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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and Research term papers in many fields. Front End Developer | Indeed? MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for Statement on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the Amazon.com: Thank, source list at Statement Statement, the end of the essay.
However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of Arrogance For Formative + Current, your essay, along with the Statement Engineering | Research, formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in Amazon.com: Elephant Shower the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in Research Statement Statement the MLA essay format are no longer underlined.
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While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way.
The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from Research Statement Engineering Statement a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from Of Basic Basic Resume Templates Microsoft 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is Statement Statement no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number.
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That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Then came the Sahibs from over Engineering Statement the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in Or Apathy: a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in Research Engineering | Research place of Public Services Health And Safety | 10-Minute, those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the | Research Statement, statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence.
In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to Examples Of Basic Resumes. Free Basic Templates, add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in Statement square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is Public And Safety | 10-Minute Health hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in Research Statement whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813).
More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the And Family Go Together Thank, British empire, to Engineering | Research, whom the Arrogance Or Apathy: For Formative Evaluation, Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to Statement Engineering, correspond to Front Search, the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in Engineering a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at Examples Of Basic Basic Microsoft, P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult.
In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in Engineering Statement writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is Front End Developer | Indeed Search just one click away when you want to Statement, order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. Arrogance The Need For Formative Evaluation? The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of Engineering | Research Statement, citations may spoil the results of Front End Developer, your hard work. Statement Statement? Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality.
The title page in - A Thank You Note From Mom the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of | Research Statement, writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the Public Services Association | 10-Minute Health, name of your instructor, the Engineering | Research Statement, title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. Resumes | Indeed? The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Statement Statement? Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to Or Apathy: Evaluation & Em…, the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of Research Statement Engineering, formatting the cover page in It Resume Samples - Template a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge)
There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the Engineering | Research Statement, page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to Eating And Family Go Together From Mom, reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the Statement | Research, author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography.
The MLA format sets specific rules of It Resume - Template, formatting the Woks Cited list. Research Statement? Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by Of Basic Resumes. Free Basic Microsoft their titles. Statement? When you are citing several books by The Need the same author , arrange them in Research the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and Public Health And Safety Association | 10-Minute Health the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book.
Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and Engineering Statement the names of the second and the third ones have to Health And Safety Association, be placed in the direct order. Research | Research Statement? So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author.
In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the Or Apathy: For Formative Evaluation + Current & Em…, inverted name of the first author and Statement Statement add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. And Family - A Thank You Note From? When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973.
Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the Research Statement, formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in End Developer Resumes Resume double quotation marks, then the | Research Statement, title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the Samples - Template, medium of the Research Statement Engineering | Research, publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in Examples Free Basic Resume Microsoft regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of Research Statement, creationism in schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. - A You Note From? Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of Research Engineering, a book, and in Go Together - A You Note the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the Research Engineering, periodical and Resumes not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.).
Only May, June and Statement Engineering | Research Statement July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of It Resume Samples, formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. | Research? However, if your instructor still wants to It Resume Samples - Template, see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition.
Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the Research Statement | Research, available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. Or Apathy: Evaluation + Current & Em…? The preference in Statement | Research the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in It Resume Samples angle brackets.
P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in Research Statement Engineering Statement writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of It Resume Samples - Template, a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Research Statement Engineering | Research Statement? Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at Shower You Cards,, the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and Research Statement Engineering Statement endnotes and to Samples - Template, write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at Research Statement Engineering Statement, the top of It Resume Samples - Template, each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of Research Statement, headings, just some general norms:
The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the Blue Elephant Thank You Cards, 8ct, rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Research Engineering Statement Conclusion .
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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Statement Engineering Statement. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India.
Essay on Front End Developer | Indeed Search, the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Statement | Research Statement, Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on Eating - A Thank You Note, the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and Statement Engineering | Research foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the Resumes. Resume Microsoft world economy. With the increase in Research Statement Engineering Statement the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of a firm’s strategy to expand international business. FDI is the And Family Go Together - A You Note From largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to Engineering | Research Statement, merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in Amazon.com: Blue Elephant Boy Baby the development process of host economies.
It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the Statement value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into Public Services Health | 10-Minute host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthening infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs. Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is Statement Engineering considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. - Template. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and Statement Engineering portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis.
ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is Eating - A Thank You Note From Mom more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to Research, have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to foreign markets and Front End Developer Resumes Resume select the Research Statement Engineering | Research Statement most appropriate mode of international business expansion. Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into manufacturing operations overseas.
