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Le professionnalisme en anesthesie. Le debat fait rage quant a savoir si le professionnalisme medical n’est en fait qu’un element de plus impose a notre pratique par la bureaucratie ou s’il s’agit d’un concept fondamental pour les medecins, quel que soit le stade de leur carriere. Dans ce compte rendu, nous explorons les perspectives historiques du professionnalisme ainsi que le pourquoi et le comment de ce concept. Les mots cles « professionnalisme » et « anesthesie » ont ete utilises (en anglais) pour realiser une recherche dans la base de donnees PubMed, dans les politiques et publications des organismes et organisations de reglementation des medecins pertinents au Canada et a l’international, dans les documents historiques et dans d’autres publications en ligne. Le professionnalisme beneficie d’une longue histoire en anesthesie. Bien qu’il existe de nombreuses definitions de ce terme, dont certaines tres surannees, toutes se fondent sur des vertus, des comportements ou une identite professionnelle. Le professionnalisme joue un role central dans l’equilibre entre autonomie du medecin et contrat social, et il a un impact majeur sur la securite des patients et les litiges medicolegaux. Il existe un nombre important de donnees factuelles soutenant qu’il faut prendre le professionnalisme au serieux, particulierement a l’heure de l’imputabilite sociale et des pressions budgetaires. “You are in this profession as a calling, not as a business; as a calling which exacts from you at every turn self-sacrifice, devotion, love and tenderness to your fellow men.”—William Osler 1. Professionalism has a long history in Assurance - Ppt Video Download medicine and in anesthesia. Volunteer Brigade? James Young Simpson discovered chloroform as an anesthetic at a dinner party on November 4, 1847 and reported its properties and uses in Software Quality Assurance Plan Download the Lancet in 1847.

2 Another pioneer, John Snow, published a series of manuscripts on anesthesia administration. 3 - 7 In 1853, Snow was called to administer chloroform to Queen Victoria for the birth of Prince Leopold, and chloroform a la reine provided legitimacy for labour analgesia. There are three fundamental principles in the 2002 Physician Charter of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and in the European Federation of Internal Medicine (EFIM), namely, the primacy of patient welfare, patient autonomy, and social justice. 8 Simpson’s work on labour analgesia – despite opposition suggesting that labour analgesia was “contrary to God’s will” – and Sample Pdf, his scientific conviction to discover chloroform are cited as exemplars of professionalism. 9 John Snow illustrated professionalism by his commitment to Software Quality Plan Video Online, improve his understanding of Volunteer Training anesthesia and to direct his medical practice entirely toward this purpose, a first at the time. In early 20th century, three American anesthesiologists, Ralph Milton Waters, Francis H. McMechan, and Elmer I. McKeeson, demonstrated exceptional professionalism. 10 Waters instituted rigorous anesthesia training programs for medical students and residents.

With Lundy and Wood, Waters established specialty certification in anesthesiology. Despite crippling rheumatoid arthritis, McMechan helped organize the Software Assurance Plan - Ppt, American Association of Anesthetists, and in 1914, McMechan persuaded the American Journal of Surgery to Common Class Struggle - Workers, begin publishing the Quarterly Supplement of Anesthesia and Analgesia . In 1915, McMechan, Long, and McKeeson co-founded the International Anesthesia Research Society, and in Plan - Ppt Video Download 1922, Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia , the first journal exclusively for Office Manager Resume anesthesia, was launched with McMechan as editor. A strong commitment to patients, the profession, and society, qualities at Quality Assurance Plan Online the core of professionalism, ran deep in these early pioneers. By June 2016, PubMed included 5,898 manuscripts on Struggle Proposal - Workers Solidarity Alliance medical professionalism. Not surprisingly, the definition of professionalism can be confusing. 11 In 2005, the Working Party of the Quality Assurance - Ppt Video, Royal College of Physicians stated, “Medical professionalism signifies a set of values, behaviours, and relationships that underpins the trust the public has in doctors.” 12 Some have a “…I know it when I see it….” 13 approach to professionalism. The Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA) states, “Professionalism is at the core of medical practice and the basis of Free Bill Boat Bill - Sponsorship medicine’s contract with society. Quality Plan - Ppt Video Online Download? Physicians are expected to Program" Class Struggle Solidarity, demonstrate their commitment to Quality Plan Video Download, patients, society, and the profession through ethical practice.” 14.

At least three different perspectives on professionalism exist: a) virtue-based, “the good physician” is good at heart and a “person of character”; b) behaviour-based, emphasizing milestones, competencies, and measureable observable behaviours; and c) professional identity formation. 15 There may be areas of - Spy Party - Printable Id Badge incongruence in these different perspectives during implementation, and Quality Assurance - Ppt Online Download, two additional cross-currents, professional autonomy and social accountability, also deserve comment. The Royal College of Of Sale Boat Physicians in the UK stated the following values in their 2005 Working Group Report: “integrity”, “compassion”, “altruism”, and “excellence”. The ABIM listed the following elements: “altruism”, “accountability”, “excellence”, “duty”, “honour and integrity”, and “respect for others”. 16 The Australian Medical Association (AMA) lists the following values of Software Plan Video Online professionalism: “respect, trust, compassion, altruism, integrity, advocacy and justice, accountability, protection of confidentiality, leadership, collaboration, advancing knowledge and innovation, teaching, mentoring and collegiality, and practicing and promoting responsible stewardship of health care resources”.

17 In CanMeds 2005 and 2015, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) cited the Volunteer Brigade Module 1 General Information, following values: “integrity”, “honesty”, “altruism”, “humility”, “respect for diversity”, and “transparency”. 18 , 19 The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) states that the “Ethic of Care” is “characterized by the values of compassion, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for persons and justice”. 20 In 2015, the ePanel Survey by Plan - Ppt Video Online the CMA showed that the top adjectives to describe a medical professional were “dedicated”, “compassionate”, “competent”, “available”, “altruistic”, and “collaborative”. Free Boat Bill Of Sale.jpg - Sponsorship? 21. The Declaration of Software Quality Plan - Ppt Geneva, first developed in 1948, states, “the health of Proposal Solidarity my patient will be my first consideration”.

22 The same principle is reflected in the Physician Charter, 8 the CMA Medical Professionalism Policy, 20 the AMA, 17 the - Ppt, New Zealand Medical Association (NZMA) 23 and Fire Training Module 1 General, the New Zealand Medical Council, 24 the College of Software Assurance Plan Online Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO), 25 and Sample 6-9 Month #routineforbaby, le College du medecins du Quebec (CMQ). 26 Similarly, patient autonomy, as stipulated in Assurance Video Online Download the ABIM – EFIM Physician Charter, 8 is echoed in many organizational policies. 20 , 23 , 26 , 27 Social justice, last of the fundamental principles in the Charter, is For A Old! #routineforbaby, a call “upon the profession to promote a fair distribution of health care resources”. Software Video Online Download? 8 Justice, an axiom of medical ethics, is also echoed in many of the policies. 17 , 23 , 26 - 28. The social contract between physicians and society is mentioned in most policies. The CMA Medical Professionalism Policy states, “Medical professionalism includes both the relationship between a physician and Volunteer, a patient and a social contract between physicians and society.” 20 The Physician Charter, 8 the Software Plan Video Download, AMA, 17 and the NZMA Code of Ethics 23 all echo this principle. Virtues are difficult to measure and evaluate; however, the same cannot be said of behaviour. Birthday Party - Printable Id Badge? Indeed, CanMeds 2015 identifies “professional duties” and Quality - Ppt Video, “milestones” that are evaluated, 18 and Secret Agent - Spy Party, the Physician Charter stipulates “a set of professional responsibilities” as being important. 8 The CMA outlined that fundamental responsibilities, including those to the patient, society, profession, and to oneself, guide professionalism through physician behaviour. Quality Assurance - Ppt Video Online? 28 Responsibilities to the profession and to oneself (i.e., wellness) are expectations found in Section-1 | Page-2 many organizational policies.

These expectations have percolated from national and international contexts 26 , 27 , 29 to institutions (e.g., hospitals and medical schools) as responsibilities, duties, or codes of conduct. The stipulated conduct includes prohibiting disruptive behaviour, harassment (sexual or non-sexual), discrimination, and conflicts of interest, as well as obscuring boundaries between a physician and patient and/or teacher and learner. More recently, issues of professionalism involving the Internet have escalated in Software Assurance Plan - Ppt Online Download importance, ranging from posting inappropriate videos and cyberbullying to breach of confidentiality with e-mail or images. Clearly defined expectations, actions, and evaluations are at the core of Brigade Training Information behaviour-based professionalism, with the Quality Plan - Ppt Online, aim to Program" Solidarity, reduce uncertainty and misunderstanding. “Organized professionalism” codifies expectations between the institution and Software Quality Assurance Plan - Ppt Online, the healthcare profession 30 but may risk disenchantment among healthcare professionals. “Multiple institutional logics” 30 derived from professional, organizational, and Agent - Spy, policy perspectives may be distinct and divergent. Physicians often face complex demands while trying to make a “clumsy system work to Quality Assurance Plan Online Download, meet patients’ demands”, sometimes resulting in disrespectful behaviour.

31 Instead, “a culture of respect requires that the Office Manager Resume Sample Pdf, institutions develop effective methods for Software Quality Assurance Plan - Ppt Online responding to episodes of disrespectful behavior while also initiating the cultural changes needed to prevent such episodes from occurring.” 32 In the Badge Birthday - Printable Id Badge, CPSO Disruptive Behaviour Guidebook, whether “behaviour truly disrupts” depends “… also on the context in which it arises and the consequences flowing from it.” 33 Context matters. To enhance physician engagement while enforcing institutional professionalism, a bilateral commitment in the form of physician compacts has been recommended between the institution and individual physicians. 30 , 34 - 36. Professional identity formation (PIF) To focus solely on behaviour assessments may limit opportunities to internalize what it means to be a physician, 37 i.e., focusing on “who one is” may be as important, if not more, as “what one does”. Cruess 38 reported on Merton’s work from 1957 that PIF is to “transmit the culture of medicine and… to shape the novice into an effective practitioner of medicine, to Software Assurance Video Online Download, give him the best available knowledge and Of Sale Boat - Sponsorship, skills, and to provide him with a professional identity so that he comes to think, act, and feel like a physician.” In PIF, a social structure, such as a residency cohort, medical class, or a physician grouping, influences a novice through socialization and social control, thereby internalizing their social construct or culture. In time, as experience is gained, the social construct can be modified. 39 The social structure’s perspective on Assurance Online reality – i.e., “this is our way of doing things” – can be a significant part of the “hidden curriculum”.

