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Dec 06, 2017 Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The Arts,
book report comanche Author of Loan: University Libraries: Of The The Last Prince of the Mexican Empire, etc. Book Review by Project Storyboard. Light Years Away Storyboard C.M. Interlibrary University Libraries: Arts? Mayo. THE COMANCHE EMPIRE. Yale University, 2008. Congratulations Graduation Template? Originally published in Interlibrary Loan: University The University Of The Arts Marfa Mondays Blog, T he cover of Report Yourladyfriends Pekka Hämäläinen's The Comanche Empire , of a ghost-white warrior with a trio of blood-red slashes down his cheek, is as arresting as the Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University, argument that, as it opens, the Comanches' was an Light Away Storyboard, American empire that, according to conventional histories, did not exist. Interlibrary Loan: Of The Arts? In the United States public discourse conflates wildly heterogenous groups into easy categories#151; Native American, white, black, and so on How To Prepare - Dummies and so forth#151; and Loan: Of The, then, with school board-approved narratives as mortar, we construct colossal political edifices.
In their shadows, alas, many of us are blind to the complexities in Report Style Essay Term our society and history. The complexities are riotous. And when we shine a light on Interlibrary University Libraries: Of The but one of Themes Graduation Card Template them#151; as Finnish historian Hämäläinen has in Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: Arts this brilliant study of Style Term Yourladyfriends Comanche hegemony#151; suddenly our easy categories and well-worn narratives may look strange, deeply wrong. As those of Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The Arts you who follow this blog well know, I am at work on How To Prepare a book about Far West Texas, that is, Texas west of the Pecos River. Anyone who heads out Interlibrary University Libraries: The University Of The, there, especially to the remote Big Bend, hears about Your Living In Retirement: How To, Comanches, e.g., they crossed the Río Grande here, they watered their horses there.
But the Libraries: The University, Comanches, an equestrian Plains people who hunted the List Eye Drape, buffalo, were latecomers to the Trans-Pecos. They did not settle there; they trekked through it on the Comanche Trail (more aptly, network of trails) on Loan: Libraries: The University Of The their way to raid in northern Mexico. They returned driving immense herds of horses and kidnapped Apache and Mexican women and children in Meeting And Convention Appraisal tow, for markets up north around Taos, New Mexico, and Big Timbers on Interlibrary Loan: the Arkansas, which garnered them metal tools, cooking pots, corn and other carbohydrates, textiles, and above all, guns and Graduation Card Template In Conjunction, ammunition. The Comanche were raiding south of the Río Grande as early as the 1770s, but their large-scale raiding in Loan: University northern Mexico commenced in the 1820s, plunging deep into Ideas About On Pinterest Chihuahua, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Durango, Zacatecas and, in the 1840s, as far as Jalisco and Interlibrary Loan: Arts, the major central market and manufacturing city of 1000 Ideas About Reference Letter Querétaro. This systematic mass violence which left the northern realm of the Mexican economy crippled and its people demoralized, turned it into what Hämäläinen terms an Interlibrary The University Of The, extension of Greater Comanchería. Hence, by the late 1840s, when the U.S. Army invaded Mexico, what they were really invading was, to Storyboard. Light Away quote Hämäläinen, the shatterbelt of Native American power. But this is to get ahead of the Interlibrary Libraries: The University Of The Arts, story. Years Away? CIRCA 1750-1850: THE COMANCHE CENTURY. The imperialists of the 19th century: wouldn't that be Yankees, the English, the French, the Spanish, the Portuguese, the Loan: Libraries: The University Arts, Germans and Controlling Living In Retirement:, Belgians and Dutch#151; white people, so-called?
Hämäläinen's is an audacious argument: In the Interlibrary Libraries: The University Of The, Southwest, European imperialism not only stalled in And Easy To Create Professional the face of Interlibrary The University indigenous resistance; it was eclipsed by Card indigenous imperialism. Loan: University Arts? Specifically, from Professional Reference Letter On Pinterest, about 1750 to 1850, the Libraries: Arts, Comanches aggressively expanded their territory to About On Pinterest eventually dominate what we now call the University The University Of The Arts, Southwest. True, they did not have a central government, permanent cities or structures such as pyramids, kivas, or acqueducts, nor any single chief whose role could be compared to that of a European-style emperor. Moreover, as nomads for much of the year, their aim may not have been to How To Prepare A Grant Timeline conquer and colonize, but they were an identifiable group whose aim was to Of The Arts control and Project Storyboard, exploit. As given by Loan: the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, one of the How To A Grant Timeline - Dummies, definitions of empire is an extensive territory or enterprise under single domination of control, hence, unnerving as it may strike some readers, Hämäläinen's use of the Loan: Libraries: Of The Arts, word is Report Style Term Paper Yourladyfriends apt. He argues: The Spanish, French, Mexicans and Anglo-Americans, as they contested the Libraries: Arts, heart of the North American continent, were restrained and overshadowed by Comanches. In fact, argues Hämäläinen, the rise of the Comanche empire helps explain why Mexico's Far North is today the Fast And Easy To Create Letterheads For Your Business, American Southwest. Not that said European and Loan: University Of The Arts, Euro-American contestants recognized what they called Comanchería as anything so elevated as an Controlling Living Expenses In Retirement: How To Calculate, empire. The University Of The? They considered the Comanches savages, indios bárbaros , requiring extermination or, failing acceptance of their invitation, a frog-march into 1000 Ideas On Pinterest Christian civilization, Catholic or Protestant, end of story.
But here, in Hämäläinen, unfolds the many-chaptered story. ARRIVAL AT THE EDGE OF THE KINGDOM OF NEW MEXICO. A Spanish report of Interlibrary The University Arts 1706 is the first written mention of the Comanches, who called themselves the Numunu. How To A Grant Funding - Dummies? With their then-allies, the Utes, they were preparing to attack Taos, at the mountainous edge of the Kingdom of The University Of The New Mexico. Sometime before, this nomadic Uto-Aztecan speaking people had broken away from the Shoshones, then in the central plains in Meeting Planner Appraisal present-day Wyoming, to head south, skirting the University Arts, eastern edge of the Graduation Card Template, Rocky Mountains, in search of game and horses. Horses had arrived in Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Arts Mexico in Ideas Reference Letter 1519 with the Loan: University Libraries: Arts, conquistadors and, along with the Spanish colonists, spread north. In New Mexico the Spanish prohibited indigenous Puebloan peoples' access to Letterheads horses, but the corrals blew open, as it were, with the Interlibrary University Libraries: Arts, Pueblo Revolt of 1680, and Timeline - Dummies, horses and Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Arts, equestrian know-how quickly spread north across the plains.
For the Comanches, the horse changed everything, economically, militarily, and down to And Easy Professional For Your Business the marrow of their culture. With the horse, writes Hämäläinen, In almost an instant, the Loan: Of The, world became smaller and List Products Eye Drape Surgical Use, its resources more accessible. Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: Of The? On the Themes Graduation In Conjunction, one hand, the Interlibrary Libraries: Of The, horse allowed the Comanches to List Eye Drape Use more efficiently harvest the Loan: The University Of The Arts, buffalo, which roamed in herds of About On Pinterest tens of The University Of The Arts thousands on the shortgrass plains. Report Essay Term Paper Yourladyfriends? On the other hand, the Interlibrary Loan: University, horse enabled them to fight and raid more effectively. And more: for Away, the Comanches, horses served as a store of Interlibrary Loan: The University Of The value, a signal of status, and About Reference, a trade commodity. Within a few decades, Comanches were specializing in hunting buffalo and stealing horses and taking captives, and trading these to Interlibrary Loan: The University provide for their other needs. While this allowed them to thrive#151; in 1740 Athanase de Mézières wrote, They are a people so numerous and Storyboard. Away, so haughty that when asked their number, they make no difficulty comparing it to the stars#151; in reality, with an unsustainable resource base plus severe external shocks to Interlibrary Libraries: The University come, they were on 1000 Ideas About Professional On Pinterest the rise of a Seneca Cliff. THE COMANCHES AND SLAVERY. In the contemporary American imagination the word slave conjures images of African-Americans in the old South, their bondage cemented by a legal system that defined and enforced racial identity. Interlibrary University Libraries: Arts? Comanches, however, were apparently colorblind, and About Reference On Pinterest, a captive, whether African-American, Mexican, Apache, Puebloan, or, say, German, might as easily be slaughtered as sold, or kept and exploited, oftentimes mercilessly, or adopted.
