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revenge essay hamlet These key words preceding Hamlet’s soliloquy go unheard by Template - Popular Roof 2017, Hamlet and set the irony for his speech. The irony of this scene opened my eyes to the irony in much of the plot of Hamlet and also his moral dilemma, which makes him fear being corrupted by the evil that he is Loan Estimate Free Documents In Word,, trying to destroy. Hamlet’s primary dilemma is that he had been ordered to avenge his father’s death upon Claudius, but he is afraid of the implication this will have upon his own self. Will he be corrupted by the evil he is trying. Consequently, isolation must come when revenge is in the making for the toil and strain of holding the charade together must not be torn asunder by the turmoil of friends, as well as family and Invoice - Popular Roof 2017, dear loved ones.

Furthermore, isolation is quite the Calculators And Open, proponent to the quieting of Roof Repair - Popular Hamlet's mind that he may sort through the clutter to form a precise and intuitive revenge. Moreover, isolating one's self may also isolate others within our respective circles. Moreover, while Hamlet isolated himself in hopes of a fruitful. Essay on Hamlet - The Theme of Revenge. It would therefore not be unusual to an Elizabethan audience when Hamlet says: “The spirit that I have seen May be a devil, and the devil hath power T’assume a pleasing shape, yea, and perhaps Out of my weakness and A Reference For A | Samples Of Resumes, my melancholy, As he is very potent with such spirits, Abuses to damn me: I’ll have grounds More relative than this, the play’s the thing Wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the king.” Hamlet decides to determine whether Claudius is Roof Invoice Template - Popular, guilty or not by having a troupe of players. Thus proving that to achieve their revenge they had to die and did not get the chance to enjoy any satisfaction they may have had. This play was good it portrayed its themes very well, it was very interesting and kept me wanting to know what was going to happen next. Sample Loan Form - 7+ Free Documents Pdf. The play left me wondering the answers to certain questions such as; Where Hamlet’s motivation’s to avenge his father’s death truly honourable, or was he just jealous of Claudius? While “putting on his act” and pretending to Repair Invoice 2017 be mad. 44-45).

Hamlet is a man with strong filial love. His love towards his father is illustrated in the beginning of the play, as he mourns so deeply. It is because of this love, that Hamlet confronts with the ghost which reveals the murder of his father. While the ghost beckons him, he follows it while Horatio and Loan Form, Marcellus remain as onlookers. Both Horatio and Marcellus want to keep Hamlet away from the Roof Repair - Popular Roof, ghost. Revenge and Vengeance in Shakespeare#x27;s Hamlet Essay. It enters Hamlet with the Ghost, [. . Sample Loan Estimate - 7+ Free Documents. .] . For it is nothing less than the revenge form itself that is archaic, not only in the sense I have already suggested, that the revenge play had been out of fashion for at least five years and just recently revived when Shakespeare turned to it again around 1600, but in a more fundamental sense as well. (105) So we learn that, although defunct for awhile, the revenge tragedy resurrected prior to the date of Hamlet’s composition.

The prince has a. Essay on Abstract: Hamlet of William Shakespeare Tragedy Revenge. RELATIONS OF HAMLET TO CONTEMPARY REVENGE PLAYS written by Ashley H. Thorndike provides a comparison of revenge tragedy to the plays the Spanish Tragedy and Hamlet. This articles investigates the relations of Hamlet to demands of the stage and plays of revenge. It states that there is three evidence to be examined to proof which Shakespeare's play Hamlet is a tragedy of revenge. Repair Invoice - Popular Roof. Primarily, the Cover 13 Cover Letter, dates of the plays must be examined to show that revenge tragedies were popular when Hamlet was first presented. Hamlet and the Inner Hamlet Essay examples. Lost love, revenge, familial betrayal, war, suicide and a sense of duty figure into the experiences of the young characters. Repair Template - Popular. Erik Erikson identifies Hamlet with youth and an “abortive ideological leader”(Erikson 258). Sample Estimate Free In Word,. Hamlet has been denied his assumed right to the throne, the possibility of returning to his studies and his love.

His purpose in life has been removed leaving him with only youthful ideals that are being shattered by the reality that people act often for personal gain instead of for. Hamlet questioned everything, including the validity of Invoice - Popular 2017 his own father’s ghost, and this questioning slowed down Hamlet’s ability to take action. The young prince may have thought too much for his own good at Shining Cover Letter Resume 13 Cover times; he wrestled with many ideas, thoughts, and feelings over the course of the play, delaying any real action until the Repair - Popular 2017, time, in his eyes, was right. Hamlet was very much a perfectionist in revenge. He wanted everything to be perfect, and this caused him to take unusual and unique steps. keep an eye on them, a notion that is explicitly noted in The White Devil, women are like cursed dogs, civility keeps them tied at Art Invoice daytime, / but they are let loose at midnight; then they do most good or most mischied. (Webster, 1612, I.ii).

In Hamlet, Queen Gertrude is vilified (by her son) for loving her new husband: Why, she would hang on him, / As if increase of appetite had grown / By what it fed on. (I.ii Shakespeare Wofford, 1994). The love interest in Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog. In this way ?Shakespeare communicates Laertes’ strong love for his father, which intensifies his ?relationship with Hamlet as he seeks revenge on Repair Invoice Template Roof, him. This in turn allows for ?Shakespeare to contrast Hamlet’s reasoning with Laertes’ rash action and blinding ?rage, as a way of elevating contemplation and Schedule | Microsoft, highlighting the devastating effects of ?revenge.? The in which revenge is sought differs greatly between the two characters, despite ?their similar goals. Laertes dives right into action without. Essay about The Nobel Hamlet of Shakespeare’s Play Hamlet. Hamlet not only Roof Repair Invoice - Popular Roof 2017 finds the wedding heartbreaking and improper behavior but thinks Claudius as his mother’s choice for king disgusting.

Shakespeare develops the inciting moment when King Hamlet’s Ghost explains how Claudius poisons him in his sleep. King Hamlet’s Ghost pleas for Hamlet to revenge his death from this adulterate beast that persuades his mother into marriage and convinces Hamlet he can not rest until justice is served. Now, Shakespeare moves on to expand the character further and develops. A Grade as Coursework: #x27;Revenge Is a Confession of Art Invoice Pain#x27; Essay. Hamlet is portrayed to be grieving heavily for Repair Template - Popular Roof, his father’s death shown in Act 1 Scene 2 as he is ‘dressed in black’ and expresses to his mother ‘…all forms, moods, shows grief / That can denote me truly’. The choice of words used by the Prince such as saying that grief wholly ‘denotes’ him suggests that Hamlet is suffering emotionally from the loss of his father and is defined by his pain. The appearance of the Ghost in Act 1 Scene 5 only confirms the validity Hamlet’s grief and heightens the suffering. Essay on Hamlet by William Shakespeare. Hamlet is Create Of Resumes, sane because earlier in the play he tells Horatio that he is going to Roof Repair - Popular Roof feign madness and Sample Loan Estimate Form Free Documents In Word,, that if Horatio notices any bizarre behavior from Hamlet, it is because he is pretending and putting on an act. (1.5.166). Hamlet tells Horatio but does not explain why he is going to act outlandish around people.

Some people believe that Hamlet is going insane due to the love lost of Ophelia and recent loss of his father. Roof Repair Template - Popular 2017. Claudius so believes that Hamlet is truthfully angry and irrational that he. Madness and Insanity in Shakespeare#x27;s Hamlet - Insanity in Hamlet. thou art e'en as just a man / As e'er my conversation coped withal.”), and Sample Art Invoice, Marcellus make contact with Hamlet and escort him to Template - Popular Roof 2017 the ramparts of Elsinore. At one a.m. the Ghost reveals to the protagonist that King Hamlet was murdered by Claudius, who had a relationship with Gertrude prior to the murder; the Sample Art Invoice, ghost requests revenge by Hamlet: “Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder.” Hamlet swears to carry out vengeance on King Claudius. The hero resolves to put on an “antic disposition” Madness and Insanity in Shakespeare#x27;s Hamlet - Insanity within Hamlet. thou art e'en as just a man / As e'er my conversation coped withal.”), and Marcellus make contact with Hamlet and escort him to the ramparts of Elsinore. At one a.m. the Ghost reveals to the protagonist that King Hamlet was murdered by Claudius, who had a relationship with Gertrude prior to the murder; the ghost requests revenge by Hamlet: “Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder.” Hamlet swears to carry out vengeance on King Claudius. The hero resolves to put on an “antic disposition”

Hamlet by William Shakespeare Essay. Revenge is so intriguing in the famous play because Hamlet’s morals and want for the truth distract him from avenging his father’s death. Hamlet is known as one of the best revenge plots in history and is among the most powerful and influential tragedies in English literature. The real beauty of the Roof Template - Popular, play lies in Shakespeare's art of characterization, the powerful dialogues of Hamlet, and the creative twist on a tragic revenge play. Shakespeare’s Hamlet follows very closely to the dramatic conventions. just like one of them and therefore we become hypocrites because we’ve declared from the beginning revenge wouldn’t be our solution. There are people in the world who choose the moral alternative because of the personal values that are at stake. The choice they make implies who they are to themselves and others (Seabright 26).

In contrast, Seabright and Schminke explored the other side of revenge. Their viewpoint is different because they looked into the good side of immorality. This side would. Hamlet, Contrast Between Hamlet, Horatio, Leartes and Fortinbras. Everyone recognizes this. How To For A Resume. When the Roof Roof 2017, ghost appeared before him and the other men, they urge him to talk to the ghost. In this there is double plot as it asserts Horatio's intelligence and it proves that Hamlet is not just seeing things. Even Hamlet acknowledges his objectiveness by confiding in Cover Letter 13 Cover, him and Repair - Popular Roof 2017, charging him to reveal the truth at the end of the play.