During medical student clinical placements, many learn a “loss of idealism” through this hidden curriculum. 40 With increases in social accountability and Agent - Spy - Printable Id Badge, public scrutiny into physician practice, however, tension develops in Quality Online the social construct or in the professional identity. Professional identity formation allows opportunities in medical education to define and internalize current group identities. For A 6-9 Month #parentingtips #routineforbaby? 38 The transition junctures (e.g., pre-clerkship, clerkship, beginning of residency, beginning a new hospital or faculty appointment) representing these opportunities are critical. At each point, one must navigate the dual identities 39 of becoming a physician and joining a transitory social group (medical student, resident, etc.) Therefore, PIF goes beyond assessing behaviours but does provide an opportunity for learners or novices to Software Plan Online Download, internalize the professional identity. Physician autonomy and social accountability. Recent resurgence in social accountability comes from a perception that the medical profession is unable to address many societal healthcare problems. Brigade Training? 41 - 43 Over 30,000 articles on Software - Ppt Download social accountability are listed in PubMed. In the Global Consensus for Social Accountability of Manager Medical Schools, which has strong Canadian representation, the first strategic direction for Software Quality Assurance Plan - Ppt Video Online medical schools is to “respond to Office Resume, current and future health needs and challenges in society”. 44 , 45.

Physician autonomy is entrenched in many physicians’ understanding of “social contract”. A certain degree of tension may exist between physician autonomy and social accountability. For example, one study has examined an individual physician’s responsibility in a risky duty such as caring for Software Quality Assurance Plan - Ppt Video Download SARS patients. 46 The current debate on abortion and physician-assisted dying 47 - 49 will likely keep this tension alive. Mirvis cited four reasons for the origin of For A physician autonomy: 1) medicine is a specialized body of knowledge; 2) society values the work by the medical profession and trusts the profession to act in the public’s best interests; 3) there is an expectation that public interests are promoted by medical professional organizations; and 4) the Software Quality Plan, state, the government, or, in Canada’s case, the Common Program" Class Struggle Solidarity Alliance, provincial legislature has granted autonomy to the profession. 50 In other words, autonomy is Software Quality Assurance Plan, quid pro quo for the profession’s social accountability. Professionalism and cultural competency.

Much of Western society’s medical professionalism is derived from Hippocrates, circa 460 BCE. In sixth century India, Kasyapa Samhita laid down precepts to guide new medical graduates. 51 In China, the Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon), from the fourth century BCE to the first century CE, served the same role, and the “ideal physician envisioned in the Inner Canon combines ‘supreme virtue’ (zhi de) with ‘supreme skill’(zhi qiao)”. Routine Old! #routineforbaby? 52 Differences exist 53 - 57 when professionalism is compared among modern day cultures, including indigenous peoples, with “…substantial differences between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in their expectations of doctors…”. 58 With respect to virtues, there is generally more commonality between cultures; however, with regard to behaviour and PIF, there is divergence between cultures that may need to Quality Plan Video Online, be heeded. “ What happens if you fail to Secret Agent Badge - Spy Party, meet the obligations under the social contract? Canadians will change that contract and redefine professionalism for you. Quality Assurance - Ppt Online? Regulations and changes will be forced upon Section-1 you—quite possibly in forms that diminish or remove your self-regulatory privilege. One of the best ways for you and for men and Assurance Online Download, women in any profession to Of Sale Boat Bill Of Sale.jpg, avoid having change forced upon you is to relentlessly embrace new ideas, tenaciously set and reach higher standards and, most importantly, passionately strive to ensure your profession serves the public good.” —Governor General David Johnston 59. There are many reasons why professionalism matters – social contract, patient safety, and litigation are key areas for careful consideration.

The incidence of physician disruptive behaviour, as observed by Plan - Ppt Video physicians, is reported to be 49-77%, 60 - 63 and in one study, sexual boundary violations are reported to Common Class Struggle Solidarity, be 14.5%. 64 After a number of high-profile scandals, changes were made to self-regulation under the General Medical Council in the UK after 150 years: “Powers of setting standards, monitoring practice, and managing defaults have been relocated to Software Quality - Ppt, outside the profession”. 65 A general surgeon in Section-1 | Page-2 the UK was recently charged with manslaughter for not performing surgery in Software Quality Assurance Plan a timely fashion, and he was found guilty. 66 In China, the incidence of Fire Brigade Information violence against Quality Plan Video Download, physicians tripled from 2002 to 2010 as physicians were perceived to Office Pdf, be motivated by profit and Software Quality Assurance Plan, poorly trained. 67 Society does not grant autonomy and self-regulation to physicians with impunity but with the proviso that the social contract is Sample Old! #routineforbaby, honoured. A lack of professionalism in Software Quality Assurance Online the healthcare team compromises patient safety.

Physician burnout has been correlated with emotional exhaustion and | Page-2, depersonalization, leading some to “… become more callous toward people”. 68 Risk factors for burnout include number of hours worked and night calls, and burnout itself increases the Software Assurance Plan, incidence of self-reported medical errors. 69 , 70 In one study, the odds ratio (OR) of self-reported medical errors in the presence of burnout was 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 2.28). Program" Proposal - Workers Alliance? 71 In the Software Quality - Ppt Video Online, Canadian physician health practices survey, 21% of Common Program" Struggle Proposal - Workers Solidarity respondents admitted to anhedonia for ? two weeks in the past year; 23% admitted to depression for Software Video Online Download ? two weeks, and Office Manager Resume, 37% of those “thought about death a lot during those ? two weeks”. 72 There is good reason why physician wellness is a key commitment under professionalism. In an Software Quality Plan - Ppt, analysis of surgical errors, two of the Sample Routine Old! #routineforbaby, three most frequent causal factors were communication breakdown among personnel and fatigue/excessive workload at 43% and 33%, respectively. 73 In one perioperative study, participants thought that disruptive behaviour caused loss of concentration (84%), reduced collaboration (89%), reduced information transfer (86%), and reduced communication (89%) at the time. 63 In the Software Quality Assurance Plan Video, Institute of 1 General Information Medicine report, To Err is Human, it is Software Plan - Ppt, stated that “health care organizations [must] develop a ‘culture of safety’ such that their workforce and processes are focused on improving the Bill Boat Bill, reliability and safety of care for patients.” 74 The TeamSTEPPS program, an initiative resulting from the report, focuses on “medical teamwork … to ensure that the RIGHT INFORMATION is provided to the RIGHT PERSON(S) at the RIGHT TIME resulting in the RIGHT ACTION(S).” 75 Teamwork and communication, another essential part of Quality Plan Online Download professionalism, has been confirmed as a key ingredient of Program" Class Proposal - Workers patient safety.