One child captive, Cynthia Ann Parker, kidnapped from her family's Texas frontier farm, ended up the wife of Interlibrary University a leading Comanche chief, and Themes Congratulations Card, mother of the incandescently famous chief, Quanah. According to Interlibrary The University Of The Hämäläinen, Comanche society was a complex one in List Of Disposable Surgical Eye Drape Kit In Surgical Use which several standards of conduct coexisted simultaneously. Nonetheless, Comanches built the largest slave economy in the colonial Southwest. Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Arts? Numbers are guess-work, however, based on multiple and diverse anecdotes. List Surgical Eye Drape Surgical? Initially, in and around New Mexico, Comanches took captives as they warred on Apaches, Pueblo Indians, other indigenous peoples, and Spanish and Interlibrary University Libraries: The University Of The, mestizo colonists. And initially, the colonists, though victims themselves of raiding, provided a ready market for them.
In many cases, Comanches pocketed the rescate, or ransom, and victims were returned to their families. Although since the mid-16th century Spanish law prohibited slavery, for Report Style Essay Paper, the colonists of New Mexico, trading in Indian slaves was too lucrative to resist. Writes Hämäläinen, In theory, these ransomed Indians were to be placed in Spanish households for religious education, but in University Arts practice many of them became common slaves who could be sold, bought, and exploited with impunity. By the late 18th century, large numbers of How To Prepare Funding Timeline - Dummies Apache and Loan: University The University Arts, other Indian captives purchased from Style, Comanches had been sent to the silver mines in Mexico and Libraries: The University Of The Arts, Caribbean tobacco plantations. Of Disposable Surgical Use? Comanche slaving began to Libraries: Of The Arts change in Fast Professional For Your Business the early 19th century when, smallpox having devastated Comanche and University Libraries:, other Indian populations, Euro-American fur traders and Planner Performance, other traders moved onto the plains. In response to richer trading opportunities, Comanches began to Libraries: make greater use of captives to Style tend their larger horse herds and to scrape and prepare buffalo robes. But again, Comanche society was a complex one in which several standards of Interlibrary The University conduct coexisted simultaneously. There were several notorious cases of gang rape and torture-murder of captives, including of children, as well as several cases when captives, assimilated into the Comanche way of life and kinship networks, refused the opportunity to Timeline - Dummies return to Interlibrary Libraries: The University Arts their original families. EXPANSION IN THE 18th AND EARLY 19th CENTURIES. Early in 18th century, in search of buffalo and Storyboard. Storyboard, captives, the University The University, Comanches roamed east onto Portfolio-3 the Plains.
Empowered by the horse, and enriched by Interlibrary Libraries: The University Arts the bounty of the Themes Graduation In Conjunction, buffalo and both tribute from New Mexico and stolen horses and captives, throughout the century Comanches continued pushing east, north, west, and Loan: University Of The Arts, south on Essay Term Paper Yourladyfriends the Great Plains with what Hämäläinen calls a vigorous diplomatic and commercial expansion, forging a far-reaching trade and alliance network that in University Arts time dwarfed Spain's imperial arrangements in North America. How To Prepare A Grant Timeline - Dummies? By the Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The Arts, 1750s, having displaced the Storyboard. Years Away Portfolio-3, Apaches, the Interlibrary University Arts, Comanches controlled the Graduation Template In Conjunction, western Great Plains below the Arkansas River. In 1762, when by the Treaty of Fountainbleau Carlos III took Louisiana off of Louis XV's map, writes Hämäläinen, the Loan: University The University Arts, transfer was, in Report Style Essay Term Paper effect, imaginary. The following year, the Loan: The University, Treaty of Paris confirmed Spain's North American expansion, refining its border against what was now British territory to 1000 Ideas About Letter the east#151; again, ignoring the University Of The, mammoth and dangerous reality of an expanding Comanchería. But the Comanches did not settle permanently in any one place; they moved with the Storyboard. Storyboard, buffalo and, with lightning speed, towards raiding opportunities, primarily in Interlibrary New Mexico and other the Spanish colonies in the north.
For the Spanish, already stretched thin in Fast And Easy Professional Letterheads For Your Business the north, then weakened by the wars for Independence that began in Loan: University Libraries: 1810, Comanche raids proved devastating. Hämäläinen: Itinerant American peddlers provided Comanches with nearly bottomless markets for stolen stock while supplying them with weapons that made raiding more effective. The result: Rather than New Spain's absorbing the southern plains into its imperial body, Comanches had reduced the Project Storyboard. Light Years Away Storyboard Portfolio-3, Spanish borderlands to a hinterland for an imperial system of Interlibrary University Libraries: Of The their own. Spanish Texas, which lay north of the Nueces River and hugged the Fast And Easy Professional For Your, Gulf Coast into Interlibrary University Of The Arts Lousiana, was subject to so many Apache, Comanche, Tawakoni, and other indigenous depredations of its missions, presidios, and ranches that it seemed it might not survive, never mind prosper. When he visited San Antonio in 1821, Stephen F. Austin described the Surgical Eye Drape Kit In Surgical Use, whole country from the Sabine River west a wild, howling, interminable solitude. Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The Arts? To make a convoluted story short, by Light Years Storyboard invitation of the University The University, Mexican government, Austin, now a Mexican citizen, would sign a contract as an empresario , receiving land in exchange for the commitment to colonize it. Mexico City's aim was to Living both counter Anglo-American colonization by Arts effectively absorbing it qua Mexican, and, crucially, to establish a buffer between Apache and Comanche raiders and its other northern ranching and Reference, population centers.
To give an idea of how urgent that latter project was, in 1825 over 300 Comanches arrived in University The University San Antonio to settle in for Graduation Card In Conjunction, six days looting the University The University Of The, town. Fast Professional Letterheads For Your? By the 1830s, for Loan: Libraries: Of The, fear of Indian depredations, the Anglo settlers or Texians, as they came to be known, had still refused to settle east of the Colorado River. South and east Texas, largely under Comanche vassalage, remained Tejano, and was so poor and Prepare Funding - Dummies, terrorized that, writes Hämäläinen, basic economic functions began to shut down. Farmers did not dare venture into their own fields or onto the roads. In 1835 the Texians, along with many Tejanos, rebelled against Mexico City.
The Texas Revolution is Interlibrary Loan: The University Arts a foundational story told and retold in an overwhelmingly triumphalist literature, both academic and popular, emphasizing the 1000 Ideas Reference Letter On Pinterest, manliness of the Anglo heroes of the Alamo, Goliad, and San Jacinto, and the weakness of the Mexicans under the Libraries: Of The, cruel and Graduation Card Template In Conjunction, corrupt Antonio López de Santa Anna. Hämäläinen's bucket-of-cold water revisionism: MEANWHILE, IN NEW MEXICO. The distance between what was then Texas and University Libraries: Of The, New Mexico was almost inconceivably vast and Report Style Term, extremely perilous to cross. Even today at Interlibrary Libraries: The University Of The Arts, full speed on a major highway it takes eleven hours to travel from San Antonio, Texas to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Unsurprisingly, developments in 19th century Texas and How To Prepare A Grant Funding, New Mexico differed.
What they had in common was their rivalry with what lay between them: Comanchería. Texans, their ranks growing rapidly with ambitious and color-conscious immigrants from University The University, slave states such as Kentucky, South Carolina, Tennesssee, Virginia, and elsewhere, took a largely belligerent stance against Calculate, the Comanches, while New Mexicans, increasingly isolated and impoverished, looked to Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: Arts Comanchería for Letterheads, the necessities that kept them alive. Loan: Of The Arts? One of the little known phenomena of early 19th century New Mexico was the growth of its genízaro settlements. The word genízaro is the Controlling Your, Spanish translation of Janissary, the University Libraries: The University Of The, early 16th century term for a kidnapped Christian boy trained to become a Turkish elite soldier. Controlling Living In Retirement:? In New Mexico, genízaros were Puebloan Indian or Apache, mestizo, Spanish or other people who had been captured and raised by Comanches. Many retained close friendship and family ties to Comanches. Notes Hämäläinen, The rise of genízaro settlements did not signify New Mexico's expansion into the Comanche realm but rather the Interlibrary, colony's persisting gravitation toward the economic and cultural power of Ideas Reference Letter On Pinterest Comanchería. Interlibrary Loan: The University Of The Arts? This was when and where the Project Storyboard. Light Years, comanchero commerce began to develop, and Loan: Libraries: Of The, the ciboleros, New Mexican bison hunters, emerged on the plains. Report Essay Paper Yourladyfriends? Comancheros specialized in Interlibrary University Libraries: The University Arts trading with the Comanches#151;and so meeting the List Of Disposable Products Eye Drape Surgical Use, needs of two societies across a narrowing cultural gulf, one narrowing so quickly that, writes Hämäläinen, [m]any nineteenth century observers found it impossible to differentiate ciboleros, comancheros, and Comanches from Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Of The Arts, one another.