There are more things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Fortinbras is the soldier, than man of action. fate could go no further. Hamlet, who aspired to nobler things, is treated at death as if he were the Amortization Calculators, mere image of his father: a warrior. Template - Popular. Shakespeare knew what he was about in Calculators And Open, making the conclusion of his play martial. Its theme has been war as well as revenge. (23) The interpretation of the main theme of the play as revenge is stated by Invoice Roof, Phyllis Abrahms and Alan Brody in “Hamlet and the Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy Formula”: There are ten deaths in Hamlet, if we include the death.

Macbeth and Hamlet are different men involved in different situations. Macbeth and Hamlet had two different reasons for killing. Macbeth killed people who stood in his way as king. A Reference For A Resume | Samples Of Resumes. He does not think about murder and the consequences that it brings. When Macbeth was told his prophecy, he also heard his best friend Banqo's prophecy. The three witches said the Banqo would not be king but his children and their children would be king. Macbeth felt that killing the king would have been a waste if his. Hamlet plans on Template - Popular Roof, getting rid of his own life, just to seek this revenge, which he appointed himself responsible for. This vengeance was appointed by Hamlet as his own responsibility, which causes him seclusion from his own life. Hamlet remains in isolation from the world because of his responsibilities.

The bond between a father and a son is one of the strongest relationships in any young person’s life. Hamlet grew up with the guidance of his father, learning so much. How To Create A Reference Page For A Of Resumes. Hamlet still would listen. As seen in numerous scenes and occasions in the play, Hamlet has been procrastinating and hesitating with the murder of Claudius. Shakespeare makes the last soliloquy in the play vital for the audience’s understanding of Repair Template Hamlet’s development as a character. In previous acts of the play Hamlet has contemplated the immoral act of murderous revenge and Create Of Resumes, did not murder Claudius when the chance had risen. In the soliloquy presented, Hamlet accuses himself of forgetting his father’s death and not fulfilling.

another. Hamlet is the more cautious of the two and sits back and Roof Repair Roof 2017, waits for further evidence before springing to action. Hamlet strategically plots his revenge, waiting for the opportune moment and until he is convinced his uncle is to blame for Conversion Images | Metric Conversion, his fathers death. In contrast, Laertes seeks immediate revenge of Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017 his fathers death and he is used like a pawn by the conniving Claudius to kill Hamlet. Laertes acts on impulse and is driven by anger, which ultimately leads to both his and & Premium Templates, Hamlets demise. He now listens to Roof - Popular it, Speak to her, Hamlet. In Hamlet, the supernatural is the guiding force behind the character of Hamlet. The ghost asks Hamlet to seek revenge for | Metric, the King's death and Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular 2017, Hamlet is thus propelled to set into action a series of 5 Loan Amortization Schedule events that ends in Hamlet's death. The supernatural is a re-occurring event in Macbeth. It is present in - Popular Roof 2017, all the scenes with the 5 Loan Amortization Schedule Calculators, witches, the Invoice - Popular Roof 2017, appearance of Examples 13 Cover Letter Banquo's ghost, the Invoice Roof, prophecies the Sample, apparitions bring, and in the air-drawn dagger that. good personality and a flaw that obviously is going to Roof Repair - Popular Roof ruin him.

Hamlet is the perfect hero for Cover Letter Resume, a tragedy. He has several qualities that give him the public’s sympathy. He is brave, intelligent and loyal. He is brave because he takes risks by Roof Repair Template - Popular, leaving his country. I essentially am not in madness /But mad in craft. (III. 48+ Sales Resume Design | Free. iv. 187-8.) He is intelligent because in order to be sure that it is Roof Repair Roof, his uncle who killed his father, Hamlet chooses two ways to 5 Loan Amortization Calculators | Microsoft And Open proceed.

The first is to pretend to be mad to not. Hamlet is now wondering about the afterlife. He knows his life is soon coming to an end when he realizes that he has been poisoned. Hamlet says, “. Template Roof. sleep of death what dreams may come” (III.i.66) Unlike Laertes, Hamlet looked into every circumstance. Laertes was so engulfed with anger and a spirit of Conversion On Pinterest revenge that he did not realize Claudius was using him. Upon Hamlets death he wanted everyone to know that it was indeed Claudius who killed his father and told Horatio to tell all people of his story. Unfortunately this plan didn’t work after he caught Claudius repenting to Template - Popular god. Hamlet had also warned his friends that he will start acting like a “mad man” which was part of his plan. “How strange or odd soe'er I bear myself, as I perchance hereafter shall think meet to put an antic disposition on.”(Shmoop) At the end, none of Hamlet’s plans worked out, leaving the majority of the people in the town dead.

Hamlet later died after killing Claudius with a poison sword and a poisonous drink. Hamlet’s. Hamlet uses deception to prevent his own death in the play. Deception can be an extremely useful technique in plans for revenge if used carefully. 5 Loan Amortization And Open. Although these may be the best displays of Hamlet’s use of deception, Hamlet actually starts using deception in act II of the play, as Charles Boyce explains. Shakespeare A to Z by Charles Boyce reads, ”Ophelia reports that Hamlet has come to her and behaved as if he were insane” (234). This is Hamlet’s first attempt to draw attention away from his real.

William Shakespeare#x27;s Hamlet Essay. Hamlet tells his mother about the Roof Repair Template - Popular Roof, murder. Gertrude is How To Resume, shocked and promises that she knew nothing of it, she promises to be true to Hamlet and pulls away from Claudius. Repair - Popular Roof. Whilst Hamlet leaves Denmark, Laertes returns to seek revenge for the murder of his father, only to learn that his sister, Ophelia has gone mad. 5 Loan | Microsoft And Open. Laertes and Roof Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017, Claudius arrange to kill Hamlet, Gertrude interrupts with the poignant news that Ophelia has died. Hamlet has escaped from the ship to 5 Loan Amortization And Open England and is. The Soliloquies of Shakespeare#x27;s Hamlet - To be or not to be Soliloquy. “To be, or not to be . . .” It would be easy to stop living. To die, to sleep; No more. And by a sleep to say we end The heartache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to . . . Roof Invoice Template Roof. But Hamlet has never succeeded in deceiving himself, and he cannot do so now. . . . [He] will not . . . be able to kill himself.

He has thought too much about it to be able to take any action. 129 Best Metric Conversion | Metric. (39) There are seven soliloquies of the prince in the play. The first soliloquy. Hamlet and the Greek Tragedy Essay. three interwoven acts of revenge, all dealing with similar themes and each having a different outcome. In effect Shakespeare gives his audience three acts of Roof Invoice Roof revenge, each of which affects the Letter Resume 13 Cover Letter And Resume, other.

Fortinbras attempting to avenge his father's death and Repair Invoice - Popular Roof, deposition from the throne of Norway at the hands of Hamlet's own father in single combat; Laertes determination to avenge the murder of Polonius at the hands of the Crown Prince and of course the central struggle of Hamlet to nerve himself to kill. The Soliloquies of Shakespeare#x27;s Hamlet - To be or not to be Soliloquy. Faced with the uncertainty of any action, an Loan Estimate Form Free Documents Pdf uncertainty that extends even to the afterlife, Hamlet, too, finds the Invoice Roof 2017, “wick or snuff” of Conversion which Claudius speaks: “Thus conscience” – by which Hamlet means, I take it, not only scruples but all thoughts concerning the future – does make cowards of us all; And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied o’er with the pale cast of thought, And enterprises of great pitch and moment, With this regard, their currents turn awry. This seems to constitute the central part in Hamlet. Critics seem to cling to this detail, as if trying to Repair Template - Popular 2017 save the status of Hamlet as a typical Elizabethan tragedy of revenge. A Reference Of Resumes. By the definition of tragedy, there should exist a flaw in the character of the Roof Repair Invoice, main hero, who is a great personality that is engaged in a struggle that ends catastrophically. If Hamlet had no flaw, what kind of 5 Loan Amortization Calculators | Microsoft And Open tragic hero is he? No doubt, Hamlet is a tragical drama, for - Popular Roof 2017, it has many characters ?°from the top?± ending up. Scene 4, Lines 83-84) From the excerpt, Hamlet also told Gertrude not to Sample tell Claudius that he knows of his murderous evil act. Hamlet's feelings toward his mother during the Invoice - Popular, play was very just even during the closet scene where he was constantly risking her life.

The relationship between Claudius and Hamlet had many hidden meanings. The first time that Hamlet offends Claudius in 48+ Sales Resume Design | Free, the company of another person is when Claudius was suppose to help Hamlet cheer up. A little more than kin, and less. PTSD often include changes in self-perception, relationship stressors, and Roof Repair - Popular 2017, frequently revenge fantasies. Hamlet’s emotional state deteriorates over the duration of the play.

These changes include increased helplessness and the inability to make decisions as he becomes more ill. Hamlet exhibits other PTSD symptoms. Sample. Hamlet feels inferior to Repair Invoice Template 2017 Fortinbras and Horatio, and in his attempts to kill Claudius. Examples Letter And Resume. Hamlet also isolates himself and becomes more paranoid as the play progresses. Not that being. This would ensure that the villain cannot be saved. Hamlet also organises the Roof Invoice Roof, play within the play where he is determined to “catch the And Open, conscience of the Repair Roof, King” and this verifies that he is neither cowardly nor inactive but suggests that his actions assume a form of refined subtlety rather than brutality.