76 - 83. A lack of Software Assurance Plan Online Download professionalism in dealing with our patients may increase the risk of Training Module 1 General litigation. In one study, mothers of infants with permanent injuries or deaths were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire and open-ended questions. Among the families who initiated lawsuits, the reasons they cited were physicians who “would not listen” (13%), “would not talk openly” (32%), or “attempted to mislead them” (48%). 84 Negative communication behaviour by Assurance Plan - Ppt Video Online Download physicians has also been shown to Section-1 | Page-2, increase the risk of Software Plan Video Download malpractice lawsuits. 85 Patients who were left “feeling rushed”, “never receiving explanations for tests”, or “were ignored” were more likely to file complaints against physicians. Volunteer Brigade Training Module 1 General Information? 86 Similarly, physicians with the Software Assurance - Ppt Download, most unsolicited patient complaints have been shown to have the most “risk management files” which possibly lead to legal action. Badge - Spy Birthday Party - Printable Id Badge? 87. Professionalism may be defined based on virtues, codified expectations and conduct, or professional identity. Software Quality Assurance Plan - Ppt Video Online Download? These are broad issues; hence, to improve professionalism necessitates system-wide strategies as well as changes on an individual level.

Accordingly, the following broad categories provide a framework for improving professionalism, although admittedly, each category alone could represent a review topic. Without clear expectations, it is difficult for individual physicians or an organization to develop a coherent professional identity. Policies, charters, codes of conduct, or declarations are some of the existing means to formalize those expectations. Many medical schools have instituted white coat ceremonies to make the commitment to Free, professionalism clear to their students. Elsewhere, institutions have implemented physician compacts that are reviewed at annual reappointments. 34. Studies have also shown that physicians whose licences are suspended by State Medical Boards have a higher prevalence of prior unprofessional behaviour in medical schools (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9 to 4.8) 88 and in residency (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to Software Quality Plan Download, 2.2). 89 This affirms the imperative that medical schools must introduce professionalism with defined expectations and strategies.

In a few cases, individuals may be identified who may not benefit from continuing in the profession. Developing professionalism policies or charters often does not translate into Office Manager Resume, understanding such policies or how they directly affect individuals. Software Quality Plan - Ppt Video? This is the “knowledge translation” aspect of professionalism policies. Also, times change and expectations evolve. For example, the convenience of Of Sale Bill storing research or patient care information on a USB drive without the capability to encrypt was relatively common, but these days, it is absolutely inappropriate. For medical students, awareness of professionalism may involve a formal curriculum, case-based learning, portfolios, and - Ppt Video, role models. Formal curricula may include delineating professional identity at critical transition points in one’s career. For physicians, this may take the form of Section-1 physician engagement initiatives, individual feedback, orientation sessions, or continuing professional development venues which may or may not be mandatory.

“Physician wellness is a critical component of the professional practice of medicine. Software Quality Video Download? Wellness is defined as the condition of good physical and mental health necessary to provide high quality care to Section-1, patients and to fulfill the duties…” 29. The association between a lack of wellness and disruptive behaviour and patient safety events has already been discussed. 69 - 72 The Ontario Medical Association has a Physician Health Program to assess at-risk physicians as well as physician wellness. Many institutions have established workplace wellness offices to provide support and guidance to physicians. Feedback on Assurance Online Download professionalism concerns is Section-1, essential. Many physicians are unaware that their behaviour may be a concern unless direct feedback is provided. Quality Assurance - Ppt Video Online Download? The feedback may take the form of Section-1 | Page-2 annual reappointment assessments, peer assessments, 360° evaluations, professionalism concern report forms, or other similar procedures. For feedback/awareness to be effective, a consistent and transparent process must be in place, even though the feedback itself remains confidential.

For some medical schools, teaching hospitals are affiliated institutions and Software Plan - Ppt, the appointment and credentialling process is Section-1 | Page-2, separate from the school. Due to privacy legislation, professionalism concerns may not necessarily be shared between a hospital and Software Quality Assurance, the medical school. For example, a physician who may be close to being suspended by Class Proposal - Workers Solidarity a hospital for disruptive behaviour may be close to Software Quality Assurance Video, being promoted at the faculty of medicine, or a clinician teacher found harassing a female medical student is also harassing a female hospital employee. Physicians with professionalism concerns have also moved from one institution to another or from Secret Agent Badge - Spy - Printable one province to another without the Plan Online, receiving institution gaining knowledge of the prior concerns. There is always a balance between privacy, a “fresh start”, and medical professionalism as a social contract with social accountability. While controversial, it is necessary to have the conversation and to find the balance to share that information. Undoubtedly, to maintain physician autonomy and self-regulation, serious professionalism concerns deserve proper redress and accountability. Many models have been developed to advance professionalism, 38 , 42 , 90 - 93 and I encourage the reader to peruse the abundant literature. A staged or tiered approach to professionalism concerns has been described. 94 The CMPA, 95 the CPSO, 33 the University of Ottawa, 96 and others have adopted a tiered approach. Early discussions at stages 1 and 2 are generally opportunities for Resume Sample Pdf formative interventions.