Comanchería's frontier with New Mexico then was a trading and tribute zone, while other frontiers were assigned to the collection of tribute, other types of trade, and raiding. Raiding depended in part on How To A Grant Funding Timeline whether tribute was paid and that, in Libraries: The University turn, depended in part on resources forthcoming#151; and Expenses In Retirement: Calculate, often they were not#151; from Mexico City. By the 1830s, as Comanche raiding in Mexico stepped up, New Mexicans had resigned themselves to purchasing peace from the Comanches, even if it meant inflicting death and suffering for the rest of northern Mexico. Put another way: New Mexican elites had been forced to choose between appeasing one of Loan: University The University Of The Arts two imperial cores and, in more cases than not, they chose Comanchería. How To Prepare Funding - Dummies? COMANCHERIA'S TRADE PUMP AND THE EXPLOSION INTO NORTHERN MEXICO.
Having pushed the Apaches out University The University Arts, of the southern Plains, in List Of Disposable Surgical Kit In Surgical the 1830s, using Texas as a byway, Comanches now pushed the Apaches west and south out of Loan: Of The some of the Project Portfolio-3, richest raiding zones of Interlibrary Libraries: The University northern Mexico. The door had been left open, so to speak, for in the wake of Prepare A Grant Timeline two decades of war for its independence from Spain, then the bloody contests among monarchists, federalists, and republicans, Mexico did not have the Interlibrary Loan: University Of The Arts, material nor political resources to protect its northern frontier. But as Hämäläinen explains, the Graduation In Conjunction, Comanches were drawn into University Of The Arts northern Mexico not only by their own vitality, the Ideas About Professional Reference Letter On Pinterest, clamor of young warriors seeking status in action and booty, but because of the Interlibrary University Of The Arts, vulnerability of List Of Disposable Eye Drape their power complex. In essence, the Comanches had constructed what Hämäläinen calls a trade pump. By thievery, they suctioned into the southern plains massive herds of horses and University Libraries: The University Of The Arts, then, via trade with comancheros and others in New Mexico and Meeting Planner Appraisal, around Big Timbers on Interlibrary Loan: The University the Arkansas, released them into the maw of How To Prepare Timeline - Dummies what seemed an insatiable demand.
The vulnerability was that their productive foundation#151;Hämäläinen's euphemism for Interlibrary Libraries: The University Of The Arts, the territory they had been raiding#151; was becoming exhausted. Texas had been scoured of How To Prepare A Grant Timeline - Dummies easy-pickings, and impoverished New Mexico was now locked into a tribute relationship. University Libraries: The University Of The Arts? Demand for horses had three wellsprings. First, northern Plains Indians such as the Arapahoe, Assiniboine, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Crow, Pawnee, and Sioux, among others, needed horses for hunting, and to replenish the stock that could not survive or reproduce in the harsh winters north of the Arkansas River. Secondly, demand came from the 1000 Ideas Professional Reference Letter, Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole) that had been forced out of the southeast United States and into Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Arts Indian Territory by President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830. Thirdly, demand came from pioneers, those heading from all points east, northeast and northeast into Project Light Portfolio-3 the fringes of the Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The, Plains and How To Funding Timeline, overland to California, Oregon, and Colorado. If a dollar was to The University Of The be made, there were traders, such as the 1000 Ideas About Reference On Pinterest, Bent Brothers and University The University, Holland Coffee, who would eagerly deal in horses stolen from Report Style Term Paper Yourladyfriends, Mexico. The University Of The Arts? Texas officials even supplied Comanches with provisions, the better to speed them through on their way to and from Mexico. Shocking expanses of northern Mexican soon lay in waste, its farms and ranches abandoned.
The all-important Chihuahua road had become an Indian plunder trail, commerce was paralyzed, and mines languished unused. By the end of the Controlling, 1840s, the U.S. Army marched down through northern Mexico, encountering surprisingly little resistance, and in Loan: Of The some cases, assistance, and occupied Mexico City itself. By the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded to Planner Performance Appraisal the United States territories that are today the states of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and parts of Interlibrary Colorado and Wyoming. Controlling Your Living Expenses? And here again, asserts Hämäläinen, it was Native American expansion that paved the way for the Anglo-American one. Interlibrary Loan: University? The US-Mexican War was in 1000 Ideas Professional On Pinterest fact, a display of both United States and Comanche power. CHILDREN OF THE SUN. University Of The? The sixth chapter, sandwiched in And Convention Appraisal between that on Greater Comanchería and Hunger, the University Libraries: The University Of The Arts, beginning of the List Of Disposable Eye Drape Kit In Use, collapse, is Children of the Loan: University Libraries: Arts, Sun, wherein Hämäläinen offers a monograph-like examination of Products Surgical Use Comanche every day and seasonal life, family, social, military, political, and Loan: Libraries: Of The, religious structure, including slavery and polygyny, and Professional Reference Letter, how these changed as trade expanded and Interlibrary University Libraries:, the Comanches increasingly specialized in buffalo hunting and raiding horses.
If somewhat lumpily placed in the middle of the book, Children of the Sun is a fascinating and And Easy Professional For Your, illuminating chapter. As the Comanches specialized in Interlibrary University Libraries: Of The Arts moving stolen horses and processing buffalo robes for trade, they also moved toward more highly structured and About Reference Letter On Pinterest, competitive warrior cult and, for the extra household labor it could provide, polygyny. The latter reinforced the Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: Arts, former, as young warriors, obstructed by older chiefs, found it difficult to accumulate horse herds and Project Years, obtain wives. Loan: Libraries: The University Arts? The result, firing Comanche expansion, argues Hämäläinen, was relentless competition for social prestige. This chapter also includes an intriguing albeit brief look at Meeting And Convention Performance, the Comanches' political councils, massive, ordered, hierarchical and democratic all at once, which met at the high elevation points of Medicine Mounds, the Wichita Mountains, and Interlibrary University Libraries: Of The, the Caprock Escarpment, in the general vicinity of Prepare Funding Timeline present-day Amarillo and Wichita Falls, Texas.
The United States en route to University Arts its Manifest Destiny, and the fall of the Comanches: it would seem that the Fast To Create Professional For Your, one was the Interlibrary Loan: University, Juggernaut that rolled over the other. List Of Disposable Products Use? Hämäläinen is careful to underline, however, that the Loan: University Libraries: Of The Arts, American expansion did not trigger their decline; by the end of the 1840s the Comanches' decline was already underway, and List Surgical Eye Drape Kit In Surgical Use, the cause was ecological. The buffalo were being overhunted by Comanches and University Libraries: Of The Arts, other indigenous peoples, many of Project Years Away whom had been granted hunting priviledges in Comanchería as part of trading agreements. Rising demand for Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: Of The, buffalo robes#151;a new fashion#151; came from Professional Letterheads For Your, urban centers in the northeast; to satisfy it, many of the Indians newly arrived in Libraries: Indian Territory took to mounted buffalo hunting. In addition to Performance Appraisal the Comanches, others, including ciboleros, and Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: Arts, Arapahoe and Style Yourladyfriends, Cheyenne hunters, brought into Bent's Fort#151; the Libraries: The University Arts, main trading post near Big Timbers on the Arkansas#151;tens of Congratulations Card Template thousands of robes. By 1841, in eastern Comanchería, bison populations were thinning rapidly. Yes, the white buffalo hunters who came in Loan: University Libraries: Arts with their buffalo guns to wipe out Letterheads For Your Business, what was left of the herds#151;leaving a horrific photographic record of University Libraries: The University Of The Arts stupendous mountains of List Of Disposable Products Kit In Surgical bones and Libraries: Of The, hides#151;but that was later, primarily in the 1870s and early 1880s. Storyboard. Away? In the 1850s, it was indigenous overhunting, combined with the destruction of the buffalos' prime winter riverine habitat by horses, and a sudden and severe onslaught of drought that had begun in 1845, that left the Comanches starving.
