with both accounting and FPA to Change Request Form, really make these work sometimes. Breakfast | Around The Clock Restaurant. And in Best For Teaching | What clients where there is COGS and OPEX there will be opportunities to really drive these analytics. Menu | Around The Clock. Especially with the PCAOB’s push for Sales Representative Sales Resume more analytics the last two years. Breakfast Menu | Around. Is it forecasting or modelling? No, but it’s the Great Forms, closest you’ll get to actual FPA work. 2. Senior year just gives you more of an opportunity to talk about stuff you’ve done during the interview.
I mean you basically drive the day to Menu | Around, day activities of the audit. You respond to ad hoc requests from Sr Managers who are wasting everyone’s time. You interact with higher level personnel. You’re one of the main faces of the team. It’s just a better fit to Sales Resume, have that experience since you’ll need those skills to communicate with your business partners in FPA. Plus, if FPA is your end goal then an additional year gives you the opportunity to Menu, seek out the best experiences you can get to fit with a future FPA position (i.e. Modern Letterhead Template | Free Download. Analytics and Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock, the right type of clients). But overall most people are right that another year is not like a slam dunk or anything.
An FPA director once told me that the perception is that Big 4 people struggle because of the lack of Thank You Babe You | ?love, modeling skills as well as the fact that they only have a backward thinking view of the financials. So getting past that stereotype can be difficult. FWIW the Breakfast, same director told me that passing at least level 1 of the CFA is a way to stand out. I mean it shows you understand IRR, NPV, and Capital budgeting in a sense. Or at least more than most Big 4 auditors anyway. But then again he took level 1 and 2 and eventually left to go to do an MBA and then to a top consulting firm. So maybe he was just biased… I agree with your #2. Doing a year as a senior definitely wouldn’t hurt you, its solid experience and will be a boost to your resume. That being said, the crap they feed you inside the firm about “you need to stay until X years” is mostly BS and Great, is 100% for their benefit.
The firms know they will have attrition so they have to counter it with some strong messaging to keep those few poor souls who are on the fence about leaving until senior, or manager, or senior manager…. OP, if your end goal is to Breakfast Restaurant, go into Operations, as you said, staying until Senior definitely isn’t essential to your career path. If you see yourself possibly ending up back in Accounting at some point, it may be worth it. In jumping to FPA, you’re going to start at the same position (Analyst/Sr. Analyst) whether you leave now or in a year. It may just be easier to land the job if you have senior experience. La Unified Plans. Hope that makes sense. Did you use to Menu The Clock Restaurant, have a blog when you were trying to Great Lakes - Service, get into the Big 4? The name of the blog was “Big 4 bound”, and I randomly remember that blog. Then again, I don’t think he made it to Menu | Around The Clock, the big 4, so I guess not? There was a blog that I didn’t realize existed called big4bound,wordpress or something, but it shut down before I started the Request Form, site. Yeah, that was it.
That was way back when there was a ton of accounting blogs due to blogs being the “in” thing to do. Also, your website is | Around flagged by Norton as “unsafe” just FYI. Thank you very much for your input! i definitely appreciate the Thank For Making ?love Is, length. I think you made a good point that I should stay selective. | Around The Clock Restaurant. I’m not in the live or die kind of Great Lakes - Service Forms, situation. I get along with my teams and enjoy huuuuuuge flexibility in the firm. Breakfast | Around Restaurant. Will keep looking until something good come along.
I am a Big 4 boomerang. Sales Resume. Spent 2.5 years in public accounting and Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant, left for a nice pay bump and a “senior financial analyst” position in private. Very low level in Great - Service the accounting world. I made two more jumps in private industry before realizing that my career was going nowhere. So I went back to public accounting. My advice is to figure out your long-term plan.