Measures at stage 3 tend to be for Quality Assurance Plan - Ppt Online egregious or persistent behaviour despite formative intervention and can involve disciplinary action. “The times have changed, [conditions] of practice have altered and are altering rapidly, but when such a celebration takes us back to your origin in Office Pdf simpler days and ways, we find that the ideals which inspired them are ours to-day — ideals which are ever old, yet always fresh and new” — William Osler 97. This submission was handled by Dr. Hilary P. Grocott, Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Journal of Quality - Ppt Online Anesthesia. /media/Files/Report%20Files/1999/To-Err-is-Human/To%20Err%20is%20Human%201999%20%20report%20brief.pdf (accessed June 2016). Homer Yang 1 Email authorView author's OrcID profile 1. Section-1 | Page-2? Department of Anesthesiology The Ottawa Hospital Ottawa Canada. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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Essay on Software Plan - Ppt Download, Trade Union: Top 13 Essays. Read this essay to learn about Trade Union. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Trade Union 2. Definition of Trade Union 3. Objectives 4. Principles 5. Why Workers Join Trade Unions? 6. Functions 7. Tactics 8. Trade Union Movement in India 9. Present Position 10. Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour 11. The Trade Unions Act, 1926 and Other Details. Essay on Meaning of Trade Union Essay on Definition of Trade Union Essay on Objectives of Trade Union Essay on Principles of Trade Union Essay on Why Workers Join Trade Unions? Essay on Functions of Trade Union Essay on Tactics of Trade Union Essay on Section-1 | Page-2, Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Software Quality Assurance Download, Present Position of Trade Union Essay on Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour Essay on The Trade Unions Act, 1926 Essay on Problems of Trade Union Movement in Module Information India Essay on Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement. Over the years, trade unions have emerged as an essential feature of industry in every country.

The main reason for their emergence is the factory system and capitalistic society. In the Plan Video Online Download early stages of Section-1 | Page-2 industrialisation, there was lack of legal protection for workers. The workers felt exploited at Assurance Plan - Ppt Video Online Download the hands of the employers. They joined hands to protect their interests through collective action. Resume Sample Pdf? A trade union is an Software Plan Online organised expression of the needs, attitudes and expectations of the workers. To an average person, a trade union signifies an organisation of workers engaged in securing certain economic benefits for its members. In the modern context, however, activities of trade union are not confined to mere securing the economic benefits. The purview of activities now includes even the political and welfare activities undertaken by them for the benefits of its members. A trade union has many facets—economic, social, and political.

It strives to protect, maintain and improve economic, social and vocational interests of their members. A few important definitions of a trade union are as follows: According to Sec. Office Resume Sample? 2 (b) of the Trade Unions Act, 1926. “A trade union is any combination of persons, whether temporary or permanent, primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workers and employers, or between workers and workers, and for imposing restrictive conditions on Software Quality Assurance - Ppt Video Download, the conduct of any trade or business and includes the federation of two or more trade unions.” According to Dale Yoder. “A trade union is a continuing, long term association of employees, formed and maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the interest of members in their working relationships.” According to S.D. Punnekar, “A union is a continuous association of persons in industry-whether employees or independent workers—formed primarily for the purpose of the pursuit of the interests of its members of the trade they represent.”

According to V.V. Giri, “Trade union is a voluntary organisation of workers formed to promote and Resume Pdf, protect their interests by collective action.” According to Edwin B. Flippo, “A trade union is an organisation of Quality Assurance Plan Video Online workers formed to promote, protect and improve through collective action, the social, economic and political interests of its members.” To summarise, it can be said that a trade union is an organisation of employees formed on a continuous basis for the purpose of securing diverse range of benefits. An analysis of the above definitions reveals the Bill Of Sale Bill - Sponsorship following characteristics of a trade union: (i) Trade union is an association of employers, employees or independent workers. (ii) Trade union is generally a permanent combination. It is not a temporary or casual combination of workers. (iii) The main aim of a trade union is to protect and further the economic, vocational and other interests of their members. (iv) Members of a trade union have common interests and problems, which motivate them to unite. (v) Trade unions always act collectively i.e. through united action of members.

(vi) The unions are ready to adapt according to technological and environmental changes. Essay # Objectives of Trade Unions : According to the Trade Unions Act, 1926, “A trade union must work to protect and promote the interests of the workers and the conditions of their employment.” To be specific, the trade unions generally pursue the following objectives: The subject which drew the major attention of the trade unions is the wages and salaries of the workers. This item relates to the policy matter of the Software Quality Plan - Ppt Download enterprise. Routine For A 6-9 Month #routineforbaby? However, differences may arise in Software Quality - Ppt Online Download the process of their implementation.

In the case of unorganised sector, trade unions play a crucial role in bargaining the pay scales. Trade unions aim to improve working conditions by Common Program" Struggle - Workers Solidarity securing shorter working hours, better leave facilities, adequate social security, better housing and education and other welfare benefits. 3. Rationalisation of Personnel Policies: The economic security of an employee is determined not only by the level of wages and duration of his employment but also by the management’s policies in respect of recruitment, selection, promotions, transfers, training etc. If such decisions are governed by statutory rules and rational policies, there is greater assurance of fair treatment and equal justice; otherwise there is no security for workers. A trade union should also strive for Software Quality - Ppt Online Download, harmonious relations between the employees and employer. Trade union, being the representative of all the workers, may carry out continuous negotiations with the management with a view to promote industrial peace.

Another objective that unions seek to achieve is winning recognition for workers that they are equal partners with management in the task of production. The unions try to secure for Free Bill - Sponsorship, workers a say in the management and Quality Assurance - Ppt Video Download, industrial democracy thereby bringing about Struggle Proposal - Workers a new social order. To provide legal sanctions to Software - Ppt Download, its demands, the unions attempt to get these framed in the form of Common Proposal Alliance Acts so that they become permanent features of the contract between the employers and the workers. For this purpose, the unions may take recourse to political action in Software Assurance - Ppt Video Online Download terms of supporting some political party or forming their own political party. Modern trade unions also engage in providing educational, medical and other facilities for the development and welfare of their members, if they have sufficient funds at their disposal. Essay # Principles of Trade Unions : The trade unions have the following principles:

The strength of Section-1 trade unions is their unity. The unity among members will enable the union to have a good bargaining power. If the members stay divided then employers or others to whom unions put their demands will not take them seriously. So the unity in the association will be its strength. The union’s strike on the principle of equal pay for equal work of the same type. They oppose discrimination among workers and demand same wages for Software Quality Assurance Plan - Ppt Video Online, similar work. The managements may indulge in paying different wages to create divisions among employees. The ILO charter also suggests that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of Sample Routine Old! #parentingtips equal value. The security of Software Assurance Plan - Ppt Video Online Download service of employees is the other principle of trade unions. Free Bill Of Sale Boat Bill? The continuity of service will ensure social and economic security for union members. Essay # Why Workers Join Trade Unions?

The trade union movement is gaining momentum with the passage of time. Workers and others are joining unions to Quality Assurance - Ppt Video Online Download, protect and further their interests. Why do Workers Join Unions? The working classes are increasingly depending upon them to take up its issues with managements. The main reasons for the workers joining unions are as follows: 1. The workers join unions to get economic security. They want steady employment and proper income. The unions take up the Manager issue of layoffs or wage increases for Quality Assurance Plan Online, workers with managements and protect the Manager Resume Pdf interest of Quality Plan - Ppt Video Online their members. 2. The unions protect workers and Fire Module 1 General, refrain management from taking any action which is irrational, discriminatory or prejudicial to the interest of labour. The workers want a proper policy for giving rewards, punishment, layoffs, transfers, promotions, etc.

The unions will represent worker’s side to the management and ensure fair and Software Assurance - Ppt Video Download, just policies for service matters. 3. The unions are the voice of workers in communicating their views, aims, feelings and For A #routineforbaby, frustrations to Quality Plan Online, management. 4. Free Boat Bill? The unions also help workers in getting employment. 5. The unions provide protection to Assurance - Ppt Video Download, workers against economic hazards such as accident, illness, death, disability, etc. The functions of modern unions are comprehensive.

These functions can be categorised as: 1. Intramural functions. 2. Extramural functions. 3. Political functions. 4. Social functions. These functions are termed as militant functions too because unions may resort to strikes and Section-1 | Page-2, other pressure tactics to get their demands implemented. Intramural functions include wage rises, proper working conditions, sanitation, safety, continuity in employment and so on. The unions try to resolve these issues through collective bargaining. If discussions and meetings do not help in resolving these issues then unions use strike and other pressures as tools in getting these demands accepted.

Trade unions also undertake functions which are required for the welfare of their members. Quality Assurance Plan Online Download? These functions include provision of educational, recreational and housing facilities. The unions raise funds in the form of subscription from members and spend them for the welfare of workers. In case of untimely deaths, unions provide financial help to the members of the deceased’s family. Extramural functions are very important as they inculcate the spirit of co-operation against members. The trade unions indulge in political activities in order to help in improving the economic conditions of workers through legislative and administrative measures. The unions hold political meetings to put pressure on the government to bring new legislations which will improve the plight of working class. The unions may also collect funds for political functions.

These functions include carrying out social service activities, discharging social responsibilities through various sections of the society like educating the customers. Trade unions employ certain tactics to deal with the management. Routine For A Old!? These are: Organising drive is one of the major instruments of Software Assurance - Ppt Video Online Download force that unions employ. Organising drive is nothing but forming a union where none exists. The mere threat of a union may bring the management to terms. Similarly, a successful drive may also bring the management to terms. The organiser tries to capitalise on employee dissatisfaction and Fire Brigade Training Module 1 General, remises workers that their dissatisfaction would be removed if they join the Plan Download union. The most important union tactic is strike.

Strike directly suspends production, cuts the creation of profit, cut off the Free Bill Of Sale Of Sale.jpg employer from the Quality Assurance Plan market, may lose the source of materials and fixed charges such as interest, taxes and Secret Agent - Spy Party Id Badge, salaries for officials continue to be incurred during the strike period. The very existence of an enterprise may be threatened by a prolonged strike. By its very nature, strike is a test of strength and if it succeeds in wrecking damage on the management, it does so only at the expense of the workers. Furthermore, strike is a weapon which can easily fail and which has often failed in the past, leaving strikers destitute and jobless. Unions often invoke political patronage to beat the management. Several unions owe their recognition and patronage to political parties and it is not surprising that employee organisations look to them for direction and sustenance. Unions often blackmail the management, at Software Plan Video Download some critical point, of time to get their demands met.

Essay # Trade Union Movement in India: The trade union movement in India started with the forming of Fire Module Information Bombay Mill Hands Association in 1890 by N.K. Lokhands. Plan - Ppt Video Download? In 1897, Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Printers Union of Calcutta in Common Program" Class Struggle Solidarity Alliance 1905, Madras and Calcutta postal Unions 1907 were the other associations formed in the beginning of this movement. These were no trade unions in true sense but rather social organisations. Software Assurance Download? The main aims of these organisations were to promote welfare activities and spread literacy among workers. These associations were not affiliated to any central organisation or federation. The leadership to Routine #parentingtips, these unions was provided mostly by social reformers, careerists and politicians-cum nationalists. The trade union movement developed fast particularly during and after World War I. The factors like economic hardship due to rise in cost of living, rising tide of Plan - Ppt Online Download nationalism, emergence of #parentingtips #routineforbaby union leadership contributed to development of trade unionism in Software Quality Video Online India. A number of unions such as Indian Seamen’s Union at Party - Printable Calcutta and Bombay, Punjab Press Employees’ Association, Madras Textile Labour Union, Railway Workers’ Unions were formed with a view to ameliorate the conditions of working class.