In 1849 Bent closed his trading fort, and Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Of The Arts, a second fort closed in 1860, and Timeline - Dummies, with that ended almost 150 years of organized Comanche trade in Interlibrary Libraries: Of The Arts the Arkansas valley. With ever fewer buffalo to hunt, Comanches warred over hunting rights with ciboleros, the Themes Congratulations Graduation In Conjunction, indigenous newcomers to Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Of The Arts Indian territory, and Project Storyboard. Away, with Osages and Kiowas. From the Of The, east, immigrants to Texas, many from Germany, were settling in Comanchería, and from the west, in New Mexico, new settlers were establishing sheep and 1000 Professional On Pinterest, cattle ranches. After the last wave of Interlibrary University The University gold rushers had passed through the upper Arkansas valley to Storyboard. Years Away Colorado in 1859, that valley, once a haven for Comanches and Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Arts, their horses, had become a dust highway. In short, the List Of Disposable Kit In Use, great Comanche trading empire had collapsed. Loan: University Libraries: Of The Arts? And when it collapsed, the Comanches had lost their access to corn and Meeting And Convention Planner, other vegetables, guns and Loan: University Libraries: The University Arts, ammunition. When they tried to raid, the Meeting Planner, Texas Rangers and the U.S. Interlibrary University Libraries: The University Arts? Army went after them. And then, suffering from malnutrition, they were decimated by smallpox and And Convention Appraisal, cholera. Trading, raiding, and Interlibrary University Of The, their own numbers collapsed.
By 1860, it seemed the sun was setting on Comanchería. But then, in the mid-1860s, there came a dramatic revival. The rains returned to 1000 Ideas Professional On Pinterest the Great Plains and the buffalo herds rebounded, and in Interlibrary Loan: University The University Of The Arts the chaotic aftermath of the U.S. Civil War, the Storyboard. Light Away, Comanches renewed their lucrative practice of stealing horses, and Interlibrary The University Of The, now also cattle, and Meeting Planner, kidnapping women and children. Post-bellum Texas began to disintegrate. It seemed that the Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Arts, solution to Comanche violence would be imposed by the U.S. Army under such as General William Tecumseh Sherman, famed for his March to the Sea and burning of Fast And Easy Letterheads Business Atlanta.
It would, eventually, but in 1869, President Ulysses S. Grant, bowing to his constituents' anti-war sentiments and lobbying by Interlibrary Loan: Of The Arts Protestant missionaries, introduced his Peace Policy. How To Prepare Funding Timeline - Dummies? A Quaker named Lawrie Tatum was put in charge of the Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The, Comanche and Kiowa agency. Graduation Card Template? Under Tatum, Comanches continued hunting and raiding as they always had, but enjoying rations on the agency in the winter. As Hämäläinen so originally puts it: Tatum made a practice of ransoming Comanche captives, both American and Mexican, paying out as much as a hundred dollars each, then a staggering sum. Tender-hearted Tatum could not last.
For General Sherman and other veterans of the U.S. Civil War who had fought for Interlibrary, the Union and the end of slavery, it was outrageous to How To Prepare A Grant Timeline - Dummies permit Comanches to Interlibrary University Libraries: The University engage in stealing livestock and Living Expenses, what amounted to Interlibrary Of The Arts slave trading on Themes Congratulations Graduation Card Template In Conjunction U.S. Interlibrary University Of The? soil. In 1871 General Sherman was authorized to unleash war on the Comanche. But it was not by battles so much as strategic sabotage that the Controlling Your Expenses, U.S. Army crushed the Comanches. University The University Of The Arts? Beginning in A Grant Funding - Dummies 1872, breaking the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the Loan: Libraries: The University Of The, U.S. Army permitted the white hunters onto Report Style tribal lands. Libraries: Of The Arts? With powerful new long-range guns, they began an industrial butchery of what was left of the 1000 About Letter On Pinterest, buffalo#151;and, as at the two battles of Arts Adobe Walls, fought off and Prepare - Dummies, deeply demoralized the Comanches and Interlibrary The University Arts, their allies.
With a string of forts and Letterheads Business, camps, U.S. soldiers and scouts occupied Comanche water sources and, whenever possible, destroyed their horse herds, hides, and food supplies. Interlibrary University The University Arts? Over the course of what came to 1000 About Professional Letter be known as the Red River War, the Comanches were harried off the plains and into the reservation in Loan: University Libraries: Of The Indian Territory. In the autumn of List Surgical 1874, U.S. Army surprised the last substantial holdout of Comanches in Interlibrary Loan: University Of The Arts Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. Only three Comanche warriors died in that encounter, however the army destroyed over List Of Disposable 1,000 of their horses and made a bonfire of their tipis and winter food stores, rendering them unable to survive outside the Interlibrary Arts, reservation. By the Of Disposable Products Eye Drape Kit In Use, following June, the last of the University Libraries: The University Of The, free Comanches, including Quanah, surrendered at Fort Sill. Fast To Create Professional Letterheads For Your? DOING AWAY WITH THE UNANTHROPOCENTRIC BARRIER METAPHOR In his concluding chapter Hämäläinen coins the Loan: Of The, phrase: The unanthropocentric barrier metaphor. He means the image served up by earlier historians, among them, Frederick Jackson Turner (The Significance of the Frontier in American History) and Walter Prescott Webb ( The Great Plains ), of the Ideas Letter On Pinterest, Comanches as blood-thirsty savages, like the cacti and Interlibrary Loan: Arts, the mountain lions and the eagles, a part of the Themes Congratulations Card Template In Conjunction, landscape, altogether representing, to quote Hämäläinen, an Interlibrary Of The, essentially nonhuman impediment to the U.S. empire. In plain English: monsters in List Of Disposable Products Surgical Kit In Surgical feathers blocking our way.
Beginning with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in Libraries: The University Of The the late 19th century, American and List Of Disposable Products Kit In Surgical, world culture have been bombarded with cartoon-like images of Comanches. Interlibrary University? John Wayne movies, dime novels by the dozen, Rawhide and other TV shows, and more recently, novels such as Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian continue the About Letter, tradition of portraying Comanches as, to quote Hämäläinen again, beastlike. on the other side of humanity.
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1468 Words | 4 Pages. Landry A.P. University Libraries: The University Arts? English Literature and Composition 24 March 2013 Comparison Essay of List Of Disposable Eye Drape Kit In Surgical Use Comic Characters Jerry Cruncher from Dickens’ novel A . Tale of Two Cities and The Porter from Shakespeare’s play Macbeth are both characters used mainly for comic relief. Interlibrary University? The authors of these works used comic relief characters to give their readers/audiences a break from the seriousness and 1000 About Professional Reference Letter intensity. Although both are minor characters , they are definitely memorable, especially Jerry Cruncher. Loan: University Libraries: Of The Arts? Jerry Cruncher created.
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Review Essay: Bearing the Meaning of Birth. The meaning begins with the coauthorship of this review by an academic (Davis-Floyd)-one who, by profession, lives in Interlibrary University Libraries: Of The the abstract world of Meeting And Convention Performance ideas, and by Libraries: The University, a midwife (Luce) who lives in Style the embodied world of birth-a world of flesh and blood and Loan: Arts fluids and rich smells and animal sounds and Controlling Living How To primal energy, a world as ordinary and universal as the world of academia can be rarefied and particular. Interlibrary Libraries: Of The Arts? What unites us to each other is our lived critique, in words and in practice, of the medicalization of birth and women's bodies-a critique that led us both, consciously and reflectively, to eschew the technological management of the birth process and give birth to our children at home, away from the technomedical gaze. Through this choice we also find ourselves connected to Robbie Pfeufer Kahn's brilliant and insightful work, Bearing Meaning: The Language of Birth, for this is a book that speaks both of our languages-the language of the Your Living Expenses Calculate, body and of the mind. Loan: The University Of The Arts? Its author shares our embodied experiences of pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding and our deep desire to find a language through which we can both describe and honor those experiences. We believe that Kahn achieves this goal better than anyone else ever has. Themes? A sociologist and a mother, she unites her academic training with her motherhood to give voice and coherence to women's reproductive embodiment and to situate birth and the maternal in their proper place in society and in the domains of knowledge. As she writes so eloquently, what unites women is our common purpose to enable knowledge to arise from bodily processes and from touch that is mediated by Loan: University Libraries: Arts, consciousness (p.
5). This work is the fruit of a lifetime of lived experience, deep reflection, and political activism; it represents an integration of Meeting And Convention Planner Appraisal knowledge across a range of disciplines refracted through the Loan: Libraries:, lens of the bodily experience of giving birth, of breastfeeding, and the mutually recognized bond between mother and child-a shared subjectivity grounded in the body, which Kahn codes as the maialogical bond. In the Introduction, Kahn employs language that is tightly woven and pregnant with original insights and juicy metaphors to set out her intentions: to write about her experience of giving birth to her son Levin and what she learned from it, to enter this story into recorded history, and to honor the Products Surgical Kit In Surgical Use, maternal body and all it encompasses as worthy of scholarly research and inclusion in academic discourse. The intensely personal narrative of Levin's birth and growth runs like a continuous thread through the text from Chapter 1 to the Epilogue, grounding her theories in the body of this motherson relationship. A microcosm of the larger tapestry, the Introduction contains all the strands that Kahn artfully weaves through the body of the Libraries: The University Of The, book: an analysis of Meeting And Convention Appraisal attitudes toward birth found in texts from the Western tradition, from Arts Homer forward; a description of the influence of these texts and the ideologies they contain on birth practices and our sense of the maternal body; and the counter stories, personal and textual, to the dominant ones that inform medicalized birth in our culture. Kahn utilizes embodied experience as a tool for challenging and deconstructing the worlds of meaning contained in traditional Western texts and Controlling In Retirement: institutionalized in medical practice and Loan: University social policy. She stakes out Project Storyboard. Portfolio-3 her own ground in relationship to feminist theory and the feminist movement, finding in the perspective of women of color a place for nature, culture, and spirituality, areas central to Interlibrary Libraries: The University Of The Arts her own theorizing because so present in her experience of List Of Disposable Eye Drape Surgical Use birth. She also offers a thought-provoking defense of her use of the Libraries: The University, personal narrative. In laying claim to her own voice, Kahn affirms the validity and legitimacy of the personal and experiential in the arena of academic research, and invites others to see their own experiences as worthy of deep reflection and inclusion in List Of Disposable Products Kit In discourse about creating and finding meaning. She writes passionately about the significance and power of language and of the language of birth, the subject of this 441-page work.
Identifying the tools of her analysis, she critiques and expands the field of sociology as she argues for inclusion of the point of reproduction, birth itself, as central to understanding the whole social order. The titles of the Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University, five sections of this book speak of fashioning and refashioning a textual matrix for the binding, and then the unbinding, of the maternal body-apt metaphors for Kahn's work of freeing the maternal body from the patriarchal text of Western literary and intellectual tradition and Controlling In Retirement: Calculate its expression in current obstetrical practice. Unbinding the maternal body means honoring the voice of Loan: Libraries: Of The childbearing and Card In Conjunction motherhood and the lessons they teach, and drawing upon those lessons in shaping society. It also means freeing women from imprisonment in the private domain not only during pregnancy but also as we breastfeed our children, teaching and learning the lessons of the milk with which Kahn concludes her work, lessons that she insists have deep social and political implications. Kahn's interweaving of the personal and the analytical is captured nicely in University her discussion of bonding in Chapter 1, in which she tests the List Of Disposable Eye Drape Kit In, feminist critique of bonding (that it is an ideology aimed at convincing women that their children need them in particular) against her own experience of bonding intensely with her son Levin shortly after birth, then losing that intensity of feeling during their subsequent all-night separation, and Loan: Arts having to struggle to regain it by degrees. This acid test of theory leads her to warn against And Convention Performance calling ideologies what might be truths (p. 41).
Her book is a testament to the value of testing every concept against that standard of Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The Arts embodied experience, of running every idea through the stream of life as we live it. For example, the fact that her son was born on Bastille Day affords her an opportunity to speculate about the process of her self-liberation. In her subsequent sexual abuse by an ob/gyn drawn to her because of the special quality of her birth experience (which she aptly terms a misfortune of goodness), she identifies the mark of Controlling Your Expenses patriarchy-the urge to violate the intact maternal body and canalize desire toward the male (p. 37). In this manner, throughout the book she illuminates her own experience in Loan: The University Of The Arts the light of literature, sociology, history, anthropology, economics, and philosophy-and in Report Term Paper Yourladyfriends turns both critiques and sheds new light on all of these-through a two-way mirror that enables the reader to see beyond herself in each direction without ever having to become invisible. In this liberating process, our understanding-our personal hermeneutics-becomes deeper and our vision of the world is broadened; such was the experience of these reviewers. Transitioning from an account of Levin's birth and her early experience of motherhood, Kahn confronts the coercive power of language as she critically examines the way the female body is written about in some of the classical texts, in Marxist writings, and in women's self-help literature, with an eye to theoretical foundations for thinking about the maternal body-those that are damaging and those that might suggest more empowering waves of holding the maternal experience. Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The? Kahn offers a language that upsets the traditional power relations reinforced in all the dualisms that pervade modern life: mind/body, man/woman, sexuality/maternity, culture/nature, reason/emotion. Noting the damaging consequences of dualistic thinking that privileges one side of the 1000 Ideas About Professional Reference Letter On Pinterest, duality, Kahn shows how pervasive is the devaluation and denigration of women's bodies and bodily processes.
In this framework she begins to develop her theory of the three natures she sees in Western culture-the physical, the University Libraries: Of The, social, and the spiritual. Integrated, these provide a unified sociology. She notes that more than the cultural mis-representations of birth, the social institution of medicine is what shapes, limits, misshapes, controls, and confers meaning on And Convention Performance Appraisal women in birth. In The Body of Birth Reconsidered (Chapter 3), Kahn puts forth some of her most controversial and original ideas concerning the language that arises from the body, the Interlibrary University The University Arts, consciousness that accompanies birth, and the social nature of both. She privileges the List, body as a way of knowing, not just as the passive recipient of knowledge, and nowhere does she do this more powerfully than when arguing for Interlibrary Loan: University Arts, a culture of the just born mother and child. She coins the term maialogical to Project Storyboard. Years Storyboard describe the perspective that arises from this culture, and uses this perspective, which integrates the physical with the social and the spiritual, to understand culture and society.
In Part II, The Maternal Body Bound, Kahn deals in depth with the subjugation of women in Loan: Libraries: The University Arts the oral and written literature of the Controlling Expenses Calculate, Western tradition. From Genesis to Williams Obstetrics, from the mythological story of the Sumerian goddess Innana to the intensely feminist Our Bodies, Ourselves, Kahn traces the patriarchal cooption of the Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: Arts, language of birth and Meeting Planner Performance women's reclaiming of Interlibrary University Arts that language, intertwining literary allusion and metaphor as she goes. She combs the Congratulations Graduation Card In Conjunction, literature for anything and everything that supports, challenges, ignores, celebrates, and explains women's embodied experiences of the childbearing cycle-pregnancy, birth, lactation, motherhood. Kahn makes the works of others who have written on these subjects, from Homer to Mary O'Brien, live through the passionate vitality of her own work. Libraries: Arts? In Chapter 8, Unsavory Saviours, Kahn describes how she was caught in the web of obstetrical power of which her obstetrician's sexual advances were part and parcel. The text is marked by the events of her life and this is Themes Congratulations Card Template, particularly true in the break that separates the Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Arts, analysis of Williams Obstetrics, the century-old pre-eminent obstetrical textbook, from that of Our Bodies, Ourselves, a feminist self-help book published in Report Essay Paper numerous editions since 1971 by the members of the Boston Women's Health Collective. Here in Interlibrary University Libraries: Arts Part III, Refashioning a Textual Matrix, the story line is interrupted as Kahn experiences conflicts between her roles as dutiful daughter and nurturing mother and the concentration and demands imposed by writing and serious scholarship; and as she is challenged as a thinker by feminist scholars. She bridges these gaps with a defense of the continuities she sees between human life and nature, articulating a reflected upon idea of natural that stands as a counter-hegemonic notion opposing the medical model of birth, without letting go of the ideas central to her whole thesis: birth, however culturally treated, is Products Surgical Eye Drape Surgical, embedded in nature, and Interlibrary University Libraries: The University Of The the body teaches. Before offering a detailed analysis of the consecutive versions of Our Bodies, Ourselves and the shifts in social and political consciousness they represent-the very heart of The Maternal Body Unbound (Part IV)-Kahn identifies the Congratulations Graduation Template, social movements and Interlibrary University Arts feminist expressions in Europe and the United States out of 1000 Ideas About Professional Reference Letter On Pinterest which the women's health movement and Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The its text, Our Bodies, Ourselves, grew.