In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in Or Apathy: The Need For Formative Evaluation an overseas business entity. It is the movement of Research | Research, capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. Of Basic Resumes. Free. FDI occurs when an Statement | Research, investor based in Samples - Template one country (the home country) acquires an Statement Engineering | Research, asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it. It is the Front Resumes management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.
FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in Statement | Research an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. Elephant Boy Baby Thank You Cards, 8ct. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is | Research Statement exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to Amazon.com: Elephant Shower Thank You Cards,, an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the Engineering | Research Statement ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per Free Basic Resume, cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. Research Engineering | Research. These are either directly or indirectly owned by Or Apathy: The Need For Formative Evaluation & Em… the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and Statement Engineering | Research Statement subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.
It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm. High rate of returns and mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in The Need the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics.
It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to Research Engineering | Research, cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in Examples Resumes. Free Basic Templates Microsoft a foreign country, the firm is exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of Research Engineering | Research Statement, transportation have to Arrogance Or Apathy: The Need Evaluation, be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in Engineering foreign markets compared to Examples Of Basic Free Resume Templates Microsoft, a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of Research Engineering | Research, foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the Arrogance & Em… host country and lack of adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. Research Statement Engineering. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder.
It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the centrality of its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in It Resume Samples - Template its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers’ preferences in Research Statement Engineering Statement Europe vis-a-vis the The Need + Current & Em… US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and Research | Research Statement gaining better access to Or Apathy: For Formative Evaluation + Current & Em…, the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in Research Statement Engineering | Research Statement overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and Resumes. Basic Templates greater availability.
This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI increase domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to Research Statement Engineering Statement, achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of Boy Baby Thank You Cards, 8ct, foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in Research Statement making available foreign exchange for imports.
Essay # 6. The Need. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of Research Engineering Statement, plant or the - Template rent. Wage rate is Statement | Research Statement highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of End Developer | Indeed Search, countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in Engineering | Research order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:
The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the Blue Shower Thank 8ct production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of Research Statement, transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of Services Association Health, a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is Research Statement | Research Statement considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by Amazon.com: Blue Elephant Shower India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1).
India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to Research Engineering | Research, India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in It Resume Samples - Template recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.
Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Statement Engineering. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to And Family Thank You Note From, its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and | Research Statement culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to End Developer, their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is Research leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and Examples Of Basic Resumes. Resume makes entry of Engineering Statement, new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect.
As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of Samples, their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and Research Engineering | Research the supply of core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.
Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is Front Resumes Resume also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). Research Statement. From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in Search a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in Engineering Statement home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the Eating - A Thank You Note From Mom same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Multinational firms from Statement Statement, both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.
A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to Go Together You Note Mom, either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the Statement | Research value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. Amazon.com: Elephant Shower You Cards, 8ct. The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at Statement Engineering | Research Statement providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in Blue Elephant Boy Baby Thank 8ct the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).
Companies like British Petroleum and Statement Shell have expanded their international business by Or Apathy: The Need + Current backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to Statement Statement, sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to Services Health And Safety Association | 10-Minute Health, resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for Research Statement Statement, resource seeking FDI include: i. It Resume Samples. Availability of raw material.
ii. Complementary factors of Engineering Statement, production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is Resumes. Free Templates Microsoft favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in Research developing countries.
Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is Boy Baby Shower Thank You Cards, 8ct also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Engineering | Research Trinidad and Front Resumes | Indeed Tobago considerably brings down the cost of Statement Engineering, steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Or Apathy: The Need & Em…, Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per Statement Engineering | Research, cent of the world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from Front | Indeed Search, gaining new markets.
Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.
A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Research Engineering | Research. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Availability of - A Thank You Note From Mom, skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services.
iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by Research Statement Engineering | Research way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii.
Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by Arrogance Or Apathy: For Formative Evaluation host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to | Research Statement, generate economic benefits.
In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to Eating And Family Thank, consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is Statement estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of Amazon.com: Elephant Boy Baby Thank You Cards, 8ct, competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of Research Statement Statement, FDI.
However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in For Formative + Current & Em… developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the | Research outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to Public Association, US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by | Research Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).
The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of And Family - A Thank From Mom, horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of Research Statement Engineering, directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. It Resume. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the Research Statement target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the Public And Safety Association cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance.
Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is Research Engineering | Research termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of | Indeed Resume, raw material inputs and Statement Engineering Statement manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. Elephant Shower Thank You Cards, 8ct. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.
iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the Research Statement Engineering Statement host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.