A number of nationalist leaders like C.R. Quality Online? Das, Moti Lal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, V.V. Giri, S.A. Dange, S.V. Ghate, some of them to mention, associated themselves with trade union movement. In 1920 All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was formed under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai. By 1926-27, workers’ and peasants’ parties sprang up and in 1928; various local units of these parties were united into in All India Workers’ and Section-1, Peasants’ party.

The formation of this union gave impetus to left thinking and many unions opted for left- wing leadership. There was a split in AITUC and All India Trade Union Federation (AITUF) was formed under N.M. Assurance Plan - Ppt? Joshi. AITUC had another split in 1931 and Red Trade Union Congress (RTUC) was formed by B.T. Proposal Solidarity? Ranadive and S.V.

Deshpande. In 1935 RTUC merged into AITUC. After nine years of split NTUF also merged with AITUC (1940) making it again a sole representative of the organised labour. Those favouring the ideals of socialism and sharing the views of Indian National Congress separated from AITUC and formed Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in Assurance - Ppt Video Online 1947. The socialists later formed Hind Mazdoor Panchayat (H.M.S.). In 1962 a new organisation called Confederation of Free Trade Unions (CFTU) was formed. The split in political parties was followed by a split in the trade union it was dominating. This process has continued in the Indian scene right upto now.

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HMS is the labour wing of Praja Socialist Party. The focus of this federation is | Page-2, more on Software Plan Download, peaceful, legitimate and democratic methods. It has affiliations in railways, cotton textile, coal mining, engineering industries, etc. It has also a base in post and telegraph department of central government. 4. Of Sale Boat Bill Of Sale.jpg - Sponsorship? The United Trade Union Congress (UTUC): Some socialist leaders formed UTUC in April 1949 with an objective to establish a workers’ and peasants’ state in India.

It has influences in West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Its members come from Software Assurance - Ppt Video Online, plantation, textile, ports, shipping and agricultural areas. 5. The Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU): It was formed by CPM members in 1970. CITU believes that the exploitation of the working class can be ended only be socialising all means of production, distribution and exchange and establishing a socialist state.

CITU claims a membership of over 12 lakh workers. Essay # Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour : National Commission on Fire Training 1 General Information, Labour feels that the primary function of a union is to promote and protect the Software Assurance Plan Video Online interests of Volunteer Module its members. Their goals should be to improve the economic position of workers. These objectives will be achieved only if the Software Assurance Plan - Ppt Online unions are strong enough to take up workers’ issues with managements and the government. The commission made following recommendations to strengthen the unions: 1. It recommended that the Common Class Alliance formation of Quality Assurance Plan - Ppt craft and Secret Badge - Spy Birthday, occupation unions be discouraged. Industrial trade unions and Software Quality Assurance Online Download, federations should be encouraged. 2. The number of outsiders in a union should be limited to Manager Resume Sample Pdf, 30 percent only and this percentage should even be less if the members of a union are 10,000 or more. 3. The ex-employees of an organisation should be treated as insiders.

In some cases the union leaders resign their jobs to shoulder increasing responsibility of union or they might be victimised by managements for their active participation in union activities. So the Software - Ppt Video Online commission recommended that these persons be treated as inside members of a union. 4. The commission recommended that there should be no ban on non-employees holding office. 5. Efforts should be made to encourage leadership from amongst members of the working class. 6. The management should be penalised for victimisation of members of unions and also for adopting unfair practices to discourage members from Free Bill Of Sale - Sponsorship, joining unions. 7. The commission also recommended that registration of a union be cancelled if its membership falls below a certain number and if it fails to file its returns in time and rectify the defective returns in a specified time.

8. The unions with 100 c. Quality Assurance Plan? more members should be recognised, if there is more than one union then the one with more members should be recognised. The Trade Unions Act, 1926, legalises the formation of trade unions by allowing employees the right to form and Section-1 | Page-2, organise unions. The Act was passed on March 25, 1926 and was brought into force from June 1, 1927. Software - Ppt Online Download? It extends to whole of India. The main objective of the Act is to provide for the registration of trade unions and to Agent Badge - Spy Birthday Id Badge, give registered trade unions a legal status and immunity to their office bearers and members from civil and criminal liability in respect of legitimate trade union activities. In pursuit of its primary objective, the Act contains 33 sections. The provisions of the Act are divided into eight sections namely: 2. Registration of unions. 3. Duties and responsibilities of Quality Plan - Ppt Video Online registered trade unions. 4. Right and liabilities of registered trade unions.

5. Amalgamation and dissolution of unions. 6. Submission of returns. 7. Penalties and fines. 8. Office Resume Sample? Power to make regulations. The Act is a central legislation, but is administered by the state governments. Central Government handles all unions which are not confined to one state. It has the power to amend the Act. Essay # Problems of Trade Union Movement in India: Trade unions are concentrated more or less in major metropolitan cities in India and traceable only in large scale units especially in cotton textile industry.

The degree of unionism also varies from industry to industry, iron and Quality Assurance Plan Video Online Download, steel, tobacco, railways, cement, banking, insurance etc. There is very little trade union activity in Routine #parentingtips small scale sector, agricultural sector and domestic sector. Most of the unions have low membership. Though the number of unions and union membership are increasing, average membership is inadequate. Because of their small size, unions suffer from lack of Quality Assurance Plan adequate funds and Agent Party Id Badge, find it difficult to engage the services of Software Quality Plan Online Download experts to aid and advise members in times of need. They can’t bargain with employers effectively on their own.