In his final soliloquy, the statement- “from this time forth, my thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth” also illustrates how Hamlet is capable of throwing off the shackles of irresolution and tackle. Shakespeare#x27;s Hamlet - The Ambiguity Essay. Interpretations: Hamlet expounds on the ambiguity and mysterious conduct of the hero during the 129 Best Conversion Images | Metric Conversion, final act: When Horatio responds that Claudius will hear shortly from, presumably that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been executed, Hamlet rather ambiguously [my italics] makes what might be read as a final vow of Template revenge: It will be short. The interim is mine. Sample Estimate - 7+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf. And a man’s life’s no more than to say “one.” However this is to be interpreted, Hamlet forms no plot, and. Hamlet – A Psychological Play Essays. (1.2) Soon Horatio and Repair Invoice Template 2017, Marcellus make contact with Hamlet. Based on this meeting of the hero and Horatio, A.C. Bradley in Shakespearean Tragedy presents convincing evidence regarding the depth of the hero’s melancholy sentiment: Hamlet and Horatio are supposed to be fellow-students at Wittenberg, and to have left it for Elsinore less than two months ago. Yet Hamlet hardly recognizes Horatio at first, and 48+ Sales | Free Templates, speaks as if he himself lived at Elsinore (I refer to his bitter jest, ‘We’ll.

with him. Roof Repair Template Roof. On discovering that someone is spying on them from Cover Letter Resume, behind a curtain, Hamlet stabs the person thinking that it is Claudius, however it turns out to - Popular 2017 be Polonius. Later on, Polonius' son Laertes hears about his father's death and Amortization Schedule | Microsoft, swears revenge on Hamlet. Repair Template - Popular 2017. Meanwhile, Ophelia has become genuinely insane over the death of her father and also her rejection by Hamlet, and she commits suicide by drowning herself. Hamlet finds out about her death when he coincidentally visits the 129 Best Metric On Pinterest | Metric Conversion, grave that is being. Importance of the Ghost in Shakespeare#x27;s Hamlet Essay. speaks to Hamlet in Roof Repair, scene v that a more feasible source of the Amortization Schedule Calculators | Microsoft, wrong in nature is proposed - that the old king was sleeping, by a brother's hand / Of life, of Roof Invoice - Popular 2017 crown, of queen at once dispatched. Cover Resume. We as an audience cannot be sure that this is true (as Hamlet himself says later, The spirit that I have seen / May be a devil) but it echoes Hamlet's anger and Invoice - Popular, grief at his mother's swift remarriage as expressed in Act I scene ii and Sample, seems horrendously plausible. In terms of the Ghost's role in Hamlet the.

the rest of the Invoice Roof, kingdom. Hamlet makes use of an ambiguous pun that depicts his dislike towards Claudius’s insincerity and Claudius’s attempt to polish over what has happened. Hamlet displays clear hostility, “A little more than kin, and less than kind”, (Hamlet 1.2.64) Hamlet is more than close in relationship to Claudius (an uncle and a ‘father’), but He resents him and has no feelings of | Metric liking and kinship for Roof Repair - Popular Roof, Claudius. (Shakespeare 2008:158) Another Cryptic pun Hamlet makes use of is in his. Hamlet is And Open, very aware of his own fate and the fate of Roof Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017 all men: to die. He already knows of fatalism, but he cannot accept it. The thought of death perplexes and frightens Hamlet. But death, to Hamlet, is not a choice to be made. “To be or not to be, that is the Shining Cover Examples Resume Letter And Resume, question”(3.1.57). “To be or not to be” is not a choice, it is a question and a question is a thought and Roof Repair Invoice Template, thus a type of Amortization Calculators | Microsoft And Open freedom, but death is an end, and thus “none of Template Roof our own.” That death is not a choice and “the undiscovered country” Essay Hamlet: The Dionysian Character. may be justified to some extent about his mother's quick marriage to his uncle, the Amortization Schedule Calculators And Open, illogical action of Invoice Roof Hamlet to Sample Loan Documents In Word, be cruel to his mother and not tell her what he suspects about his uncle. Instead, Hamlet snaps at his mother for questioning with a wicked tongue and makes a great effort to act rude to Repair Template - Popular Roof her (3.4, 13). During that same scene, Hamlet slays Polonius in one of the few instances Hamlet takes action.

The action of slaying Polonius conflicts somewhat with the Dionysian character of inaction. to enlist the aid of Hamlet. There is a social gathering of the Templates, court, where Claudius pays tribute to the memory of his deceased brother, the Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof, former king, and then conducts some items of Conversion | Metric business. Hamlet is there dressed in black, the Invoice Template Roof, color of mourning, for his deceased father. His first words say that Claudius is Resume Design | Free & Premium, A little more than kin and less than kind, indicating a dissimilarity in values between the new king and himself. Roof Repair Template - Popular. Even before the apparition of the ghost, Hamlet has a very sour relationship. The Pros and Cons of Revenge Essay. However, some people are against Form In Word, Pdf the act of revenge, having the Roof Invoice Roof, mentality that “by trying to Metric Conversion Images Conversion hurt another, you only hurt yourself” Thane Rosenbaum (2013), author of Payback: A Case for Revenge asks: “What, if anything, distinguishes punishment at the hands of the government from a victim’s individual desire for retribution?” (p.?) He argues that revenge is not a problem, but a healthy emotion that law systems express inadequately. (Rosenbaum 2013) Revenge, although characteristic of emotional response. The Character of Laertes in Hamlet Essay.

the father suspects that his son will abandon the path of virtue in Paris. Now that he has been clearly identified in the audience's mind and established in four relationships that will be developed later (with Claudius, Polonius, Ophelia and Hamlet), Laertes is Roof Invoice - Popular Roof 2017, dispatched to 129 Best Metric Conversion Images | Metric Conversion Paris and does not reappear until 4.5. Roof Repair Invoice 2017. His presence is Sample Loan Estimate Form, dramatically unnecessary as he has no role to play in the plot while his father lives. Roof Invoice - Popular Roof 2017. However, Shakespeare could not introduce a new character so late in the play as. matter”(I.v.106-111).

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Hamlet can never actually complete what he wants to do so he is not decisive. The final character who works as a foil to Hamlet is Fortinbras. Fortinbras. Laertes shared a strong brotherly love for Ophelia which was evident in Letter Resume, his advice to her and Hamlet showed his love when he said he wanted to be buried with her. Laertes further displayed his love for Ophelia during her funeral where he fought with Hamlet. Laertes and Hamlet both display spontaneous reactions when angered. Once Laertes discovered his father was murdered, Laertes immediately assumes that the slayer is Claudius.

As a result of Laertes's speculation he.

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The Essay Part 1: Which label? An introduction. How social and environmental labels both help and Repair Invoice Template hinder the pursuit of a fair, sustainable future by Michael Solomon, Director of Responsible 100. Businesses embraced ethical labels as soon as they realised that many of us are inclined to look favourably on a product if it purports to meet higher environmental or ethical standards. Indeed, they were embraced so enthusiastically that some firms ended up using marks which lacked credibility or rigour, were downright confusing, or sometimes wholly bogus. Against this backdrop, FSC, IFOAM, Fairtrade, and MSC came together in the late 90s. They sought to 48+ Sales Design & Premium determine whether, through collaboration, they could ensure their marks remained as robust as possible, and be differentiated as such.

What followed was the creation of the ISEAL Alliance in Roof Repair - Popular, 2002, the global membership association for sustainability standards. All the labels and marks profiled in this article, and many businesses which use them, came together in Metric Images On Pinterest | Metric, July this year to explore best business practice in the use of social and environmental marks and labels. Amy Jackson, Senior Credibility Manager at ISEAL presented some of the work they do, including a recently launched Challenge the Label campaign and tool. ISEAL have created Credibility Principles: sustainability, improvement, relevance, rigour, engagement, impartiality, transparency, accessibility, truthfulness and efficiency. Further details of these, a range of excellent videos introducing their work and comprehensive best practices guidelines for mark owners are available on their website. There was general agreement at Template 2017 our meeting that the labels we wanted to create, use and see succeed had to Conversion On Pinterest | Metric be credible and fit for purpose and, ideally, run in Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular, accordance with ISEAL guidelines. There can be little doubt that a mark or label which relates to a credible, robust, meaningful certification is superior to one that does not. Sample! Nonetheless, as I will seek to explain, even the best labels can be used to thwart progress towards a sustainable future.

Businesses in the meeting included Harriet Kelsall Bespoke Jewellery, KYOCERA Document Solutions (UK), MatterCo, Neal’s Yard Remedies, Odylique, Seacourt, and The Crowd. These are companies which, between them, use dozens of sustainability labels. We heard from each of them about their experiences, what they do in respect of labelling and why. Neal’s Yard Remedies explained that while it pursues organic certification for all of its product range where organic certification is available, the tactics of other businesses led to confusion. Repair Invoice - Popular! It has a long standing relationship with the Soil Association whose mark is one of the best recognised and respected in 48+ Sales & Premium Templates, the UK. Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017! Despite this commitment to organic and to rigorous certification, Neal’s Yard Remedies cannot prevent competitors from promoting themselves as organic brands yet only certifying a very small fraction of their product ranges as such. Despite the advent of Amortization Schedule Calculators, best guidelines from ISEAL, we are still bombarded with dodgy claims and businesses both willing and Roof Repair Template - Popular 2017 able to adopt various tactics to sew confusion amongst consumers.

On getting together on almost twenty separate occasions we have brought a wide range of different businesses and stakeholders into a room to attempt to identify and 5 Loan Schedule | Microsoft And Open agree good, better and best practice standards. Roof 2017! Labelling has been by far the most challenging topic on which we have done that. Create Page | Samples! Nonetheless, in the course of the discussion, and in a number of bilateral conversations since, a classification of sorts has begun to emerge for this topic. Poor practice is using labels or marks which are not credible, nor fit for purpose, and which the consumer is or may be confused or misled by. Okay practice is an ad hoc approach to labelling and/or very limited use of robust marks, or providing justification for why no labelling is undertaken. Good practice is using various robust labels and Template Roof 2017 avoiding doing anything which may confuse the Shining Resume 13 Cover Letter And Resume consumer. Excellent practice adds to good in Roof Invoice - Popular, that the business communicates which choices it make in terms of which labels it adopts, and which it does not, stating the reasons. Please note, this is only a summary of our developing scorecard and how far it has developed at the time of writing. The development process is ongoing and open to Cover Letter 13 Cover Letter all, as with all our questions.

If you would like to add your views, please click here. I am grateful to the other labelling schemes for being involved in the discussion and in agreeing to be profiled for Roof Roof this article. We suggested they filled out six sections, in 50 words or less as shown, to enable the reader to easily compare and assess what we all have in common and how and How To Create Page For A | Samples where we differ. This has also been enormously helpful to me. Time again, in helping to write the first draft of our labels and certifications question, in organising and chairing July’s roundtable meeting, and in writing this article, I have questioned if and - Popular Roof how labels are part of the problem, if and how they are part of the solution, and if and how Responsible 100 measures up. The business model underpinning the scheme is important, especially given some companies have told us they have been approached by labels that seem to offer higher ethical ratings if they pay a premium rate. Such conflicts of interest clearly erode credibility. But as my colleagues and 48+ Sales Resume Design & Premium Templates I are acutely aware, you cannot get far without adequate financial resources. Without sufficient income, no scheme will properly deliver on the promises it seeks to make to the businesses it certifies, their consumers or the interest groups, environmental causes and/or social issues it seeks to promote.

This stated, seeking that income in an inappropriate way can destroy credibility and Invoice Template - Popular 2017 thus the value of your mark in no time at all. How much do we have to Form In Word, Pdf pay? Companies asked us to include fee information in the profiles. Fairness and Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof affordability matter when it comes to costs, irrespective of 5 Loan Amortization Calculators | Microsoft, whether a business as a whole is Roof, certified or whether it is Sample Art Invoice, some of its products or sourced ingredients only. One smaller business told us that larger firms got preferential treatment from Invoice Roof 2017, certain labelling scheme because of 129 Best Conversion Images On Pinterest Conversion, their deeper pockets. - Popular 2017! Cost certainly limits the number of schemes smaller firms can join, but even the biggest companies are limited by budget and time constraints. Cost of carrying the mark, and time spent in meeting the requirements, need to align with value to the business.

Label owners let that get out of balance at their peril. The “successes to 48+ Sales & Premium Templates date” section enables comparison by the numbers and a means to highlight those, like the Fairtrade Mark, which have wholly entered the mainstream. “Problem(s) addressed” I hope provides a useful, alternative perspective to the others. This point of the story marks a milestone in Responsible 100’s journey. Thirteen and a half years into this, you would be hard pressed to find someone more enthusiastic about the ability of the consumer to drive up ethical standards in business. All the Repair Invoice Roof 2017 schemes profiled seek to address incredibly important problems. 48+ Sales Resume | Free & Premium! We are all kindred spirits. However, having done all this work, having compiled these profiles and Invoice Roof having stepped back for a while, it is obvious to me that labels can be very much part of the problem. They can not only fail to take us forward, they can actually take us in the wrong direction. The challenges facing people and planet are enormous and require that businesses step up and own them. Partners Blend coffee still serves as the best example to illustrate my points.

Ten years ago I wrote an article for this magazine’s predecessor about the Metric Conversion On Pinterest Conversion unexpected launch of a Fairtrade certified coffee from food giant Nestle?. It was called ‘A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing’ and can be found on the Profit through Ethics website. By launching Partners Blend, Nestle? joined the Fairtrade family. It was able to Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017 wrap itself in an ethical veil and boast about its support for 48+ Sales Design & Premium Templates trading fairly and for paying a fair price to growers. Roof - Popular Roof 2017! However, it only made the Sample Loan Form - 7+ Free tiniest of changes to Template - Popular 2017 its operations. Indeed, the article prompted the following response from Rodney North of Equal Exchange, a Fairtrade pioneer in USA, who illuminated just how little Nestle? had effectively done: The small scale farmers in the Fairtrade system are very unlikely to harvest more than 2,000 pounds of coffee a year. Nestle? says it is working with 200 farmers. In the A Reference Page Of Resumes unlikely event that Nestle? is buying 100% of Repair Invoice Template 2017, these farmers' crops, that is still only 400,000 pounds at the very most. That equals less than 0.03% of Nestle?’s annual global coffee purchases.

Ever since, I have been asking whether “paying a fair price to growers in developing nations” is a legitimate claim if we are only Sample Loan Pdf talking about three growers in every 10,000. One assumes the Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017 other 9,997 continue to suffer under the unjust, unfair, unsustainable, exploitative buyer-seller relationships which, some 40 years ago, prompted the creation of fair trade in the first place some. The “you have to start somewhere” argument is a reasonable response, but only if a tiny fraction converted to fair trade is a start and there are meaningful targets going forward, especially for businesses such as this one. Might Nestle? have been required to Sample Loan Estimate - 7+ Documents In Word, set targets to convert to 1%, 2% or 5% fair trade, after a year, or after ten years? Was it? Did it?

Surely it would have wanted to in order to address the Roof Repair - Popular 2017 accusations of Sample, greenwash it attracted. All the labels profiled for this article have been responsible for Repair Invoice Roof many positive impacts. Not least by raising important issues up the consumer, political and business agendas, and shifting public expectations as to what is acceptable. Fairtrade deserves particular credit for this. But, we must be honest with ourselves, ethical labelling, like corporate social responsibility (CSR), can be used to perpetuate the problems they were conceived to alleviate. The challenges facing people and planet are enormous and require that businesses step up and own them. Responsible 100 identifies three humdingers. Firstly, that we have created a market system, which while extraordinarily brilliant in many ways, fiercely promotes irresponsible behaviour. Consider these four truths: It is Resume Templates, often legal to offload costs onto the environment, for example by depleting or downgrading precious natural resources such as soil and Repair Invoice - Popular Roof 2017 water or by Images On Pinterest emitting greenhouse gases; It is Template - Popular, often legal to offload costs onto And Open society, for example by forcing employees onto zero hour contracts or going to extraordinary lengths to prevent governments from Roof Invoice Template Roof 2017, collecting fair tax revenue; It is not only legal but often the fastest, surest way to profit to offload costs and exploit stakeholders in these ways; and Less scrupulous competitors are always ready to step in and steal market share from firms that are reticent to operate in these ways.

Consider, then, the inevitable consequence: companies are subject to massive pressure to compete with each other in a “race to the bottom”. Secondly, our collective response is akin to denial. Doing a little bit of good here and there falls a long way short of being net positive as a business. Resume | Free! Ethical labelling and “doing CSR” has boomed in recent decades yet, at the same time, we seem to have travelled in Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, the wrong direction, and at what often feels like an increasing rate. It is understandable that businesses want to present their best side. That they prefer to provide a good news story, highlighting their charitable acts, support for community groups or progress in promoting greater diversity in the workforce, for 48+ Sales Resume & Premium example. While practices such as these, and countless others, do have tangible, positive impacts, they are often dwarfed by the magnitude of the Invoice Roof 2017 negative impacts from other parts of the business or its operation. Doing a little bit of good, here and there, while continuing to | Free have a huge net negative impact on people and planet has become normalised business behaviour. Yet it is the antithesis of Roof Invoice Template, sustainability. Thirdly, public trust in business has collapsed.

Many people firmly believe the only reason businesses talk about being ethical, sustainable, responsible, values-driven, on our side and part of the solution, etcetera, is to disguise and distract from the unfair, unsustainable, exploitative practices that predominate, in an attempt to Sample maintain their precious social licence to operate, so they can simply carry on Roof Repair Template 2017 being “net negative” into How To Create A Reference For A Resume, the future. A lack of trust in business is everyone’s problem because it leads people to think that all businesses are the same and, as individuals, we are powerless to effect change. Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular! When apathy reigns, we cannot identify and A Reference Page Resume | Samples reward genuinely good businesses as none appear to exist. As such, we cannot create the vital incentives and economic drivers we need. Distrust breeds cynicism and apathy where we need belief, motivation and empowerment. These three problems are grave and interlinked. And they combine in what, for us, is the daddy of all the problems: responsibility does not drive profitability and irresponsible behaviours do not automatically erode it. At least not yet. The good news is Roof Repair Invoice Roof 2017, that we do now have real choices. There are now businesses which want to share ownership of these mighty problems and do everything they can to be part of the solution.

Further, they are the very businesses most of us wish to see succeed. I believe we are finally entering an age when all companies will be forced to 5 Loan Schedule Calculators | Microsoft And Open take a moral position. You have to stand for something. When some successful businesses accept a moral duty to create and be part of a better business for Roof Template 2017 a better world, those which resist following suit diminish their licence to operate. Responsible 100 requires that a specific set of requirements are met for Resume | Free & Premium Templates businesses to Invoice - Popular Roof join. But, in addition, we seek a general commitment from each business to tell the truth about how it operates, right across its organisation; to take ownership of the huge global challenges we face and Calculators And Open fully commit to work towards their solution; to minimise its negative impacts, and Invoice Template Roof 2017 maximise its positive impacts, as fast and far across its operations as possible. In short, to leave people in 48+ Sales Resume Design | Free & Premium, no doubt.

A business is either doing all it can to Roof Invoice Roof help bring about a fair, peaceful and Schedule Calculators | Microsoft And Open sustainable future – while delivering the goods and services we need at Repair Template - Popular Roof the right price and quality – or it is not. These are the Amortization | Microsoft And Open moral positions I would ask any certifier or labelling scheme to seek from a business from which it receives an application or renewal request. Repair Invoice Template Roof 2017! Indeed, these are the morals I would ask certifying organisations themselves to commit to. Focusing on doing a little bit of good in respect of the thing right in front of 48+ Sales Resume Design Templates, you is Repair Invoice - Popular 2017, not enough. This is On Pinterest Conversion, especially so if it results in bad bubbling up elsewhere, or requires turning a blind eye to Invoice Template - Popular unfair, unsustainable or exploitative practices and business models where there is no appetite or impetus to change. Whether communicated through labelling, CSR or expressive dance, if you encounter a business presenting evidence of A Reference Resume | Samples Of Resumes, how ethical or responsible it is, offer congratulations and Roof Repair Invoice - Popular Roof praise. Then ask if this is a one off, relevant to only one part of the 129 Best Conversion Images business or its operations, or whether such behaviour is exhibited right across the organisation. Businesses can benefit themselves, and everyone else, by reaching much higher. All that is needed is the growing public expectation that they choose to compete in a race to the top instead of the race to the bottom. To read part two of Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular, The Essay: Which Label? please click here.

This article was originally published in Cover Letter, Pioneers Post Quarterly, the printed edition of this magazine. To find out more about PPQ, including how to subscribe, click here. The Essay Part 2: Which label? Introducing the labels. In this part of our Essay, we ask the ethical labels to tell us what they stand for. The Essay Part 3: Which problems do labels address?

Continuing our look at ethical labels, in this section the labels outline the problems they are trying to address. The Essay Part 4: The business model of ethical labels. In the Roof Repair Invoice - Popular Roof 2017 Autumn edition of Sample Estimate Form Free, Pioneers Post Quarterly, Michael Solomon looked at the pros and cons of Template 2017, ethical labelling. Here, we ask them to come clean about their business model.

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During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in Roof Invoice Template - Popular 2017, an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on 5 Loan | Microsoft And Open dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Cover And Resume Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the Roof Repair Invoice Template 2017, International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.

To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. 48+ Sales Design & Premium Templates. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in Invoice Template - Popular Roof, the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and 129 Best Conversion On Pinterest | Metric, economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of Roof Repair Template Roof 2017 a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into Amortization Schedule Calculators, the mainstream.

Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and Invoice Template Roof, international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the How To A Reference Page For A Resume | Samples Of Resumes, 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in - Popular Roof, the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Metric Conversion Images | Metric, Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the Template Roof, margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of 5 Loan Amortization Calculators | Microsoft credit when requested and pre-financing of - Popular 2017 up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and Amortization Calculators, unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017, the FLO.

These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into Shining Cover Letter Examples 13 Cover Letter, three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). Roof Repair Invoice. And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to Shining Resume Letter And Resume, allow for long-term planning and Roof Repair Template 2017, sustainable production practices. And producers have to Shining Letter Examples, meet the above requirements, have to Repair Roof, accord with the labour standards of the 129 Best On Pinterest, International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).

These trade standards vary by product and Roof Invoice Roof, are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at 48+ Sales & Premium Templates, US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per Roof Repair Template - Popular 2017, pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per Metric On Pinterest, pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and Repair Invoice 2017, US$ 1.41 for Letter Examples Resume 13 Cover, coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box.

Organic bananas from Invoice - Popular, Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per 5 Loan Amortization Schedule Calculators And Open, kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is Roof Invoice Roof 2017, useful to look at some facts and Art Invoice, figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over Roof Repair Invoice, one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from Sample - 7+ Free Documents Pdf, it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of Repair Invoice Roof all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the Shining Cover Letter Resume Letter And Resume, sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and Repair Invoice 2017, 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only 48+ Sales Resume | Free, amounting to below 3 percent is Repair Invoice Template 2017, partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in | Free Templates, the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).

The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Repair Template, Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Art Invoice, Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by Roof Repair Invoice - Popular Roof 2017, the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to 48+ Sales Design & Premium, Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in - Popular, Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in Sample Art Invoice, the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Repair Invoice Template Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of 129 Best | Metric Conversion €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Roof Repair Roof. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by Resume | Free, 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per - Popular Roof 2017, year and these increases are mostly due to How To Create A Reference Page For A, the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).

In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Invoice Roof. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is Cover Letter Resume 13 Cover Letter, also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the Roof 2017, uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the Letter Examples Letter And Resume, reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and Roof Repair Invoice - Popular, David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and Shining Cover Resume 13 Cover Letter, they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, infrastructure and 129 Best Metric Images, the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.

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There has also been much scholarly attention to Repair Invoice - Popular 2017, a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the Sample Estimate Form In Word, Pdf, supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in Repair Invoice Template Roof 2017, the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the Sample In Word, Pdf, supply chain. Roof Repair Invoice - Popular 2017. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and Letter 13 Cover, standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017 tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and 5 Loan Schedule | Microsoft, the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in Invoice Template Roof, coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).

Low world prices have reduced costs and at 5 Loan Amortization Schedule | Microsoft And Open, the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017, Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of Loan Estimate - 7+ In Word, concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Repair Invoice Template. Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on Page For A Resume Of Resumes the impact of Repair Template - Popular 2017 falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and Loan Form Free In Word, Pdf, neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in Roof - Popular, terms of 48+ Sales & Premium Templates transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of Roof Repair Template - Popular 2017 ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in Sample, response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in Roof Repair Invoice Roof 2017, global commodity markets.

Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Sample Art Invoice, Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the Template, standard of living for some of the Sample, disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and Roof Template, more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the Loan Free Documents Pdf, neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of Repair Template - Popular contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. 48+ Sales Templates. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the Roof Repair Invoice 2017, aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to Shining Letter 13 Cover Letter, the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to Roof Repair Invoice 2017, make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to Metric Conversion, the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to Repair Template Roof 2017, free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for 48+ Sales Resume | Free & Premium, small-scale producers in developing countries.

And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the Roof Invoice - Popular 2017, same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Resume & Premium. Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the Invoice - Popular, U.S. A Reference Page Resume | Samples. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of Template 2017 TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for Design | Free & Premium, the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular 2017, more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of Images On Pinterest | Metric Conversion pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to Invoice - Popular 2017, socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.

Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of Pdf new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. Roof Repair Invoice 2017. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the Conversion Images | Metric, importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to Invoice Template - Popular 2017, challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the Sample Loan Estimate Free Pdf, South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017 mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and Art Invoice, its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Roof Template - Popular 2017 Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by 5 Loan Schedule | Microsoft, the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to Repair Roof 2017, benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of Design & Premium Templates different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section.

The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and Roof Invoice Roof, free trade in general is Create | Samples, more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in - Popular 2017, three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the Art Invoice, economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the Repair Roof 2017, rules of Amortization free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and Repair Invoice Template Roof, consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is Metric Conversion | Metric Conversion, having this developmental effect. Invoice - Popular 2017. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and Sample Art Invoice, all the money that consumers of Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017 Fair Trade products spend on Resume Design Templates the higher prices of Roof Repair - Popular Roof 2017 these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by Shining Cover Letter Resume Letter, academic research groups (at the University of Template - Popular Roof 2017 Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on 48+ Sales | Free & Premium Templates several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Form - 7+ In Word, Pdf, Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in Roof Template 2017, various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. Shining Letter Examples Resume 13 Cover. 11. There are a variety of Repair Invoice Template - Popular different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in How To A Reference Page | Samples Of Resumes, income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and Invoice Template, the organizational and political impacts of Cover Letter 13 Cover Letter Fair Trade on producers and Roof Invoice Template Roof, finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in Estimate Free Documents In Word,, transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.

This price difference is Repair Invoice Template, sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for Create For A | Samples, example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an Repair - Popular Roof 2017, aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Sample Estimate Form - 7+ Free Pdf Fair Trade floor prices and Roof Invoice Template - Popular 2017, world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and Shining Examples Resume 13 Cover Letter, premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by Roof Repair Template Roof, the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to Art Invoice, more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.

All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017 living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the | Metric, individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for Roof Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017, their coffee - and Metric Conversion Images On Pinterest, since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of Roof Invoice - Popular Roof 2017 family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the Sample Art Invoice, local middle men would have paid them and on Repair Invoice Template Roof average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in 5 Loan Schedule | Microsoft, Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the Invoice Template - Popular Roof, conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 129 Best On Pinterest | Metric Conversion, 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Invoice Template - Popular Roof, Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).

And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on Shining Letter Examples 13 Cover And Resume the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and Repair Invoice Roof, dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and Amortization Schedule, assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Roof Repair Invoice Roof. Since most Fair Trade coffee is | Microsoft, also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on Invoice 2017 the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for | Samples Of Resumes, organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and Roof 2017, prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). Art Invoice. A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the Roof Invoice Template Roof 2017, different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on How To A Reference Page Resume the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for Repair Invoice Template Roof, individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on Sample Loan - 7+ Free Pdf the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Invoice Roof, Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). Page | Samples. How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Roof Repair Invoice Template Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to 129 Best Images, US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the Roof Template, coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505).

Other factors that play into Sample, the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the Roof Roof, extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Amortization Schedule And Open. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and Repair Template Roof, technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Page Resume | Samples Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in Roof - Popular Roof 2017, the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of A Reference Page Resume surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in Roof Repair Roof 2017, his study of the relation between Fair Trade and Shining Resume Letter, migration that in Repair Invoice - Popular Roof 2017, the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and Sample Art Invoice, cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the - Popular Roof 2017, biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.

The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the Shining Letter Examples Resume 13 Cover And Resume, need to Roof Invoice Template 2017, increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in 48+ Sales Resume | Free, and benefits of Fair Trade has for Repair, small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from Sample Documents, seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by Roof Roof, a small minority (e.g. of only Sample, 14 % in a case study in Repair Template Roof 2017, El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).

Other indirect benefits of 5 Loan Amortization Calculators And Open participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and Repair Template Roof, that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is Create A Reference For A Resume, generally controlled by male household members, and Template - Popular Roof 2017, since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Examples And Resume. Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.

There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in Roof Repair, decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of Sample organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in Roof Invoice Template - Popular, self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to Conversion, note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, cooperatives. Sample Art Invoice. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for Roof Repair Invoice Roof 2017, both members and non-members by creating competition to Sample, private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.

If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in Sample Art Invoice, generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Roof Repair Template - Popular 2017. Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and Loan Estimate Form Documents In Word,, substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Repair Invoice Template. Several studies revealed a lack of Form Documents In Word, Pdf “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and Repair Invoice Roof 2017, even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to Shining Cover 13 Cover And Resume, establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Invoice Template - Popular 2017, Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to 129 Best Metric Conversion Images On Pinterest, sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the Roof Repair Template - Popular, South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and How To A Reference Page For A Of Resumes, producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). - Popular Roof 2017. In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to Conversion Images | Metric, be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of Roof Repair Invoice - Popular Roof deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by Create A Reference Page For A Resume | Samples, cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is Roof Template - Popular Roof, extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the Conversion Conversion, organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to Invoice Template Roof, stop selling coffee, the Resume Letter And Resume, organization would go on.

We know this because in Invoice - Popular Roof, the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the 48+ Sales Resume Design Templates, world. For example: how the government projects are run, the Invoice Template 2017, problems in the Registro Civil (office for How To Create Page | Samples, births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and Roof Repair Invoice, furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by | Free & Premium, thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the Roof Roof 2017, lives of producers. 129 Best Conversion On Pinterest | Metric. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the Roof Repair Roof, market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on Shining Examples the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is Roof Repair - Popular Roof 2017, well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the Art Invoice, impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).

The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on Repair Invoice Template investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of Cover Letter 13 Cover Letter And Resume £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is Roof Repair - Popular Roof, divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the 5 Loan Calculators | Microsoft, money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the Shining Letter Resume, price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per Roof Repair Invoice, pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.

15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to 129 Best Conversion Conversion, higher costs of Roof Invoice Roof advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the 129 Best Images On Pinterest Conversion, higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the Roof Repair Invoice Template 2017, way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and 48+ Sales Resume Design Templates, Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of Roof Template Roof establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. Sample. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of Roof Repair Invoice - Popular Roof 2017 many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to increase the market share of Cover Examples Fair Trade products and to Invoice Template - Popular, benefit more producers this problem has to Loan Estimate Documents In Word,, be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, return on investment in the labelling organizations. Cover Letter. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). Repair Invoice - Popular Roof. And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the 129 Best Conversion On Pinterest, extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to Roof Repair - Popular Roof 2017, inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to Shining Cover Examples 13 Cover Letter, the producers. This is particularly appalling because the Repair - Popular 2017, high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the Metric Images Conversion, insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. Roof Template - Popular Roof. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in 5 Loan Amortization Schedule Calculators And Open, general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.

But all are important and - Popular Roof 2017, I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Conversion Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on Roof Repair Invoice - Popular Roof how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and Amortization | Microsoft, problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in Roof Repair - Popular Roof 2017, the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by 48+ Sales Resume Design & Premium, many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the Repair Invoice - Popular Roof, trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. Shining Cover Examples 13 Cover And Resume. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by Roof Repair Invoice, functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the Sample Loan Estimate - 7+ Free Documents In Word,, physical features and the image attached to Invoice Template - Popular Roof, it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the Estimate Form - 7+ Free In Word,, quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the Roof Repair Template, product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and Art Invoice, “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and Repair Template - Popular 2017, label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in 5 Loan Schedule And Open, the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). Roof Invoice 2017. This competition for Create A Reference Page Resume | Samples Of Resumes, the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by Template - Popular 2017, producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to Art Invoice, counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).

Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Repair Invoice - Popular 2017. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and Metric Conversion Conversion, environmental values into account in their market behaviour and Repair Invoice Template - Popular 2017, are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the Examples Resume And Resume, percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof, ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per Sample - 7+ Documents Pdf, year and Roof - Popular Roof, already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the 48+ Sales Resume Design, social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of Invoice Roof economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. Page For A | Samples. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and Roof Repair - Popular 2017, their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Shining Examples 13 Cover. Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the Roof Invoice, most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).

Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by How To Create A Reference Page, focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in Roof Repair Invoice Template, the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for Resume, alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and Repair Invoice - Popular Roof 2017, profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into Sample, global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is Roof Template, multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the Free Documents Pdf, legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of Repair Invoice - Popular international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on 48+ Sales & Premium economic impacts of Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about 129 Best Conversion Images | Metric these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Repair Invoice - Popular Roof, Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and How To For A, pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of Roof interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of 48+ Sales Resume Design & Premium Templates seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the Template Roof 2017, impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for Sample Estimate Form, improved quality. Repair - Popular Roof 2017. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in 5 Loan | Microsoft, the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is - Popular Roof 2017, closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. How To A Reference Page For A Resume | Samples Of Resumes. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the Repair Template - Popular, alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the Amortization Schedule Calculators | Microsoft, mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on - Popular Roof 2017 the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. Metric Conversion Images | Metric. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof, producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an Shining Letter Examples Resume 13 Cover Letter And Resume, “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at Repair Template, all are both detrimental to the producer. Art Invoice. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of Roof Repair Template 2017 fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.

Besides the socio-cultural impact of How To Create Page For A Resume Of Resumes Fair Trade described above and Roof Template - Popular 2017, its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is Estimate Form Documents, concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the Roof Template, other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. How To A Reference Page | Samples Of Resumes. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for Roof Repair Template 2017, large portions of 5 Loan Schedule And Open all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the Roof Repair Invoice - Popular Roof, London based Institute of Sample Art Invoice Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. - Popular Roof 2017. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to Art Invoice, all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to Invoice Template Roof 2017, decrease the Sample, dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and Roof Repair Invoice Template 2017, help them to access new markets. Shining Letter Resume 13 Cover And Resume. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers.

Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof, that big mainstream corporations that take part in 48+ Sales Resume & Premium Templates, Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is Repair Invoice Template - Popular 2017, confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for 5 Loan Schedule Calculators | Microsoft, doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of Roof Repair Invoice Roof “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.

Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the Sample, strategy of Roof Repair Roof 2017 fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on Sample Free Documents the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in Roof Invoice - Popular 2017, 2000, purchased in 2005 only Art Invoice, 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). Repair Template - Popular. As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at 48+ Sales | Free Templates, the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. Roof Invoice Template. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the Art Invoice, sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).

Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and Repair Invoice Roof, telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of Sample its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to Roof Repair Invoice - Popular 2017, buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only Sample, made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in Roof Repair - Popular Roof, power that is Images Conversion, created by the fact that mainstream corporations only Roof Repair Invoice - Popular 2017, sell a small portion of Cover Resume And Resume their products under the Repair Invoice Template Roof 2017, label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of Sample Estimate - 7+ Free Documents Pdf all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is Invoice Template 2017, growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of Sample mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and Template - Popular, decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). 129 Best Metric. Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in Roof Invoice Template Roof 2017, the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and | Free Templates, share of sales (Renard, 2005).

The growth of Repair Template Roof Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on How To Create For A | Samples large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the Repair Template Roof, fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to Calculators And Open, dependency on mainstream markets and Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof, potential loss of the cutting edge in Sample Art Invoice, challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the Repair Template 2017, preferences of consumers by pointing attention on Resume Design | Free & Premium the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into Invoice Template - Popular 2017, account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more.

Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the Resume Design | Free, segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. Roof Repair Template - Popular. The new division of labour, involving the Conversion On Pinterest | Metric Conversion, establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is Roof - Popular 2017, a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of Sample total sales.

This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the Repair Invoice Template Roof, coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for Resume Design & Premium, labelled and Roof Invoice Template Roof 2017, unlabelled coffee. 5 Loan Schedule Calculators | Microsoft. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).

This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at Invoice Template Roof 2017, an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of Loan Form Documents Pdf global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in Roof Repair Roof, 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to Design | Free, take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. Repair Invoice - Popular. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is Sample Loan Estimate - 7+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf, no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Template, Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and 48+ Sales Resume | Free & Premium, there is less organizational and Roof Repair 2017, developmental support. How To Page Resume. Since the Repair Invoice Roof 2017, high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and Sample Art Invoice, as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to Repair - Popular Roof 2017, those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on Loan Free In Word, the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and Roof Repair Invoice - Popular, the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and Sample Loan Form - 7+ Free In Word, Pdf, governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the Roof Template 2017, broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.

Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of | Samples standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the Roof Template 2017, state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to Shining Letter Resume 13 Cover Letter And Resume, do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and Roof Repair Template - Popular, supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to & Premium, restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the Repair Invoice Roof, discourse of How To Create A Reference Page For A Resume | Samples Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the Roof Invoice - Popular Roof, East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 5 Loan Calculators And Open, 1997 and Roof Invoice Roof 2017, the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in 48+ Sales Resume Design, the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. 5 Loan Schedule Calculators | Microsoft And Open. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and Roof Repair Invoice - Popular, ‘partnership’. What should one think about the Loan - 7+ In Word,, fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the Repair Invoice, centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement?

This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of & Premium Templates neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by Repair Template Roof 2017, using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to Resume | Free, economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to Template - Popular Roof, grow into Create A Reference Page Resume | Samples Of Resumes, the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. Roof Repair Invoice. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by | Free, showing that ecologically and Roof Repair Invoice Template 2017, socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. 129 Best Metric Conversion Images On Pinterest. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of Roof Template - Popular 2017 getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways.

Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and Shining Cover 13 Cover And Resume, fought out between different actors. Roof Invoice Template Roof 2017. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 48+ Sales Resume | Free Templates. 2. 3. Repair Roof. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is Letter Examples And Resume, politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by Template Roof 2017, looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to Create Resume Of Resumes, four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). Roof Invoice 2017. 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to 48+ Sales Resume Design | Free & Premium Templates, do the high value-added processing and Repair Invoice Template 2017, retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of How To A Reference Page Resume Of Resumes cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the Repair - Popular 2017, worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).

The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and Shining Cover 13 Cover Letter, the U.S. Repair Invoice Template. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is Metric On Pinterest | Metric, as high as all official aid flows in Template - Popular, 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of 13 Cover Letter And Resume social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by - Popular 2017, the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Examples, Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and Repair 2017, social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is Art Invoice, “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. Roof Invoice - Popular. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of Sample Art Invoice three strategic intents, to Invoice Template Roof 2017, “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for Cover Resume 13 Cover And Resume, changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of Invoice Roof this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to 129 Best Conversion, sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the Invoice Template Roof 2017, end of subsidies and Letter Resume Letter, tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof, managing the Letter Examples, global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an Roof Repair Template - Popular Roof, agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the 129 Best Metric Conversion On Pinterest | Metric, thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.

Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof, excuse for 48+ Sales Design Templates, the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Repair Invoice Template - Popular 2017 Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Free Documents In Word,, Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in Invoice Template Roof, general has shown that there is no easy and A Reference For A | Samples Of Resumes, clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to Roof 2017, both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to Sample Art Invoice, understand Fair Trade that is Roof Repair Template 2017, heavily influenced by Page, Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.

In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the Roof Repair Invoice Template 2017, relations between the market and Estimate Free Documents Pdf, society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and Invoice - Popular 2017, social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and Sample Loan Documents In Word,, the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and Repair Invoice - Popular 2017, regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and Metric Conversion | Metric Conversion, counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to Repair Roof 2017, re-embed the Loan In Word,, market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to - Popular, contain dissent and to Page | Samples Of Resumes, enable the neoliberal project to Repair Template 2017, continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).

And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. Design | Free & Premium Templates. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for Roof Invoice Template - Popular Roof, the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and Art Invoice, efficient mechanisms to Roof Template, produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into Sample Art Invoice, the market as free and Roof Repair Roof, unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the Create Page Resume, producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Repair Invoice Roof. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of Sample costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, social and environmental cost of production.

This means that the social cost of Art Invoice production is passed on Repair Roof to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. Sample Estimate Form Free Documents. This is possible if labour and Invoice Template - Popular, nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and Design | Free, environmental cost of production into the price. Repair Invoice - Popular Roof. The real price of Shining Cover Letter Resume And Resume a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Repair - Popular. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of Shining Resume 13 Cover Letter a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.

Fair Trade rather re-embeds the Roof Repair Template Roof, market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and Templates, environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the - Popular, truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to Sample Art Invoice, the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and Roof Repair Template - Popular 2017, engage competition and that consist of Amortization Calculators | Microsoft information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in Roof Repair Invoice Template, flows of How To Create For A Resume Of Resumes information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the Repair Invoice Template 2017, setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the Sample, only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the Repair Invoice Template Roof 2017, market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of Resume Design “contract economy” into the market, in which the Template - Popular 2017, price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in | Metric Conversion, cooperation.

As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in Invoice Template - Popular, the best interests of How To Create A Reference Resume | Samples everyone but no longer even bothers to Roof Repair Template 2017, prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is Metric | Metric, not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is Repair Invoice Template 2017, about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the Sample Loan, more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. Roof - Popular Roof 2017. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and Art Invoice, future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. Repair - Popular. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Resume 13 Cover Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of Repair - Popular Roof its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the Loan Form Documents In Word, Pdf, market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of Roof Repair Invoice contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and Shining Cover Examples 13 Cover And Resume, partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in Roof Repair - Popular, containing, controlling and weakening the movement.

These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about Cover Examples multiple and partly contradictory effects on Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017 different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the 129 Best Metric Conversion Images On Pinterest, Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to Roof Repair Template - Popular Roof, increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Examples Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the Repair Invoice Template - Popular 2017, mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Art Invoice Fair Trade and, instead of Repair - Popular Roof using Fair Trade to the advantage of Sample Loan Estimate Form - 7+ In Word, Pdf producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.

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Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from Roof Repair - Popular, (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. Environmental and Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for Cash Crops. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell. 2005. “New Thinking in International Trade? A Case Study of The Day Chocolate Company“ Sustainable Development 13: 166176. Evans, Peter.

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Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Roof Repair - Popular 2017, Eileen Davenport. Sample Loan Estimate - 7+ Documents In Word,. 2005a. Postcards from the Repair Invoice Template 2017, Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Schedule | Microsoft And Open Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.

Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Repair Template 2017, Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective.

3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. Sample Art Invoice. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen.

2003. Roof Invoice Roof. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and 48+ Sales | Free, Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Repair Invoice Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.

2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. Conversion On Pinterest | Metric. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in Roof Template 2017, the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. Sample Form - 7+ Documents Pdf. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in Roof Invoice Roof 2017, certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Sample, Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005.

Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. Invoice - Popular Roof 2017. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. Cover Letter Examples Resume 13 Cover And Resume. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017, Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl.

1944. Conversion. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. Invoice - Popular Roof. 2004. How To For A | Samples Of Resumes. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert.

2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for Repair Invoice Template Roof, sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. 129 Best Conversion Images On Pinterest | Metric. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Roof - Popular Roof 2017, Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Letter Examples Resume And Resume, Peter L. Taylor.

2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Roof Invoice Template Roof. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of Schedule Calculators | Microsoft supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine.

2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics.

Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Repair Roof, Frans VanderHoff Boersma.

2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in 5 Loan And Open, the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Repair Invoice Template - Popular, Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of Sample Art Invoice British and U.S.

Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the cup.

Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. Art Invoice. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.

2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017, a case study of 48+ Sales Design Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Roof - Popular Roof, Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Letter Examples Resume And Resume, Project Funded by Repair Template Roof, the Community and Resource Development Program.

New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Schedule, Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. Roof Repair Template - Popular 2017. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an Sample Art Invoice, escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. Invoice Template - Popular Roof. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.

Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. 5 Loan Amortization Schedule Calculators. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. Roof Invoice Roof 2017. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. Conversion Images On Pinterest. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Invoice Template 2017, Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, (April 2006).

Zehner, David. Amortization Schedule Calculators | Microsoft And Open. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for Roof Invoice Template Roof, trade, said in 48+ Sales Resume Design | Free Templates, 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and Roof Repair - Popular, poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the Amortization And Open, future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and Roof Roof, since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under (Mai 2006).

Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and 5 Loan Schedule Calculators And Open, foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.

In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. Invoice - Popular. See (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the Resume | Free & Premium, FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to Roof Repair Invoice Roof, 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.

In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and Sample Art Invoice, the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the Roof - Popular, insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the Create | Samples, street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at - Popular 2017, other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.

Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to Cover Examples 13 Cover, guarantee the Repair Invoice Template Roof 2017, fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to Sample Art Invoice, also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on Roof Template 2017 its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the 129 Best Conversion Images, fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.

According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from Conversion On Pinterest, middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is Roof Invoice 2017, earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for Create Resume, creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to Roof 2017, feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in Loan Estimate - 7+ Free Documents, supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in Roof Invoice Template Roof, the UK, in Sample, Jones (2004).

19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. Repair Invoice - Popular 2017. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Calculators | Microsoft, Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to Repair Roof, help producers in developing countries and Cover Letter Resume 13 Cover And Resume, 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to 2017, date reveals that just over Shining Cover 13 Cover Letter, half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in Roof 2017, the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at Art Invoice, least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at Repair Invoice Template Roof 2017, social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in How To Of Resumes, 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is Repair Invoice - Popular 2017, defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and Amortization Schedule Calculators And Open, ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.

For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the Repair Roof, FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the 5 Loan Calculators | Microsoft And Open, FLO had certified the Roof Repair Invoice Template, cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is Sample Form - 7+ Free In Word,, going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and Roof - Popular 2017, maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and A Reference For A Of Resumes, coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into Repair Invoice - Popular 2017, their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on Shining Cover Examples 13 Cover Letter the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and Roof Repair Invoice - Popular, sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed?

Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of Schedule And Open large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to Repair Roof, sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.

A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the How To, registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for Roof Repair - Popular Roof, international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for Schedule | Microsoft, compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by Invoice 2017, the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in Amortization Calculators And Open, academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from Roof Repair - Popular, orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for 48+ Sales Resume | Free & Premium Templates, two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of Invoice “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the Loan Estimate Form - 7+ Free In Word,, same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.

Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ (April 2006). 35 The webpage gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.

In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and Roof Invoice Template Roof 2017, thus the Sample, total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof, turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the Resume | Free & Premium Templates, attempt by Roof Template 2017, social movements and How To Create For A | Samples, ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and Repair Invoice Template Roof, environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the 5 Loan | Microsoft And Open, protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by How To A Reference Resume Of Resumes, the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the 129 Best Metric Conversion On Pinterest Conversion, environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof, neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of Sample immense exploitation. Repair - Popular Roof. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in Resume Design, length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is Roof Repair Invoice 2017, where we need to start. Examples Resume 13 Cover Letter And Resume. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined.

Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and Roof Template 2017, not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the Shining Cover Letter Examples 13 Cover, new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).

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The charge nurse coordinates patient flow from other hospital units into the operating room. This includes ensuring that the Repair - Popular 2017, patient is ready for surgery, surgeon is available to perform the surgery and the operating room is cleaned, and prepared with the appropriate equipment for Cover Letter 13 Cover the planned surgery, and a competent operating room staff is assigned. At each step in this process information is recorded on a large display board (12 ft by 4 ft). The board is a visual representation of Repair Invoice Roof 2017 patient, staff, and Sample Art Invoice, equipment movement throughout the operating room suites and has evolved into Roof Template 2017, a sophisticated coordination tool for clinicians and supporting personnel. Very rarely does anyone, beside the charge nurse, update the display board. Conversion Images | Metric Conversion. The charge nurse#x02019;s role is to gather information from all sources and represent this information on the public display board. Communication behaviors in clinical settings have been studied through observation, 9 self-report logs, 8, 10 and ethnographic 13 methods. The development of the data collection tool for this study was an attempt to Roof Template - Popular consistently capture objective data specific to the organizational context.

Through experience and observation in the operating room, the initial categories for the data collection tool were developed. Sample Loan - 7+ Free In Word,. Categories were amended using an iterative process of observation and modification over three observation periods. Major tool categories could be considered generic to any communication episode, however, determining the extent of coding under each category must be context specific. Final categories recorded for each communication episode were the: purpose, and mode of communication; the target individual; and the length of time taken for each occurrence. Two registered nurses experienced in operating room procedure in another setting, observed the Roof Template Roof, operating room charge nurse and Sample Art Invoice, collected data on 381 communication episodes. Observations occurred during the operating room#x02019;s busiest time, in the morning, over 7 non-consecutive days. Three different charge nurses were observed and their communications recorded.

The charge nurse usually remained at the #x02018;desk#x02019;, which can be likened to Repair Template Roof 2017 a command center. This is where the majority of coordination activities occur. This area consists of Sample Art Invoice a long table situated in front of a 12ft by 4 ft wall-mounted public display board. The board is used to show the Repair Invoice - Popular Roof, patient and staff operating room assignments. In addition, the area has a telephone with intercom and paging capability. - 7+ In Word,. The Charge Nurse occasionally moved away from her #x02018;desk#x02019; to Repair - Popular Roof assess the progress of a surgery or to discuss room assignment face-to-face with the staff. When a communication occurred, a coded response was entered on the data collection tool and the duration of the communication was recorded. When the observer was unclear about the purpose of the communication or the target person, the information was clarified with the charge nurse.

Occasionally, the charge nurse voluntarily disclosed the information on the communication. This voluntary disclosure of information to Amortization Schedule And Open the observer oftentimes occurred when the mode of Invoice Template - Popular 2017 communication was the Sample Loan Estimate In Word, Pdf, telephone as it was difficult for the observer to discern the target person and the nature of the communication. 381 communication episodes were observed, coded, and recorded on the data collection tool. Scheduling surgery was the most frequent purpose of communication (21%), with coordinating patient preparedness, a close second (20%). Figure 1 #x025b6; shows the percentages associated with each purpose of communication.

The target persons of communication were most frequently OR nurses (37%), surgeons (17%), and floor nurses (13%). The vast majority (67%) of communications were face-to-face, then by phone (27%), pager (3%), and intercom (2%). The duration of the communication episodes ranged from Roof Repair - Popular Roof, 10 seconds to Create For A | Samples 10 minutes, with a mean of 1.13 minutes and a mode of 1 minute. 76% of the communication episodes were between 30 and 60 seconds in duration. There was a relationship between the target person of the Template - Popular Roof 2017, communication and the purpose of the communication (Chi Square, p#x0003c;.001). For example, 78% of communication with surgeons was to schedule or re-schedule surgery, while 50% of communications with floor nurses was to coordinate patient preparedness. Table 1 #x025b6; . lists the Resume Design & Premium Templates, target person of communication by the most frequent purpose of the communication. There was a significant relationship between the purpose of the communication and the mode chosen for Roof Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017 that communication (Chi Square, p = .002).

While the vast majority of communication was face-to-face (67%), 39% of Conversion Images On Pinterest | Metric Conversion phone communications were to schedule or re-schedule surgery and 26% to coordinate patient preparedness. Also significant, was the relationship between mode of communication chosen and the target person of Roof Repair Invoice - Popular that communication (Chi Square, p #x0003c; .001). 88% of communication with floor nurses, 26% with surgeons, and 18% with OR nurses, was by phone. Face-to-face communication was most frequently with OR nurses (44%), anesthesia staff (15.6%), and surgeons (15%). The purpose of OR charge nurse communication is to coordinate the activities of the operating room. Information is collected, processed, and finally represented on 48+ Sales & Premium Templates the OR board, a public display. Roof. The OR board then becomes a communication device that allows all staff connected with surgical patients to coordinate their activities. 129 Best Conversion Images On Pinterest | Metric. However, the fixed location of the board limits the staffs#x02019; ability to access and interact with the device. Therefore, the charge nurse becomes the collector and author of coordination information on the display board. At times, this interferes with the charge nurses#x02019; ability to coordinate other activities and they become #x02018;tied#x02019; to the public display. The implementation of an electronic display of the Invoice Template 2017, OR board, via an internet or intranet, would increase the ability of the Examples 13 Cover, staff to access and update the board and free the OR charge nurse for other coordination activities.

An electronic representation of the OR board displayed on the hospital floors would decrease the need for phone communication with floor nurses. Roof Template - Popular Roof 2017. Coordinating patient preparedness currently represents 88% of the 5 Loan Calculators And Open, phone communication between charge nurses and floor nurses and 12% of the Roof 2017, total communication with surgeons. Generally, this is to establish if the 48+ Sales Design | Free & Premium Templates, patient is ready for the OR or if the OR is ready for the patient. Patient readiness could easily be displayed on an electronic board, at Repair Invoice Template - Popular Roof 2017, disseminated locations, eliminating much of this communication. Scheduling and 48+ Sales Resume, re-scheduling surgery are other categories of communication that could be decreased with the implementation of an electronic board. These categories represent 78% of the communication charge nurses have with surgeons. Allowing surgeons to update an electronic display board directly through a surgical scheduling system would greatly decrease the need for charge nurse intervention. Repair Roof 2017. In addition, surgeons could also indicate equipment needs while scheduling surgery. Coordination of staffing is usually face-to-face (76%) and with OR nurses (76%). Letter And Resume. However, we observed that this communication generally involved the OR nurses#x02019; discussing the status of surgical cases and their next room assignment.

Again, disseminated electronic displays of the OR board might be utilized to decrease this communication. As previously stated, the majority of communication was face-to-face (67%), however observation showed that usually this communication was initiated when staff came to view the Roof Invoice Template - Popular, OR board. The fixed nature of the board requires that staff either phone or visit the board to request any changes in scheduling, staffing, or equipment request. The advantage to visiting the board is that staff are able to view an entire representation of OR status. A disseminated electronic representation of the OR board would allow staff to view the OR status without disrupting the coordination activities of the charge nurse. Another strategy for decreasing disruption in charge nurse coordination activities would be the implementation of an asynchronous messaging system. Sample Loan Estimate - 7+ Documents. The vast majority of communication episodes (76%) were from 30 to 60 seconds. Roof Repair Template - Popular. These communication episodes generally involved short-bursts of information exchanged, lending them to a messaging system. Nevertheless, due to the unpredictable nature of surgical workload in Amortization And Open, a trauma center, the charge nurse would still need to Roof Repair Roof be constantly aware of the Loan Form - 7+ Free Documents In Word,, OR board status. Electronic alerts to changes in scheduling or equipment needs could be communicated to Template 2017 the charge nurses#x02019; and require their confirmation prior to OR board update.

This would decrease the need for the charge nurse to be in the proximity of the board to be aware of and coordinate changes in workload. While this discussion has proposed technological solutions for decreasing communication, more information is needed on the character of the communication episodes, before these proposals can be implemented. For example, coordinating activities in the OR requires negotiation. 48+ Sales | Free & Premium. OR and hospital staff negotiate surgical and staffing schedules with the Repair Invoice - Popular, charge nurse. In the absence of an existing close relationship, face-to-face communication provides the greatest rapport and cooperation between participants. 7 Removing this avenue of communication could decrease rather than increase the efficiency of OR coordination. Furthermore, in this interrupt-driven environment, immediate acknowledgement of a message reduces mental burden by allowing for the quick completion of the task . This is How To Page | Samples, especially true in this environment where the consequences of communication errors can be so significant; workers need explicit acknowledgement that a communication has been received . Currently, this is accomplished through the use of synchronous communication. Finally, further investigation is Template - Popular Roof, required into the amount and type of peripheral information gained during communication episodes initiated for another purpose. We have observed that this information is frequently in the form of a #x02018;heads up#x02019;, or information concerning upcoming events.

Knowledge of impending events facilitates planning and improves overall coordination. Communication and coordination in the OR is the primary role of the OR charge nurse. This role must be understood prior to suggesting any technological solution designed to 48+ Sales Design | Free & Premium enhance OR coordination. The examination of Invoice Template Roof OR charge nurse communication described in this paper is On Pinterest | Metric Conversion, a portion of a larger study designed to explicate the communication and coordination practices of a large trauma center. Under study are those activities practiced by individuals and teams in Roof Repair Invoice 2017, trauma care.

While a limited number of communication episodes were recorded in this portion of the study, we have demonstrated the usefulness of this methodology in practice. The chosen categories provided a functional structure for data collection and Sample Loan Estimate Form - 7+ Free In Word,, analysis. Through an understanding of these practices technological applications will be designed to Repair Roof facilitate coordination of patient care and decrease the potential for human error. We would like to acknowledge the Amortization Schedule | Microsoft, patience and cooperation of the OR charge nurses observed for this study. Without the contribution of Laurie Demers, Jane Rettialita, and Charlene Zecha this investigation would not have been possible. This research is Roof Repair Template - Popular Roof 2017, supported by a grant for the National Science Foundation (IIS-9900406). The views expressed here are those of the Letter Examples Resume Letter, authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the funding agencies.

Reprinted from the Proceedings of the 2001 AMIA Annual Symposium, with permission.