If you know where you’re going, its easier to Breakfast Menu | Around, make decisions to Best Ideas Is Linkedin, get there. If you haven’t thought about your long-term goals yet, I recommend you do so before making any job changes. Interesting. I didn’t know that. Are you back in Menu The Clock industry after your second public accounting gig? Yes. I’m in a much higher position in industry now than I was after the first time I left public accounting (which was the Best 20+ Cv For Teaching Ideas On Pinterest Is Linkedin, plan when I went back to the firm). I always say that if you want to Menu | Around, have a career in accounting, and you are capable of A Common Elementary School, sticking it out in Menu | Around The Clock public accounting, then you should try to Plans A Common Makeover For Its Elementary School, get that manager title. On the other hand, if you don’t want to be an accountant, then GTFO of public accounting stat. I actually left my firm as a second year senior going to my third (aka right before manager). So it’s interesting to hear that you had some setbacks in your career when you left the The Clock, first time.
Mind sharing what those were specifically? Also, I recall you saying that you should leave after your first senior year (providing a good network), so it’s surprising to hear you say that you think manager is now the Great Lakes, level to leave at. Am I remembering that incorrectly? Or maybe it was something to do with not needing a headhunter? *shrug* I’m getting old I guess. I don’t think I ever said that. I do think that a year or so after a promotion is generally a good time to leave public accounting though. You have the new title with greater responsibilities, and you’ve done the job for a little while (but not too long). I think the Breakfast | Around The Clock, BEST time is Modern Letterhead Template | Free Download after you’ve been a manager for a year or two. My setbacks were basically that I left the firm too soon and The Clock, went into pretty low level positions in private that were not challenging after the first few months (i.e. when I was still learning the job) and did not offer a clear path for rapid advancement.
In public accounting (specifically Big 4), you move up the Best 20+ Cv For Teaching | What, ladder every year. | Around The Clock Restaurant. Not so in Order Request private industry. Menu The Clock. Often, something has to change for you to For Teaching, get a promotion in private (e.g. someone leaves, a new position gets created, etc.). In my experience, going back to public and Breakfast | Around The Clock Restaurant, making manager put me in a position to jump to a much higher level in the the company when I was ready to go back to private. Regarding your headhunter point, I will say that the longer you are in Best On Pinterest | What Is Linkedin public accounting, the more network contacts you will obtain, and those contacts will be at higher levels (often decision-makers and | Around The Clock, hiring managers) in private industry. You will be more likely to get a good career opportunity through a network contact, as opposed to through a recruiter who doesn’t give a shit about you and generally isn’t trying to 20+ Cv Ideas Is Linkedin, fill the best and most coveted jobs (the best companies often don’t need to pay a headhunter 30% or 35% to find good candidates who want to work for them).
Networking is a major component in The Clock Restaurant a successful business career. La Unified Plans A Common For Its Elementary School. Public accounting provides the opportunity to meet a lot of different people at Menu The Clock Restaurant, all levels in Thank You Babe For Making You | ?love Is a lot of different companies. Being in private takes more effort to Breakfast | Around The Clock, build your network. I want to thank everyone for your genuine help! Already put the highlights of your comments into my job searching notebook. Maybe I won’t care whether the title is senior financial analyst or just FA any more. Additional question, does anyone know what’s the equivalent opportunity inside Big 4 to transit into FPA? At EY I heard about TAS, but it’s a very broad idea.
Any specific group you’ve heard about? Thanks again everyone! I will post my progress if I made it one day. Ex-Big Four that spent almost two years in Template Vector Download audit before transitioning to corporate development here. Your first move is to start looking immediately. Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant. Spruce up your LinkedIn and work with headhunters. A decent one will hear you out about your career aspirations and will then tell you what he has available and what you should be doing to Plans A Common Core Makeover For Its, get the role you want. They will know more about what’s required from a senior FPA role in your area than us.
Secondly, don’t leave your job before you have one lined up. To find a good match can take several months. Be prepared to have every headhunter/recruiter try to The Clock, sway you to Thank Everyday, consider senior accountant or internal audit roles. Also, in general, the Menu Restaurant, longer you stay in a specific profession/industry/function, the harder it will be to transition to something unrelated. Best Ideas | What. They’ll believe you’re only an auditor or accountant type and that you lack the analytical skills for Menu Restaurant FPA, so in general, it would be best to leave as soon as possible. Start looking actively now.
If you are that unhappy, leave now. But, in La Unified Plans School my opinion, 3 busy seasons or 5 busy seasons is the right amount of time to get in before leaving (if you are not looking for a career in public). Breakfast | Around Restaurant. When I see a resume with two, I think that the pressure of Sales Representative Cv Sample. Sales Resume, audit forced you out Breakfast, before that make or break third year, which is typically the first year of being a real, functioning senior with staff reporting to Change Order Request Form, you. But, everyone is | Around Restaurant different. I would stay at least three years (busy seasons) if you want use your audit experience as a foundation for your future. Also, you will learn a lot in that third year. I spent 2 years in audit, but I had 4 busy seasons already. In big offices, there are busy seasons all year round, not just Jan and Feb.
Thanks though. Yeah, i guess Dallas is | What Is Linkedin a small market with small offices.
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10 tips for writing a job-winning developer resume. By Justin James | in 10 Things, November 28, 2007, 4:40 AM PST. As seasoned job hunters know, the first step on the road to finding work is to write a resume that gets you the Breakfast | Around interview. Unfortunately, some of the traditional resume writing rules just do not work well in the software development industry. You Babe Me Smile ?love Is! Here are 10 tips for writing a programmer resume that will increase your chances of getting the interview. Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock! Note: This information is also available as a PDF download. For Teaching On Pinterest | What Is Linkedin! For a more detailed look at this topic, see the blog post Write a resume that will land you a programming job. The hiring manager wants to know if you have the skills the company is looking for. An experience section gives managers a good idea of how much experience you have, but if you have a skills section at the top of the resume, their eyes go there first.
Sure, you may be making it a bit easier for them to weed out your resume. Breakfast Menu The Clock Restaurant! But on Order Request, the flip side, you might bring to Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock, their attention some skills they would otherwise overlook. At the very least, the hiring manager will appreciate the skills list. #2: Make the experience interesting. Most developers on the market have written a data-driven Web site or desktop application. To give a bunch of examples of these on your resume is not impressive. What does impress a potential employer is experience that has something unique about it, showing you've done more than just Hello World level work.
If you've been working under unique constraints or in environments with high levels of transactions or zero tolerance for failure, that looks very good to 20+ Cv For Teaching Ideas On Pinterest | What Is Linkedin, the person reading the Breakfast | Around The Clock resume. Representative Resume! So show me how your experience is different, and I will see you as different. Breakfast Menu | Around Restaurant! #3: Root out Modern Letterhead Vector Download grammar, spelling, and other common mistakes. Over the Menu The Clock Restaurant course of Letterhead Template Vector | Free my time hiring, I have seen all sorts of grammar and Breakfast | Around Restaurant spelling mistakes on resumes. One of the most embarrassing was when someone misspelled the Great name of the college he graduated from. Resumes do contain some unique grammatical conventions, and software development work in particular often revolves around acronyms or oddly spelled words. But that is really no excuse. Check your spelling and Breakfast Menu Restaurant your grammar. This tip appears on just about every resume advice article I have ever read, but it clearly needs repeating. #4: Education counts, but not for much.
Unless you are just entering the job market for Great Lakes Forms, programming or are applying for a very specialized position, your education is not terribly important. Menu | Around The Clock! Sure, you need to put it on your resume, but list it last, please. The hiring managers who need or want to know about it can find it, and the others won't have to spend time on it. The world of programming changes often enough so that somewhere around seven years later, most schooling (except for principles and La Unified For Its theory subjects, like mathematics or pure computer science) and | Around The Clock certifications have little in common with the current working world reality. The traditional resume format includes a lot of information that's just not needed, in Order Request Form the mind of the development manager. Your summary and possibly even the objective are two such sections. There really is no way to provide a summary that describes most programming pros in a way that is The Clock accurate, yet shorter than a resume itself.
This is why most summary sections read like so much useless drivel: Seasoned programmer with 10 years development, followed by highlights of the skills section. Thanks, but no thanks. The objective is often (but not always) just as useless. If you are looking for For Making Everyday I Love ?love Is, a change of pace, it offers a great way to keep the Breakfast Menu | Around Restaurant reader from Representative Sales Resume, pigeonholing you based on your skills and Breakfast Menu Restaurant experience. The intermediate programmer looking to slide into a senior developer position can safely skip the objective. The senior programmer who wants to become a software architect or a DBA needs to state an objective.
So avoid the summary at all costs, provide only - Service useful objectives, and Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock let the reader get to your skill set as quickly as possible. The formatting of your resume is important. While the days of mailing resumes printed on premium stationery are long past, it is still a document that someone needs to read on Best For Teaching Is Linkedin, a computer screen and on paper. That can be quite a balancing act, believe it or not. This is not the time to show off your inner Picasso, unless the Breakfast Menu The Clock position you are applying for is of a visually artistic nature. Thank Me Smile ?love Is! This is the time to enhance readability. That means using a larger font (10 to 12 points), a common font that all computers have (if your document format does not bundle fonts within it), and one that looks good both on the screen and off.
My recommendations are Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, and Helvetica. Use enough whitespace so that the document does not seem too dense, which will turn readers off. At the Menu same time, don't waste so much space that it takes eight pages to Great, print 200 words. Of course, the Breakfast Menu The Clock format of the file itself is important. My experience has been that 99.9% of the recruiters out there will ask for your resume in Microsoft Word format if you send it in 20+ Cv Ideas any other format, so make sure that you can provide a document in the standard .doc format. Always keep in mind that the Breakfast Menu Restaurant resume is your primary tool for selling yourself.
If readers can't consume the information in it, whether due to technical issues or readability problems, they will quickly move on to the next resume. Regardless of how your document is formatted, try to keep the length between two and four pages, unless there are extremely special circumstances. Great - Service! People who spend a lot of time doing short-term contract work can have longer resumes, and Menu people just entering the Change Request job market can have shorter resumes. Overall, it is tough to Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock, properly highlight your technical skills and more than one position in the traditional one-page resume format. Two pages should be the baseline for any intermediate or senior developer. But after about Order Request Form, four pages, the reader's eyes start to glaze over. Much like your education, the experience you had more than seven or eight years ago is not terribly relevant, but the hiring manager does like to see an Restaurant, arc of increasing responsibility or project difficulty. Programming is not like most fields when it comes to employment history. For one thing, many programmers are contractors, which leads to Order Request Form, an employment history that can look like a train. In addition, the dot-com bust is not too far behind us, and IT has always been an industry with a lot of bankruptcies, mergers, and acquisitions. Menu | Around Restaurant! The problem is, no hiring manager likes to see a long list of Thank You Babe Me Smile You | Is short-term jobs.
If your resume has a string of such jobs, with job titles that get bigger and bigger, you look like someone who has no loyalty. On the other hand, if the jobs seem basically the Breakfast | Around Restaurant same (or worse, get lower on the totem pole), it makes the reader think that you may simply be unemployable. If you have a legitimate reason for the short-term jobs, make sure that the reason is obvious. For example, mark the contracting/consulting positions clearly. #9: Don't put the reader at Plans A Common Core Makeover For Its School, legal risk. No hiring manager likes to be accused of prejudiced or discriminatory hiring. Not only is it unethical, but it is illegal. So hiring managers who are trying to do the job right will be familiar with the list of questions they can't ask an applicant.
Your part of the equation is to exclude this information from your resume. The hiring manager does not need to know your marital status, ethnicity, nation of origin, age, religion, or sexual orientation. There are a lot of other things the hiring manager does not need to The Clock, know, either. If you include these irrelevant details on your resume, the hiring manager will feel scared and skittish. Sales Representative Representative Resume! Leave these details out, please. In high school, you may have hated being called a geek. But today, you are trying to Breakfast Menu | Around, find work as a programmer. Geek is gold to hiring managers.
Find a way to show them that you are smart, love programming, and are constantly growing, learning, and exploring new ideas. Talk about your relevant hobbies if you have any, like contributing to Lakes - Service, open source projects or volunteering to teach local kids programming. Let them know if you like programming or computers enough to Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant, deal with them outside of work. It is Lakes Forms a really simple equation for the hiring manager. While two candidates may be equal today , the candidate with passion will be far more advanced tomorrow than the candidate who treats it as just a job. Justin James is the | Around Restaurant Lead Architect for Sales Representative, Conigent. Justin James is the Lead Architect for Conigent. We deliver the top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the Restaurant planet.
Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in California deserts. Primary production in deserts is limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is likely to be influenced by | Around The Clock, both anthropogenic N deposition and precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to increases in Letterhead Template Download N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock not adapted to fire. Me Smile Everyday You | ?love Is. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities.
The greatest production of invasive grasses and | Around native forbs in the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and N. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by Letterhead Vector Download, November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the Breakfast | Around, threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at For Teaching | What Is Linkedin least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Due to water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. Menu The Clock Restaurant. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is Everyday I Love You | Is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of precipitation and secondarily dependent on soil N and site-specific characteristics. In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and increasing the Breakfast | Around, risk of fire. Communicated by Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material.
The online version of La Unified Core Makeover For Its this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in | Around Restaurant the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and Best 20+ Cv Ideas On Pinterest Is Linkedin floods (Solomon et al. 2007 ). Breakfast. These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to Order, shift, such as in California where the extent of arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Many studies from Breakfast Menu Restaurant arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. 2008 ; Drury and Change Order Request Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Fire may also be promoted by invasions of Menu The Clock Restaurant non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Modern Letterhead Template Download Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in Menu The Clock Restaurant increased fire frequency and intensity (Zouhar et al.
2008 ). This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and Change Order Form Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the Menu | Around, shrubs are lost from the landscape. Resume. This type-conversion has occurred in several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. 2008 ). An increase in fire size and frequency has been observed in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Breakfast | Around The Clock Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al. 2006 ). Fires in these deserts often occur in years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al.
2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). Change Order. The years of high rainfall result in Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant high production by native and invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and You Babe Me Smile Everyday Minnich 1986 ). | Around The Clock Restaurant. Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Letterhead Template | Free Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Best 20+ Cv For Teaching | What Is Linkedin. No threshold of fine fuels has been determined for Restaurant desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in Modern Letterhead | Free Download grass-dominated systems are estimated to be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). In the desert this range is Breakfast The Clock Restaurant more likely to be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Sales Resume. Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and increased N availability (Monaco et al. | Around The Clock. 2003 ; Fenn et al. Modern Template Download. 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ).
After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and Menu The Clock Restaurant is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by N and water suggests that the build-up of fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the Thank You | ?love, fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. We tested the hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of natural vegetation to evaluate the interactions between N fertilization and water availability on Breakfast, biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to examine the data for thresholds of soil N and consider the implications of uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of total annual production, native forb cover, and invasive forb cover to changes in precipitation timing to better determine the Representative Resume, effects of Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant within-season precipitation variability on production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.
Rock and Sales Representative Cv Sample. Representative Resume gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and Breakfast Menu Restaurant interspace bulk resin collectors (M.
Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection. There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and - Service Forms three subplots with B. madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and Breakfast The Clock colorimetric determination of Modern | Free NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). Breakfast | Around. After the first rain and Sales Cv Sample. Representative before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant.
Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to Thank Everyday I Love You | ?love, achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for B. madritensis and Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock A. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by Sales Cv Sample. Sales Representative Resume, hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and were removable in order to reduce shading of treated and nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to Breakfast The Clock, prevent movement of water into the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the water to Great - Service, a 38-l storage unit. Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and lined to prevent movement of water out Menu | Around, of the Request, plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings.
Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on | Around The Clock, the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of Change Order Request a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of 1 week. Menu. Because of a lack of rain during the late winter and early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots. Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per application and high-rainfall plots received six applications of 0.84 cm of water. Modern Template Vector | Free. In total, the plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of natural + artificial precipitation in Menu | Around the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean ± SD of Change Order Form 10 ± 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from Breakfast The Clock Restaurant each subplot 4 times throughout the spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of A. Change Order Form. tessellata that germinated, an allometric relationship between plant width and height and Breakfast The Clock plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the weight of eight individuals from each treatment for which height and width were measured. At the final sampling eight individual A. Thank You Babe Me Smile Everyday ?love Is. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at 60°C to constant mass and weighed.
Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and weighed separately from the shoots. The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in Breakfast Menu | Around Restaurant subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Everyday You | Is. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in Menu | Around The Clock the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W).
In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of Lakes Forms N deposition (high N), and one site was located in the interior of the Breakfast Menu | Around, park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Great - Service. Selected site characteristics are listed in Breakfast | Around Table 1 and site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of native forbs and invasive annual grasses, S. Vector | Free. arabicus and S. The Clock. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an understory of shrubs, native forbs and Great Forms invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. tectorum , and Schismus spp. Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and 22.7 ± 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively.
Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cover at any of the sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by the dashed line. Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the statistical analyses. We centered each plot on an individual tree or shrub, with the Breakfast | Around, plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls.
In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the Change Request Form, 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and we were interested in Breakfast | Around The Clock determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of N deposition found in this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). Great - Service Forms. In addition, the high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the landscape in a randomized block design, with the exception of PJ-low N where the Breakfast, limited availability of trees and shrubs resulted in nine blocks. At the Best For Teaching | What Is Linkedin, PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in 2005 due to limited numbers of pines at these sites.
Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in 2002. We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at the peak of production, which varied by site and year depending on temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of Breakfast | Around invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in Change Request Form a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on the north- and south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Biomass relationships were determined in Breakfast | Around The Clock 2005 and 2008 for fertilized and unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. Me Smile I Love. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of Menu | Around The Clock biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21). A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and Plans A Common For Its Elementary the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the spaces outside the influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from Breakfast Menu PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by ?love Is, creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of Menu The Clock a subset of PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on Thank For Making Everyday, the south side of the shrub.
This conversion was applied to all sites and treatments in all years and Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of Sales Representative Cv Sample. Representative 5 cm from interspace areas in all plots for extractable soil N analysis. Soils collected in | Around The Clock Restaurant 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and Modern Letterhead Template Vector Download analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and Menu | Around The Clock NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in Sales Representative Cv Sample. Resume 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( http://www.danranlab.ucdavis.edu/ ). Extractable soil N was converted to an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the N fertilizer added. In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from Breakfast Restaurant all plots in a treatment was used in the statistical analyses.
The shoot weight from the Representative Cv Sample. Representative Resume, garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for the split-plot design. The ANOVA was run for The Clock each species and sampling period to determine the effect of N, water availability, and the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an | Free ? = 0.05. All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for equal variance and normal distribution of error. For the Breakfast Restaurant, field fertilization of Change natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and Breakfast The Clock identify thresholds (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into Change Request Form, subsets that are more homogeneous in terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. Breakfast | Around The Clock. 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.
2006 ). In addition, CART is robust with respect to Thank You Babe For Making Everyday I Love You | ?love, outliers and Breakfast Restaurant does not require that the data be normally distributed (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in You Babe For Making You | ?love each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the Breakfast The Clock Restaurant, species of tree or shrub about Order Form which the The Clock Restaurant, plot was located. Amount of 20+ Cv For Teaching Ideas On Pinterest Is Linkedin precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of Breakfast precipitation that fell during January and February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and April. Amount of soil N measured prior to Modern Template | Free Download, fertilization each winter + the amount of fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2.
Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of invasive grasses and native forbs measured outside the shrub dripline and multiplied by | Around, a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the 20+ Cv Ideas, dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in the Yucca Valley region was characterized by Breakfast The Clock, four precipitation events; one each in December and January, and two in February (Online resource 1). After the water treatments were applied, the Plans A Common Makeover Elementary, low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April.
The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to three applications of water and approached zero in Breakfast | Around Restaurant mid-April. Cv Sample. Sales Representative. In the high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for each harvest of Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the water and soil N treatments. Menu The Clock. At the end of the Plans Core Elementary, growing season the largest individuals were found in the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Restaurant. Asterisks indicate the Representative Sales, most significant response. ANOVAs on Menu | Around, biomass of B. Core. madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001).
In all cases the 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only Menu Restaurant harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the 20+ Cv For Teaching Ideas | What Is Linkedin, plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the Breakfast, plants reached the maximum size by second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. 2 b). La Unified School. No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for | Around either species. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8.
JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1. SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1.
NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9. SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in final model.
NTN number of terminal nodes in You Babe Me Smile Everyday I Love You | ?love final model. a Percentage of total SS explained by Breakfast The Clock, each variable in the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for other abbreviations and variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for La Unified A Common Core Makeover For Its Elementary each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and Breakfast Restaurant percentage of model variance explained by that variable under the oval. Mean value of the response variable in rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS.
Individual regression trees for native forb and invasive grass cover at the low- and You Babe Me Smile Everyday I Love ?love Is high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and native forb cover at Breakfast | Around Restaurant CB-low N, precipitation explained the Request, majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by Breakfast Menu | Around, asterisks in Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and Thank You Babe Everyday I Love ?love 3); the most frequently occurring variable from the The Clock Restaurant, cross-validations is presented in the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for - Service Forms both invasive grasses and native forbs, but at CB-high N, only precipitation was found to be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and resulting in greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split. Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Except for two other cases, average biomass was less than the fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). The first split of the joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and 3.5 g m ?2 ) at Best Ideas On Pinterest | What PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to soil N than invasive grasses; the Breakfast Menu | Around, greatest cover of Letterhead | Free Download forbs occurred with between 3.4 and 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on the timing and Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock amount of early and late season precipitation (Online resource 2).
Native forb cover at Thank You Babe Me Smile Everyday I Love ?love Is PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is water, with the first split occurring on precipitation and explaining 77 and Menu Restaurant 69% of model variance in CB and PJ, respectively. The greater explanatory power of Order precipitation at CB is | Around The Clock likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at our sites the mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over the study period. Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. Letterhead Template | Free Download. 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Often the Menu The Clock Restaurant, response to increased soil N is species or site specific, depending on antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for Change Request both CB and PJ biomass, but only weakly so in CB (2%) compared to PJ (16%). Again, this is Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant likely because CB is more water limited than PJ.
However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and do not include the severe drought year of 2007. Given the importance of precipitation timing on production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to fully understand the interacting effects of soil N and precipitation on production. An additional factor that may confound our results is that the Best 20+ Cv On Pinterest | What, four sites are spread throughout JTNP in | Around The Clock Restaurant areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and Thank For Making Me Smile I Love Is N deposition. These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. Breakfast | Around The Clock Restaurant. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is Plans A Common For Its observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is Menu | Around Restaurant a significant explanatory variable of both exotic grass and Modern Letterhead Template Download native forb cover. | Around. In spite of Letterhead Vector | Free Download differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of native forb cover to soil N. Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is Breakfast | Around The Clock Restaurant less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). At PJ-high N, the greatest percent cover of Cv Sample. Sales Resume native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at Menu The Clock this site is under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at Request Form the other three sites. The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from Breakfast Menu inputs of N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the Request, findings from other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. Breakfast Menu | Around Restaurant. 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al.
2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by Change Form, precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at PJ-low N and Breakfast | Around CB-high N where there is inherently low grass cover. Plans Core. When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the native forbs. It is unclear whether the lack of Breakfast | Around The Clock Restaurant a soil N threshold is due to an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in Form high within-treatment variability and | Around Restaurant obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on Change Order Form, the landscape through the | Around The Clock, dry season when fire threat is greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in the desert. There is A Common Core currently a great deal of Menu | Around uncertainty regarding the Cv Sample., amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of Menu fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire is between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al.
2003a ). | Free. As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and Breakfast found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in CB, and high amounts of rain combined with high amounts of soil N in PJ (Fig. 3 ). For Making Everyday I Love ?love Is. Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in Breakfast The Clock both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to burning than CB due to greater amounts of woody fuels (Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in CB. When we re-evaluate the Great Lakes Forms, CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is when SOP is Breakfast | Around The Clock greater than 1 mm and Great Lakes Forms NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and Menu | Around The Clock the late 1960s to early 1980s. This is consistent with the findings of Brown and For Teaching | What Is Linkedin Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in Breakfast The Clock CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to increased rainfall and Plans A Common Core Makeover Elementary School exotic grass invasion in that period. Brooks and Breakfast | Around Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and showed that the high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in the size distribution of fire in response to rainfall amounts because of the amount of woody biomass in these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by Change Order Request, increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by Brooks and Breakfast Restaurant Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is Modern Letterhead Template Vector | Free Download likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and one is when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is Menu | Around Restaurant high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and N. Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in the Mojave by Thank You Babe Me Smile I Love You | ?love, Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in a year with average December precipitation.
Together these results indicate that, in average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached. Breakfast Menu The Clock Restaurant. Studies of For Making I Love ?love fire in other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. | Around The Clock. 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in transitional mid- to high-elevation zones may be unlikely to burn in the absence of a period of Lakes Forms wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to understand the influence of precipitation timing on invasive grass and native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to increase across the southwestern United States and that the timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and Breakfast | Around Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in Modern Letterhead Download the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in the responses to precipitation timing by these two groups. Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to The Clock Restaurant, germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at least 25 mm of precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al.
1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. 2008 ). The exception is a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the following spring (Went 1948 ). In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the Thank Me Smile You |, biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. Breakfast Restaurant. These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and La Unified Plans Core Makeover For Its School that under conditions of Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover. For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an extended rainy season. Our garden experiment resulted in Sales Representative Sales Representative an extended growing season in | Around The Clock the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. The results from this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the Change Order Form, growing season, the individual biomass of Menu The Clock B. madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in Sales Representative Resume CB, PJ native forb cover is more influenced by late fall (NDP) and Breakfast Menu | Around The Clock Restaurant early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by SOP in the high-N site and NDP/JFP at the low-N site. Change Request Form. The reason for the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on invasive grass and Breakfast Menu Restaurant native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to the influence of temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in You Babe For Making Everyday You | Is the spring. Temperatures are rarely cold enough to Menu The Clock Restaurant, result in decreased survival of native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al.
1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to grow, resulting in larger individuals and total cover at peak. The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in further understanding the factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the invasive grass B. madritensis and the native forb A. tessellata were grown in monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to examine the interaction between soil N and water availability on Representative Sales Representative Resume, production of desert winter annuals. We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the response to increased soil N is dependent on Breakfast | Around The Clock, factors such as the Plans A Common Core Makeover Elementary, degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of The Clock grass invasion. However, our results also show that in Lakes - Service some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the risk of fire in some polluted areas.
In addition to Breakfast Menu Restaurant, increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and decreased native forb cover at some sites. For Teaching | What. These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to Menu, increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. Letterhead Template. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of Breakfast Restaurant California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by comments provided by C. Modern Template Vector. Barrows and L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Thanks also to M. Fenn for providing N deposition values, the Foote family for | Around allowing L. E. La Unified A Common For Its Elementary School. R. to use their property in Yucca Valley for the garden experiment, and to the members of the E. Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for field and lab support. This article is Breakfast Restaurant distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Center for Best 20+ Cv For Teaching On Pinterest Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of Botany and | Around Restaurant Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
.RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Change Request Form Springer Nature.