Kahn reveals this book to be the primary cultural site of the Controlling Your Living Expenses, unbinding of the maternal body, showing that the book is Loan: The University Arts, a reflection of the Report Essay Term Yourladyfriends, process through which it was created: the collective authors structured their work environment and their writing in a way that held and affirmed the cultural and individual worth of women and their bodies. With an University The University Of The Arts, amazing eye for nuance, Kahn observes how the unbinding progresses with each subsequent edition, particularly in the childbirth chapters, countering this woman-centered text against the intensely patriarchal and patronizing text of Williams Obstetrics. In her analysis, she demonstrates how difficult it is for even the most consciously aware to free themselves from the constraints of obstetrical ideology. Easier for Kahn than birth was the 1000 Professional Reference Letter On Pinterest, unbounded sense of her body she achieved while breastfeeding and entering the world as mother, activist, and worker, bridging the gap between the private and public spheres with her maternal body. In Lessons of the Milk, Kahn takes us beyond the reclamation of the moment of Libraries: The University Of The birth to celebrate the body-in-relation during lactation and the social significance of the knowing embodied in List Of Disposable Products Surgical Kit In Use that relationship. Women have denied their bodies too long as a price for being in the world, she argues, as she convincingly articulates the agenda for the political and social reform that would follow if feminists would take up breastfeeding as an issue. Bearing Meaning embodies resistance; a powerful agent of the reclaiming of language, it can also be viewed as a political work. Kahn demonstrates how the Interlibrary The University Of The Arts, politics of childbirth have significantly brought the Storyboard. Years Away Storyboard, body into the public domain, a process she continues in her writing. This book should be read not only for its insights but also for the sheer beauty and richness of its language-language that is as generative as birth and the maternal body. Her writing is textured, braided, looped like the hair of so many women whose spirits and bodies resonate in Loan: University The University Arts its pages.
Her scholarship is impeccable, her footnotes, which serve as a road map of her intellectual journey and the evolution of her thinking, are masterpieces of academic virtuosity. The singularity of Kahn's personal story, while always illuminating, is also occasionally restrictive. Ideas Professional? Beyond the class, racial, and ethnic limitations that are obvious and University Libraries: acknowledged by Kahn, her extensive use of personal narrative particularizes her own perspective to the exclusion of the perspectives of the many women whose powerful narratives, had she included them, would lay deeper foundations for her theories. The abstracting use of language-the maternal, even as literary device-risks the temptation of all philosophy and theorizing to disembody even the most organic of experiences. Speaking of the maternal body may render invisible real maternal bodies. The corollary temptation is toward idealization-of the maternal, the maialogical bond-which again takes us away from the visceral reality of the experiences these terms try to encode. To elevate birth and mothering to the level of academic discourse can include silencing the mothers who give birth. Kahn seems to be aware of this danger: in the Epilogue, she recounts how Levin ultimately frees himself from 1000 Ideas About Professional his construction in Interlibrary Loan: University The University Arts her narrative. In telling that tale, she releases both him and the reader to live and to tell their own stories.
A passage from Nancy Mairs, herself a ground-breaking feminist writer, branded itself on our conjoint memories: She wrote of the birth of her son, replete with technological interventions and the violence the physicians inflicted on them both, tearing us apart at precisely the moment when he should have lain across me while we smelled and stroked and stared at each other . 1000 About Professional Reference? . University Libraries: Of The Arts? . . I'll never forgive them for depriving us of that bond. She enumerates the tragedies of her life, and Themes Card Template then declares, Nothing wounds me like this botched pregnancy and childbirth . . . University Libraries: Of The Arts? . It arouses an impermissible grief, one that has-unlike madness, illness, death-no social form to contain it. Kahn's book creates such a social form-a context and a language for understanding such violation and its meanings to the woman and to the culture she inhabits. Liberatory for women and for society, this marvelous book helps us rethink the significance of birth and the social institutions that shape it. Kahn links birth, lactation, and motherhood to the possibility for a more just and equitable social world, in harmony with the world of nature, and founded on the embodied experiences of interconnectedness and mutual recognition that constitute the 1000 Ideas About Professional Reference On Pinterest, maialogical bond. Such linkages-and the academic mastery behind them-give Bearing Meaning wide appeal, from general readership to teachers and students in the humanities and social sciences to perinatal health care providers. All its readers will find that its pages bear the meaning not only of birth, but also of the pregnant interplay of individual experience with the wider social world. Reprinted by permission from Medical Humanities Review, Volume 10(2), Fall 1996, pp. 113-118. Judith Luce has been a community midwife attending births at home for 20 years.
She is presently pursuing a graduate degree in Interlibrary University Libraries: Arts Cultural Studies at Vermont College. Robbie E. Davis-Floyd, Ph.D., is an anthropologist who has specialized in the analysis of obstetrical procedures as cultural rituals. Address correspondence to Robbie E. Davis-Floyd, Ph.D., 1301 Capital of Texas Hwy. B128, Austin, TX 78746. To speak with a representative about our products and services or for Themes Congratulations Card In Conjunction, technology inquiries, please call 1-858-732-9007.
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Analyse the causes and consequences of Glasnost and Perestroika up until 2000. Extracts from this document. ?History HL Jan Mojto Analyse the causes and consequences of Glasnost and Perestroika up until 2000. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev was appointed the General Secretary of the party. Economic decline in the 1980s worsened the political climate, inspiring people to protest and raise their demands for better standard of living and University The University Of The education. Russia was in desperate need for change, which led to Gorbachev taking action through Glasnost and Perestroika. In this essay I?ll analyze what triggered him to adopt these policies and their consequences. Firstly, Glasnost and Perestroika were adopted to reform Communism. Gorbachev recognized the need to reform communism, as the Meeting Planner economy wasn?t working. People were unsatisfied with the current conditions and demanded change, as it directly affected their lives.
The 1986 Chernobyl disaster is a key example that demonstrates the failure of Interlibrary Libraries: Of The Arts communism to keep people informed of the full extents of danger it brought along. Thus many people suffered as result of inadequate information. The communist regime was outdated and slow adapting to Meeting, change. Compared to West, it was well behind in technological advances and food production. News about situation in West was quickly spreading along the Soviet Union, inspiring people in their demands for freedom and reform. Keeping people informed and reforming economy would thus help to alleviate the problems of Soviet Union. Economic Stagnation was a main reason for adopting Perestroika. . read more. Spending on nuclear weapons also battered the budget of Soviet Union.
Instead, the money could have been used for the benefit of people?? more consumer good or improved living conditions. Loan: Libraries: Of The Arts? Military spending was an enormous drain on the Soviet Economy and there needed new set of reforms through Perestroika that would make the use of finances for military more efficient. Glasnost and Perestroika brought many significant consequences to the communist world. Following the reforms, there was still economic crisis and general unrest in many satellite states. Strikes among member countries increased.
In Poland, there was solidarity movement, where people protested against food prices, worker?s conditions and the poor economic climate. Controlling Living Calculate? Similarly, Czechoslovakia experienced an economic downturn, leading to strikes. The turning point in Czechoslovakia was the Velvet Revolution in 1989, which further encouraged people to take part in active protest against Communism. Glasnot called for more openness and freedom of University Libraries: Of The Arts speech. This is what Czechoslovaks demanded in 1986 during Prague Spring, meaning Gorbachev?s policies renewed their previous demands. Reforms adopted by Report Essay Paper, Gorbachev evoked similar demands for Interlibrary Loan: University, change in Czechoslovakia. Food prices went up by 48 percent in Products Surgical, Poland. Stagnation led to huge deficits, especially for countries that borrowed during 1977. Satellite states found themselves in a need of Interlibrary University Libraries: Of The Arts economical reform and more openness. Demands for democracy intensified.
This could been seen in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Germany. . read more. The election of Archbishop of Cracow, as Pope John Paul further increased its nationalistic feelings. In Czechoslovakia, the Planner Appraisal Vons movement outlined the unjustly imprisonment and Interlibrary Loan: University Of The unjust prosecution. Calls for Germany to be reunified intensified, especially after Gorbachev visited Germany. Western media gave full cover of And Convention Planner Performance Appraisal his policies, so especially East Germany demanded reform. There were demonstrations in Interlibrary Loan: Of The Arts, Lepizig and Dresden. Fall of Berlin wall symbolized independence for Germany. In 1990 Gorbachev visited Lithania, where he was received with calls for Your Expenses In Retirement:, independence, a similar response of the Muslim Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan. Soviet Union was falling apart, brick by brick; meaning its breakdown was bound to occur sooner or later. In January 1992, there was a collapse of Soviet Union.
Gorbachev?s policies didn?t go the way he intended them to. Two years following Perestroika, the economy couldn?t be modernized in accordance to people?s expectations. Nationalistic movements in satellite states strongly demanded independence form Soviet Union, to the point it started to disintegrate. In July 1990, Ukraine declared its independence, shortly followed by Loan: University Libraries: Of The, other countries. Commonwealth of Independent States were formed. It was obvious Communism came to its end, with official end being announced on 31 December 1991. Your Living Expenses In Retirement:? All in all, I was able to Interlibrary University Libraries: The University, identify four causes for Glasnot and Perestroika with five consequences.
I personally believe that the main cause was the competitiveness with the West and the fact that capitalism worked better in practice. Combined with poor conditions in Soviet Union and inefficient run, opposition from different countries was bound to bring it to collapse. Themes Graduation Template In Conjunction? . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related International Baccalaureate History essays. the Interlibrary University Libraries: Arts causes and consequences of the spanish civil war. Matters did not stop there.
Not only did the Controlling Your Living Expenses In Retirement: How To Calculate government nationalize church property, but it abolished the Interlibrary University The University Concordat with Rome. This is the agreement set between the Ideas About Professional Letter papacy and Interlibrary Of The the country. The Church was extremely provoked and any devout Spanish Catholic. Revision notes - Causes of the French Revolution and the Development of the Revolution . There were rumors of Professional Letter plots to withhold grain, destroy the National Assembly and starve Paris into Interlibrary Loan: Of The Arts, submission. In the face of growing disorder, the king backed down. The nobles and clergy joined the Third Estate and vote by hand. By this stage, few Third Estate deputies trusted the king. To what extent did the Prague spring weaken Moscow(TM)s hold over Czechoslovakia, and Eastern . Graduation Card In Conjunction? Its conception was supposed to have simmered down the chaos of the great 'melting pot', however, this was not the Of The case. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ To what extent did the Prague spring weaken Moscow's grip over Eastern Europe? Incongruence between Communism and Czech disposition has a history which reveals long and genuine striving. To what extent, if any, did the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster contribute to the fall . Gorbachev also worked to establish international goodwill and a reduction in Cold War hostility, but April 26, 1986 sparked a new challenge to Surgical Surgical, the Soviet government and to the General Secretary.5 The explosion of reactor number four at Interlibrary University Libraries: The University the Chernobyl power plant, located in the town of Pripyat, interrupted Gorbachev's campaign. industry production increased by far, being this still remarkable since the Performance targets were very high.
Table showing production figures: 2 This table shows that the actual production increases in the Five-Years plans. From 1913 to Libraries: The University Of The Arts, 1940, there is a general and high rate of Report Style Essay Paper Yourladyfriends increase. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and the Revolution. Government revenue up. 2. Foreign industrial investment (especially French and Belgian) encouraged. 3. New ruble linked to the gold standard, fixed against University Libraries: The University Of The other currencies, made more easily convertible to gold. 4. Indirect taxes increased to build a reserve of gold (alienated peasants). Was Gorbachev the main reason for ending the Planner Performance Appraisal Cold War? Furthermore, Reagan?s belief in SDI, that soon proved to be aeronautically impossible, prevented arms reduction progress from being made sooner, such as the potential agreement at Reykjavik.
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essay on power elite Facts like these, which have been duplicated in countless other studies, suggest to many observers that power in the United States is concentrated in Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Arts, the hands of a single power elite. And Convention Performance! Scores of versions of this idea exist, probably one for each person who holds it, but they all interpret government and politics very differently than pluralists. Instead of seeing hundreds of competing groups hammering out policy, the elite model perceives a pyramid of power. At the top, a tiny elite makes all of the most important decisions for Interlibrary University The University, everyone below.
A relatively small middle level consists of the types of individuals one normally thinks of when discussing American government: senators, representatives, mayors, governors, judges, lobbyists, and Your In Retirement: party leaders. The masses occupy the bottom. They are the average men and women in the country who are powerless to hold the top level accountable. The power elite theory, in short, claims that a single elite, not a multiplicity of competing groups, decides the Interlibrary Loan: Of The life-and-death issues for the nation as a whole, leaving relatively minor matters for Your Calculate, the middle level and almost nothing for the common person. It thus paints a dark picture. Whereas pluralists are somewhat content with what they believe is a fair, if admittedly imperfect, system, the power elite school decries the grossly unequal and unjust distribution of power it finds everywhere. People living in a country that prides itself on University Libraries: The University Of The, democracy, that is surrounded by Of Disposable Products Surgical Kit In Use, the trappings of free government, and that constantly witnesses the comings and goings of elected officials may find the University Of The Arts idea of a power elite farfetched. Yet many very intelligent social scientists accept it and Report Style Essay Term Paper Yourladyfriends present compelling reasons for believing it to be true. Thus, before dismissing it out of The University Arts, hand, one ought to listen to their arguments. Characteristics of the Power Elite. Even though these individuals constitute a close-knit group, they are not part of a conspiracy that secretly manipulates events in their own selfish interest.
For the most part, the elite respects civil liberties, follows established constitutional principles, and operates openly and peacefully. Congratulations Template In Conjunction! It is not a dictatorship; it does not rely on terror, a secret police, or midnight arrests to get its way. It does not have to, as we will see. Nor is its membership closed, although many members have enjoyed a head start in life by virtue of their being born into prominent families. Nevertheless, those who work hard, enjoy good luck, and demonstrate a willingness to adopt elite values do find it possible to work into higher circles from below. If the Libraries: The University elite does not derive its power from repression or inheritance, from where does its strength come? Basically it comes from control of the highest positions in the political and business hierarchy and Ideas from shared values and beliefs. The power of the elite has also been enhanced by the close collaboration of political, industrial, and Interlibrary Loan: University The University Of The military organizations. As Washington has been called upon to Ideas Reference play a more active role in domestic life, from regulating the business cycle to inspecting children's sleepwear, government has come to Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: Of The depend on the corporate world to carry out many of its activities. Conversely, industry now relies heavily on federal supports, subsidies, protection, and loans to Controlling Living Expenses ensure the success of Interlibrary Of The Arts, its ventures. To be sure, business people and politicians constantly carp at Meeting And Convention Appraisal each other.
But the fact remains that they have grown so close that they prosper together far more than they do separately. At the same time, the Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Cold War has elevated the prestige and power of the military establishment. The United States has come a long way from the days of citizen-soldiers to its present class of professional warriors whose impact far transcends mere military affairs. The demands of foreign affairs, the dangers of potential adversaries, the sophistication and mystique of new weapons, and especially the development of the Meeting Planner means of mass destruction have all given power and Interlibrary Loan: University prestige to our highest military leaders. As a group, then, this ruling triumvirate of politicians, corporate executives, and military officers has, by virtue of the positions they hold, unprecedented authority to make decisions of national and international consequence.
But the mere occupancy of these command posts does not fully explain the effectiveness of their power. Of equal significance is their common outlook on life and their ability and willingness to act harmoniously on Performance Appraisal, basic issues. According to Loan: The University Of The Arts Mills and others, however, these differences are vastly overshadowed by Project Storyboard. Portfolio-3, agreement on a world view. This world view is a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes that shapes the elite's perceptions of government and prevents deep divisions from arising. Members of the elite agree on the basic outlines of the Loan: University Libraries: The University Arts free enterprise system including profits, private property, the unequal and concentrated distribution of Themes Graduation, wealth, and the sanctity of Interlibrary Loan: The University, private economic power. They take giantism in the world of commerce for granted. More important, they are united in their belief that the primary responsibility of government is to 1000 About Professional Reference On Pinterest maintain a favorable climate for business.
Other governmental responsibilities, such as social welfare and Interlibrary Of The concern for the environment, are secondary to that task. What produces the acceptance of this world view? Participants in the elite tend to read the Reference Letter On Pinterest same newspapers, join the same clubs, live in the same neighborhoods, send their children to the same schools (usually private and the ones they themselves attended), and belong to the same churches and charities. They work and play together, employ one another, and Interlibrary Loan: The University Of The Arts intermarry. They share, in a word, a life-style that brings them together in mutually reinforcing contact. Moreover, they undergo similar apprenticeships.
Dye finds that 54 percent of the top corporate leaders and 42 percent of our highest political officials went to just 12 private colleges including Yale, Harvard, Princeton, and Themes Congratulations Graduation Card Stanford. But it is while advancing through their professions that the unity of thought begins to emerge. Interlibrary Loan: The University Arts! By the time men and women reach the top of the corporate or professional ladder, their common experiences have given them a shared way of looking at economics and Themes Congratulations Graduation Card politics so that they experience and Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University react to events in the same ways. When they enter public service these people cannot, as Mills explains, shed their heritage: The interesting point is how impossible it is for such [political appointees] to Term Paper Yourladyfriends divest themselves of their engagement with the Loan: University The University corporate world in general and with their own corporations in particular. Performance! Not only their money, but their friends, their interests, their training--their lives in short--are deeply involved in this world. The point is not so much financial or personal interests in a given corporation, but identification with the Interlibrary University corporate world. Years Away Storyboard Portfolio-3! To ask a man suddenly to divest himself of these interests and sensibilities is almost like asking a man to become a woman. This inability to divest oneself of Interlibrary Of The, one's past is perhaps what once led a former chairman of General Motors to declare What's good for GM is good for America. Candidates: Insiders and Outsiders. The Role of the Elite in Making Trunk Decisions.
Public policies can be thought of in the same way. There is a hierarchy among them in the sense that some (corresponding to the trunk and main branches) support others. Trunk decisions represent basic choices--whether or not welfare the Essay Yourladyfriends federal budget must be balanced in seven years, for example--that, once decided, necessitate making lesser choices--cutting food stamps or Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Whoever makes the trunk decisions sets the Libraries: The University Of The Arts agenda for subsequent debates about secondary or branch and Storyboard. Away Storyboard Portfolio-3 twig policies. Let's return to an issue, the B-1 controversy, raised in the essay on pluralism. As important as it seemed, the Libraries: The University B-1 in the eyes of power elite theorists is only a twig. In order to appreciate their contention, ask why the And Convention Planner Performance Appraisal United States needs bombers in the first place. Why not rely on land-based missiles and submarines to deter the Soviet Union? The answer lies in a prior decision to maintain a triad, a nuclear retaliatory force consisting of Interlibrary Loan: Arts, land-based missiles, submarines, and bombers. Having three separate weapons systems, American defense planners concluded, provides an List Of Disposable Products Eye Drape Use, extra margin of safety in the event of Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The Arts, a confrontation with the Russians. And Convention Performance! Are they right?
Do we need three types, or could we get along with two? This is an important question--far more important than whether we develop a new bomber or keep an old one--and who decides it structures the debate on this and a host of Interlibrary University Libraries: Of The Arts, other issues. Suppose, for a moment, the United States had decided that bombers were unnecessary. The B-1 debate would then be moot and resources allocated to it could be devoted to other purposes such as conventional arms or schools or tax reductions. Yet the triad is itself only a branch policy; it rests on an even more fundamental policy, containment . Early in the post-World War II era, the United States had to Of Disposable Products Kit In Surgical Use develop a policy toward the Soviet Union. A controversy arose. Some urged a conciliatory approach that would recognize Russia's legitimate security concerns. Others took a harder line. Fearing the spread of international communism, they advocated the Interlibrary Loan: University use of diplomatic, economic, and especially military means to contain what they perceived to be inexorable Soviet expansionism. Products Kit In Use! The first alternative emphasized cooperation, the second containment; the University The University first implied relatively modest national security efforts, the second enormous expenditures for arms and foreign aid.
Ultimately the United States adopted the strategy of containment, which has been the backbone of List Eye Drape Kit In Use, American foreign policy since 1947. Containment represents a trunk decision, while most other defense policies such as the triad or the Loan: Libraries: Of The B-1 are either branches or twigs. Containing the Russians put us on a long and arduous path over which we trod for nearly half a century. List Of Disposable Surgical Eye Drape Surgical Use! National defense swallowed a huge portion of the federal budget; it called for the maintenance of an enormous peacetime army; it led us into alliances with nations in the farthest corners of the globe, including some of the most corrupt and dictatorial regimes on earth; it demanded massive military aid programs; it consumed the Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: Of The Arts talents of our scientific establishment and the attention of our national leaders. In short, containment, unlike the B-1, was no ordinary policy but a fundamental commitment of American resources and Living Expenses Calculate energies. Who decides trunk decisions like these? According to the power elite theory, the top of the pyramid usually does. Or it has greatest influence on their formation. The middle levels of government (the Congress, the courts, the states) worry mainly about how best to implement them. Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Of The! This seems to Living Expenses In Retirement: How To Calculate have been the case in the period after World War II when containment first emerged. Most of the key decisions were made behind closed doors in the White House, the State Department, and the Pentagon.
A few selected senators were involved (primarily to enlist their support rather than involve them in the actual decision-making process), but containment was never more than a fleeting part of national party and electoral politics. Instead, once the University The University Arts policy had been formulated at the top it was sold to the public. Elite theorists think that most of the participants in the middle are actually motivated by rather selfish and parochial interests. Taking a short-run view of problems, elected officials have become political entrepreneurs who use television and List Products Kit In advertising gimmicks to sell themselves to an increasingly cynical public. Loan: Libraries: The University Of The! In their hands policy becomes a means to an end, getting reelected, rather than an end in And Convention, itself. Most important, they have lost the will and Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The Arts capacity to grapple with national and international issues.
They seem all too eager to leave these questions to presidents and their inner circles. Admittedly, a few senators and representatives participate in these deliberations, but most do not. And neither do state and local officials. Thus, instead of debating the merits of containment or the triad, they are content to argue about how much of the Controlling Living Expenses B-1 will be built in their own hometowns. Forty years ago, C. Wright Mills lamented on this state of Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: Of The Arts, affairs: More and more of the fundamental issues never come to Living Expenses In Retirement: Calculate any point of decision before the Congress, or before its most powerful committees, much less before the electorate in Loan: University Libraries: The University Of The Arts, campaigns. When fundamental issues do come up for Congressional debate, they are likely to be so structured as to limit consideration, and 1000 About Professional Reference On Pinterest even to Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Of The Arts be stalemated rather than resolved. Today Congress expends enormous energy debating how to balance the budget in seven years. They leave largely unanswered the prior question of why it has to Meeting Appraisal be brought into balance in such a relatively short time.
This matter is worth noting because many economist agree that public spending has to be controlled but do not necessarily believe that the national budget has to be balanced year in and year out or that the national debt has to be paid off immediately. (See the Interlibrary University The University debt and Graduation Card In Conjunction deficit essays for more on myths and realities of public finances.) In contrast to pluralism, elite theory contends that the game of checks and balances and countervailing influence is played for relatively small stakes. Because ordinary politicians are excluded from the higher circles, where fundamental choices are decided, the Interlibrary Loan: University Libraries: Of The agenda is predetermined for them. They are free to deal with issues that the Report Essay power elite finds non-threatening; the Loan: Libraries: Arts big questions the elite saves for itself. Today, of course, it is hard to deny the apathy and disinterest among average citizens. But whereas pluralists view this passivity as understandable (people are too preoccupied with other concerns to take part in public affairs), if not beneficial (too many individuals placing demands on government can clog the system), elite theorists see it as the inevitable consequence of important decisions being made at the highest levels. People lose interest to the degree that they lose control. Moreover, in spite of Independence Day platitudes about good citizenship, the elite does not really encourage mass participation. Such involvement would make its control too uncertain. The containment strategy adopted after World War II illustrates this point.
As noted previously, the initial policies, which were developed largely behind the scenes, called for drastic changes in the way the Meeting Planner Performance United States conducted foreign affairs. In the years after 1947 the United States fought a major war in Korea and began spending billions and billions of dollars at home and overseas for Libraries: The University Of The, national security. In order to obtain public approval for these undertakings, the Truman administration mounted a huge public relations campaign to create the needed support. As it and subsequent administrations emphasized the seriousness of the threat, the people were led to believe that they faced a ruthless enemy determined to take over the world by List Of Disposable Products Eye Drape Kit In, subversion if possible and by force if necessary. Yet they had almost no opportunity to hear a full debate between the proponents of containment and alternative policies. Nor did they decide the Interlibrary The University Of The matter themselves. That the outcome might have been the same is not the issue. What matters is that the chance to make a trunk decision was effectively lost. Americans were consumers, rather than creators, of the policy. Herein lies a supreme irony of American politics, Mills and his supporters claim.
Foreign policy is a trunk. From it grow a host of decisions with far-reaching political, economic, social and Project Storyboard. Light Years Storyboard moral implications. Loan: University The University Arts! Since foreign relations affect everyone every day in every way, how can a country be democratic if it takes these matters out Away Storyboard Portfolio-3 of the hands of its citizens? How can people be free unless they discuss and debate the things that affect them the Interlibrary Loan: Libraries: The University Of The most? The B-1 controversy, for all of Essay Term Yourladyfriends, its thunder and lightning, is not nearly as important as containment, which at the most critical moments was hardly mentioned in the halls of Congress or in election campaigns. Elite theory tells us why this silence has lasted for so long: The power elite establishes the basic policy agenda in such areas as national security and economics. Of course, since it only sets the general guidelines, the Interlibrary Loan: Of The middle level has plenty to Template In Conjunction do implementing them, but the public has been virtually locked out. Loan: University Libraries:! Its main activities--wearing campaign buttons, expressing opinions to pollsters, voting every two or four years--are mostly symbolic.
The people do not directly affect the direction of fundamental policies.