Most of the trade unions in India suffer from inadequate funds. This unsound financial position is mostly due to Office Manager Resume Sample, low membership and low rate of membership fee. Trade Union Act, 1926 prescribed the membership fee at 25 p. per member per month. But the National Commission on labour recommended the increase of rate of membership subscription from 25 paisa to Re. 1 in the year 1990. But the Government did not accept this recommendation. Due to the financial weakness, most of the unions are not in a position to undertake welfare programmes for their workers. Most of the Software Quality Assurance Online Download trade unions in India have professional political leadership. The leadership of politicians is interested in exploiting workers for their political purposes.

Strikes are organised and prolonged for personal prestige and Manager Resume Sample Pdf, negotiations with employer’s breakdown due to political considerations. The interest and welfare of the workers are very often ignored. Thus, the political leadership is very harmful to Software - Ppt Video Online, the trade union movement in India. Multiple unions both at the plant and industry levels are responsible for unhealthy growth of trade union movement. Bill Of Sale Boat? There exist several unions in the same establishment or industry. The existence of this phenomenon can be attributed partly to the domination of outside leaders and partly to Quality Plan Video, the labour laws. Trade unions Act encourages a small sector of workers to form separate unions. Political outsiders establish unions of their own to increase their political influence. In some cases, employers encourage split in unions to undermine their bargaining power. Due to Of Sale Boat Bill, the multiplicity of Plan - Ppt Video unions, inter-union rivalry takes place.

Unions try to Free Of Sale Boat Bill Of Sale.jpg - Sponsorship, play down each other in a bid to gain greater influence on the workers. In the process, they do more harm than good to the cause of unionism as a whole. Employers take advantage of infighting between unions and play unions against each other. They can also refuse to bargain on the plea that there is no representative union. Inter union rivalry cuts at the root of trade union movement, weaken the power of collective bargaining and reduces the effectiveness of workers in securing their legitimate rights. Many a times, the employers refuse recognition to trade unions under the contention that unions consist of only Assurance Plan - Ppt Download, a small number of workers or because of multiplicity of union. Employers are under no obligation to give recognition to unions. Weak finances and political leadership do-not permit unions to engage the services of full time, paid office bearers. Union activists, who work on a part-time basis, neither have the time nor the Program" Struggle energy to take up union activities sincerely and diligently.

Workers join factories with varying backgrounds and therefore, it is difficult for them to put up a joint front in case of trouble. Employers exploit the situation, under the circumstances, by dividing workers on the basis of race, religion, language etc. In order to make the trade union movement succeed, the members of the trade unions should take keen interest in Software Quality Plan - Ppt the union affairs. But majority of workers do-not take interest in Volunteer Fire Training 1 General union activities. The attendance at the general meetings of unions is very poor.

Under such circumstances, trade unionism cannot be expected to make much progress and outside political leaders exploit the situation to serve their own personal agenda. Many unions in India undertake only limited welfare activities. They feel that their major activity is to fight with the employer for more wages and allowances. Moreover, paucity of Assurance - Ppt Online Download funds also hamper the welfare activities of the unions. In the Program" Class Proposal - Workers Solidarity Alliance absence of welfare activities, workers are not attracted towards unions. The general public is adversely affected due to strikes, go slow policy and Quality Assurance Plan Video, other practices of unions.

As a result, public support or sympathy is not available to the unions. The general public opinion is unfavourable to unions and their unfair practices. Essay # Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement: Unions must put a joint front. A strong and united trade union movement is necessary to safeguard the interests of the Birthday Party Id Badge members and to Quality - Ppt Online, help in achieving the targets of production. To develop a strong trade union, it is necessary to expand the Sample Routine #parentingtips #routineforbaby trade union movement to unorganised sector and small towns.

The membership of unions should also be increased. The principle of one union in one industry should be adopted to avoid multiplicity of unions and inter union rivalry. This will help in eliminating the problems created by multiplicity of unions. The financial problems of the unions can be solved by raising the membership and Assurance Plan - Ppt Video Online, collecting for fees from all the members, the membership fees should be raised as the amount of the wages of the workers increased significantly compared to the situation in 1926 when Trade Union Act provided for the collection of 25 paisa per month per member as subscription fees. Political leadership has developed due to the absence of internal leadership. Program" Struggle - Workers Solidarity Alliance? Outside leadership is the main cause of multiple problems of the trade unions. These problems can be removed through the Software Assurance - Ppt Video Online development of Resume Sample Pdf leadership talents from within. Management should encourage internal workers to lead their own movement. Both managements and trade unions should provide education and training for the development of internal leadership. Paid union officials should be employed who are persons of proven integrity and who are competent and sincere.

They should be able to evaluate workers’ aspirations and strong enough to negotiate with employers on equal basis. It should be made obligatory on the part of the employers to give recognition to Software Quality Assurance - Ppt Video Online, the trade unions. The Royal Commission observed as early as in 1931 that the Common Program" Class Proposal Alliance fact that unions consist of only a minority of employees is not adequate reason for with-holding recognition. Some procedure must be worked out Software Plan - Ppt Online so that the most representative union in the plant is recognised by the management. The National labour conference (1982) has suggested a check off system for verifying membership of Agent Badge Birthday - Printable different trade unions.

Under this, workers will authorise managements to deduct, from - Ppt Video Online Download, their wages, dues to any of the unions of their choice. Agent Party Id Badge? This would provide the Assurance - Ppt Video Online Download basis for finding the strength of each union and determining which of the unions would act as a bargaining agent. Unions should widen the scope of their activities and provide certain benefits and Fire Training Module 1 General, facilities to the workers. This will attract more workers towards unions and will make the unions strong and popular. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: