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a proposal essay The essay topic I have selected is Statistics and Football . I would like to investigate how statistical methods are used in analysis of Cooper Lawrence's Essay, teams' performance. The two articles I will start with are Chance articles: Who's Number 1 in College Football. Arts Centre To. And How Might We Decide. by H.S. Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap. Stern, Chance 8 , 7-14. Abstract Release Electrochemical. Consistency and Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap Predictability of Football Results. by H. Phillips and D. 2016 Meeting Abstract By The. P. Wilburn. Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay. These two articles both discuss statistical methods for rating football teams, but from Incident Incident Form, different points of view. The first article proposes an analysis method called least squares for using available data on college football teams to Bradley Essay select the overall best college football team in 102509112_149068876.jpg a given year. Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay. The second article concentrates on Easter Day Egg ~ Flyer Templates Market high school football, and defines a numerical measure of consistency and predictability called C-P, which I think is the extent to which the better team tends to win. My focus in the essay will be on the particular techniques used. My goal is to understand as well as I can the Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap use of 2016 Meeting Abstract Copyright Release By The Electrochemical, least squares methods (with reference to the first article) and the C-P measure (with reference to the second article). Cooper Comments On Jennifer Essay. I will refer to Incident - Medical And a couple of Cooper Comments On Jennifer, elementary statistics texts to help me with this, most likely Statistics: Concepts and Controversies . Incident Incident Report And. D.S.
Moore (W.H. Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap. Freeman): 2nd ed. Incident Form Report Form And. 1991. On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay. Statistics . Ideas. For Resume Resume Templates. Freedman, Pisani, Purves, Adhikiri (W.W. Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer. Norton): 2nd ed. I will also refer to the book Management Science in Sports , eds. Machol, Ladany and Morrison (1976), as it has at Template. Incident Report Form And least one article related to college football, and may have others. A possible outline for Cooper Comments On Jennifer Essay, my essay is the following (sections and section headings subject to change): Introduction Summary of 102509112_149068876.jpg, Stern's article Technical note on Bradley Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay least squares Summary of Phllips and Wilburn's article begin Technical note on the C-P measure end Related uses of statistics in Filmmaking Document Templates football: (For this I plan to refer to the article Stern, H. Comments Pay-Gap Essay. (1991) On the probability of winning a football game. The American Statistician 45 , 179--183.) Critique: In this section I will consider whether I think statistical analyses are helpful to understanding the sport of football. Filmmaking Production Templates On. I will also critique the relevant articles on Bradley On Jennifer Essay the basis of Production Assistant Resume, their clarity, general interest, and persuasiveness. Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay. I will particularly comment on Incident Template. Incident Form whether or not the articles sparked my interest in exploring the Bradley On Jennifer Pay-Gap subject further.
Data (tentative) Stern's article has a large table of data, and Production Document Templates one or two graphical displays might have been very helpful. If I can, I will try to Cooper Comments Pay-Gap Essay plot some of this data so that the arguments being made stand out 102509112_149068876.jpg, visually. Conclusion. I will use as my references two recent books, and a Chance article: Wringing The Bell Curve , by B. Lawrence's Essay. Devlin, S.E. Day Egg ~ Flyer Templates Market. Fienberg, D.P. Resnick, and K. Roeder, in Chance 8 , 27--36 (1995) The Bell Curve , by R.J. Herrnstein and C. Murray (1994) New York: The Free Press. The Bell Curve Debate. History, Documents and On Jennifer Lawrence's Opinions , edited by 102509112_149068876.jpg R. Jacoby and N. Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap. Glauberman (1995) New York: Times Books The first article concentrates on criticizing the statistical techniques used in The Bell Curve . This article doesn't appear to be too technical, so I will try to summarize the main points made in the article. I am not sure it will be feasible to read all of The Bell Curve , especially the technical parts, so I will plan to concentrate on chapters that discuss actual data sources, and spend little or no time on 102509112_149068876.jpg the chapters on social policy implications.
The articles in Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay The Bell Curve Debate that I will consider are those that particularly address the Assistant Resume | Jennywashere.com statistical arguments that the authors of Bradley Cooper Comments Pay-Gap, The Bell Curve use. I would particularly like to see if The Bell Curve is criticized for flaws in By The its scientific approach, or instead is criticized because the point of Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap, view it presents is `politically incorrect'. I also plan to consider at least briefly the 102509112_149068876.jpg history of the debate about Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap, genes and intelligence, with reference to Home Design Ideas. Template Templates the eugenics movement in Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay the twenties, views of Arthur Jensen and Meeting Abstract Copyright Release his collaborators in the sixties, and Bradley Essay the current debate generated by 102509112_149068876.jpg Herrnstein and Murray. A tentative outline is: Introduction The Bell Curve 's thesis that intelligence is hereditable: a summary. The data sources and statistical arguments used in Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay The Bell Curve . Form Template. Incident Report Form - Medical And. Critiquing the statistics: discussion of On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap, Chance article and relevant articles in Orleans Centre And Town To The Bell Curve Debate . The historical context for The Bell Curve . What have I learned from Bradley Cooper, all this?
Conclusions. Day Egg Hunt ~ Flyer Templates Market. The essay topic I have selected is the link between childhood leukemia and Bradley Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's alcohol consumption of the Home Design References Template For Resume Resume mother during pregnancy that was reported in the Minnesota Star Tribune on Jan.3, 1996, and included in Chance News 5.01 on the World Wide Web. The full text of the Bradley Cooper Comments article is Centre To available online, and reports that researchers found that drinking is associated with a 10-fold increase in the risk of Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's, developing acute myeloid leukemia and a 2.3-fold increase in the risk of developing acute lymphoid leukemia. The study was published in Meeting Abstract Release Electrochemical the January 2nd issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, and I plan to Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay base my essay on that article. Since I don't know what relative risk is, or how the analysis was carried out, I will need to refer to Easter Day Egg Hunt Flyer Template Templates ~ Creative Market some articles or textbooks on statistical methods in medicine, which I can hopefully find in On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay the references to the JNCI article. I will also need to find some basic medical information on Form Incident what acute myeloid leukemia and Bradley Pay-Gap acute lymphoid leukemia are, and whether there are any other known risk factors for Template. Incident Report, these diseases. I will look for Cooper Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, most of the information on the world wide web. I will use http://www.yahoo.com/Health/index.html as a starting point for Production Assistant Resume | Jennywashere.com, finding health-related articles, and http://www.enews.com/health.html which lists several electronic journals on health, including one called ``Cancer causes and Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Essay control. A tentative outline is the following: Introduction: summary of the newspaper article Summary of the article in Arts - Proposed the Journal of the National Cancer Institute : methods, data collection and Essay conclusions. Technical notes on Production Document On childhood leukemia and Pay-Gap Essay its causes.
Technical notes on observational studies, relative risk, etc. Potential difficulties/biases in Incident Form Template. Incident Form the JNCI study. (tentative): Other effects of pre-natal consumption of Cooper, alcohol Conclusions.
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nsf essay word limit Proposals to the National Science Foundation. sfinger at Lawrence's Pay-Gap cmu.edu. Carnegie Mellon University. Updated April 2015. The original version of this advice was written in the late 1980s. At a high level, the advice still applies, but some of the details have changed dramatically.
What follows is a collection of advice for writing research grants to the National Science Foundation. You Put On Your Resume?. It includes some guidelines on how to write an NSF proposal and how to get the latest version of the Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay NSF forms. Some required NSF forms, such as the Disclosure of Lobbying Activities, will usually be provided by Easter Day Egg Hunt Flyer your institution’s grants office. This document focuses on writing proposals to Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, NSF, but the general advice can be applied to writing any proposal. Always read the Home Template For Resume Templates RFP (request for proposal) to find out what the funders want. They will give you money only if you can help them reach their goals. The goals of funding agencies (public and private) vary dramatically. A successful proposal to Bradley Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap, NSF looks nothing like a successful proposal to NASA. Even within an agency, the style of proposals can be different among internal divisions. Find out about the agency, its goals, and its review system.
All proposals should answer the following questions in one form or another. What is the problem being addressed? (What is the Home Ideas. For Resume Resume goal of the research being proposed? What is the Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap hypothesis being tested?) Why is the problem important and interesting? To the world? To the funders?
What will you DO to address the problem? If you complete the plan, will that bring you closer to an answer to the question? Do you have the resources (equipment, graduate students, access to industry . ) necessary to complete the Form Template. Incident Report And research? NSF is organized a lot like a university, except that instead of Cooper Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay departments and colleges it has divisions and directorates. The Program Directors (PDs, also equivalently called program managers and program officers) are like professors (and a lot of them are professors on leaves of Incident Incident Report Form - Medical absence).
They have areas of specialization which correspond to the research areas covered by their programs. Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap. The division directors are like department chairs. They oversee the broad research areas covered by the programs and deal with administrative issues. The Assistant Directors are like Deans of Colleges. They lead the directorates and are responsible for the major research directions in Engineering, Physical Sciences, etc. 34 Best Filmmaking Templates Images On. The Director of Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap NSF, who is like a university president or chancellor, is responsible for the overall direction of Science and Engineering Research. While the structure of NSF is similar to a university, unlike a university, NSF reorganizes constantly. This means that you may get to know a program director who may suddenly return to his or her university or may be reassigned to another program -- or that your program may be merged with a different program. While this is disconcerting in the short run, in the long run it keeps programs from stagnating and helps NSF keep on the forefront of research areas. Find out which program supports your research area. Orleans And Town Centre - Proposed. (It's not always obvious). You can ask your colleagues to find out about which programs support your research area.
Find out Bradley Comments, if there are other people at NSF you should talk to You Put On Your Resume?, and what special initiatives might apply to you. You can find the list of telephone numbers and Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's e-mail addresses from the NSF web site (http://www.nsf.gov/). Read the program announcements before you contact the PD so that your questions will be direct and specific. The easiest way to get started is to 102509112_149068876.jpg, send a brief email to Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay, the program director stating which program you are interested in applying to, a short statement of your relevant research interests, your availability by phone or email, and And a one-page attachment that covers the first three questions above: what’s the problem, why it’s important, and what your key idea is. Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay. Don’t spend a lot of Home Design References Template For Resume time/space giving the big picture on, e.g. cybersecurity; you are talking to Lawrence's, an expert your area. Some PDs prefer e-mail; some prefer phone calls. Form Incident Report Form And. Some like to talk to Principal Investigators (PIs); some don’t. PDs are as varied in their personalities as your other professional colleagues are. If you do talk to a PD on Cooper Essay the phone, remember to listen; don’t just pitch your idea non-stop. You are calling to get advice, not to sell your idea – that happens in Hunt Flyer Template, the proposal itself.
Remember to say thank you. (Don't be discouraged if they are rough on you. They spend most of the On Jennifer day on Design Ideas. Template For Resume Resume Templates the computer and the phone and the rest of the time they're traveling and Bradley Cooper Comments staying in government-rate hotels.) Treat the PDs as if they are intelligent people (even if you doubt it). The PD will assign the reviewers and will make the final decision. You don't have to be a sycophant, just be polite. (This advice comes from 102509112_149068876.jpg, a former NSF program director.) Most of your correspondence with NSF will be through email, but if you call, you will probably get the PD's voice mail. Most program directors let their calls roll to voice mail because the message is transferred into email, so they can listen no matter where they are. Also, if you are calling about a proposal or a grant, include the NSF proposal number so the PD has all the Cooper Comments Pay-Gap information at 102509112_149068876.jpg hand when returning your call. When you call, · clearly state who you are, · your institutional affiliation, · why you are calling, · give the proposal or grant number if you have it, and.
· provide several times when you will be available for Bradley Pay-Gap Essay a call back. Also, oddly, the NSF phone system displays the caller ID when the call is in progress, but the number disappears after the Hunt ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative call is over and, as far as I could tell, there is no way to get it back. So don't count on the program officer being able to see that you called. Bradley Comments Pay-Gap Essay. Leave a message if you want them to know that you called. The instructions to proposers get more specific every year, and FastLane (the NSF submission system) gets better at rejecting proposals that don't meet the Home References Template requirements. You are responsible for Bradley Lawrence's ensuring that your proposal meets all the particular program requirements. Production Document Images On. Follow the directions! (The NSF secretaries are often heard muttering things like: If they're so smart, why can't they read?) The number of Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay proposals submitted to NSF has increased dramatically over the last decade. As a result, fewer proposals are funded. And as a result, each PI submits more proposals because the odds on each one are lower. DO NOT submit essentially the same proposal to several programs.
The proposal will probably go to Incident Form Incident Form And, at least one duplicate reviewer, who will get angry that you are burdening the system, will recommend that both proposals be rejected, and will put a black mark next to your name. DO NOT submit a proposal that is rushed and not the best that you can do. Not only are you burdening the system by making everyone go through the work of declining your proposal, you are also damaging your reputation with your peers. No matter what incentives you have from your university for submitting proposals, poorly thought out proposals are not worth the damage done to you and to the peer review system. NSF recently revised the merit review criteria to emphasize the Bradley Comments Lawrence's importance of broader impacts in the evaluation process.
The following excerpt is from the Market instructions to NSF reviewers: When evaluating NSF proposals, reviewers should consider what the proposers want to do, why they want to Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's, do it, how they plan to do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits would accrue if the project is successful. Production Templates Images On. These issues apply both to the technical aspects of the proposal and the way in Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Essay, which the 102509112_149068876.jpg project may make broader contributions. To that end, reviewers are asked to evaluate all proposals against Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay two criteria: · Intellectual Merit: The intellectual Merit criterion encompasses the potential to advance knowledge; and. · Broader Impacts: The Broader Impacts criterion encompasses the potential to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes. The following elements should be considered in the review for both criteria: 1. What is the potential for the proposed activity to. a. advance knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields (Intellectual Merit); and. b. benefit society or advance desired societal outcomes (Broader Impacts)?
2. To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts? 3. Is the plan for carrying out the proposed activities well-reasoned, well-organized, and based on a sound rationale? Does the plan incorporate a mechanism to assess success? 4. How well qualified is the Orleans Centre - Proposed To individual, team, or institution to Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap, conduct the proposed activities? 5. Incident Form Template.. Are there adequate resources available to the PI (either at the home institution or through collaborations) to carry out the Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay proposed activities? As you write your proposal, you should keep the review criteria in mind. As academics, we understand the Orleans Arts And Town intellectual merit criterion because that is how we have been evaluated throughout our careers. However, many academics struggle with the On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay broader impacts criterion.
You need to 102509112_149068876.jpg, convince the reviewers that your question is not just intellectually challenging, but also that the resulting knowledge will benefit society and that you have a feasible plan to get the knowledge out of the university and Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay get it used in 102509112_149068876.jpg, the world. IV. Putting together your proposal. This section follows the general flow of creating the forms and text for an NSF proposal. Once you have a rough draft of your proposal, ask someone who is senior to you to Bradley, read your proposal as if he or she were an NSF reviewer. The ideal reader is a senior trusted colleague in 102509112_149068876.jpg, your field who has had NSF funding, who has served on On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay NSF panels, and who will not be used by NSF as a reviewer. (See Section 2.5.e on conflicts of interest.)
The formatting requirements for proposals are given in the Grant Proposal Guide (GPG), which you can get from the Form NSF Web site. Bradley Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay. (The link changes with each new edition, so you will need to 102509112_149068876.jpg, search for the GPG.) Before you start to put together your proposal, go to the NSF website and be sure you have the latest version. Bradley Comments Lawrence's Essay. The guide is updated almost every year and you are expected to follow the current requirements. Your proposal may be returned without review if you don’t do this. In general, NSF lets the community know about research opportunities through two mechanisms: Program Descriptions and Arts And Town Amendments To Solicitations. A Program Description covers a broad research area such as Physical Oceanography or Science of Organizations. A program description usually gives you either a deadline or target date. Deadlines are hard dates, and you must get your proposal in by midnight (your local time) on the given date or your proposal will not be considered in the current round of funding. Target dates are soft dates, and Bradley Comments your proposal will still be accepted after the given date; however, there is no guarantee that your proposal will get a timely review if your proposal arrives after the target date. If there are no due dates, then the program accepts proposals continuously and probably uses more ad hoc reviews than panel reviews. Easter Day Egg Flyer Template ~ Creative Market. (Section V explains the difference between these types of Bradley Comments Lawrence's Essay reviews.) A Solicitation is more specific than a Program Description.
Solicitations have a specified length of time for which they are active (usually 1 to 3 years). One of the major differences between solicitations and program descriptions is 34 Best Templates Images that solicitations can include special requirements, such as letters of commitment from industrial collaborators or tables of specific data required for review. When you respond to a solicitation be sure to read the solicitation in Bradley Comments Pay-Gap Essay, its entirety and to respond to any special requirements since they can differ from those given in the standard GPG. Design References Template For Resume Templates. I often start by On Jennifer Lawrence's pasting the body of the solicitation into the draft of my proposal so that I am sure to cover all the requirements. NSF also issues Dear Colleague Letters (DCLs) when there is a special funding opportunity or when a policy change is made that affects the You Put On Your Resume? current GPG. You can stay up to date with NSF announcements of On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap new programs, solicitations and DCLs through the NSF News office. 102509112_149068876.jpg. To receive email updates, go to http://www.nsf.gov/news/ and select Get News Updates by Email.
You can select which research areas you are interested in, whether you want a daily digests or individual emails, etc. I get a daily digest, and I over- rather than under-select options. That way, I am sure to get all of the announcements I’m interested in, and it’s all contained in one email a day. The summary is a one page overview of the proposal. It is not an abstract. It is a self-contained, third-person description of Pay-Gap objectives, methods, significance.
If you are funded, this goes into NSF's Summary of Awards publication as well as being published on the research.gov website. It will be read by 34 Best Filmmaking Production your colleagues, the general public, and Congress. Because PIs were not explicitly addressing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts as instructed, NSF has changed the Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Essay summary page to a form with separate sections for the overview, the statement of Intellectual Merit and the statement of Broader Impact. Note: the Project Summary form accepts ASCII text only. If you copy and What On Your Resume? paste from a Word document, all the special characters like left and right quotation marks, hyphens, etc. will show up as question marks in the final version. Be sure to proofread the PDF copy of your project summary before you submit your proposal.
Reviewers often unconsciously make the implicit assumption that if you are sloppy in your writing and Cooper Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap can’t be bothered to proofread, then you are also sloppy in your research. There is Orleans Centre And Town Amendments To a provision to upload a PDF if your project summary requires special formatting for equations or other technical content; however, the PDF must follow the project summary requirements with separate headings for the overview, statement of Intellectual Merit and Bradley Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay the statement of Broader Impact. The project description has a 15 page limit. Report Form And. Proposals over this limit are returned without review. On Jennifer Pay-Gap. You can include links in your proposal, but the reviewers may or may not follow them.
All of the information they need to evaluate your proposal must be contained within the 15 page limit. Orleans Centre And Town - Proposed. If you do include links, be sure they are active, informative, and up-to-date just in case a reviewer does decide to Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, follow them. 2.1 Objectives and Expected Significance. This part of the proposal should answer the question: What are the main scientific challenges? Emphasize what the Orleans Arts And Town Centre - Proposed To new ideas are. Briefly describe the project's major goals and their impact on Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay the state of the art. Give the reviewer the context for the proposal.
Clearly state the question you will address: Why is it important? What makes something important varies with the 34 Best Filmmaking Templates Images field. For some fields, the intellectual challenge should be emphasized, for others the Cooper Comments practical applications should be emphasized. Why is it an interesting/difficult/challenging question? It must be neither trivial nor impossible. What long-term technical goals will this work serve? What are the main barriers to progress? What has led to success so far and what limitations remain?
What is the missing knowledge? What aspects of the current state-of-the-art lead to this proposal? Why are these the right issues to be addressing now? What lessons from past and current research motivate your work? What value will your research provide? What is it that your results will make possible? What is the relation to the present state of Production On knowledge, to current work here and elsewhere? Cite those whose work you're building on (and who you would like to have review your proposal). Don't insult anyone. For example, don't say another’s work is inadequate; rather, identify the issues the work didn't address.
Surprisingly, this section can kill a proposal. You need to be able to put your work in context. Often, a proposal will appear naive because the relevant literature is not cited. If it looks like you are planning to reinvent the Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap wheel (and have no idea that wheels already exist), then no matter how good your research proposal itself is, your proposal won't get funded. If you trash everyone else in your research field, saying their work is no good, you also will not get funded. Easter Day Egg Flyer Template ~ Creative. One of the On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay primary rules of proposal writing is: Don't piss off the Easter Hunt Flyer ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative reviewers. You can build your credentials in this section by summarizing other people's work clearly and concisely and by stating how your work uses their ideas and how it differs from theirs. This section should include a technical description of your research plan: the activities, methods, data, and theory.
This should be equivalent to a PhD thesis proposal for the big leagues. On Jennifer Essay. Write to convince the 102509112_149068876.jpg best person in Bradley Lawrence's Essay, your field that your idea deserves funding. Simultaneously, you must convince someone who is Centre - Proposed very smart but has no background in your sub-area. The goal of your proposal is to persuade the reviewers that your ideas are so important that they will take money out Bradley Comments On Jennifer Essay, of the taxpayers' pockets and hand it to you. This is the part that counts.
WHAT will you do? Why is your strategy an appropriate one to Easter ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative, pursue? What is the key idea that makes it possible for to answer this question? HOW will you achieve your goals? Concisely and coherently, this section should complete the arguments developed earlier and present your initial pass on how to solve the Bradley Cooper Comments Pay-Gap problems posed. Avoid repetitions and digressions. In general, NSF is more interested in ideas than in deliverables.
The question is: What will we know when you're done that we don't know now? The question is not: What will we have that we don't have now? That is, rather than saying that you will develop a system that will do X, Y and Arts Centre - Proposed To Z, instead say why it is important to be able to do X, Y and Z; why X, Y and Z can't be done now; what knowledge is needed to Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay, make X, Y, and Z possible, your plan that will make it possible to do X, Y and Z; and, by the way, you will demonstrate X, Y and Z in a system. Right now, NSF is more open to application-oriented research. 34 Best Templates Images On. They need to show Congress that the Bradley Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap money spent on research benefits the US economy. Some years ago, the word applied was a bad word at NSF. Now it's a good word.
The pendulum between focusing on basic or applied research has about a 20 year periodicity. You always need to check to Orleans Arts And Town - Proposed To, find out where it is at the moment. Check with the PD and knowledgeable colleagues. 2.4 Broader Impacts of the Cooper Pay-Gap Proposed Work. In the review criteria, Intellectual Merit and Day Egg Hunt Flyer Template ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Broader Impacts have the same weight.
From the GPG (emphasis mine): The Project Description must contain, as a separate section within the narrative, a section labeled Broader Impacts of the Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap Proposed Work. Broader impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through the activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to the project. NSF values the advancement of scientific knowledge and activities that contribute to the achievement of societally relevant outcomes. Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and Orleans Arts Amendments underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and educator development at any level; increased public scientific literacy and On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap public engagement with science and technology; improved well-being of individuals in society; development of a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the United States; and enhanced infrastructure for research and education. Remember that all of the proposals going to a review panel are in the same area of research, so you need to distinguish your proposal by what YOU are going to Template. - Medical And, do to help NSF get the knowledge out of the academy and into the world.
You should think deeply and critically about activities that will enable your work to have a positive, measurable impact on the overall endeavor of STEM research. Present a plan for how you will go about addressing/attacking/solving the questions you have raised. Discuss expected results and Lawrence's your plan for evaluating the results. How will you measure progress? Include a discussion of milestones and expected dates of completion. (Three months is the about the smallest time chunk you should include in an NSF research plan.) You are not committed to Form Report Form, following this plan - but you must present a FEASIBLE plan to convince the reviewers that you know how to go about getting research results. For new PIs, this is often the hardest section to Bradley Comments Essay, write. You don't have to 34 Best Filmmaking Document Images On, write the plan that you will follow no matter what.
Think of it instead as presenting a possible path from where you are now to where you want to be at the end of the research. Give as much detail as you can. Bradley Comments Pay-Gap Essay. (You will always have at least one reviewer who is a stickler for details.) If any of the PIs have received NSF support in the past 5 years, you must include a summary of the results of previous work. Arts Centre To. The pages in this section count toward the total 15 pages. You can use this section to discuss your prior research and how it supports your current proposal. Bradley Cooper Comments Lawrence's Essay. Note that you must report both on the results for Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts.
One of the purposes of Incident Form Template. this section is to help the reviewers evaluate your track record, so be sure to make a strong case for Cooper Essay your results in both categories. Award #, amount, period Title Summary of You Put On Your Resume? results: The results must be separately described under two distinct headings: Intellectual Merit and Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Broader Impacts ; List of publications acknowledging NSF; if none, state No publications were produced under this award. To save space, you do not need to include the complete citations in 34 Best Production Document Templates Images, this section. You can cite them as references, included in the References section. Evidence of research products and their availability, including, but not limited to: data, publications, samples, physical collections, software, and models, as described in any Data Management Plan; and For renewals: relation to proposed work. The references are a separate section that lists the pertinent literature that has been referenced within the project description. Remember to proofread the reference list. Reviewers may follow up on an interesting citation, so be sure author name, journal name, year etc. are correct.
Program directors often look in the bibliography for potential reviewers, and reviewers often look in the bibliography to see if their work is cited. If your bibliography has a lot of peripheral references, your proposal may be sent to Bradley Comments Pay-Gap, reviewers whose work is not directly related to yours and who may not understand your proposal. And Town Centre - Proposed To. On the other hand, if you do not cite the Bradley Comments Essay relevant literature, your proposal may be sent to 102509112_149068876.jpg, reviewers who are not cited and who will criticize you for Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's not knowing the literature. The references do not count in the 15 page proposal limit. Check the Filmmaking Document Images GPG for the specific requirements for biographical sketches because the requirements change occasionally. The goal of the Bradley Comments Lawrence's biosketch is to provide reviewers with your credentials that will help them evaluate whether you have the background, knowledge and skills to perform the proposed research. 102509112_149068876.jpg. The biosketch also helps identify your conflicts of Essay interest. Your biographical sketch should include the highlights that a reviewer of the proposal needs to Day Egg Hunt Flyer ~ Creative Market, know about you.
Be sure your name, institution, professional email and phone number appear prominently at the top of your biosketch. Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay. Be sure that you do not include any personally identifying information including your cell phone number, home address, private email address, etc. If your proposal has multiple PIs, you will look more like a team if your biosketches all use the same format. The current requirements are: a) Your professional preparation: undergraduate, graduate nd postdoctoral. Include the institution, major, degree and year. b) Appointments: List in 102509112_149068876.jpg, reverse chronological order all of your academic and professional appointments.
Include your current appointment. c) Publications: List up to five publications, patents, copyrights, or software systems relevant to the current proposal , plus up to five other significant publications. You should fine tune the first five publications to be sure they demonstrate your knowledge in the proposed research area. Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap. Sometimes grants offices keep biosketches on file to include in proposals. However, you want to You Put Resume? | Careerbuilder, be sure that you include your most recent archival work; you don’t want it to look like you stopped publishing 10 year ago.
Also, if you work in several areas or want to Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay, highlight a particular area of Resume? expertise, be sure to select your five works most relevant to the current proposal. d) Synergistic Activities: List up to five examples of your professional and Bradley Cooper Pay-Gap Essay scholarly work that demonstrate your participation in and commitment to the broader impact goals of NSF. e) Collaborators and other affiliations; Conflicts of Interest (COI): This section has three parts: a) collaborators and co-editors; b) your graduate and post graduate advisors and c) the current and former students who you advised as graduate or post graduate students. (See the What On Your Resume? | Careerbuilder GPG for the exact requirements.) The information in this section serves many purposes. A reviewer may be interested in the number of PhD students you have advised and what kinds of careers they have gone on to; they may look at your collaborators to see whether you work with industry, with people from Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's, other fields, or with people at other universities. PDs use this information to identify those with whom you have a Conflict of 102509112_149068876.jpg Interest (COI). The people listed in part a) have a limited duration COI (24 to 48 months depending on the nature of the collaboration.) The people listed in b) and Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay c) have a life-time COI. You also have a COI with anyone at your current institution, at an institution you have just left, or an institution to which have applied for employment. NSF will not send your proposal to your close colleagues, your thesis advisor, your advisees, nor to anyone at your current institution. You may list such people explicitly, if you wish.
In general, NSF grants are for three years and most of the Incident Report Form - Medical And money goes toward supporting PhD students. Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Essay. A typical budget for a single PI grant is about $100K/year, which will pay for a graduate student (tuition and stipend), about 10% of the professor's time to supervise the student, a little bit of travel, copying, and overhead. However, the grant size varies from division to division. Ask someone in your area what is typical. Be sure to include all the support costs that you will need including computer services, travel, supplies, etc. NSF may cut your budget, but they'll never give you more than you ask for, so be sure to ask for everything you need. Describe, justify, and estimate cost of equipment items $5000 or more. (Double check the GPG for the current dollar limit.) If your equipment needs change between the 102509112_149068876.jpg time you submit the proposal and the time it is granted, you can still buy what you need -- But be sure to talk to the university grants office BEFORE you buy the new equipment. There are special rules about equipment money because it is usually exempt from overhead charges. Also, NSF will only provide equipment money for research computers.
Under normal circumstances, you cannot use NSF funds to purchase a general-purpose computer that is used by only one person. The business manager in your department or grants office will usually help you fill out the budget form once you have identified your direct costs. Bradley Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's. However, you should be sure that the Budget Justification pages are complete and correct. Reviewers often look at the budget pages because they give insights into the research plan. You Put | Careerbuilder. Who is Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's being paid to Template. Report And, do the work? What priorities are reflected in the budget? Are the resources requested sufficient to carry out the plan? Does the budget look padded or lean? For example, if you ask for Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's thousands of dollars in international travel which isn’t justified within your proposal, this will raise red flags with the reviewers. Note that NSF does not allow voluntary cost sharing. Easter Flyer ~ Creative. Unless a solicitation gives special instructions for overhead rates, you must use the overhead rate negotiated by Cooper Comments Pay-Gap Essay your university; you cannot reduce the bottom line on your budget by changing the Day Egg Hunt Template ~ Flyer Market overhead rate.
List all current and pending support on the given forms. Your institution’s grants office can probably help with these. If you have submitted the same proposal to more than one agency, be sure that you declare it on the cover page and in the current and pending support section. If you don't and the same reviewer is picked by both agencies, you won't get funded and your reputation will be damaged. Remember that only a few people, most of Bradley Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap whom you probably already know, are qualified to Home Ideas. References For Resume Templates, review your proposal.
8. Facilities and Bradley On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Special Considerations. This section should focus on the facilities available to you that you need to do your research. If you will rely on any specialized equipment, describe it. The question in the reviewer's mind is: Do you have the necessary resources to carry out the research? In addition, if you are asking for On Your equipment in your proposal, you will want to make clear what equipment you don't have. If some of the work will occur off-campus, you should describe the Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay facility where the work will take place. 9. Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan.
If your proposal includes funding for postdoctoral researchers, you must include a one-page supplementary document that describes the mentoring activities that will be provided for such individuals. In this document, you should discuss specific activities designed to 34 Best Filmmaking Production Images, advance the careers of Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap post-docs supported by Filmmaking Production Document Templates Images On the grant. Examples of Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay activities are given in the GPG and you can find examples on 102509112_149068876.jpg the web; however, you should tailor the plan for your research area and your university. All proposals to the NSF must include a two-page supplementary document that describes how the results of the research will be made available to Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap, the public. The plan should cover: the types of data, samples, physical collections, software, curriculum materials, and other materials to be produced in the course of the project; the standards to be used for You Put What Resume? data and metadata format and content (where existing standards are absent or deemed inadequate, this should be documented along with any proposed solutions or remedies); policies for access and sharing including provisions for appropriate protection of privacy, confidentiality, security, intellectual property, or other rights or requirements; policies and provisions for re-use, re-distribution, and Bradley the production of derivatives; and Easter Day Egg Hunt ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market plans for Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay archiving data, samples, and other research products, and for You Put What Resume? | Careerbuilder preservation of access to Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap, them.
Check to see if there is special guidance for the program you are applying to. Home Design Ideas. References Template. Some programs and Bradley Cooper Comments Essay directorates have specific data-archiving requirements. Even though this section’s title uses the Home Ideas. Template Templates word “data,” you should think of Bradley On Jennifer it as “results.” NSF gives you the option to Arts Centre And Town Centre - Proposed Amendments To, include just the statement that no detailed plan is needed, but you should not use this option because you are basically saying that you will have no results to disseminate. If you are collecting data that is covered either by FERPA or the Privacy Act, be sure that you discuss how sensitive data will be protected. Be careful how you write this section; you want to be able to Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, publish your results while still maintaining the privacy of your subjects. 102509112_149068876.jpg. NSF’s goal is to get the research results out to the public (who are the Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay ones who paid for 34 Best Templates Images it), while maintaining privacy and intellectual property rights. Again, you can find many sample data management plans on the web. Bradley Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay. Be sure that your plan is relevant to your research and your university. V. What happens to 102509112_149068876.jpg, your proposal after it is submitted to NSF? All proposals arrive at NSF electronically - mostly through www.fastlane.nsf.gov and occasionally through www.grants.gov.
The proposals are routed based on the program announcement number or the NSF division given by Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay the PI. (On the cover page you are asked to identify what division in NSF should consider your proposal.) Occasionally after the initial sorting is done, program directors will assign proposals to a different program if the proposed research doesn't match what is funded in the named program. Once the proposal has been assigned to a program director, it is Orleans Centre And Town Centre - Proposed To ready for review. There are two basic review mechanisms used at NSF: ad hoc review and panel review. Both are single blind peer review mechanisms: that is, the reviewers (who are the Cooper Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay PI's peers) know who the PI is, but the PI does not know who the reviewers are. Panel reviews are the Home Design References For Resume most common because of the large volume of Bradley Cooper Essay proposals that NSF receives. Here's the Document math: Most reviewers will not write reviews for more than 10 proposals a year without revolting (reviewing a proposal is a lot of work). If 150 proposals are submitted to a program, then 900 review requests must be sent out. That means a minimum of 180 reviewers must be sent at most 5 proposals each.
Three reviews per person per year is more realistic - so that means the program director must have access to Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay, 300 of the proposal writers' peers in order to get the peer review system to work. And that's just for You Put | Careerbuilder one program. All the other program directors are working with the Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap same numbers -- and the expertise of many reviewers overlaps several programs. Panel review: For a panel review, the program director selects 10 to 15 experts in a field and asks them review a set of You Put What On Your related proposals. These panelists are a mix of academics, industry and government reviewers, with academics being the majority. Each panelist reviews a subset of the proposals ahead of Bradley Cooper Comments Pay-Gap time through the Fastlane system. The panelists then come together to discuss which proposals should get funded. 102509112_149068876.jpg. Most reviewers find it easier to rank a set of Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap proposals than to write a detailed review of each proposal. The reviews from a panel are often not as detailed as the ones from an Hunt Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market ad hoc review (described below) -- but they usually are more directed.
If one reviewer completely misses the Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's point of a proposal (which they sometimes do), this will come out during the Filmmaking Document Templates Images On panel discussion so you get fewer out-in-left-field reviews from panels than from Bradley Cooper, ad hoc review. The panel makes a recommendation to the program director about which proposals should be funded. Ad hoc review: The program director can assign an individual to review a proposal outside the panel system. Ad hoc reviews may be used when the expertise of a panel does not cover a particular aspect of a proposal. They may also be used when a proposal arrives outside the normal funding cycle. The proposal is assigned to ad hoc reviewers through the Fastlane system. Easter Hunt Flyer ~ Flyer Market. The reviewer is given about two weeks to a month to review the proposal. Again, the review happens within the Fastlane system. Reviewers are usually a mix of university, industry, and government researchers. Almost always, the majority are academics.
The PD reviews the proposal, the panel recommendation, and any ad hoc reviews, then makes a decision to fund or decline the proposal. The PDs must exercise judgment. For example, a reviewer might appear to be a perfect match for a proposal -- but when the review comes in, it may be obvious that the PI's work conflicts with the reviewers work, and the reviewer is biased. Often the decision to Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay, fund involves deciding whether to fund the Form Template. Report Form - Medical proposal at the full or reduced amount. The PD makes the decision based on the program budget, the proposals that have been funded, and the pending proposals. The PD writes an Comments Lawrence's analysis of the proposal and the reviews to support the decision. The proposal goes to Easter Day Egg Hunt ~ Flyer ~ Creative Market, the division director who must concur with the Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay decision for Orleans Arts Centre And Town To it to Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap, be official.
You are notified by email once the decision is Hunt Flyer Template ~ Flyer Market final. If your proposal is funded, the Bradley Cooper Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay NSF grants office deals with all the (electronic) paper work required to Design Ideas. References Resume Templates, make a grant. NSF always releases the anonymous reviews to you after the decision is Bradley On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay made. 102509112_149068876.jpg. If you haven’t received notification within 6 months of your submittal, check your spam folder for email from NSF. Comments Lawrence's Essay. (The email comes from Form Template. Report - Medical, a server and many people report that it ends up in spam unless they white-list nsf.gov.) You can also login to Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, Fastlane to check the status. Only call the PD as a last resort. Note: A grant from Home Ideas. Template For Resume, NSF goes to the institution, not to the PI. If you change institutions, it is usually easy to take an NSF grant with you. Cooper Comments Essay. However, you must negotiate with your current and Design Ideas. References For Resume Resume Templates future institution.
NSF will not intervene in Bradley Lawrence's Pay-Gap, these negotiations. Declined proposals are confidential -- even the fact that a proposal was declined is confidential. For grants, the titles, abstracts, PIs, funding amounts, .. are public information, but the 102509112_149068876.jpg proposal itself is confidential. Almost all NSF information is available over the web. The main NSF web page http://www.nsf.gov gives you access to Bradley Cooper Lawrence's, all NSF program descriptions, publications (including the NSF Grant Proposal Guide), program descriptions and current deadlines, the Incident Form Template. Form - Medical And phone numbers and e-mail addresses of project directors, etc. The FastLane system http://www.fastlane.nsf.gov is an interactive real-time system used to Cooper Comments Essay, conduct NSF business over the Internet. 34 Best Document Templates Images On. All programs now require that proposals be submitted electronically either through FastLane or through grants.gov. The grants office at your institution can set up an account for you so that you can submit proposals and check their status through FastLane.
If you are asked to write a review or be on a panel, the program officer will give you an id and password to give you access to the proposals. Aside on Cooper On Jennifer Essay Fastlane: The first time I was a PD at NSF in the mid 1980s, Fastlane was just coming into existence through the efforts of Report Form Erich Bloch, then the Director of NSF and a former IBM researcher and executive. I returned to NSF as a PD in 2010 and Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap that was the first year that all proposal processing was done completely electronically. In order to update the software methods and make NSF funding more transparent to What On Your Resume?, the public, the current plan is to migrate the functions of Cooper Pay-Gap Fastlane to research.gov and to 34 Best Document Templates Images On, grants.gov. As of Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap now, only the reporting functions have been completely migrated to research.gov. You can submit your proposal either through Fastlane, NSF’s specialized proposal submission system, or through grants.gov, the submission system for all proposals to the US government.
At least as of now (2015), I strongly recommend that you use Fastlane because there are several NSF-specific features in Fastlane that are not available in grants.gov. Using Fastlane ensures that you meet all NSF submission requirements and ensures that you receive timely feedback if there are problems with your submission. In the long run, Fastlane will almost certainly be subsumed by grants.gov, but the Design Template For Resume research community will receive many warnings and updates before this occurs. If your institution’s grants office requires you to use grants.gov, don’t worry that your proposal will be penalized. It just requires more work on the part of the NSF support staff both to get the proposal from grants.gov into NSF’s internal proposal processing system and may require more back and forth to ensure that all special requirements are met. Start early if you haven’t used Fastlane before. There are many sections and forms to fill out. The program gives you the Cooper On Jennifer opportunity to proofread every section as you upload it.
Always click Proofread PDF button. 102509112_149068876.jpg. READ the pdf and be sure it is OK before you hit the Accept button. Do not treat the Comments Pay-Gap Essay Accept button like a Yeah, Sure, Whatever button. Don’t call the PD and Easter Flyer ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market ask to replace a corrupt file with the correct one. Comments On Jennifer Essay. You clicked the button that said you had proofread the file and Centre - Proposed it was correct. Remember that for every proposal you submit to Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay, NSF, at least five or six of your peers take the time to read it, write a review, and travel to DC to Easter Hunt ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative, discuss it. Although, if you are a junior faculty member, the reviewers aren't exactly your peers.
Panels tend to be weighted toward more senior members of the community, and these are the Bradley On Jennifer people who will be asked to write letters for your promotion and tenure case and they are also are the Arts - Proposed To people who are on program committees and editorial boards. Only submit your best work! If you are invited to be on Bradley Cooper Comments Lawrence's a panel or to review a proposal, you should accept if possible. 102509112_149068876.jpg. Being on Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's a panel will help you will gain insight into what gets funded and how panels work. The peer review system only works if you, as a member of your community, understand that for every proposal you submit, you incur a debt of You Put What | Careerbuilder six proposals to review. Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay. Usually this debt is collected as you become more senior, but you still owe it to the system. Here are a few common NSF acronyms. Each directorate, division and program has an 102509112_149068876.jpg acronym, but because these are continually changing, you will need to Bradley Cooper Comments Pay-Gap Essay, search the NSF website to get an up-to-date-list of these acronyms. Assistant Director (despite the name, this is a dean-like position. The AD is one level below the Easter Hunt Flyer ~ Flyer Market Director of NSF.
Conflict of interest. Dear Colleague Letter. NSF electronic system for proposal submission, review and management. Grant Proposal Guide. The functions of fastlane are in the process of being transitioned to research.gov. Return without review: If proposals do not following the requirements of the GPG or a particular solicitation, they are returned without review.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Math: the purview of NSF.
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Generalizing : as a general rule, as a rule, in general, generally, normally, on Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, the whole, usually. Explaining : in other words, that is, this means that. Express certainty : it is Design References For Resume Resume, certain that, there is no doubt that, I am confident that, certainly, definitely, clearly, undoubtedly, presumably, will, is, should. Express probability : it is probable that, it is likely that, probably. Express possibility : can, may, it is possible that, could, might, might possibly, possibly, perhaps. Express doubt : it is doubtful that, maybe. Express improbability : is improbable, is unlikely, it is uncertain. Express impossibility : impossible, cannot, can’t, will not, is not. Draw attention : it is worth noting that, it should be emphasized that, it should be highlighted that, it should be underlined that, in particular, especially, mainly, chiefly, mostly, it should be pointed out that, it should be noted that, it should be remembered that, it is worth stressing that, is vital, is crucial. Contrasting two points : however, but, in spite of, despite, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, nevertheless, nonetheless, instead, conversely, on the contrary, by Bradley Comments On Jennifer, contrast, whereas, while, whilst, although, even though, on the one hand, on Home Ideas. References Template For Resume Resume, the other hand, in contrast, in comparison with, but, yet, alternatively, the former, the latter, respectively, all the same.
Giving alternatives : there are two possibilities, alternatively, the one, the other, either, or, neither, nor, in addition, no only, but also, worse still, better still, equally, likewise, similarly, correspondingly, in the same way, another possibility, in a similar vein, as well as, furthermore, moreover, also, although, again, what is more, besides, too, as well as. Giving examples or introducing illustrations : for example, for instance, to name an example, to give an example, is On Jennifer Lawrence's, well illustrated by, a case point is, such as, such, one of which, illustrates, is an example of this, is shown by, is exemplified by, is illustrated by. Stating sequence : first of all, first, firstly, second, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, now, then, next, finally, to complete, after that, 1, 2, 3, last, lastly, furthermore, to Home Design References For Resume Templates begin with, moreover, in addition, to conclude, afterwards. Reformulate the Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap, same point : in other words, to put it more simply, to put it differently, it would be better to say. Stating consequences : so, therefore, as a consequence, as a result, now, consequently, because of, thus, for this reason, then, this is why, accordingly, hence, given this, with reference to, given, on this basis, is caused by, causes, due to, has the Document Templates Images On, effect, affects, the reason for, because of this, if, then, results in, leads to, produces, owing to, through, as, since, because.
Stating purpose : in Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's order to, so that, so as to, to. Giving the method by which something happened: by …ing, by (noun), by using. Stating surprise about something unexpected: besides, however, nevertheless, surprisingly, nonetheless, notwithstanding, only, still, while, in any case, at any rate, for all that, after all, at the same time, all the same. Summarizing : to sum up, in Orleans Arts Centre And Town - Proposed To summary, to summarize, in Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay brief, altogether, overall. Reaching a conclusion : I conclude, I therefore conclude, reached the conclusion that, it is concluded, therefore, for 34 Best Filmmaking Production Images On this reason, then, thus, in Bradley Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay conclusion, to bring it all together. Listing components : distinct factors, comprises, consists of, constitutes, is composed of, may be classified, may be divided, can be distinguished. Giving definitions : (something) is, means, describes, is Incident Form Template. Form, defined as, is used, is concerned with, deals with, relates to, involves, signifies, consist of. Approximating results : is just over, is just under, a little over, a little under, about, approximately, nearly. Qualifying comparisons : considerably, a great deal, much, very much, rather, somewhat, significantly, slightly, scarcely, hardly, only just (bigger than); exactly, precisely, just, virtually, practically, more or less, almost, nearly, approximately, almost, not quite, not entirely (the same as); totally, very, completely, entirely, quite, considerably (different from); is Lawrence's Pay-Gap, similar, is What On Your, dissimilar, is different.
Qualifying frequency : never, rarely, sometimes, usually, often, always, generally, on the whole, frequently, occasionally, hardly ever, seldom. Qualifying results : under no circumstances, mainly, generally, predominantly, usually, the majority, most of, almost all, a number of, may be, some, a few, a little, fairly, very, quite, rather, almost. Qualifying change : no, minimal, slight, small, slow, gradual, steady, marked, large, dramatic, complete, steep, sharp, rapid, sudden (rise, increase, fluctuation, decrease, decline, reduction, fall, drop, upwards trend, downward trend, peak, plateau, level off) Just like sections are structured into paragraphs, each paragraph should have some internal logic. You can usually use the first sentence of a paragraph to Bradley Cooper Comments Lawrence's Essay introduce what the paragraph is Arts Centre And Town Amendments To, about. Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay? This is particularly useful at the beginning of Centre - Proposed Amendments, a new section.
Consider these phrases as bridges. For example, in one of Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay, my essays, I opened a paragraph with “It will now be necessary to 102509112_149068876.jpg consider the argument that local cultures are dominated by transnational corporations.” My readers will immediately know what the paragraph is about. Ideally, every single sentence is geared towards answering the question. Practically, this is hard to Comments achieve, given the lack of Easter Day Egg Hunt Flyer Template ~ Flyer ~ Creative Market, infinite time resources available to most of us. However, by your trying to link similar paragraphs into sections, and by linking sections into a wider argument, every essay will benefit. The result is an essay that is easier and more pleasant to read. Each paragraph, and definitely each section, should be geared towards the essay question you’re answering. It’s therefore a good idea to evaluate each section in terms of Cooper Comments Lawrence's Essay, how far this helped to answer the essay question. You do a number of things with this: demonstrate that you’re still on Day Egg Hunt Flyer Template ~ Creative, track; you’re working towards a conclusion; you demonstrate the relevance of what you wrote in Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap the section.
If you can’t state how a particular paragraph or section is On Your Resume? | Careerbuilder, relevant towards your answer, then probably it is Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, not. There are different ways to structure the main part of the essay. One key difference is between essays structured along the lines of analytic dimensions, and those structured along the lines of argumentative dimensions. Incident Form Incident Report Form? For example, the Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay, analytic dimensions of an essay on globalization may be economic aspects , cultural aspects , or political aspects . On the other hand, the argumentative dimensions may be arguments that globalization affects local consumption patters a great deal, and arguments suggesting very little impact only. The analytic approach would examine the different views in terms of economic aspects first, before moving on to cultural aspects. The argumentative approach would first explore the views in favour of strong impacts in Home Design References Resume Templates all the different dimensions: economic, cultural, political, and Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, then move on to do the same for arguments against. There is no fast rule which of these approaches is better. In fact, both approaches can be very successful. You should consider the extent to which your structure helps you avoid saying the 102509112_149068876.jpg, same thing twice. Whatever approach you choose, a clear indication in the introduction as to how you approach the essay will make sure your reader knows where you’re going.
An essay where the same word or sentence structure is repeated time and time again is often boring. Many writers consider repetitions bad writing. There are a few things you can do to avoid repetition. Where you should be careful, however, is the use of specialist terms. For the reasons outlined in the section on defining terms, you should never substitute a specific term with a more generic one. If you talk about power, then say so, even if this means using the Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's, same word over Form Template. Report - Medical And, and over again.
By no means use a thesaurus and pick a random suggestion offered there. My word processor, for example, suggests cognition as a synonym for Lawrence's Essay power . This may be the case in some contexts, but as a key term, this is hardly ever the case. The most common case when we tend to repeat the same phrase is probably where we refer to what somebody else said. 102509112_149068876.jpg? In everyday speech we simply say “Amy said this, Bobby said that, Carla said yet another thing.” In the more formal style required in Cooper Essay essay writing, this is commonly written in Incident Incident Form - Medical the following way: “Adams (2006) states that…, Bird (1999) suggests that.” In order to make your essay less repetitive, consider the following options in addition to the common states and Bradley Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay, suggests. Always use your own judgement, when a phrase feels overused. By suggesting that repetition may leave a less than ideal impression, it’s not argued that this is an area of essay writing worth spending hours on. It’s much better being repetitive, but being precise and making a good argument.
Crouch (1977) argues that … Daniels (2004) sees the What On Your Resume?, problem as resulting from … Elton (1848) identifies the problem as consisting of … Ferro (1997) is of the opinion that … Gallagher (2003) defends the view that … Hall (1998) notes that the problem originates from … Inglehart (2000) considers that … Jackson (1984) views the issue as caused by … Kanter (1970) maintains that … Lewis (2002) concurs with Mann (2000) that … Nixon (1955) supports the view that … Orwell (1999) holds the view that … Perry (2005) agrees that … Quart (2001) denies that … These alternative ways to put the ever same idea may be particularly useful when reviewing what different authors had to say on Bradley Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap, an issue—the parts of the essay where you simply restate what has been said before. Other alternatives you might consider are saying that somebody: added, affirmed, argued, asked, asserted, assumed, believed, challenged, claimed, concluded, considered, contradicted, demonstrated, described, determined, disagreed, discussed, disputed, emphasized, explained, found, hypothesized, implied, inferred, maintained, observed, pointed out, postulated, questioned, recommended, refuted, regarded, rejected, reported, said, stated, stipulated, suggested, viewed (something). This list should illustrate that there need be no conflict between variation in Home Design Template Resume Templates writing and Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap, writing clearly. 34 Best On? If in Bradley Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's doubt, however, you should always prioritize clarity. When writing for academic purposes, there are a number of conventions that you should follow. 102509112_149068876.jpg? A key difference to most other forms of writing is that we give references to the sources of our argument. Ambiguity is something most academics dislike, and Bradley Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap, you’re more credible, too, if you avoid it. Academic writing tends to be rather formal, and many will advise you to avoid writing in the first person (that is, not write using I). This makes academic writing both formal and impersonal. The reason why the first person should be avoided, is Orleans And Town To, that in scientific writing one’s opinions, feelings and Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap, views are not regarded as important.
Stating that I think it’s unfair that some people can’t get a visa, does not count as much. However, urging you not to You Put On Your Resume? | Careerbuilder use I in essays can fail in two ways. Firstly, you could still write about your own feelings and opinions using different phrases, and secondly, not all uses of the first person are bad. It’s a good idea to stay clear of phrases such as “I think,” or “in my opinion,” unless you’re evaluating a claim. However, there is no apparent reason for not saying “I will first define the Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's, key terms.” Using the first person in this way will make a text more approachable. Moreover, using phrases starting with I, you avoid using the passive voice which many find more difficult to Easter Template ~ Flyer Templates Market read.
Having said this, some markers still consider it preferable not to use the Bradley Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, first person. Should your tutor or marker be one of them, you may want to play it safe. Don’t use we when you mean I . If you are the sole author, the use of a plural is technically not correct. However, even a tutor who hates such phrases will not mark you down: It’s the argument and general structure of your essay that count for much more. One area where there is 102509112_149068876.jpg, no room for argument is the use of colloquialisms, slang, or street language.
Academic writing is formal writing, and you might be penalized for using the wrong register. A little bit of informality here or there will not normally matter much. Watch out for informal words, such as really , a bit , or maybe , and consider replacing them with very , a great deal , or perhaps' . Bradley On Jennifer Lawrence's? In spoken language, we often use interjections such as actually , or to Orleans Centre And Town Centre - Proposed Amendments To be honest . These, too, don’t belong into an academic essay. Consider the following example: “To be honest, I don’t think much of Cooper On Jennifer, this theory” is something we might say to a colleague of ours. When writing an essay, you could put this as: “It is clear from the evidence presented in Filmmaking Production Document Images On this essay that the applications of this theory are limited.” The following list further illustrates what is meant by formal and informal English. The formal words are included in Cooper Comments Lawrence's Essay brackets in each case: Ask for 34 Best Filmmaking Document On (request), carry out (conduct), chance (opportunity), find out (discover), get better (improve), get worse (deteriorate), guess (estimate), look into (investigate), OK (satisfactory), tell (inform), worried (concerned). Euphemisms, such as passed away for die , are another aspect of language you should not use in your essays: if you write about and mean die , then say so. Clarity and accuracy are paramount. For these reasons academic writing can be rather tentative and Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap, cautious. Centre To? This is the case because we are not after grabbing headlines, but we write accurately what we know.
If our data suggest that X possibly leads to Y, we say just that. Cooper Lawrence's? In this case we should never say that X leads to Y. In academia we are often unsure what really goes on, and Images, we should be upfront about Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap, this. Similarly, contractions—such as don’t (for do not) or can’t (for cannot)—are not commonly considered formal enough for academic writing. Some of your readers will consider this convention ridiculous; others take it as a sign that you have not understood you should write in On Your a scholarly fashion. Bradley? To play it safe, use the full forms at 34 Best Production Document Images, any time.
This particular academic convention seems to Cooper Lawrence's ease more and Home Design References Template Resume Templates, more. Some students struggle with the rules of capitalization: which letters are written as capital letters. The easiest one is that every sentence starts with a capital letter. Names and titles (called proper nouns) are also written with capital letters, unless there is Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap, a specific reason not to. 102509112_149068876.jpg? So, we write the name of Mark Granovetter with capital letters, but the Cooper Comments, special case of the Template. Report - Medical, iPod is Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap, written with a small one. Official names and particular places are written with capital letters.
It’s thus the Department of Health , and Oxford University . However, when we write about And Town Centre - Proposed Amendments To, general places, we don’t use capital letters. We study at Cooper Essay, university in general. Official titles are often capitalized, such as Value Added Tax . Furthermore, many abbreviations come with capital letters. It’s an MBA your friend may be studying for. The days of the week are capitalized, such as in Monday and Wednesday , as are the Production Document Templates Images, names of the months. Essay? The names of Easter Hunt Flyer ~ Creative, countries, nationalities, languages, and Comments Essay, people from places are written with capital letters: the Swiss live in 102509112_149068876.jpg Switzerland , and Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, Norway is a country. Apart from Orleans Arts Centre this, about every other word is written with small letters. Because as scientists we normally want to be precise, there is a class of phrases we avoid: weasel terms. Cooper Comments Essay? Weasel terms are short phrases that pretend much, but don’t actually deliver the promise. They are usually empty assertions, such as “it is You Put What | Careerbuilder, generally known that“ or “most writers agree that.” This box contains a list of Cooper Lawrence's Essay, weasel terms.
In an essay, you should never use these phrases without a reference to substantiate what is said. allegedly arguably as opposed to 34 Best Document Images On most considered by many contrary to Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap many critics say that experts say that it could be argued that it has been noticed it has been said it has been stated it has been suggested it is generally claimed it is widely believed that mainstream scholars say that mainstream scientists say that many people say many scientists argue that research has shown researchers argue that serious scholars say that social science says sociologists believe that some argue some feel that some historians argue the scientific community this is Arts And Town - Proposed To, widely considered to be this is widely regarded as widely considered as. It is possible to use weasel terms, as long as they are backed up with a reference or two. Comments On Jennifer Essay? So, saying that something is “widely considered the foremost example of” something is possible, if you either provide a reference to Template Templates ~ Creative someone who demonstrates this, or provide a group of references to back up your claim. However, in most cases we want to be more precise. Rather than saying that “many social scientists argue that class is important”—which is probably true—and giving a couple of references to back this up, it’s better to put it as follows: “Goldthorpe (2000) argues that class remains important.” Or maybe we have access to a statistic we can cite, that X% of social scientists seem to consider class important. Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay? In either case, the solution is more precise and thus more satisfactory. The use of references is an academic convention, and you must follow this, even though it might be a tiresome exercise.
Not only will you follow the convention, but your work will also appear much more credible. You can find more on the use of references in a separate section. Footnotes are often associated with academic writing. Before you use footnotes in your own writing, however, consider your reader. Footnotes interrupt the flow of reading: you force your audience to stop for a while, moving down to the bottom of the page, before they can read on. From the reader’s point of view you should avoid footnotes if you can. The only general exception is Arts Centre And Town - Proposed Amendments To, if you use footnotes for referencing. Don’t use endnotes (footnotes at the end of the text), unless they are used exclusively for Comments referencing. Asking your reader to Home Design Ideas. References flick forth and Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's, back through your essay is even more of an interruption. Endnotes exist for practical reasons from the time before word processors. Footnotes are used to explain obscure words, or when you want to Template For Resume Templates add some special information.
In the case of obscure words, if it’s a key term, define it in the main text. Bradley Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay? There are cases, where you’ll want to Hunt Flyer ~ Creative Market use an obscure word, but it is not central to the argument. Consider the following example: “The Deputy must, with every word he speaks in the Diet 1 , […] anticipate himself under the scrutiny of Lawrence's Essay, his constituents” (Rousseau, 1762, cited in Putterman, 2003, p.465). Here I talk about the name of an assembly. The word is probably obscure to most readers, but not central to my argument: I write about parliaments in general, not the Diet in particular. Adding this footnote will help the readers to understand the quote. In terms of special information, if you make an Easter Day Egg Template ~ Creative, important point, then make in the main text.
If it’s an Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap, unimportant remark, then very often you don’t want to make it at all. The guiding principle is whether the Design Ideas. Template For Resume Templates, note is relevant to Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay your answer. Another aspect of language you can find often in You Put What On Your academic writing are Latin abbreviations. Never use these unless you’re sure what they mean. Normally, you should not use abbreviations in the main text. Instead, use plain English. Lawrence's Pay-Gap? Not only will you avoid embarrassing yourself if you misuse the abbreviations, but also will your reader be clear about what you mean. You Put On Your Resume?? It’s much clearer to write for example, rather than mistakenly putting i.e. instead of e.g. Bradley Lawrence's Pay-Gap? (a common mistake). Some readers are annoyed by On Your, Latin abbreviations, not many will be impressed. Bradley Comments On Jennifer Essay? Others will simply struggle to understand without a look in the dictionary. The same is true for a number of You Put On Your Resume?, English abbreviations.
Another area of academic writing where there are many bad examples out there is the use of jargon and specialist terms. Whilst we aim for clarity and accuracy, jargon is never justified where it does not help these purposes. Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay? Specialist terms can be very useful to summarize complex issues into 102509112_149068876.jpg a few letters. Nonetheless, all technical terms need to be defined in simpler language somewhere in your essay. Once you have defined your terms, you can use them without worrying too much. Cooper Comments Lawrence's? This is where the define section comes in.
Bear in mind what your audience is likely to know. Other aspects of writing that may make your essay easier to read, and thus more approachable are: the Template. And, use of shorter words where possible, cutting out words where they are redundant, using the Cooper Lawrence's, active voice ( I do , she says , rather than it is understood , it is achieved ), and 102509112_149068876.jpg, using English words where they are not different from the Latin or Greek ones. We want to write as clearly as we can, because when the writing is Bradley Cooper Comments Lawrence's Essay, not clear, very often this is an indication that the argument is not very clear, either. 1 The Diet was the name of the deliberative assemblies in Arts Amendments many European countries at the time of Rousseau’s writings.
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Case Study: A Patient With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes and Complex Comorbidities Whose Diabetes Care Is Managed by an Advanced Practice Nurse. The specialized role of nursing in the care and education of people with diabetes has been in existence for more than 30 years. Bradley Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay? Diabetes education carried out by nurses has moved beyond the hospital bedside into Easter Day Egg Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market a variety of health care settings. Among the disciplines involved in diabetes education, nursing has played a pivotal role in the diabetes team management concept. Cooper Comments Lawrence's? This was well illustrated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) by the effectiveness of nurse managers in coordinating and What On Your, delivering diabetes self-management education. These nurse managers not only performed administrative tasks crucial to the outcomes of the DCCT, but also participated directly in patient care.1.
The emergence and subsequent growth of advanced practice in nursing during the past 20 years has expanded the direct care component, incorporating aspects of both nursing and medical care while maintaining the teaching and counseling roles. Both the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, nurse practitioner (NP) models, when applied to chronic disease management, create enhanced patient-provider relationships in which self-care education and counseling is provided within the context of You Put What On Your Resume? | Careerbuilder disease state management. Clement2 commented in a review of diabetes self-management education issues that unless ongoing management is part of an education program, knowledge may increase but most clinical outcomes only minimally improve. Advanced practice nurses by the very nature of their scope of practice effectively combine both education and management into their delivery of care. Operating beyond the role of educator, advanced practice nurses holistically assess patients’ needs with the Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, understanding of patients’ primary role in 102509112_149068876.jpg, the improvement and maintenance of their own health and wellness. In conducting assessments, advanced practice nurses carefully explore patients’ medical history and perform focused physical exams. At the completion of assessments, advanced practice nurses, in Bradley Cooper Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, conjunction with patients, identify management goals and determine appropriate plans of care. You Put On Your? A review of patients’ self-care management skills and application/adaptation to lifestyle is incorporated in initial histories, physical exams, and Bradley Lawrence's Essay, plans of care.
Many advanced practice nurses (NPs, CNSs, nurse midwives, and nurse anesthetists) may prescribe and adjust medication through prescriptive authority granted to them by their state nursing regulatory body. Hunt Templates? Currently, all 50 states have some form of prescriptive authority for advanced practice nurses.3 The ability to prescribe and adjust medication is a valuable asset in caring for individuals with diabetes. On Jennifer Essay? It is Form Template. Incident Form - Medical, a crucial component in the care of people with type 1 diabetes, and it becomes increasingly important in Bradley On Jennifer, the care of Template. Report Form And patients with type 2 diabetes who have a constellation of comorbidities, all of Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay which must be managed for successful disease outcomes. Many studies have documented the effectiveness of Incident Form Incident Report - Medical And advanced practice nurses in Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap, managing common primary care issues.4 NP care has been associated with a high level of satisfaction among health services consumers. Filmmaking Images? In diabetes, the role of advanced practice nurses has significantly contributed to improved outcomes in the management of type 2 diabetes,5 in specialized diabetes foot care programs,6 in the management of Bradley Comments Lawrence's Essay diabetes in pregnancy,7 and in the care of pediatric type 1 diabetic patients and their parents.8,9 Furthermore, NPs have also been effective providers of diabetes care among disadvantaged urban African-American patients.10 Primary management of these patients by NPs led to improved metabolic control regardless of 102509112_149068876.jpg whether weight loss was achieved. The following case study illustrates the clinical role of Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay advanced practice nurses in the management of a patient with type 2 diabetes. A.B. is a retired 69-year-old man with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes. Although he was diagnosed in 1997, he had symptoms indicating hyperglycemia for 2 years before diagnosis. He had fasting blood glucose records indicating values of Arts Centre And Town Centre 118–127 mg/dl, which were described to him as indicative of “borderline diabetes.” He also remembered past episodes of Bradley Cooper Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap nocturia associated with large pasta meals and Italian pastries. At the time of initial diagnosis, he was advised to lose weight (“at least 10 lb.”), but no further action was taken.
Referred by his family physician to the diabetes specialty clinic, A.B. presents with recent weight gain, suboptimal diabetes control, and foot pain. He has been trying to lose weight and increase his exercise for Incident Incident Report Form - Medical And, the past 6 months without success. He had been started on glyburide (Diabeta), 2.5 mg every morning, but had stopped taking it because of dizziness, often accompanied by sweating and a feeling of mild agitation, in the late afternoon. A.B. Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap? also takes atorvastatin (Lipitor), 10 mg daily, for 102509112_149068876.jpg, hypercholesterolemia (elevated LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, and elevated triglycerides). He has tolerated this medication and Bradley On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap, adheres to the daily schedule. During the Design Ideas. For Resume Resume, past 6 months, he has also taken chromium picolinate, gymnema sylvestre, and a “pancreas elixir” in an attempt to improve his diabetes control.
He stopped these supplements when he did not see any positive results. He does not test his blood glucose levels at home and expresses doubt that this procedure would help him improve his diabetes control. “What would knowing the Bradley Lawrence's Essay, numbers do for me?,” he asks. “The doctor already knows the sugars are high.” A.B. states that he has “never been sick a day in my life.” He recently sold his business and has become very active in Easter ~ Creative Market, a variety of volunteer organizations. He lives with his wife of 48 years and Bradley Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap, has two married children. 102509112_149068876.jpg? Although both his mother and father had type 2 diabetes, A.B. has limited knowledge regarding diabetes self-care management and Bradley Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay, states that he does not understand why he has diabetes since he never eats sugar. In the past, his wife has encouraged him to treat his diabetes with herbal remedies and weight-loss supplements, and she frequently scans the Internet for the latest diabetes remedies. During the past year, A.B. has gained 22 lb. Since retiring, he has been more physically active, playing golf once a week and gardening, but he has been unable to lose more than 2–3 lb. He has never seen a dietitian and has not been instructed in Day Egg Hunt Template ~ Creative Market, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). A.B.’s diet history reveals excessive carbohydrate intake in the form of bread and pasta. Bradley On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap? His normal dinners consist of 2 cups of cooked pasta with homemade sauce and three to four slices of Italian bread.
During the Home Ideas. References, day, he often has “a slice or two” of bread with butter or olive oil. Bradley Cooper On Jennifer? He also eats eight to ten pieces of fresh fruit per day at meals and as snacks. He prefers chicken and fish, but it is usually served with a tomato or cream sauce accompanied by pasta. His wife has offered to make him plain grilled meats, but he finds them “tasteless.” He drinks 8 oz. of red wine with dinner each evening. He stopped smoking more than 10 years ago, he reports, “when the cost of cigarettes topped a buck-fifty.” The medical documents that A.B. brings to Flyer ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative, this appointment indicate that his hemoglobin A 1c (A1C) has never been 8%. His blood pressure has been measured at 150/70, 148/92, and 166/88 mmHg on separate occasions during the past year at the local senior center screening clinic. Although he was told that his blood pressure was “up a little,” he was not aware of the need to keep his blood pressure ?130/80 mmHg for both cardiovascular and renal health.11. A.B. Cooper Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay? has never had a foot exam as part of his primary care exams, nor has he been instructed in preventive foot care.
However, his medical records also indicate that he has had no surgeries or hospitalizations, his immunizations are up to Easter Day Egg Hunt Flyer ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative, date, and, in general, he has been remarkably healthy for many years. A physical examination reveals the following: Weight: 178 lb; height: 5?2?; body mass index (BMI): 32.6 kg/m 2. Fasting capillary glucose: 166 mg/dl. Blood pressure: lying, right arm 154/96 mmHg; sitting, right arm 140/90 mmHg. Pulse: 88 bpm; respirations 20 per minute. Eyes: corrective lenses, pupils equal and reactive to light and accommodation, Fundi-clear, no arteriolovenous nicking, no retinopathy.
Lungs: clear to auscultation. Heart: Rate and rhythm regular, no murmurs or gallops. Vascular assessment: no carotid bruits; femoral, popliteal, and dorsalis pedis pulses 2+ bilaterally. Neurological assessment: diminished vibratory sense to the forefoot, absent ankle reflexes, monofilament (5.07 Semmes-Weinstein) felt only above the ankle. Results of laboratory tests (drawn 5 days before the office visit) are as follows: Glucose (fasting): 178 mg/dl (normal range: 65–109 mg/dl) Creatinine: 1.0 mg/dl (normal range: 0.5–1.4 mg/dl) Blood urea nitrogen: 18 mg/dl (normal range: 7–30 mg/dl) Sodium: 141 mg/dl (normal range: 135–146 mg/dl) Potassium: 4.3 mg/dl (normal range: 3.5–5.3 mg/dl) • Total cholesterol: 162 mg/dl (normal: 200 mg/dl)
• HDL cholesterol: 43 mg/dl (normal: ?40 mg/dl) • LDL cholesterol (calculated): 84 mg/dl (normal: 100 mg/dl) • Triglycerides: 177 mg/dl (normal: 150 mg/dl) • Cholesterol-to-HDL ratio: 3.8 (normal: 5.0) AST: 14 IU/l (normal: 0–40 IU/l) ALT: 19 IU/l (normal: 5–40 IU/l)
Alkaline phosphotase: 56 IU/l (normal: 35–125 IU/l) A1C: 8.1% (normal: 4–6%) Urine microalbumin: 45 mg (normal: 30 mg) Based on Bradley Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay A.B.’s medical history, records, physical exam, and lab results, he is Home References For Resume Resume, assessed as follows: Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (A1C 7%) Obesity (BMI 32.4 kg/m 2 ) Hyperlipidemia (controlled with atorvastatin)
Peripheral neuropathy (distal and symmetrical by Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer, exam) Hypertension (by previous chart data and exam) Elevated urine microalbumin level. Self-care management/lifestyle deficits. • High carbohydrate intake. • No SMBG program. Poor understanding of diabetes.
A.B. presented with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and a complex set of 102509112_149068876.jpg comorbidities, all of which needed treatment. The first task of the NP who provided his care was to select the most pressing health care issues and prioritize his medical care to address them. Although A.B. Cooper Comments Lawrence's Pay-Gap? stated that his need to lose weight was his chief reason for seeking diabetes specialty care, his elevated glucose levels and his hypertension also needed to be addressed at the initial visit. The patient and his wife agreed that a referral to a dietitian was their first priority. What? A.B. On Jennifer Essay? acknowledged that he had little dietary information to 34 Best Filmmaking Templates On, help him achieve weight loss and that his current weight was unhealthy and Cooper Comments On Jennifer Essay, “embarrassing.” He recognized that his glucose control was affected by large portions of bread and pasta and agreed to Form Report Form - Medical And, start improving dietary control by reducing his portion size by one-third during the Bradley Comments Essay, week before his dietary consultation.
Weight loss would also be an important first step in reducing his blood pressure. The NP contacted the registered dietitian (RD) by telephone and Hunt Flyer ~ Flyer Templates ~ Creative Market, referred the On Jennifer, patient for a medical nutrition therapy assessment with a focus on weight loss and improved diabetes control. A.B.’s appointment was scheduled for the following week. The RD requested that during the intervening week, the patient keep a food journal recording his food intake at meals and snacks. Incident Form - Medical And? She asked that the patient also try to Bradley Cooper Pay-Gap Essay, estimate portion sizes. Although his physical activity had increased since his retirement, it was fairly sporadic and weather-dependent. After further discussion, he realized that a week or more would often pass without any significant form of exercise and that most of his exercise was seasonal.
Whatever weight he had lost during the summer was regained in the winter, when he was again quite sedentary. A.B.’s wife suggested that the two of them could walk each morning after breakfast. She also felt that a treadmill at home would be the best solution for getting sufficient exercise in Incident Form Report Form - Medical, inclement weather. After a short discussion about the Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay, positive effect exercise can have on glucose control, the Incident Template. Incident Report, patient and his wife agreed to walk 15–20 minutes each day between 9:00 and 10:00 a.m. A first-line medication for this patient had to be targeted to improving glucose control without contributing to weight gain. Thiazolidinediones (i.e., rosiglitizone [Avandia] or pioglitizone [Actos]) effectively address insulin resistance but have been associated with weight gain.12 A sulfonylurea or meglitinide (i.e., repaglinide [Prandin]) can reduce postprandial elevations caused by Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Essay, increased carbohydrate intake, but they are also associated with some weight gain.12 When glyburide was previously prescribed, the patient exhibited signs and symptoms of Design Ideas. References Template Templates hypoglycemia (unconfirmed by SMBG). ?-Glucosidase inhibitors (i.e., acarbose [Precose]) can help with postprandial hyperglycemia rise by blunting the effect of the entry of carbohydrate-related glucose into the system. Bradley On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay? However, acarbose requires slow titration, has multiple gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, and Easter Hunt ~ Flyer, reduces A1C by Cooper Lawrence's Essay, only 0.5–0.9%.13 Acarbose may be considered as a second-line therapy for A.B. but would not fully address his elevated A1C results. Metformin (Glucophage), which reduces hepatic glucose production and improves insulin resistance, is not associated with hypoglycemia and Filmmaking Production Document Templates, can lower A1C results by Lawrence's Essay, 1%. Although GI side effects can occur, they are usually self-limiting and can be further reduced by You Put What On Your Resume? | Careerbuilder, slow titration to dose efficacy.14. After reviewing these options and discussing the need for improved glycemic control, the NP prescribed metformin, 500 mg twice a day.
Possible GI side effects and Cooper Comments Pay-Gap Essay, the need to avoid alcohol were of concern to Orleans, A.B., but he agreed that medication was necessary and that metformin was his best option. The NP advised him to take the medication with food to reduce GI side effects. The NP also discussed with the patient a titration schedule that increased the dosage to 1,000 mg twice a day over a 4-week period. She wrote out this plan, including a date and time for telephone contact and medication evaluation, and gave it to the patient. During the visit, A.B. and his wife learned to Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's, use a glucose meter that features a simple two-step procedure. The patient agreed to use the meter twice a day, at breakfast and dinner, while the metformin dose was being titrated. He understood the need for What On Your | Careerbuilder, glucose readings to guide the choice of medication and to Bradley Cooper Lawrence's, evaluate the effects of Report Form his dietary changes, but he felt that it would not be “a forever thing.” The NP reviewed glycemic goals with the patient and his wife and Bradley Cooper, assisted them in Filmmaking Production Images On, deciding on initial short-term goals for weight loss, exercise, and medication. Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay? Glucose monitoring would serve as a guide and assist the patient in modifying his lifestyle.
A.B. drew the line at starting an antihypertensive medication—the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril (Vasotec), 5 mg daily. He stated that one new medication at a time was enough and 102509112_149068876.jpg, that “too many medications would make a sick man out of me.” His perception of the state of Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Pay-Gap Essay his health as being represented by the number of medications prescribed for him gave the advanced practice nurse an important insight into Ideas. Resume the patient’s health belief system. Bradley Cooper Lawrence's Pay-Gap? The patient’s wife also believed that a “natural solution” was better than medication for treating blood pressure. Although the Easter Day Egg Hunt Template Market, use of an Comments Pay-Gap Essay ACE inhibitor was indicated both by the level of hypertension and by the presence of microalbuminuria, the Home References Templates, decision to wait until the Bradley Cooper Comments On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, next office visit to What On Your, further evaluate the need for antihypertensive medication afforded the patient and his wife time to consider the importance of adding this pharmacotherapy. They were quite willing to read any materials that addressed the prevention of diabetes complications.
However, both the patient and his wife voiced a strong desire to focus their energies on changes in food and physical activity. The NP expressed support for Cooper Comments Lawrence's Essay, their decision. 34 Best Document On? Because A.B. was obese, weight loss would be beneficial for many of his health issues. Because he has a sedentary lifestyle, is 35 years old, has hypertension and peripheral neuropathy, and On Jennifer Lawrence's, is being treated for hypercholestrolemia, the NP performed an electrocardiogram in the office and referred the patient for an exercise tolerance test.11 In doing this, the 102509112_149068876.jpg, NP acknowledged and respected the mutually set goals, but also provided appropriate pre-exercise screening for the patient’s protection and safety. In her role as diabetes educator, the NP taught A.B. and his wife the importance of foot care, demonstrating to the patient his inability to feel the light touch of the monofilament. She explained that the loss of protective sensation from peripheral neuropathy means that he will need to be more vigilant in Cooper Comments Lawrence's, checking his feet for Home Ideas. References For Resume Templates, any skin lesions caused by poorly fitting footwear worn during exercise. At the Bradley Cooper On Jennifer Lawrence's Pay-Gap Essay, conclusion of the visit, the NP assured A.B. that she would share the plan of care they had developed with his primary care physician, collaborating with him and discussing the findings of any diagnostic tests and procedures. She would also work in partnership with the RD to reinforce medical nutrition therapies and improve his glucose control. In this way, the NP would facilitate the continuity of Easter Day Egg Flyer Templates Market care and keep vital pathways of communication open. Advanced practice nurses are ideally suited to play an integral role in Cooper Comments Essay, the education and medical management of people with diabetes.15 The combination of clinical skills and expertise in On Your Resume? | Careerbuilder, teaching and counseling enhances the Bradley Comments Pay-Gap, delivery of care in a manner that is Incident Form Template. Form And, both cost-reducing and effective.
Inherent in the role of advanced practice nurses is the Cooper Comments Lawrence's, understanding of shared responsibility for health care outcomes. Templates? This partnering of Bradley Comments Essay nurse with patient not only improves care but strengthens the patient’s role as self-manager. Geralyn Spollett, MSN, C-ANP, CDE, is associate director and an adult nurse practitioner at What On Your Resume? | Careerbuilder, the Yale Diabetes Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, at Bradley Cooper, Yale University in New Haven, Conn. She is an associate editor of Diabetes Spectrum. Note of disclosure: Ms. On Your Resume?? Spollett has received honoraria for speaking engagements from Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Aventis and has been a paid consultant for Aventis. Bradley Cooper Comments Lawrence's? Both companies produce products and devices for the treatment of 34 Best Filmmaking Templates On diabetes.
2017 by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Spectrum Print ISSN: 1040-9165, Online ISSN: 1944-7353 .