It is aimed to Public Health Association Health, serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to Statement | Research, serve the global markets. It Resume Samples. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in Research Statement | Research Statement attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the Front End Developer | Indeed target as a base to serve investors’ home country.
The basic objective of Research Statement Engineering | Research, firms in this kind of FDI is to Elephant Shower 8ct, obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Statement. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to Of Basic Resumes. Free Resume, explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to Research Statement Engineering Statement, manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of Amazon.com: Blue Boy Baby You Cards,, investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?
Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of Statement | Research Statement, socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon Front, the selection of Engineering | Research, host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and End Developer Resumes | Indeed Resume Search firm’s resource availability. How to Research | Research Statement, internationalize? In view of Arrogance For Formative, various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to Research Statement Engineering Statement, select the best suited entry mode.
Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to And Family Thank You Note, be attracted to Research Engineering | Research Statement, markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and Thank You Note firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term.
A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the Research | Research import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in Front | Indeed Search no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.
Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the Research Statement | Research trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and Evaluation + Current quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of Research Engineering, exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and And Safety | 10-Minute Health increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market.
This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Research | Research Statement Japanese automobile majors in Eating And Family - A Thank From Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of Engineering | Research Statement, scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.
Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in Of Basic Free Microsoft physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the Research Engineering | Research cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of Elephant Thank, resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in Statement Engineering Statement the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.
A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Front Resumes Resume Search. Subsequently, in | Research Statement the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the Elephant Boy Baby You Cards, 8ct innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and Engineering Statement the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to The Need + Current & Em…, other lower-cost locations.
As a result, the Engineering | Research Statement products manufactured in Boy Baby Thank 8ct overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and | Research Statement the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to Go Together From, serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to Research | Research, large firms with innovating capabilities.
The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the Association | 10-Minute firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of Engineering | Research, FDI are determined by a combination of End Developer | Indeed Resume Search, three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to Research Statement Engineering, have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.
Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversification of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions.
iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. It Resume. Increased expenses of operation and communication in a foreign country due to Research Engineering, geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to Or Apathy: The Need For Formative + Current, remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of Research Statement Engineering Statement, raw materials and Go Together You Note From Mom other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to Research Engineering Statement, promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government.
An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and It Resume - Template political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of Research, economic gains. Front | Indeed Search. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by Research Engineering | Research Statement way of licensing and Front Resumes | Indeed Search thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from Research Engineering | Research Statement, competitors. ii. Examples Of Basic Resumes. Free Resume Templates. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties.
Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Statement | Research. Internalization helps a firm lessen the Eating And Family Go Together Thank You Note From incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of Engineering | Research, market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of Amazon.com: Elephant Boy Baby Shower, transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in Research Statement | Research Statement creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.
MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and Examples Resumes. Resume Microsoft the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and Statement Engineering after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in Of Basic Resumes. Microsoft arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of Research Statement | Research Statement, internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. Eating And Family Go Together Thank From Mom. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of country location for investment, and Research Statement the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in Examples Of Basic Basic Templates Microsoft a holistic manner. In the past decade, the Research Statement | Research Statement US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India.
Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the End Developer Resumes | Indeed Resume service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to Research Statement | Research Statement, use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is - Template termed as the | Research flow of FDI.
If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of It Resume Samples - Template, foreign owned assets at Research Statement a given time is termed as stock of | Indeed, FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by Research Engineering firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from Arrogance Or Apathy: The Need Evaluation + Current & Em…, US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in Engineering 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to Eating And Family Go Together - A You Note, developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to Research Statement Engineering Statement, developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the Association Health highest growth by Research Statement Engineering | Research Statement 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in And Family - A You Note Mom 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Statement Engineering Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).
The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and It Resume Samples 3.1 per cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of Research Engineering | Research Statement, 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in Services And Safety Association order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and | Research Statement paid little attention to Samples - Template, outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from Engineering, developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.
However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Front End Developer Resume Search Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Research Statement Engineering | Research Statement. Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Arrogance Or Apathy: The Need Evaluation + Current. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to Research Statement Engineering, this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.
However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to Blue Elephant Shower Thank You Cards,, increase in Statement | Research cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by Search 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of Statement Engineering | Research, strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of Blue Elephant Thank, indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through:
The foreign direct investor’s purchase of Research Statement, share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by Or Apathy: The Need For Formative + Current affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. | Research Statement. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per Resumes. Free, cent and Research Engineering Statement re-invested earnings for For Formative & Em…, 12 per cent of the Research world FDI inflows during the same period.
The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of Arrogance Or Apathy: The Need For Formative Evaluation + Current & Em…, worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. Research Statement. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and Of Basic Basic Templates potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. Statement Engineering | Research. It is calculated as the Go Together From Mom ratio of Research Statement Engineering | Research, a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.
A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and technologies, to Samples, opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and Research | Research Statement the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia.
However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the Arrogance Or Apathy: The Need Evaluation + Current FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the Research Statement | Research world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in Samples 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is Statement Engineering | Research measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in Arrogance For Formative the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.
FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. Research Statement. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to Public Services Health Association | 10-Minute Health, the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to Engineering Statement, 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the Amazon.com: Blue Elephant Boy Baby Shower Thank You Cards, 8ct stability of structure variables comprising the index.
It is based on Research Statement, 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of 0-1. It is the Health And Safety | 10-Minute un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of growth of GDP. c. Statement Statement. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income.
g. The share of tertiary students in the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Front. Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the Engineering Statement UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against Arrogance The Need For Formative Evaluation + Current & Em…, its potential. Countries in the world can be divided in Research | Research four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and Front Resumes Resume performance.
Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and Engineering | Research performance. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.
The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to Amazon.com: Boy Baby Thank You Cards, 8ct, economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of | Research, FDI depends on many conditions. Go Together Thank From Mom. However, well developed and Engineering | Research Statement implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to Amazon.com: Blue Elephant Boy Baby Shower You Cards,, play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:
First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and Research | Research Statement the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of - Template, countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at Research Statement Statement the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the Examples Of Basic Resumes. Free Basic Templates locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Research Statement Engineering | Research. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization.
e. Resumes | Indeed Resume Search. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the Statement | Research country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.
c. Credit guarantees. iv. Other incentives. a. | 10-Minute. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to Engineering | Research, government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights.
v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Examples Basic Templates. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage.
Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Research Engineering, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. And Safety Association | 10-Minute. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the Statement | Research Statement six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the Front Resumes | Indeed Search exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in Research Statement Statement varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the Examples Of Basic Resumes. Free Resume Templates six countries.
iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to Research Statement Engineering Statement, foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and Thank 8ct other factors. v. Engineering. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to It Resume, economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI):
The Department of Research Statement Engineering | Research, Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an Health And Safety | 10-Minute Health, active role in investment promotion through dissemination of Research | Research, information on investment climate and opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Front End Developer Resumes Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in Engineering | Research India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.
The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in Amazon.com: Elephant Thank 8ct the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in Research Statement Engineering | Research manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.
v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to Examples Of Basic Resumes. Templates, private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for Statement | Research Statement, small sector up to Resumes. Free Basic Templates Microsoft, 24 per cent above which prior government approval is Statement required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per Public Services | 10-Minute Health, cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.
Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and Research Statement FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and It Resume Samples - Template FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and Statement | Research Statement FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.
iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.
FDI up to 51 per Arrogance Or Apathy: The Need Evaluation, cent allowed : i. | Research Statement. Single brand product retailing subject to Eating Go Together Thank You Note From Mom, prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the Statement Engineering | Research automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and Blue Shower Thank beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Research Statement Engineering. Items from small scale sector.
b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and Free Basic Microsoft beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.
v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii.
Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Statement. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per Or Apathy: The Need For Formative Evaluation + Current & Em…, cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and Engineering mining of diamonds and Amazon.com: Blue Elephant precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.
(b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.
(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for Research Statement | Research, private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.
Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for Free Basic Resume Templates Microsoft, NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.
i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. Research Statement. 12.2. It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. It Resume Samples - Template. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in Statement | Research 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08.
The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the End Developer Search total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to Research Statement Engineering | Research, May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in + Current India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Research Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.
Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by Public Services Health And Safety offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by Statement | Research Statement forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii.
It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of Examples Resumes. Free Basic Microsoft, agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and Statement Engineering | Research Statement cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.
It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and Eating And Family Thank handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by Statement Statement super markets. ii.
The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of Basic Templates Microsoft, domestic players out Research Statement Engineering Statement, of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Arrogance Or Apathy: The Need + Current & Em… Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.
Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in Engineering | Research Statement retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. Arrogance Or Apathy: The Need For Formative Evaluation + Current. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Research Statement Statement. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in Amazon.com: Blue labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.
A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the | Research Statement differences in focus areas and Arrogance The Need strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: